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Sample records for opukholevye kletki pod

  1. Launch the Litening Pod!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    janesd ata/yb/ jeos /jeos8070 .htm> (accessed October 18, 2007). 2. BGen R.S. Walsh, “Marine Aviation Update” Power Point, slide 5, Oct 24, 2007...designation pod, <http://www4.janes.com/K2/docprint.jsp?K2DocKey+/content1/j anesdata/yb/ jeos /jeos8070.htm> (accessed October 18, 2007). VMFA (AW)-224

  2. iPod og bobler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger iPod- og mp3-lytning som en æstetiserende handling ved at sammenligne en såkaldt 'iPod-vandring' med den performative byvandring Here Whilst We Walk. Den sammenlignende analyse fungerer som platform for en videre diskussion og undersøgelse af den særlige lytteoplevelse, som de...

  3. iPod touch2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    第二代的iPod touch三围分别为110mm×61.8mm×8mm,并且,其最薄处仅有1.9mm,薄得有些不可思议。与一代一样,iPod touch2配备了一块3.5英寸480×320分辨率的触摸大屏,支持AAC、MP3、Apple Lossiess、WAV等音乐格式和30fps VGA分辨率的视频格式。iPodtouch2的机身一侧有音量控制键和麦克风。除此之外,iPod touch2的WiFi天线设计得更加美观。

  4. Supporting the Copernicus POD Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Springer, Tim; Otten, Michiel; Fernandez, Jaime; Escobar, Diego; Femenias, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS (Payload Data Ground Segment) of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. As part of the consortium PosiTim is responsible for implementing and testing software and model updates thoroughly before integrating them in the operational chain of the Copernicus POD Service. The NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Observation Satellites) software is used for the generation of the orbit products within the Copernicus POD Service. The test procedures and results obtained for a recent software and model update to IERS 2010 Conventions are presented. It has been tested as well that the arc length of 72 hours for the non-time critical (NTC) orbit solutions might be shorten to 48 hours without losing accuracy. Orbit comparisons to external solutions help to validate the different orbit solutions. GPS antenna phase centre variations (PCVs) are one of the largest systematic error sources in POD. Since the satellite body may cause signal multipath a ground calibration of the GPS antenna without taking into account the satellite body might not be sufficient to quantify the PCVs. The PCVs are therefore obtained by an in-flight calibration. A first map for the PCVs determined from a limited amount of data at the beginning of the mission has shown significant multipath signals in parts of the antenna for code and carrier phase measurements. Since the satellite has moving parts it has been checked carefully if these multipath regions are moving as well or if they are antenna-fixed. Normally the correction maps are only applied for the carrier phase measurements. Since significant multipath has been spotted for the code measurements as well investigations are performed to study the impact of

  5. Genetic Analysis of Podding and Pod Characteristics in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Karami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Five genotypes of chickpea as a half diallel crossed with each other, in 2008, 5 parents and 10 progenies were planted as randomized complete block design and some traits including days to podding, basal pod height, number of pods per plant, number of double seed pods per plant, number of single seed pods per plant, number of empty pods per plant, seeds per plant and seed yield per plant were evaluated. According to diallel variance analysis, for the traits the basal pod height and number of empty pods per plant, only additive genetic effects was significant. For number of double seed pods per plant only non-additive genetic effects were significant and for other traits, both of additive and non-additive genetic effects were significant. The degree of dominance average for the basal pod height was lower than one and for other traits was more than one. Narrow sense heritability exception of basal pod height (0.47 that relatively high, in the other traits was low, which shows the inheritance of these traits is quantitative and complex. Therefore, probably of successful selection these traits in early generations are low. Direction of dominance were negative for days to podding, number of double seed pods per plant, seed number and seed yield per plant that indicating amplifier effects of dominant genes for these traits, while the positive direction of dominance for basal pod height, number of pod, number of single seed pods per plant and number of empty pods per plant illustrates the effect of reducing dominant genes.

  6. iPod the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2008-01-01

    With the tiny Shuffle, the Nano, the Classic, or the Touch, Apple's gotten the world hooked on portable music, pictures, videos -- and the iPod. One thing they haven't delivered is an easy guide for getting the most from this sleek entertainment center. iPod: The Missing Manual, 7th Edition gives you a no-nonsense view of the latest iPod line, with crystal-clear explanations, easy-to-follow color graphics, and guidance on the most useful things your iPod can do.

  7. Corneal injuries from liquid detergent pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael E; West, Constance E

    2014-10-01

    Laundry and dishwasher detergent "pods" were introduced to the United States market in 2010 and are sold by several manufacturers. They represent a high percentage of household cleaning product exposure in the United Kingdom. We present a consecutive case series of 10 children seen in a 9-month period with corneal injuries from exposure to liquid detergent pods.

  8. iPods: Informative or Invasive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Donald P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how iPods are being used in a variety of teacher-centered and student-centered ways. Since today's students are characterized as social, highly competent multitaskers, who expect immediate results and feedback and seek stimulation and interaction, iPod and podcasting are seen as tools for teaching such…

  9. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  10. Learning English with iPods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Across the world, technology is part of the social and academic lives of students. In particular, iPods are one of the most popular forms of technology. Wikipedia, an excellent online source for information, notes that Apple has sold more than 119 million of these portable media players as of October 2007. With iPods, students can listen to, or…

  11. In iPod We Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Beloved by students worldwide, iPod is becoming a presence in the classroom as teachers discover its many educational uses. At heart, the iPod's appeal is about its easily accessible audio and visual content in an attractive and conveniently sized package. Mechanically, the product is mostly a hard disk drive (although some models use only flash…

  12. iPod The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2010-01-01

    With iPod and iTunes, Apple's gotten the world hooked on portable music, pictures, and videos. One thing they haven't delivered, though, is an easy guide for getting the most from your sleek little entertainment center. Enter iPod: The Missing Manual, 5th Edition-a book as breathtaking and satisfying as its subject. Our latest edition thoroughly covers the redesigned iPod Nanos, the video iPod, the tiny Shuffle and the overhauled iTunes 7. Each custom-designed page sports easy-to-follow color graphics, crystal-clear explanations, and guidance on the most useful things your iPod can do. Topic

  13. LUPOD: Collocation in POD via LU decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapún, M.-L.; Terragni, F.; Vega, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    A collocation method is developed for the (truncated) POD of a set of snapshots. In other words, POD computations are performed using only a set of collocation points, whose number is comparable to the number of retained modes, in a similar fashion as in collocation spectral methods. Intending to rely on simple ideas which, moreover, are consistent with the essence of POD, collocation points are computed via the LU decomposition with pivoting of the snapshot matrix. The new method is illustrated in simple applications in which POD is used as a data-processing method. The performance of the method is tested in the computationally efficient construction of reduced order models based on POD plus Galerkin projection for the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in one and two space dimensions.

  14. iPod touch For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Bove, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate beginner guide to the iPod touch, now updated and in full-color! Part media player, portable game console, and breakthrough Internet device, you could say that the iPod touch is one ideal gadget. With this new, full-color edition, bestselling For Dummies author Tony Bove walks you through powering up your iPod touch, personalizing it, establishing a Wi-Fi connection, and synchronizing your data. You'll also explore how to surf the web, rent movies, buy songs, send and receive e-mail, get directions, check stocks, organize photos, watch videos, keep a calendar, and much more. Plus,

  15. Solving Cocoa Pod Sigmoid Growth Model with Newton Raphson Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Albert Ling Sheng; Maisin, Navies

    Cocoa pod growth modelling are useful in crop management, pest and disease management and yield forecasting. Recently, the Beta Growth Function has been used to determine the pod growth model due to its unique for the plant organ growth which is zero growth rate at both the start and end of a precisely defined growth period. Specific pod size (7cm to 10cm in length) is useful in cocoa pod borer (CPB) management for pod sleeving or pesticide spraying. The Beta Growth Function is well-fitted to the pods growth data of four different cocoa clones under non-linear function with time (t) as its independent variable which measured pod length and diameter weekly started at 8 weeks after fertilization occur until pods ripen. However, the same pod length among the clones did not indicate the same pod age since the morphological characteristics for cocoa pods vary among the clones. Depending on pod size for all the clones as guideline in CPB management did not give information on pod age, therefore it is important to study the pod age at specific pod sizes on different clones. Hence, Newton Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equation of the Beta Growth Function of four different group of cocoa pod at specific pod size.

  16. Take control of your iPod

    CERN Document Server

    Sande, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Learn a dozen ways to do more with an iPod than just listen to music! Written by gadget-wizard Steve Sande, this 136-page book helps you advance to the next level of iPod mastery. You'll learn basics like charging an iPod and moving music over to it, but most of the book looks at all the other stuff you can do with an iPod: track calendar items and contacts, keep to-do lists, exercise, read ebooks and RSS feeds, listen to podcasts and audiobooks, watch video, view subway maps, back up your hard drive, and much more! (Click Front Matter, just below, to see the complete topic list.) The book

  17. Disaster-hardened imaging POD for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice; Frost, Meryll

    2005-04-01

    After the events of 9/11, many people questioned their ability to keep critical services operational in the face of massive infrastructure failure. Hospitals increased their backup and recovery power, made plans for emergency water and food, and operated on a heightened alert awareness with more frequent disaster drills. In a film-based radiology department, if a portable X-ray unit, a CT unit, an Ultrasound unit, and an film processor could be operated on emergency power, a limited, but effective number of studies could be performed. However, in a digital department, there is a reliance on the network infrastructure to deliver images to viewing locations. The system developed for our institution uses several imaging PODS, a name we chose because it implied to us a safe, contained environment. Each POD is a stand-alone emergency powered network capable of generating images and displaying them in the POD or printing them to a DICOM printer. The technology we used to create a POD consists of a computer with dual network interface cards joining our private, local POD network, to the hospital network. In the case of an infrastructure failure, each POD can and does work independently to produce CTs, CRs, and Ultrasounds. The system has been tested during disaster drills and works correctly, producing images using equipment technologists are comfortable using with very few emergency switch-over tasks. Purpose: To provide imaging capabilities in the event of a natural or man-made disaster with infrastructure failure. Method: After the events of 9/11, many people questioned their ability to keep critical services operational in the face of massive infrastructure failure. Hospitals increased their backup and recovery power, made plans for emergency water and food, and operated on a heightened alert awareness with more frequent disaster drills. In a film-based radiology department, if a portable X-ray unit, a CT unit, an Ultrasound unit, and an film processor could be

  18. iPod The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J D

    2011-01-01

    Apple's iPod still has the world hooked on portable music, pictures, videos, movies, and more, but one thing it doesn't have is a manual that helps you can get the most out this amazing device. That's where this book comes in. Get the complete scoop on the latest line of iPods and the latest version of iTunes with the guide that outshines them all-iPod: The Missing Manual. The 10th edition is as useful, satisfying, and reliable as its subject. Teeming with high-quality color graphics, each page helps you accomplish a specific task-everything from managing your media and installing and browsi

  19. Gold resource modeling using pod indicator kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Rauf, Abdul; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes an implementation of the pod indicator kriging method used to gold resource modeling. Method such as ordinary kriging estimate the mean grade of a block that is fairly large. The usual outcome is that large blocks rarely turn out to be all ore or all waste, thus making reserve estimates an incorrect estimate of what will be mined. Pod indicator kriging offers a solution to this problem by estimating the distribution of grade values within a large block, rather than just estimating the mean grade of the block. Knowing the distribution of grade value within the block, it is then easy to calculate the proportion of the block that is above cutoff grade and the grade of the ore above cutoff grade. This research shows that the pod indicator kriging model is quite applicable and reliable in gold resourcemodeling.

  20. iPod Touch portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul; McFedries, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Tips, tricks, and shortcuts for getting the most out of Apple's iPod Touch Packed with authoritative, no-nonsense advice for getting the most out of your iPod touch, this hip and sophisticated guide addresses the most used and desired features of this exciting device. The author covers the most essential skills, tools, and shortcuts you need to know in order to become savvy and confident for accomplishing any task necessary. Featuring a handy trim size, this guide goes where you go, offering accessible, useful information immediately at your fingertips. You'll find the hottest tips coupled

  1. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. Subsequent fracture mechanics analyses consider aspect ratios that range from 0.1 to 0.5. There is debate within the NDE community about the detectability of shallow cracks associated with NASA Special Level penetrant inspections that are routinely performed by propellant tank manufactures. The objective of the task is to investigate effect of crack aspect ratio on POD crack sizes for the penetrant inspection technique.

  2. LES based POD analysis of Jet in Cross Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik; Jakirlic, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of a POD investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield. LES results are firstly compared to the pointwise LDA measurements. 2D POD analysis is then used as a comparison basis for PIV measurements and LES, and finally 3D POD...

  3. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Pod(s) of Mature Source Rock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Pod (or pods) of Mature Source Rock is a critical element of the Total Petroleum System and incorporates all source rocks that potentially have generated...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Pod(s) of Mature Source Rock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Pod (or pods) of Mature Source Rock is a critical element of the Total Petroleum System and incorporates all source rocks that potentially have generated...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Pod(s) of Mature Source Rock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Pod (or pods) of Mature Source Rock is a critical element of the Total Petroleum System and incorporates all source rocks that potentially have generated...

  7. Copernicus POD Service: Ready for Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.; Fernández, J.; Escobar, D.; Féménias, P.; Flohrer, C.; Otten, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus POD Service is part of the Copernicus PDGS Ground Segment of the Sentinel missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The Sentinel-1, -2 & -3 missions have different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness. Orbital products in Near Real Time (latency: 30 min), Short Time Critical (1.5 days) and Non-time Critical (20-30 days) are required. The accuracy requirements are very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Sentinel-3A carries, in addition to a GPS receiver a laser retro reflector and a DORIS receiver. On the one hand, the three different techniques GPS, SLR and DORIS make POD more complex but, on the other hand, it is very helpful to have independent techniques available for validation of the orbit results. The successful POD processing for Sentinel-1A is a good preparation for Sentinel-3A due to the similar demanding orbit accuracy requirements. The Copernicus POD Service is ready for Sentinel-3A and the service will process GPS and SLR data routinely and has the capacity to process DORIS in NTC and reprocessing campaigns. The three independent orbit determination techniques on Sentinel-3 offer big potential for scientific exploitation. Carrying all three techniques together makes the satellite, e.g., very useful for combining all the techniques on observation level as it could only be done for Jason-2 until now. The Sentinel POD Quality Working Group strongly supporting the CPOD Service delivers additional orbit solutions to validate the CPOD results independently. The recommendations from this body guarantee that the CPOD Service is updated following state-of-the-art algorithms, models and conventions. The QWG also focuses on the scientific exploitation of the

  8. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols in carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Taniguchi, Masa; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimura, Masayo; Kwon, Mi-Sun; Nakayama, Tsutomu

    2002-01-16

    We extracted polyphenols from carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods, and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant activity of the crude polyphenol fraction (CPP). The total polyphenol content in CPP determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method was 19.2%. The condensed tannin content determined by the vanillin and proanthocyanidin assay systems was 4.37% and 1.36%, respectively. beta-Carotene bleaching, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the erythrocyte ghost, and microsomal assay systems were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. CPP showed a stronger inhibitory effect against the discoloration of beta-carotene than other polyphenol compounds such as catechins and procyanidins. CPP had weaker antioxidant activity in the DPPH free radical scavenging, the erythrocyte ghost, and microsomal systems than authentic polyphenol compounds at the same concentrations. The activity adjusted by the polyphenol concentration was, however, comparable to that of authentic polyphenol compounds. Considering most carob pods are discarded and not effectively utilized at present, these results suggested that carob pods could be utilized as a functional food or food ingredient.

  9. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  10. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  11. iPod nano上放电影

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一鸣

    2006-01-01

    iPod nano和iPod Video的接连上市无疑让Apple Fans在2005年过足了瘾。虽然iPod Video已经实现了对视频播放功能的支持,但是对于包括iPod nano在内的iPod系列其他产品,官方并没有加入视频播放的功能。于是,一群iPod爱好者就开始了对iPod nano潜力的研究,而且取得了成功!iPod nano现在也能支持视频播放了!当然,在此之前,您得对它做一些改造……

  12. Texting Dependence, iPod Dependence, and Delay Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    We gave 127 undergraduates questionnaires about their iPod and texting dependence and 2 hypothetical delay discounting scenarios related to free downloaded songs and free texting for life. Using regression analyses we found that when iPod dependence was the dependent variable, Text2-excessive use, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms, iPod2-excessive use, and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. When texting dependence was the dependent variable, Text4-psychological and behavioral symptoms and iPod3-relationship disruption were significant predictors of discounting. These are the first data to show that delay discounting relates to certain aspects of social media, namely iPod and texting dependence. These data also show that across these 2 dependencies, both psychological and behavioral symptoms and relationship disruptions are affected.

  13. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  14. Strategic planning for Galaxy Pod Hostel

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Ívar Róbertsson 1985; Mikael Ingason 1995

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy Pod Hostel was established in May of 2015 and began offering accommodation in December of the same year. Before the strategic planning for the hostel began, the hostel had hopes of achieving its break-even point of its operation at the end of the 2016 summer, but as the strategic planning process progressed that goal became less of a reality. The purpose of the strategic planning then became to find out why the hostel is not operating at its fullest potential and what changes need to o...

  15. Diffuse corneal abrasion after ocular exposure to laundry detergent pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rachel E; Baum, Carl R; Aronson, Paul L

    2015-02-01

    Although ocular injury from alkaline household cleaning products is well described, there is less known about the significance and extent of injury with ocular exposure to detergent pods. We report a 12-month-old with diffuse corneal abrasion caused by ocular contact with a laundry detergent pod. In addition to the known risks with aspiration with detergent pods, the potential for severe ocular injury is important for parents and clinicians to recognize. Children with ocular exposure to detergent pods should seek immediate medical care.

  16. Genetic analysis of pod dehiscence in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F; Brauner, Soren; Przyborowski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the dehiscent pod character was investigated in two recombinant inbred populations using a simplified correlation analysis. The approach identified three regions on the pea genome that affect the expression of pod dehiscence. The region on linkage group III corresponded to the expected position of Dpo, a gene known to influence pod dehiscence. A locus on linkage group V appeared to have a slightly smaller effect on expression of the phenotype. The third region was observed only in one cross, had a greater effect than Dpo, and was postulated to be yellow pod allele at the Gp locus

  17. Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Rahmawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB.   Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai

  18. Taking Your iPod touch to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Fast and fun to read, this title offers all the tips and techniques Apple iPod Touch users could ever think of to make the most of their device. Sadun reveals everything and more about the functionality of the iPod Touch.

  19. EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUM HIDROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Siswo Hutomo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EKSTRAKSI SELULOSA DARI POD HUSK KAKAO MENGGUNAKAN SODIUMHIDROKSIDA Cellulose Extraction from Cacao Pod Husk Using Sodium Hydroxide Gatot Siswo Hutomo, Djagal Wiseso Marseno, Sri Anggrahini, Supriyanto ABSTRAK Pod husk kakao banyak mengandung komponen kimia seperti pektin, lignin, hemiselulosa dan selulosa serta beberapakomponen yang lain yaitu caffein dan theobromine. Khusus selulosa dapat dilakukan modiÞ kasi sebagai turunanselulosa yang mempunyai banyak fungsi serta dapat diaplikasikan untuk pangan. Penelitian ekstraksi selulosa dari podhusk kakao telah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh konsentrasi sodium hidroksida sebagaibahan untuk ekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao. Selulosa pada pod husk kakao terikat sangat kuat dengan lignin,sodium hidroksida akan memutus dengan baik ikatan antara selulosa dengan lignin. Bleaching pada selulosa jugadilakukan dengan menggunakan sodium hipoklorida 3% dan sodium bisulÞ t 3% untuk meningkatkan lightness. SpektraFT-IR dan X-ray juga dilakukan untuk pendeteksian pada selulosa hasil ekstraksi. Hasil ekstraksi selulosa dari pod huskkakao menggunakan sodiumhidroksida 12% menghasilkan rendemen sekitar 26,09% (db dengan kristalinitas 27,14%,kadar abu 6,56% (db, WHC 5,87 g/g dan OHC 2,74 g/g. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sodium hidroksida 12% adalahkonsentrasi yang paling baik untuk mengekstraksi selulosa dari pod husk kakao.Kata kunci: Selulosa, pod husk, kakao, ekstraksi ABSTRACT Cacao pod husk contains some compounds like pectin, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, and other compounds suchas caffeine and theobromine. Especially for cellulose should be modiÞ ed as derivates which it have multi functionsin food application. Extraction cellulose from pod husk cacao was investigated. The aim of the research was to Þ ndthe concentration of sodium hydroxide for cellulose extraction from pod husk cacao. Bleaching for cellulose werecarried out twice using sodium hypochlorite 3% (oxydator and

  20. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  1. Wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Grundfest, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The capability to quantify gait characteristics through a wireless accelerometer iPod application in an effectively autonomous environment may alleviate the progressive strain on highly specific medical resources. The iPod consists of the inherent attributes imperative for robust gait quantification, such as a three dimensional accelerometer, data storage, flexible software, and the capacity for wireless transmission of the gait data through email. Based on the synthesis of the integral components of the iPod, a wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics has been tested and evaluated in an essentially autonomous environment. The quantified gait acceleration waveforms were wirelessly transmitted using email for postprocessing. The site for the gait experiment occurred in a remote location relative to the location where the postprocessing was conducted. The wireless accelerometer iPod application for quantifying gait characteristics demonstrated sufficient accuracy and consistency.

  2. iPod and iTunes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Bove, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Get going with your iPod & iTunes and this perennial bestseller - now in full-color! iPod & iTunes For Dummies is the ultimate beginner's guide for getting started with your iPod and Apple's iTunes service. Now in its tenth edition, this helpful guide has been completely overhauled and boasts a full-color format for the first time ever. Veteran For Dummies author Tony Bove introduces you to the different iPod models, explains how to power up your iPod, and shows you how to set up iTunes. You'll learn to personalize your device, add music tracks from a CD to your iTune

  3. Application of Pod to Complex Industrial Problems: New Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Pavlovic, M.; Bertovic, M.; Ewert, U.; Mueller, C.; Ronneteg, U.

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasonic phased array NDE has been applied to ensure the integrity of canisters for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel. The performance of the NDE system is evaluated by the POD analysis. The POD analysis using a common method, â versus a, has been modified for the phased array ultrasonic inspections by two approaches: to take more influencing parameters into a, and to use a more sophisticated quantity as â. The POD with new a allows more detailed interpretation of POD for each parameter, and the new â gives more realistic POD. The methods are discussed and demonstrated with experimental data. In addition, an investigation of human factors is being planned and the plan is discussed.

  4. InstrumentationPod (IPOD) User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-12

    This document describes the Instrumentation Pod (IPOD) and its operation and use. The IPOD is a low-power detector system comprising a 3He tube with preamp for neutron detection, a microcontroller-based data acquisition system, a GPS receiver for locationdetermination and time-synchronization, and power filtering and protection. The IPOD is intended to be bolted to the top of Dual-Use Casks stored at Baikal-1 in Kazakhstan in order to maintain continuity of knowledge of the materials stored within the cask. The data acquisition system receives pulses from the neutron-detection preamp, combines this information with other sensor data, and stores the result on two SD cards that are part of the data acquisition system. Firmware in the data acquisition system controls collection and storing of the data and enables configuration of the acquisition parameters.

  5. The iPod Revolution: An Exploratory Case Study of the Implementation of an iPod Touch Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Staci A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study was designed to investigate the implementation of an iPod touch pilot program in sixth grade science classrooms at an intermediate school in Southeast Texas. More specifically, this study explored the benefits and challenges associated with the utilization of iPod touch devices for students, teachers, and their campus…

  6. QTL mapping for resistance to frosty pod and black pod diseases in an f1 population of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a native crop of the Americas; however severe losses due to frosty pod (FP) [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.)], and black pod (BP) [Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.] have reduced cacao in the Americas to only 13.0% of world production. Agronomic practices to co...

  7. Fruit Pod Extracts as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  8. Fruit pod extracts as a source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Azila Abdul; Azlan, Azrina

    2012-10-10

    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.

  9. Taking Your iPod touch to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Sadun, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Unleash your iPhone and take it to the limit using secret tips and techniques from gadget hacker Erica Sadun. Fast and fun to read, Taking Your iPod touch 4 to the Max is fully updated to show you how get the most out of Apple's new OS 4. You'll find all the best undocumented tricks as well as the most efficient and enjoyable introduction to the iPhone available. Starting with an introduction to iPod touch 4 basics, you'll quickly move on to discover the iPod touch's hidden potential, like how to connect to a TV, get contract-free VOIP, and hack OS 4 so it will run apps on your iPod touch. Fro

  10. Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.

  11. RANS Simulation of Podded Propulsor Performances in Straight Forward Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is adopted to study the steady and unsteady performances of the podded propulsor by the Fluent software package. While the interactions of the propeller blades with the pod and strut are time-dependent by nature, the mixing plane model is employed firstly to predict the steady performance, where the interactions are time-averaged. Numerical experiments are carried out with systematically varied mesh sizes to investigate the dependence of the predicted force values on the mesh sizes. Furthermore, the sliding mesh model is employed to simulate the unsteady interactions between the blades, pod and strut. Based on the numerical results, the characteristics of unsteady hydrodynamic forces are discussed, and the applicability of the mixing plane model is investigated for puller-type podded propulsor.

  12. Flood Control Structures, POD 77, Published in 2001, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Control Structures dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as 'POD 77'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  14. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  15. Probability of Detection (POD) Demonstration Transferability: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Bradford H.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Special Level POD demonstration tests are typically performed on flat plates of a single material containing fatigue cracks with aspect rations between 0.3 and 0.5. In many cases, the inspectors that pass the demonstration tests use (transfer) the NDE technique to inspect different materials and part geometries and for varying types of flaws. The objective of the task is to investigate several of the factors that may influence the transferability of POD demonstration tests. An existing set of 30 6061-T6 aluminum crack panels will be used to create parts with a square tube and pocket type geometries. These same aluminum crack panels were used in a study of the effect of penetrant sensitivity level on POD. Hence, we should be able to directly compare the POD for flat panels versus larger parts with more complex geometries.

  16. to Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  17. The impact of organic fertilizer utilization on Phytopthora pod rot and cocoa pod borer incidences in cacao plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Sjam, Sylvia; Rahim, Mohammad Danial; Nasaruddin; Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Phytopthora pod rot (PPR) and cocoa pod borer (CPB) are serious pests giving lost of around 60% and 70% respectively on cacao productivity in Indonesia. In this trial we tried to evaluate the impact of cultural practices by using organic fertilizer made from difference source of organic material on incidences caused by PPR and CPB. The organic fertilizer treatment consist of liquid organic fertilizer, HK compost, BH compost, DN compost, liquid organic fertilizer plus HK compost, liquid or...

  18. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Podded Propulsor on Naval Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Abdul Ghani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of pod propulsor attachment to the existing Naval Vessel hull form which was designed for conventional propulsor in aspects of resistance and motion characteristics. These investigations were carried out on a 3.0 m model by experimental works in the towing tank 120m x 4m x 2.5m at the Marine Technology Centre (MTC, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM. The basis ship chosen for this study is Sealift class type MPCSS (Multi Purpose Command Support Ship. In this study, the design for the new pod propulsor is based on a proven design and scaled down to suit this type of hullform accordingly. This paper describes the resistance comparison between bare and podded hulls in calm water as well in waves. The seakeeping test for hull with and without pod in regular waves at service speed of 16.8 knots were carried out at wavelength to model length ratio, Lw/Lm between 0.2 and 1.2. The outcomes from this experimental works on hull with and without pod were compared.

  20. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  1. The building block approach to airborne pod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan D.

    2011-05-01

    The certification and testing of new airborne structures is a costly undertaking. This paper presents which measures can be taken to limit the cost and certification required in order to improve the capabilities of the current airborne as-sets, by applying a building block approach to the design and certification of airborne pod structures. A simple way of improving aircraft capabilities is by adding external pod structures, which has been performed for many applications over many years. However, this paper describes a truly modular approach, in which a typical airborne pod structure may be reconfigured to many various roles, with only limited re-certification requirements. Using existing or general aerodynamic shapes, the basic outer shape for the external store is defined, which is then combined with a modular substructure which can accommodate a large variety of electronic and/or optical sensors. This also allows the airborne pod structure to perform several intelligence collecting operations during the same sortie, thereby limiting the time spent near the danger area. The re-use of existing substructure modules reduces the cost and leadtime of the design phase allowing for a rapid entry into service. The modular design, relying on proven interface systems between the building blocks, significantly reduces risk involved in new programs. The certification process is also discussed in order to optimize the use of the pod structure modularity and certification requirements in order to simplify the certification task, by drawing similarity to existing designs. Finally the paper covers how modularity is implemented in new composite pod designs with stealth capabilities.

  2. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (Ppod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and

  3. Pod-mounted MIL-STD-2179B recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, William D.; Abeille, Pierre; Sulzer, Jean-Francois

    1991-12-01

    A MIL-STD-2179B recorder mounted within a high-performance aircraft pod is described, with emphasis on the recorder's features that allow it to meet this standard in the severe environment encountered. Specific examples of design features which minimize the effects of shock and vibration as well as temperature and humidity are given.

  4. PodCred: A framework for analyzing podcast preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Larson, M.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    The PodCred framework is a framework for assessing the credibility and quality of podcasts published on the internet. It consists of a series of indicators designed to support prediction of listener preference of one podcast over another, given that both carry comparable informational content. The

  5. Unsteady aerodynamic modeling based on POD-observer method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid approach to constructing reduced-order models(ROM)of unsteady aerodynamics applicable to aeroelastic analysis is presented by using proper orthogonal decomposition(POD)in combination with observer techniques.Fluid modes are generated through POD by sampling observations of solutions derived from the full-order model.The response in the POD training is projected onto the fluid modes to determine the time history of the modal amplitudes.The resulting data are used to extract the Markov parameters of the low-dimensional model for modal amplitudes using a related deadbeat observer.The state-space realization is synthesized from the system’s Markov parameters that are processed with the eigensystem realization algorithm.The POD-observer method is applied to a two-dimensional airfoil system in subsonic flow field.The results predicted by the ROM are in general agreement with those from the full-order system.The ROM obtained by the hybrid approach captures the essence of a fluid system and produces vast reduction in both degrees of freedom and computational time relative to the full-order model.

  6. A DSP Based POD Implementation for High Speed Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Nian Zhang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cable network services, the audio/video entertainment contents should be protected from unauthorized copying, intercepting, and tampering. Point-of-deployment (POD security module, proposed by OpenCableTM, allows viewers to receive secure cable services such as premium subscription channels, impulse pay-per-view, video-on-demand as well as other interactive services. In this paper, we present a digital signal processor (DSP (TMS320C6211 based POD implementation for the real-time applications which include elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA, elliptic curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH key exchange, elliptic curve key derivation function (ECKDF, cellular automata (CA cryptography, communication processes between POD and Host, and Host authentication. In order to get different security levels and different rates of encryption/decryption, a CA based symmetric key cryptography algorithm is used whose encryption/decryption rate can be up to 75 Mbps. The experiment results indicate that the DSP based POD implementation provides high speed and flexibility, and satisfies the requirements of real-time video data transmission.

  7. iPod Stands for: Absorb, Engage, and Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Judith V.

    2007-01-01

    The iPod's almost overwhelming popularity probably stems from the combination of power, size, convenience, and flexibility inherent in the devices. They fit into arm bands during jogging, ride in jean pockets, and swing from belt loops. They are small enough to easily be tucked into purses and backpacks, even large pockets. Clearly, using and…

  8. Using the iPod to Teach Freedom and Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Technology is making it easier for people with disabilities to function independently in their homes, workplaces, schools, and communities. Things that were once thought impossible are now possible with the aid of new tools available to assist in the transition toward independent living. None have had as big an impact as the iPod Touch. When most…

  9. Podagogy: The iPod as a Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Crispin; Pymm, John M.

    2009-01-01

    With the growing influence of social media on contemporary society, educators have to adapt to new ways of engaging students in the learning process. The use of iPod technologies, as part of this new breed of social media and associated gadgetry, offers fresh opportunities to enhance the student learning experience. As part of a research project…

  10. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First...

  11. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cocoa pod husks. [Trichoderma reesei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.K.; Oldham, J.H.; Martin, A.M

    1984-07-01

    Laboratory results are presented of the bioconversion of cellulose from cocoa pod husks, utilizing cellulase from three mutants of Trichoderma reesei. Total reducing sugars in filtered hydrolysates were estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The sugars present were identified by paper chromatography as glucose and xylose.

  13. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod

  14. A new lignan rhamnoside from Bauhinia retusa seed pods (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushma Semwal; Rajni Kant Sharma

    2011-01-01

    A new lignan rhamnoside identified as 2,6-di(4',5'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane-1-hydroxy-5-O-rhamno-pyranoside (1) has been isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed pods of Bauhinia retusa. Its structure was established by extensive spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, ID NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS).

  15. Probability of detection (POD) is not NDT/E reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Ward D.

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of nondestructive testing procedures has been a primary consideration in the development, application and advancement of nondestructive testing (NDT/E) technology. Indeed significant advancements have been made in process control of procedures and in training, qualification personnel who apply NDT procedures. Recognition and the demand for NDT increased with successes. NDT was integrated into engineering practices and technologies. The design, operation, maintenance, life cycle and risk analyses changed dramatically with the development, application and incorporation of fracture mechanics in engineering requirements, engineering practices and engineering systems management. Those engineering changes increased demands and a revolution in NDT requirements, practices and technology advancement. The Probability of Detection (POD) metric was developed to provide a quantitative assessment of NDT detection capabilities and was focused on the smallest reliably detectable flaw. Critical needs for application resulted in wide acceptance of POD as a metric to quantify the detection capability of NDT procedures. Unfortunately, POD is often misinterpreted as a primary measure of the reliability of NDT procedures. This paper addresses the nature of POD and requirements for assessment and application. Emphasis is on evolution of a new branch in NDT engineering, technology application and validation.

  16. PodCred: A framework for analyzing podcast preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Larson, M.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    The PodCred framework is a framework for assessing the credibility and quality of podcasts published on the internet. It consists of a series of indicators designed to support prediction of listener preference of one podcast over another, given that both carry comparable informational content. The i

  17. STS-39: OMS Pod Thruster Removal/Replace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Shown is the removal and replacement of the Discovery's orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pod thruster. The OMS engine will be used to propel Discovery north, off of its previous orbital groundtrack, without changing the spacecraft's altitude. A burn with this lateral effect is known as "out-of-plane."

  18. Towards a Simplified Dynamic Wake Model using POD Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bastine, David; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    We apply the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to large eddy simulation data of a wind turbine wake in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. Our analyis mainly focuses on the question whether POD could be a useful tool to develop a simplified dynamic wake model. The extracted POD modes are used to obtain approximate descriptions of the velocity field. To assess the quality of these POD reconstructions, we define simple measures which are believed to be relevant for a sequential turbine in the wake such as the energy flux through a disk in the wake. It is shown that only a few modes are necessary to capture basic dynamical aspects of these measures even though only a small part of the turbulent kinetic energy is restored. Furthermore, we show that the importance of the individual modes depends on the measure chosen. Therefore, the optimal choice of modes for a possible model could in principle depend on the application of interest. We additionally present a pos...

  19. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of coco

  20. An estimation method of full scale performance for pulling type podded propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Gil Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new estimation method of full scale propulsive performance for the pulling type podded propeller. In order to estimate the drag of pod housing, a drag velocity ratio, which includes the effects of podded propeller loading and Reynolds number, is presented and evaluated through the comparison of model test and numerical analysis. By separating the thrust of propeller blade and the drag of pod housing, extrapolation method of pod housing drag to full scale is deduced, and correction method of propeller blade thrust and torque to full scale is presented. This study utilized the drag coefficient ratio of the pod housing as a measure for expanding it to full scale, but in order to increase the accuracy of performance evaluation, additional study is necessary on the method for the full scale expansion via separating the drag of pod body, strut and fin which consist the pod housing.

  1. Pod People The founders of ChinesePod have logged onto success with an online language learning website

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARK GRAHAM

    2008-01-01

    @@ The three founders of ChinesePod were confident they had a pretty solid business idea on their hands Chinese language lessons for the internet age, with easy downloading and interactive lessons-but they never dreamed it would grow so quickly.

  2. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  3. iPhone还是iPod Touch?傻傻分不清楚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    曾经看到过一句话这样形容iPhone与iPod Touch之间的关系:iPod Touch是不能打电话的iPhone。不过,这话有点不够准确—毕竟iPod Touch的游戏性能要好于iPhone,此外,在Truphone入住iPod Touch之后,iPod Touch不能打电话也成为了历史。

  4. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.;

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...

  5. Optimal Reliability-Based Planning of Experiments for POD Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.; Kroon, I. B.

    Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First O...... Order Reliability Methods in combination with life-cycle cost-optimal inspection and maintenance planning. The methodology is based on preposterior analyses from Bayesian decision theory. An illustrative example is shown.......Optimal planning of the crack detection test is considered. The test are used to update the information on the reliability of the inspection techniques modelled by probability of detection (P.O.D.) curves. It is shown how cost-optimal and reliability based test plans can be obtained using First...

  6. Copernicus POD Service: Orbit Determination of the Sentinel Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Ayuga, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. Sentinel-1A was launched in April 2014 while Sentinel-2A was on June 2015 and both are routinely operated since then. Sentinel-3A is expected to be launched in February 2016 and Sentinel-1B is planned for spring 2016. Thus the CPOD Service will be operating three to four satellites simultaneously in spring 2016. The satellites of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 missions are all equipped with dual frequency high precision GPS receivers delivering the main observables for POD. Sentinel-3 satellites will additionally be equipped with a laser retro reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging and a receiver for DORIS tracking. All three types of observables (GPS, SLR and DORIS) will be used routinely for POD. The POD core of the CPOD Service is NAPEOS (Navigation Package for Earth Orbiting Satellites) the leading ESA/ESOC software for precise orbit determination. The careful selection of models and inputs is important to achieve the different but very demanding requirements in terms of orbital accuracy and timeliness for the Sentinel -1, -2 & -3 missions. The three missions require orbital products with various latencies from 30 minutes up to 20-30 days. The accuracy requirements are also different and partly very challenging, targeting 5 cm in 3D for Sentinel-1 and 2-3 cm in radial direction for Sentinel-3. Although the characteristics and the requirements are different for the three missions the same core POD setup is used to the largest extent possible. This strategy facilitates maintenance of the complex system of the CPOD Service. Updates in the dynamical modelling of the satellite orbits, e

  7. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  8. iPod touch vs. TI-Nspire

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Im Rahmen eines Unterrichtsprojekts in der zehnten Jahrgangsstufe konnten Schüler zunächst für drei Monate mit einem iPod Touch (mit Mathematik-Apps) und später über mehrere Monate mit dem TI Nspire CAS arbeiten. Im Anschluss erfolgten Beurteilung und Vergleich beider Geräte durch die Schüler hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für den Mathematikunterricht.

  9. Fast Multiscale Reservoir Simulations using POD-DEIM Model Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Ghasemi, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, we present a global-local model reduction for fast multiscale reservoir simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media with applications to optimization and history matching. Our proposed approach identifies a low dimensional structure of the solution space. We introduce an auxiliary variable (the velocity field) in our model reduction that allows achieving a high degree of model reduction. The latter is due to the fact that the velocity field is conservative for any low-order reduced model in our framework. Because a typical global model reduction based on POD is a Galerkin finite element method, and thus it can not guarantee local mass conservation. This can be observed in numerical simulations that use finite volume based approaches. Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) is used to approximate the nonlinear functions of fine-grid functions in Newton iterations. This approach allows achieving the computational cost that is independent of the fine grid dimension. POD snapshots are inexpensively computed using local model reduction techniques based on Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) which provides (1) a hierarchical approximation of snapshot vectors (2) adaptive computations by using coarse grids (3) inexpensive global POD operations in a small dimensional spaces on a coarse grid. By balancing the errors of the global and local reduced-order models, our new methodology can provide an error bound in simulations. Our numerical results, utilizing a two-phase immiscible flow, show a substantial speed-up and we compare our results to the standard POD-DEIM in finite volume setup.

  10. Jason-1 and Jason-2 POD Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Jason-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful Jason-1 altimetry satellite mission launched in December 7, 2001. Both, Jason-2 and Jason-1 are equipped with a GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). A series of dynamic and reduced-dynamic Jason-2 orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on GPS-only data and the std0905 standards, have been completed till cy74through cycle 74 using the IGS05 framework. These orbits, now publicly available, have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS with the GSFC std0905 SLR/DORIS orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by JPL, ESA and CNES. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the IGS08 and repro1 framework for the Jason-2 and Jason-1 GPS POD processing with the NASA GSFC GEODYN software. . In our updated GPS POD, ambiguity fixing and updated time variable and static gravity fields. We also evaluate the implementation of non-tidal and degree-1 loading displacement as forward modeling to the tracking stations. Reduced-dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model errors and TRF instability. In particular, we assess their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the North/South direction as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame.

  11. Jason-1 and Jason-2 POD Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros; Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The Jason-2 satellite, launched in June 2008, is the latest follow-on to the successful Jason-1 altimetry satellite mission launched in December 7, 2001. Both, Jason-2 and Jason-1 are equipped with a GPS dual-frequency receiver, a laser retroreflector array, and a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination (POD). A series of dynamic and reduced-dynamic Jason-2 orbits computed at NASA GSFC, based on GPS-only data and the std0905 standards, have been completed till cy74through cycle 74 using the IGS05 framework. These orbits, now publicly available, have been shown to agree radially at 1 cm RMS with the GSFC std0905 SLR/DORIS orbits and in comparison with orbits produced by JPL, ESA and CNES. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the IGS08 and repro1 framework for the Jason-2 and Jason-1 GPS POD processing with the NASA GSFC GEODYN software. . In our updated GPS POD, ambiguity fixing and updated time variable and static gravity fields. We also evaluate the implementation of non-tidal and degree-1 loading displacement as forward modeling to the tracking stations. Reduced-dynamic versus dynamic orbit differences are used to characterize the remaining force model errors and TRF instability. In particular, we assess their consistency radially and the stability of the altimeter satellite reference frame in the North/South direction as a proxy to assess the consistency of the reference frame.

  12. System Identification and POD Method Applied to Unsteady Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deman; Kholodar, Denis; Juang, Jer-Nan; Dowell, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    The representation of unsteady aerodynamic flow fields in terms of global aerodynamic modes has proven to be a useful method for reducing the size of the aerodynamic model over those representations that use local variables at discrete grid points in the flow field. Eigenmodes and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) modes have been used for this purpose with good effect. This suggests that system identification models may also be used to represent the aerodynamic flow field. Implicit in the use of a systems identification technique is the notion that a relative small state space model can be useful in describing a dynamical system. The POD model is first used to show that indeed a reduced order model can be obtained from a much larger numerical aerodynamical model (the vortex lattice method is used for illustrative purposes) and the results from the POD and the system identification methods are then compared. For the example considered, the two methods are shown to give comparable results in terms of accuracy and reduced model size. The advantages and limitations of each approach are briefly discussed. Both appear promising and complementary in their characteristics.

  13. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods.

  14. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Siegumfeldt, Astrid L; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965 seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod proteins represented enzymes from 85 different metabolic pathways, including storage globulins and a late embryogenesis abundant protein. In contrast to seed maturation, pod maturation was associated with decreasing total protein content, especially proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate metabolism pathway were identified.

  15. Nutraceutical Properties of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce Pods: A Component of “Panchkuta”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Malik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called “Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish - The Panchkuta. In the present work, we have attempted to study different characteristics of the pods, to understand its health benefits. Sangri pods were studied for various phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, flavanols and total phenolics. As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient area so antioxidant potential of pods has also been investigated. Acetone and methanol extracts of Sangri pods are the most potent bioactive extracts. Nutritional analysis shows it as a good source of proteins and minerals like calcium, sodium and potassium. This study demonstrates that P. cineraria pods may be employed as nutraceutical food with rich nutrition, disease prevention and health promoting effects.

  16. Note on the POD-based time interpolation from successive PIV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhoubeiny, Elkhadim; Druault, Philippe

    2009-11-01

    To enhance the temporal resolution of the PIV measurements of pseudo-periodic turbulent flows, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been previously used to time interpolate PIV database. In this note, it is demonstrated that such POD interpolation is equivalent to the classical mathematical interpolation when dealing with the whole POD eigenfunctions, since POD is a linear transform. In fact, the POD-based time interpolation is only valid for the large scale structures of the flow. The advantage of using POD procedure resides in its efficiency in extracting the dominant flow structures. In this sense, other interpolation methods such as turbulent filtering procedures could provide similar results. To cite this article: E. Bouhoubeiny, P. Druault, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  17. BiPOD Arthroscopic Acromioclavicular Repair Restores Bidirectional Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, Joe; Schaer, Michael; Latendresse, Kim; Raniga, Sumit; Moor, Beat K; Zumstein, Matthias A

    2016-09-19

    Stabilizing the acromioclavicular joint in the vertical and horizontal planes is challenging, and most current techniques do not reliably achieve this goal. The BiPOD repair is an arthroscopically assisted procedure performed with image intensifier guidance that reconstructs the coracoclavicular ligaments as well as the acromioclavicular ligaments to achieve bidirectional stability. Repair is achieved with a combination of 2-mm FiberTape (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) and 20-mm Poly-Tape (Neoligaments, Leeds, England) to achieve rigid repair, prevent bone abrasion, and promote tissue ingrowth. This study is a prospective review of the first 6 patients treated for high-grade acute acromioclavicular injury with the BiPOD technique. The study included 6 men who were 21 to 36 years old (mean, 27 years). At 6-month follow-up, complications were recorded and radiographic analysis was used to determine the coracoclavicular distance for vertical reduction and the amount of acromioclavicular translation on the Alexander axillary view was used to determine horizontal reduction. One patient had a superficial infection over the tape knot. The difference in coracoclavicular distance between the operated side and the uninvolved side was 9±2 mm preoperatively and 0.3±2 mm at 6-month follow-up. On Alexander axillary view, all 6 patients showed stable reduction, which is defined as a clavicle that is in line with the acromion. The findings show that BiPOD acromioclavicular reconstruction restores bidirectional stability of the acromioclavicular joint at 6 months. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):exx-exx.].

  18. POD as tool for comparison of PIV and LES data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Cavar, Dalibor; Pedersen, Jakob Martin

    2007-01-01

    Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) provides instantaneous velocity fields which can contain dynamical flow structures that occur systematically. Turbulent flows also contain random flow structures, and therefore there is a need for tools that can identify...... the systematic dynamic flow structures. We show how Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) based on snapshots (instantaneous flow realizations) can be used for this purpose. As a test case, we use PIV measurements and LES calculations on the same turbulent jet in cross flow. The Reynolds number based...

  19. Writing consumer identities through the iPod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    How do web 2.0 and mobile technologies affect the available means for interaction between consumers and corporations? What are the implications for communicating corporate social responsibility? Gee (1996:6) states that “When we write or read, speak or listen, we coordinate and are coordinated...... the potential and implications of mobile technologies for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The Good Guide iPod application is a mini third party database of product rankings in terms of social responsibility towards consumer health, environmental impact and social effects...

  20. Ikon. iPod er kongen over mp3. Hvad er hemmeligheden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2....

  1. iPod and Philosophy iCon of an ePoch

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkower, D

    2011-01-01

    The iPod is transforming the lives of millions, changing their relationship to music and to each other. In iPod and Philosophy, 18 philosophers with diverse specialties and points of view bring their expertise to bear on this international cultural phenomenon. They explore such questions as how individuals become defined by their iPods, what the shuffle feature says about the role of randomness in people's lives, and much more.

  2. Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of cocoa pod extract

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Azila; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Hashim, Puziah; Abd Gani, Siti Salwa; Zainudin, Badrul Hisyam; Abdullah, Nur Azilah

    2014-01-01

    Background Cocoa pod is an outer part of cocoa fruits being discarded during cocoa bean processing. Authors found out that data on its usage in literature as cosmetic materials was not recorded in vast. In this study, cocoa pod extract was investigated for its potential as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods Cocoa pod extract (CPE) composition was accomplished using UHPLC. The antioxidant capacity were measured using scavenging assay of 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching as...

  3. DESCRIPTIVE AND DISCRIMINATORY SIGNIFICANCE OF POD PHENOTYPIC TRAITS FOR DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF COCOA GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-specific genetic diversity analysis precedes crop breeding proposal for species improvement. Sixteen and twenty-four parental and hybrid cocoa genotypes were respectively laid out in a randomized complete block design of six replications at Ibadan, Nigeria. A sampling unit of fifteen uniformly ripe pods was collected for assessment from each plot. Six quantitative data from the pods were subjected to statistical analysis. Highly significant (P < 0.0001 variability existed among the 40 genotypes. Range of performance of the genotypes were: pod weight (0.43 – 0.86kg, pod length (15.9 – 27.96cm, pod girth (21.51 – 34.07cm, pod thickness (1.26 – 5.71cm, number of beans per pod (20 - 51 and bean weight per pod (0.017 - 0.41kg. Positive and significant (P < 0.001 correlation existed between pod weight and length, pod girth and bean number/pod. The mean Gower genetic distance among the 40 genotypes was 0.228; the least (0.023 existed between G25 and G30 while the highest (0.529 was between G17 and G35. The first three principal component axes explained 73% of the total variation. Three distinct groups emerged from the Ward clustering technique. Significant (P<0.05 intra and inter cluster variability existed in the study. High genetic diversity lies within the studied population. Pod traits were important descriptors for cocoa genotypes classification.

  4. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  5. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI principal component (IPCA1 explained 42.3% of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction.Sixteen of the twenty lines/cultivars under evaluation presented medium to high stability. Genotypes L127, L118, L123 line andRunner IAC 886 accounted for the greatest part of GxE interaction. Lines L132, L149 and L1-50P presented the higheststability and pod yields, above the overall mean, reflecting outstanding potential for cultivar recommendation.

  6. POD- Mapping and analysis of hydroturbine exit flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Finstad, Pal Henrik

    2012-11-01

    Pairwise radial dynamic measurements of the swirling draft tube flow have been made at the 25 MW Svorka power plant in Surnadal operating at 48% load at 6 radial and 7 angular positions. The data is analyzed with traditional methods as well as with POD. The measurements were made in the turbine draft tube/exit flow in an axial measurement plane about 1200mm downstream the turbine runner. The draft tube diameter in the measurement plane is about 1300mm. The flow rate during measurements was close to 5.8m3/s. Two probes were used; both of length Le=700 mm and made of stainless steel with an outer diameter of Do=20 mm and inner diameter Di=4mm. At the end of each probe a full bridge cylindrical KULITE xcl152, 0-3.5, was mounted. 90 seconds samples at 10 kS/s were taken. The POD analysis largely follows that of Tutkun et al. (see e.g. AIAA J., 45,5,2008). The analysis shows that 26% of the pressure pulsation energy can be addressed to azimuthal mode 1. The work has been supported by Energy Norway.

  7. Application of a Pod Exercise to University Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Dietz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a novel method and subsequent partnership to engage and teach university students. Prior to 11 September 2001 or 9/11, much of the public safety readiness responsibility was limited to a few government officials. Today, public safety is much more widely managed. For this effort, we developed a strategic partnership between state and local government and Purdue University that provides an improved environment for learning and for public health and safety. By using an exercise deployment Strategic National Stockpile (SNS in a Point of Distribution (POD exercise, our efforts with partnering between state and local government and the university provide benefits and opportunities to each. Simultaneously, we tested a full scale POD mass prophylaxis response to an anthrax attack through teaching and training university students who also gain valuable internship-like experience. The ongoing relationship between government and the university's student talent can benefit all in developing paths for future research and data analysis expected of academia and of improving public safety and responsiveness of government.

  8. Health hazards associated with laundry detergent pods - United States, May-June 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    During May and early June 2012, the Carolinas Poison Center and the Poison Control Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia received four reports of children with vomiting, mental status changes, and respiratory distress after ingesting the contents of laundry detergent pods. Laundry detergent pods are single-load capsules that contain concentrated liquid detergent within a water-soluble membrane that dissolves when in contact with moisture. Laundry detergent pods were introduced in the U.S. market in 2010, and multiple manufacturers now sell laundry detergent packaged in pods (2-4). On May 17, 2012, CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) began tracking and characterizing reported exposures to laundry detergent from pods. During May 17-June 17, 2012, poison centers reported 1,008 laundry detergent exposures to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), of which 485 (48%) exposures involved laundry detergent pods. Age was recorded for 481 exposures, of which 454 (94%) exposures involved children aged ≤5 years. Among children aged ≤5 years, a significantly greater proportion of those exposed to laundry detergent from pods had gastrointestinal and respiratory adverse health effects and mental status changes compared with those with non-pod laundry detergent exposures. Parents and caregivers should keep laundry detergent pods, as well as other household cleaning products, out of reach and out of sight of children. Health-care providers should be aware that exposure to laundry detergent from pods might be associated with adverse health effects more often than exposure to non-pod laundry detergents.

  9. iPod: un mundo sonoro personalizado para sus consumidores iPod: a Personalized Sound World for its Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bull

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Por primera vez desde el nacimiento de la cultura industrializada, más de la mitad de la población es capaz de personalizar cualquier parte de su entorno gracias a un reproductor de MP3 o a través de un teléfono móvil. El consumo de sonidos mediados tecnológicamente durante los siglos XX y XXI representa una forma cada vez más importante de «estar-en-el-mundo»; el «yo» reclama un territorio sonoro móvil a través de una especie de «compuerta sensorial» que le permite filtrar los sonidos que no le interesan y crear el paisaje sonoro que más le satisface. El placer sin límites que supone crear un mundo sonoro móvil de carácter privado plantea, para la teoría urbana y cultural, un conjunto de problemas teóricos que tienen que ver con la relación con los espacios en los que nos movemos, la naturaleza y el significado del espacio público y privado, el potencial de la estetización de lo urbano, y la incomunicación de la ciudad. También cuestiona el conocimiento de las tecnologías que se usan para mediatizar gran parte de la experiencia cotidiana. En este artículo se analiza el uso del iPod como soporte tecnológico para los consumidores. Se basa en las respuestas de más de un millar de usuarios entre 2004-05. Plantea que el uso del iPod puede ser interpretado positivamente si se considera como una forma de toxicidad placentera en la que bajo el mundo «totalmente mediatizado» de los usuarios subyace un anhelo de experiencia no mediatizada –de acceso directo al mundo y a las emociones de cada uno.For the first time in industrialised culture, over fifty percent of the population possesses the ability to privatise whatever environment they might be in through the use of a dedicated MP3 player or through a mobile phone with MP3 capabilities. The consumption of technologically mediated sound in the 20th and 21st centuries represents an increasingly significant mode of ‘being-in-theworld’ in which the ‘self’ claims a

  10. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-07

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A (13)Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ(13)C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated (13)C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf.

  11. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A 13Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ13C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated 13C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf. PMID:28169330

  12. PoD: dynamically create and use remote PROOF clusters. A thin client concept.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    PoD’s newly developed “pod-remote” command made it possible for users to utilize a thin client concept. In order to create dynamic PROOF clusters, users are now able to select a remote computer, even behind a firewall, to control a PoD server on...

  13. Providing Faculty iPods to Explore Innovative Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jace; Jensen, Scott; Kohn, Carolynn; Normand, Matthew; Schooler, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    The iPod digital music player has been available since late 2001, and even in higher education, its presence has been seen, although mostly in the hands of students and rarely for outcomes-based educational purposes. In 2004, Duke University provided free iPods to all 1,650 first year students, which subsequently enabled faculty to create learning…

  14. Teaching Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability ATM Use via the "iPod"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Renee; Collins, Belva; Knight, Victoria; Kleinert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Money management can increase independence and access to communities for individuals with disabilities. Although research on computer-based instruction for teaching banking skills to students with intellectual disability is established, the use of portable electronic devices (e.g., iPod) has not been evaluated. iPods may be an effective, portable,…

  15. Effect of climate variables on cocoa black pod incidence in Sabah using ARIMAX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Sheng Chang, Albert; Ramba, Haya; Mohd. Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil; Kim Phin, Chong; Chong Mun, Ho

    2016-06-01

    Cocoa black pod disease is one of the major diseases affecting the cocoa production in Malaysia and also around the world. Studies have shown that the climate variables have influenced the cocoa black pod disease incidence and it is important to quantify the black pod disease variation due to the effect of climate variables. Application of time series analysis especially auto-regressive moving average (ARIMA) model has been widely used in economics study and can be used to quantify the effect of climate variables on black pod incidence to forecast the right time to control the incidence. However, ARIMA model does not capture some turning points in cocoa black pod incidence. In order to improve forecasting performance, other explanatory variables such as climate variables should be included into ARIMA model as ARIMAX model. Therefore, this paper is to study the effect of climate variables on the cocoa black pod disease incidence using ARIMAX model. The findings of the study showed ARIMAX model using MA(1) and relative humidity at lag 7 days, RHt - 7 gave better R square value compared to ARIMA model using MA(1) which could be used to forecast the black pod incidence to assist the farmers determine timely application of fungicide spraying and culture practices to control the black pod incidence.

  16. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at thi

  17. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at

  18. Exercising with an iPod, Friend, or Neither: Which Is Better for Psychological Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G.; Gustafson, Carissa; Brecht, Carrie; Imberi, Jenny; Sanchez, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of music and social contact on exercise benefits. Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine (n229) students were randomly assigned to one of 6 conditions: biking alone with iPod or friend in a laboratory, walking alone with iPod or friend outdoors, or biking or walking alone in control conditions. All participants completed…

  19. Numerical investigation of yaw angle effects on propulsive characteristics of podded propulsors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shamsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the problems of yaw angle effects on podded propulsor performance. The study aims at providing insights on characteristics of podded propulsors in azimuthing condition. In this regard, a wide numerical simulation that concerned yaw angle effect measurement on podded propeller performance was performed. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS based solver is used in order to study the variations of hydrodynamic characteristics of podded propulsor at various angles. At first, the propeller is analyzed in open water condition in absence of pod and strut. Next flow around pod and strut are simulated without effect of propellers. Finally, the whole unit is studied in zero yaw angle and azimuthing condition. Structured and unstructured mesh techniques are used for single propeller and podded propulsor. The performance curves of the propeller obtained by numerical method are compared and verified by the experimental results. The characteristic parameters including the torque and thrust of the propeller, the axial force and side force of unit are presented as function of velocity advance ratio and yaw angle. The results shows that the propeller thrust, torque and podded unit forces in azimuthing condition depend on velocity advance ratio and yaw angle.

  20. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  1. Fine phenotyping of pod and seed traits in Arachis germplasm accessions using digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable and objective phenotyping of peanut pod and seed traits is important for cultivar selection and genetic mapping of yield components. To develop useful and efficient methods to quantitatively define peanut pod and seed traits, a group of peanut germplasm with high levels of phenotypic varia...

  2. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of pod and seed extract ofCrotalaria incana L. subsp. purpurscens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathewos Anza; Habtamu Gelaw

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate various phytochemical constituents present in pod and seed of Crotalaria incanaL. (C. incana). Methods:A number of phytochemical tests were applied to identify the class of compounds in the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incana. Results: Phytochemical screening of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incanasubsp.purpurscens revealed that the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and stroids. Conclusions: The present work conducted on the CH2Cl2:CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract of C. incana identified various classes of compounds present on the pod and seed extract.

  3. Comparison of the Bod Pod and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen D; Altena, Thomas S

    2004-06-01

    The majority of studies investigating the accuracy of the Bod Pod have compared it to hydrostatic weighing (HW), the long held, and perhaps outdated 'gold standard' method of body composition analysis. Much less research has compared the Bod Pod to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a technique that is becoming popular as an alternative reference method. The purpose of this study was to compare per cent fat estimates by the Bod Pod to those of DXA in a large number of men. Participants were 160 men (32 +/- 11 years). Per cent body fat was estimated to be 19.4 +/- 6.8 and 21.6 +/- 8.4 for DXA and the Bod Pod, respectively. Although the two methods were highly correlated (0.94), the mean difference of 2.2% was significant (p Bod Pod, DXA), differences between methods exist and the determination of body composition is at best, an estimation.

  4. Analysis of flow structures in supersonic plane mixing layers using the POD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qin; FU Song

    2008-01-01

    The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method was applied to analyzing the database obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of supersonic plane mixing layers. The effect of different forms of the inner products in the POD method was investigated. It was observed that the mean flow contributes to a predominant part of the total flow energy, and the energy spectrum of the turbulence fluctuations covers a wide range of POD modes. The patterns of leading (high energy) POD modes reveal that the flow structures exhibit spanwise counter rotating rolls, as well as oblique vortices. These flow patterns are insensitive to the velocity of the observer. As the convective Mach number increases, the energy spectrum be-comes wider, the leading POD modes contain more complicated structures, and the flow becomes more chaotic.

  5. Analysis of flow structures in supersonic plane mixing layers using the POD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) method was applied to analyzing the database obtained from the direct numerical simulation(DNS) of supersonic plane mixing layers.The effect of different forms of the inner products in the POD method was investigated.It was observed that the mean flow contributes to a predominant part of the total flow energy,and the energy spectrum of the turbulence fluctuations covers a wide range of POD modes.The patterns of leading(high energy) POD modes reveal that the flow structures exhibit spanwise counter rotating rolls,as well as oblique vortices.These flow patterns are insensitive to the velocity of the observer.As the convective Mach number increases,the energy spectrum be-comes wider,the leading POD modes contain more complicated structures,and the flow becomes more chaotic.

  6. Phytochemical assessments of Astragalus hamosus pods (Iklil-ul-Malik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Hamedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Authentication and quality control of herbs in herbal markets is an important challenge for practitioners and food and drug organizations. Rapid and simple pharmacognostic evaluations are beneficial to overcome this problem. On the other hand, there is a mist about the scientific names of some of these herbs even in scientific literatures. Iklil-ul-Malik or Astragalus hamosus L. (Papilionaceae is one of these medicinal plants.Pharmacognostic (macroscopic, microscopic and phytochemical properties of Iklil-ul-Malik pods were investigated. Different ash and extractive values were determined. The HPTLC finger prints of the herbs’ fractions were prepared, using different reagents and mobile phases. The fatty acids, steroids, alkene and terpenoids of the pods were investigated by GC-MS analysis. Soluble fatty acid and soluble sugar content were determined by spectroscopic methods. Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash were determined to be 75.00±11.83, 8.33±2.89 and 40.00±5.00 mg/g respectively. The extractive values for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions were 0.77%, 0.16% and 0.49% (w/w. Free amino acid and soluble sugar contents were respectively 3.33±0.001 and 8.83±0.004 (w/w %. Polyphenols, triterpenes, glycosides and glycolipids were detected in different fractions. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (48.64%, linolenic acids (25.35%, lauric acid (8.12% and stearic acid (6.38%. By presenting the pharmacognostic values and HPTLC fingerprints in this manuscript, the herb can be authenticated.

  7. A numerical study of scale effects on performance of a tractor type podded propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scale effect on the performance of the podded propeller of tractor type is investigated. Turbulent flow computations are carried out for Reynolds numbers increasing progressively from model scale to full scale using the CFD analysis. The result of the flow calculation for model scale Reynolds numbers agrees well with that of the experiment of a large cavitation tunnel. The existing numerical analysis indicates that the performance of the podded propeller blades is mainly influenced by the advance coefficient and relatively little by the Reynolds number. However, the drag of pod housing with propeller in operation is different from that of pod housing without propeller due to the acceleration and swirl of propeller slipstream which is altered by propeller loading as well as the pressure recovery and friction according to Reynolds number, which suggests that the pod housing drag under the condition of propeller in operation is the key factor of the scale effect on the performance between model and full scale podded propellers. The so called ‘drag ratio’, which is the ratio of pod housing drag to total thrust of podded propeller, increases as the advance coefficient increases due to accelerated flow in the slipstream of the podded propeller. However, the increasing rate of the drag ratio reduces continuously as the Reynolds number increases from model to full scale progressively. The contribution of hydrodynamic forces, which acts on the parts composed of the pod housing with propeller operating in various loading conditions, to the thrust and the torque of the total propeller unit are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers from model to full scales.

  8. A Comprehensive Phenotypic Investigation of the "Pod-Shattering Syndrome" in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Maria L; Attene, Giovanna; Rodriguez, Monica; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Fois, Davide; Nanni, Laura; Gioia, Tania; Albani, Diego M; Papa, Roberto; Rau, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves. The pipeline was developed based on the assumption that the shattering trait itself can be treated in principle as a "syndrome" (i.e., a set of correlated different traits) at the pod level. We characterized a population of 267 introgression lines that were developed ad-hoc to study shattering in common bean. Three main objectives were sought: (1) to dissect the shattering trait into its "components," of level (percentage of shattering pods per plant) and mode (percentage of pods with twisting or non-twisting valves); (2) to test whether shattering is associated to the chemical composition and/or the histological characteristics of the pod valves; and (3) to test the associations between shattering and other plant traits. We can conclude the following: Very high shattering levels can be achieved in different modes; shattering resistance is mainly a qualitative trait; and high shattering levels is correlated with high carbon and lignin contents of the pod valves and with specific histological charaterstics of the ventral sheath and the inner fibrous layer of the pod wall. Our data also suggest that shattering comes with a "cost," as it is associated with low pod size, low seed weight per pod, high pod weight, and low seed to pod-valves ratio; indeed, it can be more exaustively described as a syndrome at the pod level. Our work suggests that the valve chemical composition (i.e., carbon and lignin content) can be used for a high troughput phenotyping

  9. A Comprehensive Phenotypic Investigation of the “Pod-Shattering Syndrome” in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Maria L.; Attene, Giovanna; Rodriguez, Monica; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Fois, Davide; Nanni, Laura; Gioia, Tania; Albani, Diego M.; Papa, Roberto; Rau, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves. The pipeline was developed based on the assumption that the shattering trait itself can be treated in principle as a “syndrome” (i.e., a set of correlated different traits) at the pod level. We characterized a population of 267 introgression lines that were developed ad-hoc to study shattering in common bean. Three main objectives were sought: (1) to dissect the shattering trait into its “components,” of level (percentage of shattering pods per plant) and mode (percentage of pods with twisting or non-twisting valves); (2) to test whether shattering is associated to the chemical composition and/or the histological characteristics of the pod valves; and (3) to test the associations between shattering and other plant traits. We can conclude the following: Very high shattering levels can be achieved in different modes; shattering resistance is mainly a qualitative trait; and high shattering levels is correlated with high carbon and lignin contents of the pod valves and with specific histological charaterstics of the ventral sheath and the inner fibrous layer of the pod wall. Our data also suggest that shattering comes with a “cost,” as it is associated with low pod size, low seed weight per pod, high pod weight, and low seed to pod-valves ratio; indeed, it can be more exaustively described as a syndrome at the pod level. Our work suggests that the valve chemical composition (i.e., carbon and lignin content) can be used for a high troughput

  10. Response of Boron and Light on Morph-Physiology and Pod Yield of Two Peanut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Quamruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an important micronutrient that enhances vegetative growth and yield of crops, like peanut. Light also plays an important role in pegging of peanut. There has been little information regarding the application of boron and light in peanut in Bangladesh. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to study the response of boron and light on morph-physiology and pod yield of two peanut varieties. Treatments considered two peanut varieties, namely, Dhaka-1 and BARI Chinabadam-8, three levels of boron (B, namely, 0-kg B ha−1 (B0, 1-kg B ha−1 (B1, and 2-kg B ha−1 (B2, and two levels of light, namely, normal day light (≈12 h light and normal day light + 6 h extended red light at night (≈18 h light. Result revealed that days to first-last emergence and days to first-50% flowering took shorter times and vegetative growth, pods dry weight plant−1, pod yield, and germination were markedly increased with the application of boron. Vegetative growth and germinations were significantly increased in light, but the lowest leaf area, pods dry weight plant−1, and pod yield were found in light. Without germination, the highest vegetative growth, reproductive unit, and pod yield were observed from BARI Chinabadam-8. Days to first-last emergence, days to first-50% flowering, and number of branches plant−1 were found linearly related to pod yield.

  11. Surrogate POD models for building forming limit diagrams of parameterized sheet metal forming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, M.; Le Quilliec, Guénhaël; Breitkopf, Piotr; Villon, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a surrogate POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) approach for building forming limit diagrams at minimum cost for parameterized sheet metal formed work-pieces. First, a Latin Hypercube Sampling is performed on the design parameter space. Then, at each design site, displacement fields are computed using the popular open-source finite element software Code_Aster. Then, the method of snapshots is used for POD mode determination. POD coefficients are interpolated using kriging. Furthermore, an error analysis of the surrogate POD model is performed on a validation set. It is shown that on the considered use case the accuracy of the surrogate POD model is excellent for the representation of finite element displacement fields. The validated surrogate POD model is then used to build forming limit diagrams (FLD) for any design parameter to assess the quality of stamped metal sheets. Using the surrogate POD model, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor is derived, then major and minor principal deformations are determined at Gauss points for each mesh element. Furthermore, a signed distance between the forming limit curve in rupture and the obtained cloud of points in the plane (ɛ2, ɛ1) is computed to assess the quality of the formed workpiece. The minimization of this signed distance allows determining the safest design for the chosen use case.

  12. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subair, S. Mohamed; Agrawal, Shweta; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar

    2015-03-01

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  13. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ying; Huang, Fong-Chin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Mayershofer, Mechthild; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and a peroxidase (POD27) gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS(-)), independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR. FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS(-)/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  14. Identification of Soybean Resistance to Pod Sucking Bug (Riptortus linearis by No-Choice Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Krisnawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean pod damaged by pod sucking bug (Riptortus linearis is one of the constraint within soybean yield improvement in Indonesia. The research aimed was to identify the resistance of soybean genotypes to pod sucking pest. The experiment was conducted in Iletri’s screen house from March to June 2015. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design using 10 soybean genotypes with three replicates. The soybean resistance was evaluated using no-choice test. Data collected on number of pod/plant, number of seed/plant, seed weight per plant, number of attacked pod/plant, and number of attacked seed/plant. The result showed that the lowest percentage both of pod and seed damage was G511H/Anjasmoro//Anjasmoro-2-8, that was 25.83 % and 19.12 %, respectively. Based on the value of the percentage of seed damage, there were five susceptible genotypes, three moderately resistant, and two resistant genotypes. Based on the value of the percentage of pod damage, showed four susceptible genotypes, five moderately resistant, and a resistant genotype. G511H/Anjasmoro//Anjasmoro-2-8 was the only resistant genotype, and it could be used as a genetic source in the improvement of soybean resistance to pod sucking bug.How to CiteKrisnawati, A., Bayu, M. S. Y. I. & Adie, M. M. (2016. Identification of Soybean Resistance to Pod Sucking Bug (Riptortus linearis by No-Choice Test. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 407-414. 

  15. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  16. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  17. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Cojocaru; Silviu Cojocaru

    2014-01-01

    In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was ...

  18. A REDUCED MFE FORMULATION BASED ON POD FOR THE NON-STATIONARY CONDUCTION-CONVECTION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhendong; Xie Zhenghui; Chen Jing

    2011-01-01

    In this article,a reduced mixed finite element (MFE) formulation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for the non-stationary conduction-convection problems is presented.Also the error estimates between the reduced MFE solutions based on POD and usual MFE solutions are derived.It is shown by numerical examples that the results of numerical computation are consistent with theoretical conclusions.Moreover,it is shown that the reduced MFE formulation based on POD is feasible and efficient in finding numerical solutions for the non-stationary conduction-convection problems.

  19. Application of Model-Assisted Pod Using a Transfer Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.; Bowles, S. J.

    2009-03-01

    A transfer function approach to model-assisted probability of detection (POD) has been applied to the detection of fatigue cracks at fastener holes. The model uses data obtained from field trials and laboratory experiments and takes into account the effects of structural geometry, the natural variability in fatigue cracks and human factors in the inspection process. A fully representative POD trial was not feasible for this inspection procedure, and so this application provides an important real-world context for the development of model-assisted POD.

  20. System structural test results - Six PODS III supports. [Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmley, Richard T.; Kittel, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Passive orbital disconnect struts can potentially reduce the support conductance a factor of 10 over state-of-the-art tension band nondisconnect supports and cut helium dewar weights in half for the same lifetime. A series of thermal and structural tests were performed to verify that this performance improvement is real. Structural tests on a PODS-III support system (consisting of six struts) is reported here. The results show the predicted performance improvements can be achieved and the PODS-III supports are ready for flight applications. For large tankage systems requiring higher side load capability, a PODS-IV version is currently being developed.

  1. Probability of Detection (POD) as a statistical model for the validation of qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Paul; LaBudde, Robert A; Brunelle, Sharon L; Nelson, Maria T

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model is presented for use in validation of qualitative methods. This model, termed Probability of Detection (POD), harmonizes the statistical concepts and parameters between quantitative and qualitative method validation. POD characterizes method response with respect to concentration as a continuous variable. The POD model provides a tool for graphical representation of response curves for qualitative methods. In addition, the model allows comparisons between candidate and reference methods, and provides calculations of repeatability, reproducibility, and laboratory effects from collaborative study data. Single laboratory study and collaborative study examples are given.

  2. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  3. Trauma Pod: A Semi-Automated Robotic Surgery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Garcia, Pablo [SRI International; Rosen, Jacob [University of Washington; Kapoor, Chetan [University of Texas; Elbert, Greg [GDRS

    2009-01-01

    The Trauma Pod (TP) vision is to develop a rapidly deployable robotic system to perform critical acute stabilization and/or surgical procedures autonomously or in a teleoperative mode on wounded soldiers in the battlefield who might otherwise die before treatment in a combat hospital can be provided. In the first phase of a project pursuing this vision, a robotic TP system was developed and its capability demonstrated by performing select surgical procedures on a patient phantom. The system demonstrates the feasibility of performing acute stabilization procedures with the patient being the only human in the surgical cell. The teleoperated surgical robot is supported by autonomous arms that carry out scrub-nurse and circulating-nurse functions. Tool change and supply delivery are performed automatically and at least as fast as those performed manually by nurses. The TP system also includes tomographic X-ray facility for patient diagnosis and 2-D fluoroscopic data to support interventions. The vast amount of clinical protocols generated in the TP system are recorded automatically. These capabilities form the basis for a more comprehensive acute diagnostic and management platform that will provide life-saving care in environments where surgical personnel are not present.

  4. Towards a Simplified DynamicWake Model Using POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a modified proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to large eddy simulation data of a wind turbine wake in a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. Our analysis mainly focuses on the pragmatic identification of spatial modes, which yields a low order description of the wake flow. This reduction to a few degrees of freedom is a crucial first step for the development of simplified dynamic wake models based on modal decompositions. It is shown that only a few modes are necessary to capture the basic dynamical aspects of quantities that are relevant to a turbine in the wake flow. Furthermore, we show that the importance of the individual modes depends on the relevant quantity chosen. Therefore, the optimal choice of modes for a possible model could in principle depend on the application of interest. We additionally present a possible interpretation of the extracted modes by relating them to the specific properties of the wake. For example, the first mode is related to the horizontal large-scale movement.

  5. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul. L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. C. Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE as well as a partially purified fraction (F80 obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD50 for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  6. A REDUCED-ORDER MFE FORMULATION BASED ON POD METHOD FOR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong LUO; Lei LI; Ping SUN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the applications of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method, i.e., apply POD method to a mixed finite element (MFE) formulation naturally satisfied Brezz-Babu˘ska for parabolic equations, establish a reduced-order MFE formulation with lower dimensions and sufficiently high accuracy, and provide the error estimates between the reduced-order POD MFE solutions and the classical MFE solutions and the implementation of algorithm for solving reduced-order MFE formulation. Some numerical examples illustrate the fact that the results of numerical computation are consis-tent with theoretical conclusions. Moreover, it is shown that the new reduced-order MFE formulation based on POD method is feasible and efficient for solving MFE formulation for parabolic equations.

  7. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere.

  8. Test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod: the effect of multiple assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Lecheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2014-04-01

    The Bod Pod uses air-displacement plethysmography to estimate body fat percentage (BF%). This study was designed to assess the test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod. The study included 283 women (M age = 41.0 yr., SD = 3.0). Each participant was tested at least twice in the Bod Pod. Results showed no significant mean difference between the test and the retest. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .991. However, the absolute value of the initial trial differences (absolute mean difference) was .96 (SD = .90). A third assessment of BF% was taken when the initial trial difference was greater than 1 percentage point, and the two closest values were compared. This strategy resulted in a significant decrease in the absolute mean difference, from .96 to .55 percentage point, and ICC increased to .998. The Bod Pod appears to measure body fat percentage reliably; however, findings suggest that multiple trials may be necessary to detect small treatment effects.

  9. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  10. Reliability and validity of the lung volume measurement made by the BOD POD body composition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James A; Dorado, Silvia; Keays, Kathleen A; Reigel, Kimberly A; Valencia, Kristoffer S; Pham, Patrick H

    2007-01-01

    The BOD POD Body Composition System uses air-displacement plethysmography to measure body volume. To correct the body volume measurement for the subject's lung volume, the BOD POD utilizes pulmonary plethysmography to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) at mid-exhalation as that is the subject's lung volume during the body volume measurement. Normally, FRC is measured at end-exhalation. The BOD POD FRC measurement can be corrected to an end-exhalation volume by subtracting approximately one-half of the measured tidal volume. Our purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of the BOD POD FRC measurement at end-exhalation. Ninety-two healthy adults (half female) underwent duplicate FRC measurements by the BOD POD and one FRC measurement by a traditional gas dilution technique. The latter method was used as the reference method for the validity component of the study. The order of the FRC measurements by the two methods was randomized. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the duplicate BOD POD FRC measurements for the male and female subjects were 0.966 and 0.948, respectively. The mean differences between the BOD POD FRC trial #1 measurement and gas dilution FRC measurement for the male and female subjects were -32 and -23 ml, respectively. Neither difference was statistically significant. The correlation coefficients for these two measurements in the male and female subjects were 0.925 and 0.917, respectively. Based on these results, we conclude that the BOD POD FRC measurement in healthy males and females is both reliable and valid.

  11. Model-Assisted POD for Ultrasonic Detection of Cracks at Fastener Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.; Bowles, S. J.

    2006-03-01

    To reduce the cost of conducting experimental probability of detection (POD) trials, methods which utilize models to account for factors that influence the inspection reliability are being developed. This paper reports the application of POD modeling to ultrasonic detection of cracks emanating from fastener holes. The differences between ultrasonic responses from EDM notches compared to fatigue cracks are examined, including the effects of natural variation in fatigue cracks and crack closure due to residual stresses.

  12. STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, OMS pod leak repair at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Rockwell manufacturing engineering specialist Claude Willis (left) and Rockwell manufacturing supervisor George Gallagher begin installation of a 'clamshell' device in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod reaction control system (RCS) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gallagher performed the OMS pod nitric acid oxidizer leak repair operation using the two newly cut access ports in the Orbiter's aft bulkhead.

  13. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies.

  14. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  15. Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Lahiri, Kajari; Bharati, Ghosh

    2002-08-01

    Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

  16. NILAI CERNA DAN BIODEGRADASI THEOBROMIN POD KAKAO DENGAN PERLAKUAN FERMENTASI MENGGUNAKAN INOKULUM MULTI MIKROBIA (Digestibility Value and Theobromine Biodegradation of Cocoa Pod with Treatment of Fermentation Using Multi Microbial Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulandari

    2014-07-01

    SBP terhadap nilai cerna serat dan biodegradasi theobromin. Pod kakao difermentasi dalam kondisi anaerob pada suhu ruang. Kadar inokulum yang ditambahkan adalah 0; 0,05; dan 0,1 %. Selama fermentasi dilakukan pengambilan sampel pada hari ke-0, 3, dan 6 untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan bakteri selama fermentasi pod kakao, perubahan pH, perubahan nilai cerna, dan degradasi theobromin selama fermentasi, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan isolasi bakteri untuk mengetahui karakteristik isolat bakteri dari pod kakao terfermentasi dengan cara isolat yang diperoleh diuji kemampuannya dalam menghasilkan enzim selulase (CMC-ase dan β-glukoseidase dan kemampuannya dalam mendegradasi theobromin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selama fermentasi pod kakao terjadi kenaikan populasi bakteri asam laktat dan bakteri total, penurunan pH, kenaikan nilai cerna serat, dan penurunan kandungan theobromin dalam pod kakao. Perubahan parameter tersebut lebih nyata terjadi pada pod kakao yang difermentasi dengan kadar air 40% dan diinokulasi dengan SBP® dosis 0,05% dengan lama fermentasi 6 hari. Penurunan theobromin pada pod kakao fermentasi terbesar mencapai 17,02%. Kenaikan nilai cerna serat dan penurunan kandungan theobromin selama fermentasi pod kakao oleh inokulan SBP dikonfirmasi dengan karakteristik isolat-isolat bakteri yang diperoleh dari pod kakao yang terfermentasi. Ada 8 isolat bakteri yang mampu menghasilkan enzim CMC-ase dan β-glukosidase dengan tingkat produksi yang berbeda-beda. Beberapa isolat bakteri juga mampu menurunkan kandungan theobromin dalam kultur cair sampai sebesar 27,07%. Kata kunci: Pod kakao, theobromin, nilai cerna serat, selulase

  17. Mesquite pod meal in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects inclusion of 0%, 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% natural matter (NM of mesquite pod meal (MPM, in substitution of corn, on the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of lactating Saanen goats. The forage:concentrate ratio in the diet was 40:60, using elephant grass silage as a forage source. Eight adult lactating goats with about 60 days in milk and weighting 50 kg were divided into two 4 × 4 latin squares and four 17-day experimental periods. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrient (TDN intakes were not influenced by MPM levels. Ether extract (0.51; 0.34; 0.36; 0.20 kg/day and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC (0.54; 0.53; 0.49; 0.36 kg/day intakes showed a linear effect with increased MPM. Organic matter (OM and NDF intakes presented a quadratic behavior. The maximum OM intake was estimated with the replacement of 40.5%. The maximum estimated intakes for NDF were 0.665 kg/day and 14.8 g/kg body weight, with a replacement close to 60%. Nutrient digestibility coefficients and TDN levels (655.0 g/kg were not affected, except for NFC. The time spent eating, ruminating and idle was not influenced by the addition of MPM. The feeding rate of DM had a linear decrease which reflected the intake restriction. Corn replacement with MPM should not exceed 40.5%, although its total replacement does not interfere with the intake of DM, CP and TDN on the apparent digestibility of nutrients and most ingestive behavior parameters.

  18. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod induce similar reactions when infecting pods of a susceptible cacao genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao. Of these two clade 4 species; Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal on cacao in many cacao production areas in Africa. To understand the advantages Pmeg has over Ppal, we compared symptom...

  19. Mesquite pod extract modifies the reproductive physiology and behavior of the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Aguirre, F García; Alcántara, M; García-Díaz, E; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Arteaga-Silva, M; López, G; Romero, C; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2012-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are non steroidal compounds that can bind to estrogen receptors, mimicking some effects of estradiol (E(2)). These compounds are widespread among legumes, which are used as pasture, and their importance in animal agriculture has increased. Mesquite (Prosopis sp) is a widespread legume, widely used to feed several livestock species in Mexico. The main product of mesquite is the pod, which is considered high quality food. As a legume, it could be assumed that mesquite contains some amounts of phytoestrogens which might induce potential estrogenic effects. However, to our knowledge, there are no reports regarding the possible estrogenic activity of this legume either in livestock or in animal models such as the rat. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the potential estrogenic effects of mesquite pod extract on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the female rat. The effects of the extract were compared with those of E(2) and two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; E(2); GEN; DAI. Compared to vehicle groups, mesquite pod extract, DAI, GEN, and E(2) increased uterine weight and induced growth in vaginal and uterine epithelia. In intact rats, mesquite pod extract, GEN and DAI altered estrous cyclicity, decreased lordotic quotient and intensity of lordosis. In OVX rats, mesquite pod extract, DAI and GEN induced vaginal estrus, increased vaginal epithelium height, and induced lordosis, although its intensity was reduced, compared with intact rats in estrus and E2-treated rats. These results suggest that mesquite pod extract could have estrogenic activity. However, the presence of phytoestrogens in this legume remains to be confirmed.

  20. Dynamic PROOF clusters with PoD: architecture and user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafov, Anar

    2011-12-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a tool-set, which sets up a PROOF cluster on any resource management system. PoD is a user oriented product with an easy to use GUI and a command-line interface. It is fully automated. No administrative privileges or special knowledge is required to use it. PoD utilizes a plug-in system, to use different job submission front-ends. The current PoD distribution is shipped with LSF, Torque (PBS), Grid Engine, Condor, gLite, and SSH plug-ins. The product is to be extended. We therefore plan to implement a plug-in for AliEn Grid as well. Recently developed algorithms made it possible to efficiently maintain two types of connections: packet-forwarding and native PROOF connections. This helps to properly handle most kinds of workers, with and without firewalls. PoD maintains the PROOF environment automatically and, for example, prevents resource misusage in case when workers idle for too long. As PoD matures as a product and provides more plug-ins, it's used as a standard for setting up dynamic PROOF clusters in many different institutions. The GSI Analysis Facility (GSIAF) is in production since 2007. The static PROOF cluster has been phased out end of 2009. GSIAF is now completely based on PoD. Users create private dynamic PROOF clusters on the general purpose batch farm. This provides an easier resource sharing between interactive local batch and Grid usage. The main user communities are FAIR and ALICE.

  1. The iPod Experiments: Michael Stephens Investigates Ways that Librarians Are Using This Popular Consumer Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michael

    2005-01-01

    No other consumer electronic device has created such an impact on popular culture in recent years as the Apple iPod. Since iPod's release in November 2001, music fans have been able to carry upwards of 15,000 song files on those sleek devices with their trendy white headphones. Over ten million iPods have been sold--nearly half of them in the last…

  2. Spatial characterization of vortical structures and internal waves in stratified turbulent wake using POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamessis, P.; Gurka, R.; Liberzon, A.

    2008-11-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to 2-D slices of vorticity and horizontal divergence obtained from the 3-D DNS of the stratified turbulent wake of a towed sphere at Re=5x10^3 and Fr=4. Slices are sampled along the stream-depth (Oxz) and stream-span planes (Oxy) at 231 times during the interval Nt[12,35]. POD was chosen amongst the available statistical tools due to its advantage in characterization of simulated and experimentally measured velocity gradient fields, as previously demonstrated for turbulent boundary layers. In the Oxz planes, at the wake centerline, the higher most energetic modes reveal a structure similar of the structure of late-time stratified wakes. Off-set from centerline, the signature of internal waves in the form of forward-inclined coherent beams extending into the ambient becomes evident. The angle of inclination becomes progressively vertical with increasing POD mode. Lower POD modes on the Oyz planes show a layered structure in the wake core with coherent beams radiating out into the ambient over a broad range of angles. Further insight is provided through the relative energy spectra distribution of the vorticity eigenmodes. POD analysis has provided a statistical description of the geometrical features previously observed in instantaneous flow fields of stratified turbulent wakes.

  3. Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Lozano, L.J.; Godinez, C.; Juan, D.; Perez, A.; Hernandez, F.J. [Technical University of Cartagena, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, C/Dr. Fleming S/N, Campus Muralla del Mar, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing interest worldwide to find out new and cheap carbohydrate sources for production of bioethanol. In this context, carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) is proposed as an economical source for bioethanol production, especially, in arid regions. The carob tree is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods and it is currently being reemphasised as an alternative in dryland areas, because no carbon-enriched lands are necessary. In this work, the global process of ethanol production from carob pod was studied. In a first stage, aqueous extraction of sugars from the pod was conducted, achieving very high yields (>99%) in a short period of time. The process was followed by acid or alkaline hydrolysis of washed pod at different operating conditions, the best results (R = 38.20%) being reached with sulphuric acid (2% v/v) at 90 C, using a L/S (liquid/solid) ratio of 7.5 and shaking at 700 rpm for 420 min. After that, fermentation of hydrolysates were tested at 30 C, 125 rpm, 200 g/L of sugars and 15 g/L of yeast with three different kinds of yeasts. In these conditions a maximum of 95 g/L of ethanol was obtained after 24 h. Finally, the distillation and dehydration of water-bioethanol mixtures was analyzed using the chemical process simulation software CHEMCAD with the aim of estimate the energy requirements of the process. (author)

  4. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  5. M-learning education trends are popular in Students through iPod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Jamal Mohammad Aqib

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines popularity of i-pod mobile phones which has been increased in the whole world especially in Saudi Arabia. Most of the students are dependent on mobile phone and I-pod is too much popularin new generation. In my preliminary research we found students were more willing to come to school, did more homework and used their iPod’s more than laptops or desktop computers. Students expect a learning environment that accommodates a mobile lifestyle, integrates today’s digital tools, adapts to individual learning style & encourages collaboration & team work. Every student is more comfortable to learn lectures at home or workplace through i-pod mobile phones like Samsung galaxy, PDA’s and many more. These devices provides mobilized environment and have lead to the development of a new field of research which is known as mlearning. This paper highlights the uses of i-pod in our education system and evaluates the strength and limitations of m-learning using i-pod.

  6. Green bean biofortification for Si through soilless cultivation: plant response and Si bioaccessibility in pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Francesco Fabiano; D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Parente, Angelo; Cardinali, Angela; Renna, Massimiliano; Serio, Francesco

    2016-08-17

    Food plants biofortification for micronutrients is a tool for the nutritional value improvement of food. Soilless cultivation systems, with the optimal control of plant nutrition, represent a potential effective technique to increase the beneficial element content in plant tissues. Silicon (Si), which proper intake is recently recommended for its beneficial effects on bone health, presents good absorption in intestinal tract from green bean, a high-value vegetable crop. In this study we aimed to obtain Si biofortified green bean pods by using a Si-enriched nutrient solution in soilless system conditions, and to assess the influence of boiling and steaming cooking methods on Si content, color parameters and Si bioaccessibility (by using an in vitro digestion process) of pods. The Si concentration of pods was almost tripled as a result of the biofortification process, while the overall crop performance was not negatively influenced. The Si content of biofortified pods was higher than unbiofortified also after cooking, despite the cooking method used. Silicon bioaccessibility in cooked pods was more than tripled as a result of biofortification, while the process did not affect the visual quality of the product. Our results demonstrated that soilless cultivation can be successfully used for green bean Si biofortification.

  7. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  8. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  9. Process design and economic analysis of a hypothetical bioethanol production plant using carob pod as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Segado, S; Lozano, L J; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Godínez, C; Juan, D

    2012-01-01

    A process for the production of ethanol from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods was designed and an economic analysis was carried out for a hypothetical plant. The plant was assumed to perform an aqueous extraction of sugars from the pods followed by fermentation and distillation to produce ethanol. The total fixed capital investment for a base case process with a capacity to transform 68,000 t/year carob pod was calculated as 39.61 millon euros (€) with a minimum bioethanol production cost of 0.51 €/L and an internal rate of return of 7%. The plant was found to be profitable at carob pod prices lower than 0.188 €/kg. An increase in the transformation capacity of the plant from 33,880 to 135,450 t/year was calculated to result in an increase in the internal rate of return from 5.50% to 13.61%. The obtained results show that carob pod is a promising alternative source for bioethanol production.

  10. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  11. PREDICTION OF PODDED PROPELLER CAVITATION USING AN UNSTEADY SURFACE PANEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The unsteady sheet cavitation of podded propeller was predicted by using a surface panel method. The interaction between propeller and pod was treated with the iterative calculation of induced velocity potential, and the method of induced velocity potential can save a great deal of storage and computation time compared to the method of induced velocity. The induced velocity potential of unit singularity on every pod panel to every key blade panel and of unit singularity on every key blade panel and its wake panel to every pod panel were calculated when the key blade is at every angle position. Based on the wake model of the conventional single propeller, a new wake model of podded propeller was constructed. The propeller is analyzed only on the key blade in order to save computation time and memory space. The method can be used to calculate the hydrodynamics performance and cavitation of propeller in uniform and non-uniform inflows. It can give the unsteady force and cavitation shape of propeller. The propeller cavitation range determined by the present method agrees with the observation results of cavity image given in cavitation tunnel well, and this proves the practicability of the method.

  12. Effect of pods' position on the protein content in soybean grains at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Gomes Sales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean grains have a high protein content, which can vary depending on various factors, as the pods' position throughout the plant. In this sense, aiming to study the effect of pods' position on the main stem of the plant for grades of soybean proteins, It has been accomplished in the years 2010 and 2011, a trial with ten soybean cultivars in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins in Palmas. The experimental area was randomized blocks with 30 treatments and three replications. Treatments were arranged in one a split plot, being allocated in Ten cultivars plots (BRS Valuable, P98Y51, P98Y70, P99R03, M8527RR, M8925RR, M9144RR, M8867RR, and TMG103RR, and the sub plots In the pods' position on the plant (upper third, intermediate, and basal third. According to the results, we can conclude that there is variability among the pods' position. The grains located in the median and apical plant showed a trend of higher protein content. Cultivar P98Y70 showed the highest protein value. In the sampling grain for protein quantitation, it is recommended to use grains of pods located at the same position of the plant.

  13. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    OpenAIRE

    Puastuti W; Widiawati Y; Wina E

    2015-01-01

    In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg) to evaluated 5 type of ration...

  14. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em polpa de goiaba (Psidium guajava R. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in guava (Psidium guajava R. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lima Zanatta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A peroxidase E.C. 1.11.1.7 (POD e a polifenoloxidase E.C. 1.10.3.1 (PPO foram extraídas da polpa de goiaba. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando-se a polpa da goiaba e solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM com pH variando de 6,0 a 7,0 em intervalos de 0,1. Foi determinada a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e da polifenoloxidase desses extratos, a fim de se observar o melhor pH para a extração de cada enzima. O pH 6,3 foi considerado o melhor para a extração da POD da polpa de goiaba, enquanto que para PPO, o pH foi 6,8. Os extratos brutos de POD e PPO foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C e 80 °C por um período de 0 a 10 min. Os resultados demonstraram um decréscimo da atividade enzimática nos extratos com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo. No entanto, a total inativação não foi atingida o que sugere a presença de isoenzimas termoresistentes.Peroxidase E.C. 1.11.1.7 (POD and polyphenoloxidase E.C.1.10.3.1 (PPO were extracted from guava pulp. The extracts were prepared using guava pulp and a sodium phosphate buffer 100 mM with a pH varying from 6.0 to 7.0 in intervals of 0.1. This was done in order to observe the best pH for the extraction of each enzyme. The pH of 6.3 was considered the best in terms of extracting POD from guava pulp while the pH was 6.8 for the PPO extraction. The POD and PPO extracts of guava pulp were exposed to temperatures of 60 °C, 65 °C, 70 °C, 75 °C and 80 °C in a period between 0 to 10 min. The result showed a decrease in the enzymatic activity due to the increase of the temperature and time. However, total inactivation was not achieved which suggests the presence of thermo resistant isoenzymes.

  15. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Strem, Mary D.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  16. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in grape (Vitis vinifera L. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em uva (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Pieri Troiani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzimatic activity of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO extracted from three grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L., cultivated in Marialva city, state of Paraná, was evaluated in this study. The enzymatic extracts were prepared starting from the Rubi, Borbon and Benitaka grape cultivars pulp and peel. The activity of the peroxidase was 53.00 units/100 g in the extract from the Rubi cultivar peel, and 327.00 units/100 g from the Benitaka cultivar, these values being superior to those observed in the same cultivars pulp extracts, which were 7.67 units/100 g and 44.00 units/100 g respectively. However, the result was opposite in the Borbon cultivar, with values of 141.11 units/100 g in the pulp and 11.50 units/100 g in the peel being found. The results of the polyphenoloxidase in the Borbon cultivar activity were 100.18 units/100 g in the pulp and 102.60 units/100 g in the peel, and in the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were 60.40 units/100 g, 48.62 units/100 g in the pulp and 17.40 units/100 g, and 26.20 units/100 g in the peel, respectively. Protein determination was carried out in each extract, and the results found in the pulp and peel, respectively, were 0.56 and 0.64 mg/100 g for cultivar Benitaka, 1.38 and 6.45 mg/100 g for cultivar Rubi, and 21.38 and 5.68 mg/100 g for Borbon. The extracts were submitted to thermal treatments (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 75°C for a 1 to 10 minutes period to observe the behavior of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity, being verified a continuous decrease of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities as a result of the thermal treatment. The extracts of the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were more heat stable than the extract from the Borbon cultivar for both enzymes. However, the temperatures used were not enough for a total inactivation of the enzymes.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (POD e da polifenoloxidase (PPO extraídas de três cultivares de

  17. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, S., E-mail: shahzad-munir@comsats.edu.pk; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Heikal, M. R., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my; Aziz, A. Rashid A., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields.

  18. Significant chemical burns associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jason L; Wiles, Devin A; Kenney, Brian; Spiller, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    Concentrated laundry pods have been reported to cause significant clinical effects including oropharyngeal burns and respiratory distress requiring intubation. Dermal burns have been reported, but no incidents of serious isolated dermal injury have been published. We report a case of significant, isolated dermal injury as a result of dermal exposure to a concentrated laundry detergent pod. Total body surface area partial thickness burns in this case were estimated at approximately 2 % with an additional 4-5 % of total body surface area (TBSA) displaying superficial burns/chemical dermatitis. Health-care providers should be aware of this complication and should perform thorough dermal decontamination in the event of an exposure. Parents should be educated regarding the dangers associated with dermal exposure to laundry pod compounds and the need to secure these items away from children as well as proper decontamination techniques should an exposure occur.

  19. Stress Sensitivity of Correlation between POD and PPO Activities in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉMETH, Zsolt István

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the leaf extracts of two plant species (Quercus robur L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.,peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities have been measured by the methods ofShannon et al (1966 and Flurkey and Jen (1978. The oxidative activities regarded as semi-empiricalbiochemical variables have distributions in the plant foliage and between them a linear correlation hasbeen observed. In this work the resultant oxidative activities of POD and PPO isoenzymes of plantfoliages, the measuring uncertainties of their values and their correlation are interpreted. For theeffects of cold shock and lack of illumination, significant alterations in the correlation have beenrevealed that are also reflected by the parameters of the regression. The correlation of POD and PPOhas been established to be stress sensitive by the application of covariance analysis (ANCOVA.

  20. Quantified reflex strategy using an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Grundfest, Warren

    2012-01-01

    A primary aspect of a neurological evaluation is the deep tendon reflex, frequently observed through the patellar tendon reflex. The reflex response provides preliminary insight as to the status of the nervous system. A quantified reflex strategy has been developed, tested, and evaluated though the use of an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application integrated with a potential energy device to evoke the patellar tendon reflex. The iPod functions as a wireless accelerometer equipped with robust software, data storage, and the capacity to transmit the recorded accelerometer waveform of the reflex response wirelessly through email for post-processing. The primary feature of the reflex response acceleration waveform is the maximum acceleration achieved subsequent to evoking the patellar tendon reflex. The quantified reflex strategy using an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application yields accurate and consistent quantification of the reflex response.

  1. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cojocaru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.

  2. [Effect of 1-MCP on senescence and quality in cold-stored edible podded pea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lan; Feng, Lei; Su, Xin-Guo; Jiang, Yue-Ming

    2004-04-01

    The effects of 1-MCP (1-methylcyclo-propene) at 0.5, 1 and 2 muL/L on senescence and quality attributes in edible podded pea (Pisum sativum L.var.Saccharatum) during cold storage at 1 degrees C were investigated. The results indicated that treatments with 1 and 2 microL/L 1-MCP significantly inhibited respiratory rate, ethylene production and superoxide production, maintained higher levels of SOD, AsA-POD activities and chlorophyll and AsA contents, reduced the increases in MDA and fiber contents and decay index, thereby delayed the senescence process and quality deterioration. Treatment with 0.5 microL/L 1-MCP showed no significant effects on senescence and quality changes in harvested edible podded pea.

  3. POD-Galerkin reduced-order modeling with adaptive finite element snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Sebastian; Rotkvic, Marko; Lang, Jens

    2016-11-01

    We consider model order reduction by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for parametrized partial differential equations, where the underlying snapshots are computed with adaptive finite elements. We address computational and theoretical issues arising from the fact that the snapshots are members of different finite element spaces. We propose a method to create a POD-Galerkin model without interpolating the snapshots onto their common finite element mesh. The error of the reduced-order solution is not necessarily Galerkin orthogonal to the reduced space created from space-adapted snapshot. We analyze how this influences the error assessment for POD-Galerkin models of linear elliptic boundary value problems. As a numerical example we consider a two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation with a parametrized convective direction. To illustrate the applicability of our techniques to non-linear time-dependent problems, we present a test case of a two-dimensional viscous Burgers equation with parametrized initial data.

  4. Historical Post Office Directory Parser (POD Parser Software From the AddressingHistory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Osborne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The POD Parser is Python software for parsing the OCR’d (optical character recognised text of digitised historical Scottish Post Office Directories (PODs to produce a consistent structured format for the data and for geocoding each address. The software was developed as part of the AddressingHistory project which sought to combine digitised historic directories with digitised and georeferenced historic maps.  The software has potential for reuse in multiple research contexts where historical post office directory data is relevant, and is therefore particularly of use in historical research into social, economic or demographic trends. The POD Parser is currently designed for use with Scottish directories but is extensible, perhaps with some adaptation, to use with other similarly formatted materials such as the English Trade Directories.

  5. POD-Galerkin Model for Incompressible Single-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-01-25

    Fast prediction modeling via proper orthogonal decomposition method combined with Galerkin projection is applied to incompressible single-phase fluid flow in porous media. Cases for different configurations of porous media, boundary conditions and problem scales are designed to examine the fidelity and robustness of the model. High precision (relative deviation 1.0 x 10(-4)% similar to 2.3 x 10(-1)%) and large acceleration (speed-up 880 similar to 98454 times) of POD model are found in these cases. Moreover, the computational time of POD model is quite insensitive to the complexity of problems. These results indicate POD model is especially suitable for large-scale complex problems in engineering.

  6. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangwen; Turner, Neil C; Yan, Guijun; Li, Fengmin; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2010-01-01

    Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

  7. Development of Monitoring Technique for Cocoa Pod Borer(Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness and effiency of CPB control were influenced by the right time of control. To decided this methods, information about CPB infestation was needed. An experiment had been conducted to get a simple and accurate technique for CPB monitoring. The experiment was located in Tirawuta, a smallholder cocoa plantation in Kolaka district, South-East Sulawesi. The evaluated monitoring pods techniques using observing all ripe cocoa pod as standard method, i.e. pod colour changes as an indicator of CPB attack, observation on 100 pods during harvesting, moth trapping and observation on the presence of the holes caused by CPB. The collected data expressed as the percentage of CPB attack and compared with each other. Based on the Chi 2 value and time consumed for monitoring, it could be concluded that the observation of 100 attacked pods during harvesting was the most accurate technique closest to the standard method, with a lowest 2 value and not significantly different to standard method. On the contrary the visual observation on the pod colour showed the less accurate technique with  2 value of 242,25–335,33 followed by the bservation on the present of holes on the pod with  2 value of 243,45–282,87. Furthermore, monitoring technique by moth trapping could not be compared with the other techniques since their unit was unequal. However, no insect could be trapped during a night trapping using either chemical trapping or sticky trap. Development of sticky trap by variation in trap colour could be trapped of CPB moth during more than one week. Red trap was the most interesting (preferred for the CPB followed by the yellow, white and blue ones. There was significant correlation between number of tree sample and the time needed for observation. Larger size of tree sample consumed a longer time for the observation, but in visual symptom and entry/exit hole observation methods, larger sample size did not significantly influence its accuracy

  8. Analytic-graphic testing of deformities at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeèný Miloš

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geodetic measurement results in a frame of deformity survey of the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom nearby Košice. Periodic geodetic position and levelling measurement are realized on the dam since 1999. Testing statistics are applied into the deformity survey. Geodetic data obtained from individual measurements in the geodetic network on the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom are adjusted using Gauss-Markov model. Accuracy analysis by means of using relative and confidence ellipses is complemented to geodetic measurements.

  9. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wulandari; A. Agus; Cahyanto, M. N.; R. Utomo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could...

  10. Effectivity of locally wood rot fungal isolates in decomposition of leaf and cocoa pod husk waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kuswinanti, Tutik; Rosmana, Ade; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Jamila; Baharuddin

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk is a major waste of cocoa plants that can be used either as an organic fertilizer or as animal feed. For 972.400 hectares of cocoa plantation, produce as much as 572.900 tons of cocoa beans, while the waste generated reached 1.8766 million tons/year. However, only 94.515 tons of cocoa waste has been utilized. Given the composition of twigs, leaves and cocoa pods that contain lots of lignin and cellulose, further research is needed to find microbes that effective ...

  11. A sip-and-puff wireless remote control for the Apple iPod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Grogg, Kevin; Anschutz, John; Fierman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This brief technical note describes the authors' efforts to modify an existing wireless remote control for the Apple iPod so it could be operated using sip-and-puff switches by individuals with limited upper extremity dexterity due to cervical level spinal cord injury. The authors were able to successfully interface the wireless controller with sip-and-puff switches so that users could play, pause, and fast forward through a song list on the iPod. Details of the interface are described, and limitations of the current system are discussed.

  12. 将Google数据与iPod touch实现同步

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽华

    2012-01-01

      越来越多的朋友开始拥有Apple系列的设备,例如iPad、iPhone、iPod touch,可能他们希望将Google数据(邮件、通讯录、日历)同步过来,手工操作自然相当繁琐.其实,只要你的iOS版本已经更新至4.0或更高,那么按照下列步骤操作即可,这里以iPod touch设备为例.

  13. 我的shuffle会说话--苹果新iPod shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    我们已经习惯了苹果(Apple)新品发布时的突然袭击,不过当新一代iPod shuffle悄然来到的时候,我们还是感受到了一丝惊喜。全新iPod shuffle有银、黑两种颜色,采用精致的铝合金设计,内置不锈钢夹子使其佩戴起来极为方便。

  14. 缤纷经典——苹果iPod Mini随身听

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DJE

    2004-01-01

    苹果(Apple)总能在IT业界中写下一个又一个的传奇:iMac的美妙弧线赢尽了世人的瞩目,iPod也让苹果在数码音乐的世界中打响了头炮,在iPod之后,苹果顺理成章地推出了iPod Mini,超薄、多彩是iPod Mini的设计理念,只是249美元的价格还是让人有些不易亲近。

  15. Carob Pods (Ceratonia siliqua L. as a Source of Polyphenolic Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Kefalas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of utilising chopped and deseeded carob pods (kibbles as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants was examined by performing extractions with various solvent systems, in order to evaluate and optimize the conditions for the recovery of polyphenols. Maximum quantities of polyphenolic components were found in 80 % acetone extracts, as evaluated by measuring total polyphenol and total flavanol content. By contrast, ethyl acetate was inefficient in extracting polyphenols. The assessment of the antioxidant potency of carob pod extracts employing two characteristic in vitro models showed that carobs contain polyphenols with appreciable antiradical and reducing properties. The values obtained were compared to the data on red wines and pure polyphenolic antioxidants.

  16. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  17. 海量音乐随身装——iPod 80G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    wek

    2007-01-01

    <正>毫无疑问,苹果公司推出的音乐播放器iPod已经融入了我们的生活。现在的iPod产品家族丰富多彩,漂亮迷人的iPod nano、小巧灵活的iPod shuffle,当然还有今天的主角——全能的iPod。现在的iPod已经抛弃了之前Photo、Video等纷繁的称号,统一回归iPod这个简单而深具影响力的名称。

  18. IcePod: Imaging Ice-Ocean Process from Top to Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Zappa, C. J.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Dhakal, T.; Bertinato, C.; Dong, L.; Brown, S.; Le Bel, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolving the future of the ice in the polar regions requires understanding of the changing ice from top to bottom from the center of the ice sheets to the margin where ice interacts with the polar oceans. The IcePod is an imaging system developed to study the ice sheets and polar oceans in a comprehensive fashion from an LC-130. The system has been developed for initial deployment on the New York National Guard's ski-equipped LC-130s. The IcePod can resolve high resolution surface elevation with a scanning laser and visual cameras, the temperature of the surface with an infrared camera, the thickness and layering of the shallow snow and ice with a high frequency radar and the thickness of the ice sheet with an ice penetrating radar. The IcePod can be moved between aircraft in less than four hours and can be operated on aircraft on routine cargo missions to skiways. Here we present IcePod ice-ocean imaging from the top to the bottom of several major outlet glaciers in western Greenland. The data, acquired in July 2014, demonstrates the broad capabilities of the IcePod instrumentation suite. The IcePod resolved the structure of the ice sheet from the accumulation zone to the calving front of Eqip Glacier and 4 adjacent outlet glacier systems. High resolution mapping of the calving front and the upwelling meltwater plumes provides new insights into the structure and dynamics of the turbulent mixing at the ice-ocean interface. Mapping of the ice sheet margin provides insights into the connections between the surface meltwater and the fate of the subglacial water at the ice sheet base. The Greenland data includes airport passes in every flight for calibration of both the lidar and camera systems. An expanded IcePod instrumentation suite will include a gravity meter and a magnetometer. The gravity meter can be used to determine the bathymetry beneath ice shelves. Together the gravimeter and the magnetometer can be used to constrain the regional tectonic frameworks. In

  19. Music Piracy: Bad for Record Sales but Good for the iPod?

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2012-01-01

    Music piracy is a double-edged sword for the music industry. On the one hand, it hurts record sales. On the other hand, it increases sales of its complements. To quantify the effect of music piracy, I construct a unique survey data set and use a Bayesian method to estimate the demand for music and iPods, and find three things. First, music piracy decreases music sales by 24% to 42%. Second, music piracy contributes 12% to iPod sales. Finally, counterfactual experiments show that Apple's reven...

  20. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  1. Music Piracy: Bad for Record Sales but Good for the iPod?

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Tin Cheuk

    2012-01-01

    Music piracy is a double-edged sword for the music industry. On the one hand, it hurts record sales. On the other hand, it increases sales of its complements. To quantify the effect of music piracy, I construct a unique survey data set and use a Bayesian method to estimate the demand for music and iPods, and find three things. First, music piracy decreases music sales by 24% to 42%. Second, music piracy contributes 12% to iPod sales. Finally, counterfactual experiments show that Apple's reven...

  2. Emergent, Self-Directed, and Self-Organized Learning: Literacy, Numeracy, and the iPod Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses narrative and storying to retell how two girls ages 5 and 7 continue to make use of an iPod touch to expand their literacy and numeracy. The paper explores the stopwatch and alarm features within the clock application, as well as the weather application, and the Internet browsing capability of the iPod touch. It also explores some…

  3. Teaching Students with Developmental Disabilities to Operate an iPod Touch[R] to Listen to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Achmadi, Donna; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention procedure for teaching three students with developmental disabilities to independently operate a portable multimedia device (i.e., an iPod Touch[R]) to listen to music. The intervention procedure included the use of video modeling, which was presented on the same iPod Touch[R] that the students were taught to operate…

  4. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  5. Evaluation of the accuracy of the HexaPOD evo RT system using non-coplanar beams in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Se Wuk; Cho, Kang Chul; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Kim, Joo Ho; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study, evaluate the accuracy of HeaxPOD evo RT system using the non-coplanar beam. 13 treatment plans are used which applied non-coplanar beams and 10 treatment plans which coplanar beams are used. the correction value what adjust to 6D couch is determined by each patient's setup errors only rotation direction. The study executed followings. first, Applying the correction value, measure the point dose and calculate the γ -index(γ=3% / 3 mm , γ =2%/ 2 mm). second, acquire data as previous methods without correction by HexaPOD. For comparing the two results, we find out the more precise applying HexaPOD by point dose 0.2% in coplanar and non-coplanar. in the case of γ-index<1(γ=3% / 3 mm), more precise 2.2% in coplanar and 7% in Non-coplanar. Particularly, γ - index<1(2% / 2 mm) show the difference 9.2% in coplanar and 15.1% non-coplanar between apply HexaPOD and dose not apply HexaPOD. Using the HexaPOD is more precise than without HexaPOD. It suggests that HexaPOD evo RT system is very useful for precise and high dose delivery.

  6. Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Retention of Madura Cattle Fed Complete Rations Containing Soybean Pod and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wiryawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of complete rations containing soybean pod and soybean by-products (soybean meal and tofu waste on rumen microbial population, fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention of Madura cattle. Twelve Madura cattle of 1.5 years of age were given 4 feeding treatments in triplicates in randomized block design experiment. The treatments included T0 (100% native grass as a negative control, T1 (concentrate: grass (60:40 as a positive control, T2 (complete ration containing 15% soybean pods, and T3 (complete ration containing 30% soybean pods. The treatments were based on feeding practices commonly applied by farmers in the village. The results showed that the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-product did not affect protozoa population, ammonia concentration, and total VFA production compared to cattle fed 100% native grass. In contrast, the use of concentrate rations or complete rations containing soybean pod and by-products reduced acetate and increased butyrate proportion compared to native grass. The use of a concentrate ration resulted the highest propionate proportion. Methane estimation increased with the use of concentrate ration or complete ration containing 15% soybean pod, but it decreased when the level of soybean pod was increased to 30%. It can be concluded that soybean pod has a potential to be used as a fiber source in beef cattle ration to substitute native grass.

  7. Effects of acute and 2-hour postphysical activity on the estimation of body fat made by the bod pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Bradley J; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-06-01

    The Bod Pod has been found to be reliable/valid against several criterion methods, including hydrostatic weighing and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and under different conditions, such as clothing, dehydrated states, and body temperature changes. However, questions remain regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise. Therefore, the purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on the estimations made by the Bod Pod. Participants (15 men and 22 women) were of age 18-27 years and were currently exercising. Baseline Bod Pod measures were completed followed by a 30-minute cycling trial at 75% of maximum heart rate. Bod Pod measures were taken immediately after exercise and 2 hours after exercise. Differences between men and women were found at baseline between height (p Bod Pod testing seems to alter the estimate of %BF, and continues to affect the prediction 2 hours after exercise in women.

  8. Electronic Interactions between "Pea" and "Pod" : The Case of Oligothiophenes Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Blondeau, Pascal; Salice, Patrizio; Menna, Enzo; Bartova, Barbora; Hebert, Cecile; Leschner, Jens; Kaiser, Ute; Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    One of the most challenging strategies to achieve tunable nanophotonic devices is to build robust nanohybrids with variable emission in the visible spectral range, while keeping the merits of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). This goal is realized by filling SWNTs ("pods") with a seri

  9. CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT IN BULGARIAN AND TURKISH CAROB PODS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Fidan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carob, Ceratonia siliqua, is cultivated for ornamental and industrial purposes in many Mediterranean countries. This study assessed carob pulp and syrup, a rich source of carbohydrates and sugars, by evaluating content of reducing sugars and total sugars in carob pulp before extraction of syrups. We identified the sugar content before and after treatment by using thin-layer (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID. It was established that total sugars increased with extraction and heat treatment. Sucrose (34.2 g/100 g dry weight; dw, glucose (11.1 g/100 g dw and fructose (6.5 g/100 g dw were the major sugars identified and quantified in pulp of the Turkish carob. Ceratonia siliqua pods of Turkish origin produced higher levels of total and of reducing sugars (fructose and sucrose than did the pods from Bulgaria. The carbohydrate content in the syrup prepared from Turkish carob pods was highest, with the sucrose content especially reaching up to 45 g/100 g dw. The data are discussed in terms of nutritional and energy value of the carob pod. The carob and obtained products (flour or syrup are identified as highly caloric and as a prospective energy source alternative to cocoa and its products.

  10. Carob pod water extracts as feedstock for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-10-01

    Carob pods are a by-product of locust bean gum industry containing more than 50% (w/w) sucrose, glucose and fructose. In this work, carob pod water extracts were used, for the first time, for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z. Kinetic studies of glucose, fructose and sucrose consumption as individual carbon sources till 30g/L showed no inhibition on cell growth, sugar consumption and SA production rates. Sugar extraction from carob pods was optimized varying solid/liquid ratio and extraction time, maximizing sugar recovery while minimizing the extraction of polyphenols. Batch fermentations containing 10-15g/L total sugars resulted in a maximum specific SA production rate of 0.61Cmol/Cmol X.h, with a yield of 0.55Cmol SA/Cmol sugar and a volumetric productivity of 1.61g SA/L.h. Results demonstrate that carob pods can be a promising low cost feedstock for bio-based SA production.

  11. Dietary carob pods on growth performance and meat quality of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2012-06-01

    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.

  12. Genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in common bean leaves and pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Constantino Borel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant, Cornell 49-242 (resistant and Carioca MG (susceptible. Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21 were obtained. In the dry season (2009, parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.

  13. Library iTour: Introducing the iPod Generation to the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Virginia; Dean, Toni C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For many years, the Lupton Library offered a traditional library introduction class to first year students participating in the Freshman Seminar Program at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. In 2007, the library applied for and received a campus grant to purchase thirty iPod Touches, along with accompanying hardware and software.…

  14. Implementation of a One-to-One iPod Touch Program in a Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of a whole school one-to-one iPod Touch project in a middle school in the southeastern United States. While some focused studies have been undertaken in this new field of learning, there has been little research to date that documents activity within a whole school implementation…

  15. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  16. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On Developing brain (ePOD) study : methods and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schouw, Marieke L. J.; Klomp, Anne; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Schrantee, Anouk G. M.; Bouziane, Cheima; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Boer, Frits; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Denys, Damiaan; Rijsman, Roselyne; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Reitsma, Hans B.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal studies have shown that methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) have different effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic system in the developing brain compared to the developed brain. The effects of Psychotropic drugs On the Developing brain (ePOD) study is a combination of dif

  17. Efficient and accurate stereotactic radiotherapy using flattening filter free beams and HexaPOD robotic tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, C. R.; Brink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) high dose rate beam technique was introduced for brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Furthermore, a HexaPOD treatment table was introduced for the brain SRS to enable correction of rotational setup errors. 19 filter fl...

  18. Effectiveness of Video Modeling to Teach "iPod" Use to Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana L.; Whatley, Abigail D.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of video modeling delivered via computer on accurate and independent use of an iPod by three participants with moderate intellectual disabilities. In the context of combined multiple probes across participants and replicated across tasks, three female middle school students learned to…

  19. Third Graders' Understanding of Air Concepts Facilitated by the iPod Inquiry Teaching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-san

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the learning performance of the air concept unit for third graders in a primary school facilitated by the iPod inquiry teaching method. This study adopts a quasi-experimental method. Participants were third graders in a primary school in New Taipei city. The experimental group consisted of 53…

  20. Disclosing digital archives on an iPod : pilot results from the Dutch Glass Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J. de; Limonard, S.; Odding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Museums are active online in numerous ways, but the experiences that are offered often take place outside the physical location of the museum. The Glass museum has aimed at creating an iPod application that should enrich the experience in the physical location of the museum by means of using their r

  1. Exploring Students' Intuitive Ideas of Randomness Using an iPod Shuffle Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Laura; Garfield, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages students in considering characteristics of a random sequence, in this case, a randomly generated playlist of songs using the iPod shuffle feature. Students examine simulated sequences of randomly generated songs from a small music library in order to identify characteristics that are used to develop…

  2. Examining iPod Use by Texas Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…

  3. Analysis of Pendulum Period with an iPod Touch/iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggle, Justin

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of Apple's iPod touch/iPhone, acting as the pendulum bob, as a means of measuring pendulum period, making use of the device's three-axis digital accelerometer and the freely available SPARKvue app from PASCO scientific. The method can be readily incorporated into an introductory physics laboratory experiment.…

  4. Effects of Picture Prompts Delivered by a Video iPod on Pedestrian Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation access is a major contributor to independence, productivity, and societal inclusion for individuals with intellectual and development disabilities (IDD). This study examined the effects of pedestrian navigation training using picture prompts displayed through a video iPod on travel route completion with 4 adults and IDD. Results…

  5. The Effectiveness of Using a Video iPod as a Prompting Device in Employment Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Johnson, Jesse W.; Van Laarhoven-Myers, Traci; Grider, Kristin L.; Grider, Katie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a video iPod as a prompting device for teaching three job-related tasks to a young man with developmental disabilities in a community-based employment setting. The effectiveness of the prompting device was evaluated using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Results…

  6. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2) t

  7. Integrating the iPod Touch in K-12 Education: Visions and Vices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Savilla

    2010-01-01

    Advocates of ubiquitous computing have long been documenting classroom benefits of one-to-one ratios of students to handheld or laptop computers. The recent sophisticated capabilities of the iPod Touch, iPhone, and iPad have encouraged further speculation on exactly how K-12 teaching and learning might be energized by such devices. This paper…

  8. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  9. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  10. Damping of power system oscillations with coordinated tuning of UPFC and POD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhurvey, S.N.; Chandrakar, V.K. [G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Some problems exist in contemporary power networks such as periodic oscillations in generator angle or line angle. These are generally associated with transmission system disturbances and occur due to changes in load, sudden change of generator output, transmission line switching and short circuits. These oscillations need to be damped as quickly as possible because they cause mechanical wear in power plants and many more power quality problems. This paper used a unified power flow controller (UPFC) in coordination with a power oscillation damping controller (POD) to investigate effective control signals for damping of oscillations. A modified Phillips-Heffron model of a single-machine infinite bus (SMIB) system with UPFC was considered for the analysis. A POD was designed to achieve improved damping performance of the SMIB system by selecting effective control signal. The paper discussed the system model and the UPFC. The coordinated tuning of the UFPC with power flow controller and the POD was also explained. The results of the simulation were also presented. It was concluded that coordinated tuning of the UPFC and the POD provided robust dynamic performance. In addition, Eigen value analysis validated the performance of various damping controllers. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  11. CAN SEX INFLUENCE THE EFFECT OF POUNDED PARKIA BIGLOBOSA PODS EXTRACT ON STRONGYLE IN SHEEP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NAANDAM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the influence of sex on the effect of pounded dawadawa pods extract as a sequel to a preliminary work that suggested some efficacy on strongyle in sheep. The study was undertaken from September to November, 2009. Twelve Djallonke sheep (six males and six females randomly selected were used. The pounded Dawadawa pods extract was soaked (1kg pod/1.5 liter of water and mixture was allowed to stand for 12 hours. The filtrate was administered orally at 0.5ml/kg and 0.6ml/kg body weight and a control. Faecal samples were taken from the experimental animals 72 hours after each administration. Laboratory analysis was run to identify strongyle ova after which counts were made. Experimental animals were blocked by sex. Ova counts of strongyle were found to have reduced significantly (P<0.01 over the study period for both dosages. However, the 0.6ml/kg body weight gave better results in worm ova counts, producing 97% reduction in ova counts as against 95% reduction in ova counts for 0.5ml/kg dosage. Control animals recorded an increase in ova counts throughout the study period. Worm ova counts were tended to be higher in females compared to that of males for both dosages. The trend was not evident in the control, suggesting some probable confounding effect of sex on the ability of Dawadawa pods extracts to act efficaciously.

  12. POD generator project: a numerical assessment of the inspection of fatigue cracks using TOFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Stelwagen, U.; Mast, A.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Risk based inspection strategies rely on detailed knowledge of the performance of inspection techniques. The objective of the "POD generator" project is to develop a numerical modeling approach to assess the effectiveness of specific inspection techniques. Simulation offers flexibility and reliabili

  13. Phytophthora megakarya, a causal agent of black pod rot in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most parts of the world where Theobroma cacao is grown, Phytophthora palmivora is the major concern for causing black pod rot (BPR). Phytophthora megakarya, on the other hand, occurs only in Africa, but represents a major threat to cacao production, the countries of West Africa being the largest ...

  14. Using H∞ to design robust POD controllers for wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmedalic, Jasmin; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Large wind power plants (WPPs) can help to improve small signal stability by increasing the damping of electromechanical modes of oscillation. This can be done by adding a power system oscillation damping (POD) controller to the wind power plants, similar to power system stabilizer (PSS) controll...

  15. POD applied to stereo PIV data of the far turbulent axisymmetric jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wänström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    An experiment was performed to evaluate spatial resolution requirements for multiple and single component POD applications to cross-sections of the far axisymmetic jet. The jet of Gamard et al. was used at an exit Reynolds number of 20,000. Three-component velocity data were obtained at downstream...

  16. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Wulandari; A. Agus; M. N. Cahyanto; R. Utomo

    2015-01-01

    .... This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1...

  17. Differential responses to pea bacterial blight in stems, leaves and pods under glasshouse and field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.; Bevan, J.R.; Taylor, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to pea bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi) in different plant parts was assessed in 19 Pisum sativum cultivars and landraces, carrying race-specific resistance genes (R-genes) and two Pisum abyssinicum accessions carrying race-nonspecific resistance. Stems, leaves and pods we

  18. Effects of iPod Touch™ Technology as Communication Devices on Peer Social Interactions across Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…

  19. Research on six degrees of freedom compound control technology for improving photoelectric pod pointing accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpeng; Li, Yan; Chen, Juan; Nian, Lun; Zhang, Haibo

    2017-08-01

    High line-of-sight (LOS) pointing precision is a prerequisite for improving the laser confrontation capability of a photoelectric interference pod. In a traditional photoelectric pod, the time delay in TV tracking reduces the system phase margin, system stability and LOS pointing precision. In view of this deficiency, a normalized LMS algorithm is introduced to compensate for the TV camera delay in the inner gimbal position loop of a two-axis and four-gimbal structure, which can allow a pod to avoid system phase margin reduction. Meanwhile, a fast steering mirror (FSM) system is used to improve the LOS pointing precision. First, this paper proposes a normalized LMS algorithm. Second, a compound control structure, with an outer gimbal analog controller and an inner gimbal lag-lead controller, is designed. Finally, the FSM beam control precision is analyzed. The experimental results show that the normalized LMS algorithm yields almost no delay; moreover, the azimuth and pitch beam control accuracies are greater by a factor of 15 and 3, respectively, compared with those of a conventional photoelectric pod.

  20. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  1. Iron encapsulated within pod-like carbon nanotubes for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dehui; Yu, Liang; Chen, Xiaoqi; Wang, Guoxiong; Jin, Li; Pan, Xiulian; Deng, Jiao; Sun, Gongquan; Bao, Xinhe

    2013-01-01

    Chainmail for catalysts: a catalyst with iron nanoparticles confined inside pea-pod-like carbon nanotubes exhibits a high activity and remarkable stability as a cathode catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), even in presence of SO(2). The approach offers a new route to electro- and heterogeneous catalysts for harsh conditions.

  2. POD analysis of flow structures in a scale model of a ventilated room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2002-01-01

    Measurements with particle image velocimetry have been carried out in a scale model of the Annex 20 room. Data were taken in a plane near the inlet. The flow consisted of a wall jet (Re=5,000) and a low-velocity region below the jet. POD was used to analyze dominant flow structures. The analysis...

  3. Enabling data analysis à la PROOF on the Italian ATLAS Tier2 using PoD

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Vilucchi, E; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Carlino, G; De Salvo, A; Doria, A; Manafov, A; Martini, A; Testa, A

    2012-01-01

    We describe our experience using PROOF for data analysis on the Italian ATLAS-Tier2 in Frascati, Napoli and Roma1. To enable PROOF on the cluster we used PoD, Proof- on-Demand. PoD is a set of tools designed to interact with any resource management system (RMS) to start the PROOF daemons. In this way any user can quickly setup its own PROOF cluster on the resources, with the RMS taking care of scheduling, priorities and accounting. Usage of PoD has steadily increased in the last years, and the product has now reached a production level quality. PoD features an abstract interface to RMSs and provides several plugins for the most common RMSs. In our tests we used both the gLite and PBS plug-ins, the latter being the native RMS handling the resources under test. Data were accessed via xrootd, with file discovery provided by the standard ATLAS tools. The SRM is DPM (Disk Pool Manager) which has rfio as standard data access protocol; so we provided DPM of Xrootd protocol too. We will describe the configuration and...

  4. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants...

  5. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  6. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, M M; Abreu, N P; Vrechi, T A M; Lotfi, C F

    2015-12-01

    During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G) and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R) cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  7. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  8. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  9. Carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) improve growth performance, antioxidant status and caecal characteristics in growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hafsa, S H; Ibrahim, S A; Hassan, A A

    2017-01-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate carob pods and their effect on growth performance, antioxidant activities, carcass and caecal characteristics and equilibrium modification of the caecal microbiota population of growing NZW rabbits. Eighty weaned rabbits (initial body weight: 625.00 ± 26.46 g) were randomly allocated into four dietary groups of 20 rabbits each until 90 days of age. Dietary groups were as follows: C (basal diet with no supplementation), CP1 (basal diet + 2.5% carob pods), CP2 (basal diet + 5% carob pods) and CP3 (basal diet + 10% carob pods). Rabbits given the CP2 diet had significantly higher daily and final body weights compared with the other experimental groups. The increase in inclusion rate of carob pods significantly decreased feed intake, whereas carob pods at 5% in the CP2 group recorded the best value of feed conversion ratio. Rabbits in the CP3 group showed the worst slaughter weight and carcass dressing percentage weight. No significant effect was found on meat protein and ash contents. Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides decreased significantly (p CP2 and CP3 groups, the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase increased, whereas the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance decreased significantly. Rabbits given the CP2 diet had a significantly higher volatile fatty acid concentration and a lower pH in content of the caecum compared to the other groups. The data of microbial analysis for C group showed a significant increase in Escherichia coli and Clostridium counts. Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts increased significantly more in the CP2 and CP3 groups than in the other groups. In conclusion, 5% of carob pods in the diet stimulated the performance of growing rabbits, and thus, it has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits without any adverse effects.

  10. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Chandramoni; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg), distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor) feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07) in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01) in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20.17% lower in T2 group

  11. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  12. [Pediatric exposures to laundry pods or capsules: more toxic than traditional laundry products?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Honorat, R; Casasoprana, A; Grouteau, E; Franchitto, N

    2014-06-01

    New concentrated laundry pods, available on the European market for approximately 10 years, are associated with more severe intoxications compared to classic laundry detergents. To compare symptoms and severity after exposure to classic laundry detergents and new laundry pods in a pediatric population. Retrospective study conducted between 1st January 2002 and 30th June 2013 including all laundry detergent exposure patients admitted to our tertiary level pediatric emergency unit. Collected data were age, sex, date, time and location of exposure, type of product (powder, liquid, tablets, pods), estimated ingested quantity, time of admission, clinical symptoms, severity, complications, and progression. Descriptive analysis: eighty-nine children were included. The mean age was 2.1 ± 1.5 years (range, 36 days to 10 years), 65% of patients were aged less than 2 years. The male:female ratio was 1.5 (males, 60%). After exposure, 57% of children were symptomatic and most frequently developed digestive symptoms (75%). Comparative analysis: compared to classic laundry detergent, children exposed to laundry pods were more symptomatic (96% versus 51%, P<0.0001), had more digestive signs (P=0.003), more frequently had bronchospasm (P=0.02), had a higher risk of ocular lesions (P=0.04), and exposure was more severe (poisoning severity score grade 2, 92% versus 59%, P<0.0001). Laundry pod toxicity is more severe. The chemical composition of laundry pods has a higher concentration of surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols; they have a higher viscosity and hydrotropic power. The addition of water seems to modify the alkalinity, which explains the severity of ENT, gastric, and corneal lesions. The declaration to national poison centers of these intoxications should be pursued by emergency pediatricians, physicians, and pediatric intensivists. Family physicians can encourage parents to declare adverse effects to the National Consumer Product Safety Commission. Parents need to be

  13. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and ...

  14. Pod and seed mycoflora on transgenic and conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, D A; Baird, R E; Trevathan, L E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L

    2004-02-01

    A 2-year (1999-2000) study was conducted at Starkville and Stoneville, MS to determine if the occurrence of the mycoflora varied on Roundup Ready (transgenic) compared to conventional soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. A total of 7,658 fungal isolates were identified from the pod and seed tissues of four cultivars compared at growth stages R6 and R8. Ninety-nine percent of all fungi isolated were mitosporic fungi and ascomycetes. In both years, total fungal isolates from the two locations were greater from the pod (65%) than from seed (33%) tissues. Isolation frequency from conventional cultivars was 54% compared to 46% for the transgenic cultivars. The most common fungi identified that are reported pathogens of soybean included Alternaria, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Verticillium spp. When main effects and interactions were compared among the frequency data for the fungal genera, significant differences occurred, but consistent trends were not noted. Isolation frequencies of Diaporthe spp. during the R6 growth stage, were significantly greater on the conventional than on the transgenic cultivars in both years of the study, but only at Starkville. Isolation frequencies from samples taken during the R8 growth stage were similar at both locations in 1999 and 2000. Fusarium spp. isolated at R6 and R8 growth stages from pod and seed tissues were significantly greater on conventional than on transgenic cultivars in 2000. Even though frequencies were often significantly different between the transgenic and conventional cultivars, the data was not consistent between locations, pod and seed tissues, or growth stages. The pod and seed mycoflora of transgenic and conventional soybean cultivars was, therefore, similar in Mississippi.

  15. Analysis and reconstruction of a pulsed jet in crossflow by multi-plane snapshot POD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, Romain; Thomas, Lionel; David, Laurent [Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques (LEA), SP2MI, Teleport 2, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Futuroscope Chasseneui (France)

    2009-10-15

    In this work, snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to study a pulsed jet in crossflow where the velocity fields are extracted from stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) results. The studied pulsed jet is characterized by a frequency f=1 Hz, a Reynolds number Re{sub j}= 500 (based on the mean jet velocity U{sub j}=1.67 cm/s and a mean velocity ratio of R=1). Pulsed jet and continuous jet are compared via mean velocity field trajectory and Q criterion. POD results of instantaneous, phase-averaged and fluctuating velocity fields are presented and compared in this paper. Snapshot POD applied on one plane allows us to distinguish an organization of the first spatial eigenmodes. A distinction between natural modes and pulsed modes is achieved with the results obtained by the pulsed and unforced jet. Secondly, the correlation tensor is established with four parallel planes (multi-plane snapshot POD) for the evaluation of volume spatial modes. These resulting modes are interpolated and the volume velocity field is reconstructed with a minimal number of modes for all the times of the pulsation period. These reconstructions are compared to orthogonal measurements to the transverse jet in order to validate the obtained three-dimensional velocity fields. Finally, this POD approach for the 3D flow field reconstruction from experimental data issued from planes parallel to the flow seems capable to extract relevant information from a complex three-dimensional flow and can be an alternative to tomo-PIV for large volume of measurement. (orig.)

  16. Analysis and reconstruction of a pulsed jet in crossflow by multi-plane snapshot POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet, Romain; Thomas, Lionel; David, Laurent

    2009-10-01

    In this work, snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to study a pulsed jet in crossflow where the velocity fields are extracted from stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) results. The studied pulsed jet is characterized by a frequency f = 1 Hz, a Reynolds number Re j = 500 (based on the mean jet velocity {overline{U}j} = 1.67 cm/s and a mean velocity ratio of R = 1). Pulsed jet and continuous jet are compared via mean velocity field trajectory and Q criterion. POD results of instantaneous, phase-averaged and fluctuating velocity fields are presented and compared in this paper. Snapshot POD applied on one plane allows us to distinguish an organization of the first spatial eigenmodes. A distinction between “natural modes” and “pulsed modes” is achieved with the results obtained by the pulsed and unforced jet. Secondly, the correlation tensor is established with four parallel planes (multi-plane snapshot POD) for the evaluation of volume spatial modes. These resulting modes are interpolated and the volume velocity field is reconstructed with a minimal number of modes for all the times of the pulsation period. These reconstructions are compared to orthogonal measurements to the transverse jet in order to validate the obtained three-dimensional velocity fields. Finally, this POD approach for the 3D flow field reconstruction from experimental data issued from planes parallel to the flow seems capable to extract relevant information from a complex three-dimensional flow and can be an alternative to tomo-PIV for large volume of measurement.

  17. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skowyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The eff ect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 % (by mass directly to the pork batt er and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and control (no added antioxidants. The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02 % was as effective as BHA (0.02 % in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02 % of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.

  18. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Janiewicz, Urszula; Salejda, Anna Marietta; Krasnowska, Grażyna; Almajano, María Pilar

    2015-12-01

    The effect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (by mass) directly to the pork batter and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and control (no added antioxidants). The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02% was as effective as BHA (0.02%) in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02% of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.

  19. PERFORMA PRODUKSI DOMBA YANG DIBERI COMPLETE FEED FERMENTASI BERBASIS POD KAKAO SERTA NILAI NUTRIEN TERCERNANYA SECARA IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulandari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui nilai manfaat pod kakao sebagai bahan pakan complete feed ruminansia, khususnya domba. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi nutrien tercerna complete feed, berbahan baku utama pod kakao terfermentasi, dan mengetahui performa produksi domba. Perlakuan CF0 adalah complete feed tanpa fermentasi (kontrol, perlakuan CF1 adalah complete feed dengan penambahan pod kakao terfermentasi, dan perlakuan CF2 adalah complete feed fermentasi berbasis pod kakao. Replikasi masing-masing perlakuan sebanyak 6 ekor domba. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah analisis variansi pola searah dan hasil yang berbeda dilanjutkan dengan uji beda mean Duncan new Multiple Range Test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan pod kakao terfermentasi pada complete feed maupun pakan complete feed fermentasi berbasis pod kakao tidak berpengaruh terhadap konsumsi bahan kering, protein, maupun bahan organik tercerna, serta tidak mempengaruhi pertambahan bobot badan harian dan konversi pakan. Nilai serat kasar tercerna secara in vivo terbaik terdapat pada pakan perlakuan CF2. (Kata kunci: Pod kakao, Fermentasi anaerob, Inokulum mikrobia, Complete feed, Domba

  20. Geology, petrography, geochemistry, and genesis of sulfide-rich pods in the Lac des Iles palladium deposits, western Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Charley J.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Corkery, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The Lac des Iles Pd deposits are known for their Pd-rich sulfide-poor mineralization. However, previously undocumented sulfide-rich pods also occur within the intrusion that hosts the deposits. Given the complex magmatic and hydrothermal history of the mineralization at Lac des Iles, the sulfide-rich pods could have crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids or precipitated from hydrothermal fluids. Sulfide-rich pods occur throughout the stratigraphy, in all rock types, and along comagmatic shear zones, and contain net-textured to massive sulfides. They can be divided into four main groups based on the variation in mineral assemblages: (1) pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± pyrite-chalcopyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (2) chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-magnetite-ilmenite; (3) pyrite ± pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite-ilmenite; and (4) magnetite ± ilmenite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-pyrite-chalcopyrite. Whole rock metal contents and S isotopic compositions do not change with the amount of pyrite present, except for slight enrichments in As and Bi. The presence of an essentially magmatic sulfide mineral assemblage (pyrrhotite-pentlandite ± chalcopyrite) with pentlandite exsolution flames in pyrrhotite in some pods suggests that the pods crystallized from magmatic sulfide liquids. The very low Cu contents of the pods suggests that they are mainly cumulates of monosulfide solid solution (MSS). We propose a model whereby sulfide liquids were concentrated into dilation zones prior to crystallizing cumulus MSS. Intermediate solid solution crystallized from the fractionated liquids at the edges of some pods leaving residual liquids enriched in Pt, Pd, Au, As, Bi, Sb, and Te. These residual liquids are no longer associated with the pods. During subsequent alteration, pyrite replaced MSS/pyrrhotite, but this did not affect the platinum-group element contents of the pods.

  1. 炫亮复刻——Apple iPod NANO MP3播放器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪国华

    2006-01-01

    新款Apple iPod NANO播放器来了!没错,在NANO播放器还在热销的今天,新款NANO播放器又悄然摆上了货架,而且这次它变得更加轻盈小巧,当我们还在赞赏旧款iPod NANO播放器的精致时,新款iPod NANO的出现再次刷新了我们对NANO“小巧”的理解。

  2. 荷兰豆物流保鲜技术%Storage Technology of Pea Pods in Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建中

    2011-01-01

    The storage characteristic and appropriate storage condition of postharvest pea pods were introduced. The process of storage technology and key technique of pea pods in logistics were reviewed in the paper, which would supply the reference for storage and quality control of pea pods.%介绍了荷兰豆的贮藏特性及适宜的保鲜环境条件,概述了荷兰豆采后物流过程中的保鲜技术工艺和操作要点,为荷兰豆采后的贮运保鲜提供参考.

  3. Tide Pods made its debut%Tide Pods洗涤剂闪亮登场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董青霞; 刘斌

    2012-01-01

    宝洁公司(P&G)多效洗涤剂Tide Pods的推出使洗涤剂行业发生了重大革新,改变了人们洗衣的方式,从而使洗衣这一过程发生了质的变化。Tide Pods采用一次投入式内分3格的包装,省去了用量杯计量、注入洗涤剂和预处理衣物等琐事,并能达到最好的清洗效果。%PG insisted that the rollout of Tide Pods was the biggest innovation to hit the laundry category.With Tide Pods,a kind of three-chamber packaging,there is no need to measure,pour and pre-treating,you can get the excellent results.

  4. Reticle inspection equipment productivity increase using SEMI specification for reticle and pod management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ron; Downey, Jack; Wood, Jeffrey; Lin, Yen-Hung; Bugata, Bharathi; Fan, Dongsheng; Hess, Carl; Wylie, Mark

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the SEMI specification for reticle and pod management (E109) with internal reticle library support has been integrated for the first time on KLA-Tencor's TeronTM and TeraScanTM reticle inspection tools. Manufacturing Execution System scheduling reticle jobs and Automated Material Handling System scheduling to transfer pods simultaneously have also been integrated and tested. GLOBALFOUNDRIES collaboratively worked with KLA-Tencor to successfully implement these capabilities. Both library and non-library scenarios have been demonstrated for comparison in a real production environment resulting in productivity increase of approximately 29% by making use of the library. Reticle re-qualification test cases were used for the comparison in this work.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and thin layer chromatography profiling of sequential extracts of Moringa oleifera pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Aim: The present study, primarily aims to carry out a preliminary phytochemical screening so as to detect the major class of compounds present in M. oleifera and to perform thin layer chromatography (TLC profiling of all sequential extracts. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed by various qualitative methods and TLC profiling was carried out using various solvent system of varying polarity. Results and Conclusions: Qualitative phytochemical analysis reflects the presence of phenolics, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroid, alkaloids and saponin in the plant extract. TLC profiling of the M. oleifera pods was carried out using sequential extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water respectively. The results obtained in the present investigation indicated M. oleifera pods as a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  6. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  7. Response of Boron and Light on Morph-Physiology and Pod Yield of Two Peanut Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Quamruzzaman; Md. Jafar Ullah; Md. Fazlul Karim; Nazrul Islam; Md. Jahedur Rahman; Md. Dulal Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient that enhances vegetative growth and yield of crops, like peanut. Light also plays an important role in pegging of peanut. There has been little information regarding the application of boron and light in peanut in Bangladesh. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to study the response of boron and light on morph-physiology and pod yield of two peanut varieties. Treatments considered two peanut varieties, namely, Dhaka-1 and BARI Chinabadam-8, three le...

  8. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  9. View of the starboard OMS pod of the STS-6 Challenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This view centers on the starboard orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod of the shuttle Challenger during its STS-6 mission. Two pieces of thermal protection system tile appear to have loosened. The view also shows one of the cargo bay television cameras, part of the extravehicular activity (EVA) slide wire system, three handrails and other features on the aft bulkhead. Part of the airborne support equipment (ASE) is in the lower right foreground.

  10. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content.

  11. Adsorption of Methylene Blue and Amaranth on to tamarind pod shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahalya Naidu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, agricultural waste tamarind (Tamarindus indica pod shells were used for the adsorption of dyes like methylene blue and amaranth. The operating variables studied were initial concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The kinetics of methylene blue and amaranth onto tamarind pod shells was found to follow a pseudo first order kinetics. The maximum adsorption of amaranth and methylene blue are 65.04 and 60.11 mg/g of the adsorbent respectively.  The fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy reveals that –OH, -COOH, C=O and C-O groups are involved in the adsorption process. The optimum pH for the adsorption of amaranth is 2 and methylene blue, a cationic dye shows maximum adsorption in the pH range 6-12. Characterisation of the tamarind pod shells showed that the relative percentage of protein is very less making it an excellent adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents.

  12. Passive Orbital Disconnect Strut (PODS 3), structural and thermal test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmley, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    A test program is undertaken to verify that the lifetime of a shuttle launchable dewar can be increased by using passive orbital disconnect struts (PODS). A detailed design is performed on the cold end (PODS-III) portion of the strut. Structural analysis of the thin-wall fiberglass tube allows selection of the optimum winding angle and tube dimensions. Structural tests on the thin-wall fiberglass tube measure both the tension and compression modulus at ambient and LN2 temperatures, the radial deflection versus side load, and the ultimate compression strength of the tube at LN2 temperature. The thermal expansion of the fiberglass tube plus Invar is also measured down to 78 K. The axial gap at the wedge portion of the stem is set based on these data. The PODS-III test article parts are fabricated and assembled using a detailed assembly procedure. The thermal conductants in the orbital configuration was measured for body temperatures between 5 and 40 K. This temperature range covers the predicted ground hold and orbit temperatures for vapor-cooled supports. The test results are then compared with heat leak values predicted before the test began. Side load, axial compression load, and tension load tests conclude the test program.

  13. Improving succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes from raw industrial carob pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Margarida; Roca, Christophe; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-10-01

    Carob pods are an inexpensive by-product of locust bean gum industry that can be used as renewable feedstock for bio-based succinic acid. Here, for the first time, unprocessed raw carob pods were used to extract a highly enriched sugar solution, afterwards used as substrate to produce succinic acid using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Batch fermentations containing 30g/L sugars resulted in a production rate of 1.67gSA/L.h and a yield of 0.39gSA/g sugars. Taking advantage of A. succinogenes' metabolism, uncoupling cell growth from succinic acid production, a fed-batch mode was implemented to increase succinic acid yield and reduce by-products formation. This strategy resulted in a succinic acid yield of 0.94gSA/g sugars, the highest yield reported in the literature for fed-batch and continuous experiments, while maintaining by-products at residual values. Results demonstrate that raw carob pods are a highly efficient feedstock for bio-based succinic acid production.

  14. POD/DEIM Nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Razvan

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a $\\beta$-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an a...

  15. NEC投影机促销,豪礼相送苹果iPod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    近日,NEC投影机中国总代理神州数码宣布:自4月16日至6月16日,NECLT系列三款主力产品在全国范围内开展“投影好礼,音随影动”大型促销活动。促销期间,凡购买LT30+、LT35+投影机的用户即可获赠价值698元的Apple iPod shuffle 512M MP3一部;购买LT37+投影机的用户即可获赠价值1498元的Apple iPod nano 1G MP3一部。一个是便携时尚、强性能的NEC投影机,一个是轻薄时尚的iPod MP3,两者都充满了时尚的气息和品味,两者的结合将工作、生活、娱乐一网打尽,让你实现音随影动的梦想。

  16. TOP10——10大最值得收藏的iPod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    十一羽

    2006-01-01

    长久以来,iPod都是我们关注的一个话题,很多人对它的感情已经近乎于一种信仰。iPod已经成为MP3播放器的一个标准,每当人们谈及一款MP3播放器时,脑海里的第一个念头往往是:它和iPod比有什么不同呢?自2001年10月上市以来,苹果(Apple)公司已经累计售出4200万部iPod。以设计见长的苹果将原本冰冷的硬件变得有声有色,iPod、iPod mini、iPod shuffle和iPod nano等每一代产品都成为业内潮流的引导者。这还不算,在与音乐、电影、游戏等元素结合后,iPod衍生出许多值得珍藏的限量版产品。下面,我们就来看看它们中哪些是你最值得拥有的。

  17. An improved algorithm for balanced POD through an analytic treatment of impulse response tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jonathan H.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2012-06-01

    We present a modification of the balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (balanced POD) algorithm for systems with simple impulse response tails. In this new method, we use dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) to estimate the slowly decaying eigenvectors that dominate the long-time behavior of the direct and adjoint impulse responses. This is done using a new, low-memory variant of the DMD algorithm, appropriate for large datasets. We then formulate analytic expressions for the contribution of these eigenvectors to the controllability and observability Gramians. These contributions can be accounted for in the balanced POD algorithm by simply appending the impulse response snapshot matrices (direct and adjoint, respectively) with particular linear combinations of the slow eigenvectors. Aside from these additions to the snapshot matrices, the algorithm remains unchanged. By treating the tails analytically, we eliminate the need to run long impulse response simulations, lowering storage requirements and speeding up ensuing computations. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we apply this method to two examples: the linearized, complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the two-dimensional fluid flow past a cylinder. As expected, reduced-order models computed using an analytic tail match or exceed the accuracy of those computed using the standard balanced POD procedure, at a fraction of the cost.

  18. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  19. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  1. Possible Radio Interference Between Video Capsule Endoscopy and Second-Generation OmniPod Patch Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitocco, Dario; Rizzi, Alessandro; Tortora, Annalisa; Manto, Andrea; Zaccardi, Francesco; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Costamagna, Guido; Riccioni, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to observe the small intestinal mucosa. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with T2DM, treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using second-generation OmniPod patch pump, undergoing VCE (Given M2A; VCE Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) for melena and anemia. During VCE, an abnormal interruption of communication between video capsule and its receiver occurred. Two hours after capsule ingestion, the patient activated the insulin pump infusion through the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM) because she drank a sugary beverage for the first time after ingestion. Due to this, we decided to repeat VCE after the removal of the insulin pump and PDM: at this time, the capsule recorded for more than 10 h without any interruption. The video capsule and second-generation OmniPod patch pump use the same radio frequency and this may cause interference between these two devices. In patients using second-generation OmniPod patch pump undergoing VCE, we suggest to switch to intravenous insulin infusion or multiple daily injection or to use a different model of VCE, as MiRoCam (Intromedic, Seoul, Korea).

  2. Genetic Variability and Association of Quality Characters and Pod Yield in Garden Peas (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mohammad AL-AYSH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten garden pea landraces in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications over 2 winter seasons 2011 - 2012 and 2012 - 2013 were evaluated at the experimental field of Dara'a Center of Scientific Agricultural Research, GCSAR, Syria. The study showed high heritability (H with high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV and genetic gain as percent of mean (GA % for vitamin C, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, total carotenoids and pod yield plant-1 indicating good scope for selection. The genotypic (rg and phenotypic associations (rph of pod yield plant-1 were significantly positive with protein content, fiber content and total carotenoids but significantly negative with soluble sugars. Path coefficient analysis confirmed that protein content and total soluble solids registered positive direct effects on pod yield plant-1 and negative indirect effects through each other. Protein content should be considered independently or in combination with total soluble solids and chlorophyll A while imposing selection for amelioration of quality and yield in garden peas.

  3. Total observed fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) system variabilty and probability of detection (POD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Kinney, Andy; Hogan, Robert; Guerra, Rene

    2012-05-01

    The detection of large flaws in a structure (greater than critical flaw size, >aNDE) plays an important role in probabilistic design and life management of parts. Therefore, development of reliable and capable NDT methods for detecting flaws is essential element of any life prediction system. Traditionally, the reliability and capability of NDT methods has been is studied by determining POD data in terms of a90, a90/95, and Confidence Interval (CI). However, POD data and CI are frequently reported but not necessarily well understood by NDT practionars, design, and life prediction engineers. More importantly, the use of samples statistical uncertainties for system (and/or process) variability adds further confusion. In this paper, we describe Minitab advanced statistical tools as an alternative to POD for studying FPI system reliability and capability in terms total observed system variability. The total observed system variability includes measurement errors (includes statistical uncertainty), variations due to operators and inspection processes as well and is calculated by studying Measurement System Evaluation (MSE).

  4. Control of a HexaPOD treatment couch for robot-assisted radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Christian; Ma, Lei; Wilbert, Jürgen; Baier, Kurt; Schilling, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    Moving tumors, for example in the vicinity of the lungs, pose a challenging problem in radiotherapy, as healthy tissue should not be irradiated. Apart from gating approaches, one standard method is to irradiate the complete volume within which a tumor moves plus a safety margin containing a considerable volume of healthy tissue. This work deals with a system for tumor motion compensation using the HexaPOD® robotic treatment couch (Medical Intelligence GmbH, Schwabmünchen, Germany). The HexaPOD, carrying the patient during treatment, is instructed to perform translational movements such that the tumor motion, from the beams-eye view of the linear accelerator, is eliminated. The dynamics of the HexaPOD are characterized by time delays, saturations, and other non-linearities that make the design of control a challenging task. The focus of this work lies on two control methods for the HexaPOD that can be used for reference tracking. The first method uses a model predictive controller based on a model gained through system identification methods, and the second method uses a position control scheme useful for reference tracking. We compared the tracking performance of both methods in various experiments with real hardware using ideal reference trajectories, prerecorded patient trajectories, and human volunteers whose breathing motion was compensated by the system.

  5. Silica nanowire–Au nanoparticle pea-podded composites: Synthesis and structural analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Boninelli, S. [MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Grimaldi, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2015-08-31

    Nanoscale wires of silicon oxide, among which some with embedded gold nanoparticles, are synthesized by a standard procedure involving the heating of a gold-coated silicon wafer at temperature higher than 1273 K. We report quantitative and systematic structural analyses of the silicon oxide nanowires with embedded gold nanoparticles performed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical transmittance measurements. For such pea-podded structures, the analyses allow us to correlate the diameter of the nanoparticles with the diameter of the nanowire in which they are embedded, and the diameter of the nanoparticles with their spacing. The results help in understanding the mechanism inducing the formation of such structures and indicate the coexistence of transport and instability processes during the growth stage. - Highlights: • Pea-podded SiO{sub 2} nanowire–Au nanoparticle structures are grown. • Correlations between the nanowire and the nanoparticle structural characteristics are established. • The growth mechanism of the pea-podded structures is analyzed. • Both thermodynamic instability and transport phenomena are claimed in the growth mechanism.

  6. Thermal striping in nuclear reactors: POD analysis of LES simulations and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzari, Elia; Alvarez, Andres; Marin, Oana; Obabko, Aleksandr; Lomperski, Steve; Aithal, Shashi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal fatigue caused due to thermal striping impacts design and analyses of a wide-range of industrial apparatus. This phenomena is of particular significance in nuclear reactor applications, primarily in sodium cooled fast reactors. In order to conduct systematic analyses of the thermal striping phenomena a simplified experimental set-up was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. In this set-up two turbulent jets with a temperature difference of about 20K were mixed in a rectangular tank. The jets entered the tank via 2 hexagonal inlets. Two different inlet geometries were studied, both experimentally and via high-fidelity LES simulations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was performed on the turbulent velocity field in the tank to identify the most dominant energetic modes. The POD analyses of the experimental data in both inlet geometrical configurations were compared with LES simulations. Detailed POD analyses are presented to highlight the impact of geometry on the velocity and thermal fields. These can be correlated with experimental and numerical data to assess the impact of thermal striping on the design of the upper plenum of sodium-cooled nuclear reactors. ALCF.

  7. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  8. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  9. Deciphering Transcriptional Programming during Pod and Seed Development Using RNA-Seq in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Bajaj, Prasad; Kumar, Vinay; Kulshreshtha, Akanksha; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Seed development is an important event in plant life cycle that has interested humankind since ages, especially in crops of economic importance. Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics, used mainly for its protein rich seeds. In order to understand the transcriptional programming during the pod and seed development, RNA-seq data was generated from embryo sac from the day of anthesis (0 DAA), seed and pod wall (5, 10, 20 and 30 DAA) of pigeonpea variety “Asha” (ICPL 87119) using Illumina HiSeq 2500. About 684 million sequencing reads have been generated from nine samples, which resulted in the identification of 27,441 expressed genes after sequence analysis. These genes have been studied for their differentially expression, co-expression, temporal and spatial gene expression. We have also used the RNA-seq data to identify important seed-specific transcription factors, biological processes and associated pathways during seed development process in pigeonpea. The comprehensive gene expression study from flowering to mature pod development in pigeonpea would be crucial in identifying candidate genes involved in seed traits directly or indirectly related to yield and quality. The dataset will serve as an important resource for gene discovery and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying various seed related traits. PMID:27760186

  10. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA PODS AGAINST DMBA-INDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Paliwal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Moringa oleifera pods hydroethanolic extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in male swiss albino mice against DMBA (synthetic poly aromatic hydrocarbon 7, 12- dimethyl benz(aanthracene induced hepatocarcinogenicity and oxidative stress in hepatic tissues. DMBA exposure elicited a significant escalation in TBARS substances level and depletion in antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver. It has been observed that mice treated with MO showed a significant improvement in LPO level along with elevated levels of SOD and CAT activity, which might be the reason for its chemopreventive effect. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of MO clearly indicate that the extract possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. Finally, these results suggested that M. oleifera pods extract could act against DMBA-induced hepatic injury in mice by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of M. oleifera pods extract against chemical carcinogens.

  11. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Marie Lassen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees. The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies.

  12. Microsatellite primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) reveal that a single plant sires all seeds per pod1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod. • Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods. The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit. • Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive and population genetic studies. PMID:25202634

  13. Use of geographical information system data for emergency management points of distribution analysis with POD Locator 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A

    In 2010, the article Location and Analysis of Emergency Management Point of Distributions (PODs) for Hurricane Ike was published in the Journal of Emergency Management. Using a program titled point of distribution locator (POD Locator 1.0), the article reported a 46 percent improvement in positioning PODs over the locations selected by emergency managers during Hurricane Ike in 2008. While the program could produce more effective POD locations for a given situation, a major weakness of the program was the difficulty with which population and location data were manually entered into the program for subsequent analysis. This prevented organizations that could have otherwise benefited from the program from successfully utilizing it without additional training. This research effort focuses on the leveraging of readily available geographic information system (GIS) electronic data to address this problem. Analysis of the difference between the previous manual data entry method and the GIS assisted method was statistically significant.

  14. HPLC quantitative analysis of rhein and antidermatophytic activity of Cassia fistula pod pulp extracts of various storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewchinda, Savita; Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula is well known for its laxative and antifungal properties due to anthraquinone compounds in the pods. This study quantitatively analyzed rhein in the C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts kept under various storage conditions using HPLC. The antifungal activity of the extracts and their hydrolyzed mixture was also evaluated against dermatophytes. The contents of rhein in all stored decoction extracts remained more than 95% (95.69-100.66%) of the initial amount (0.0823 ± 0.001% w/w). There was no significant change of the extracts kept in glass vials and in aluminum foil bags. The decoction extract of C. fistula pod pulp and its hydrolyzed mixture containing anthraquinone aglycones were tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes by broth microdilution technique. The results revealed good chemical and antifungal stabilities against dermatophytes of C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts stored under various accelerated and real time storage conditions.

  15. Acceleration of Gas Flow Simulations in Dual-Continuum Porous Media Based on the Mass-Conservation POD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-09-12

    Reduced-order modeling approaches for gas flow in dual-porosity dual-permeability porous media are studied based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method combined with Galerkin projection. The typical modeling approach for non-porous-medium liquid flow problems is not appropriate for this compressible gas flow in a dual-continuum porous media. The reason is that non-zero mass transfer for the dual-continuum system can be generated artificially via the typical POD projection, violating the mass-conservation nature and causing the failure of the POD modeling. A new POD modeling approach is proposed considering the mass conservation of the whole matrix fracture system. Computation can be accelerated as much as 720 times with high precision (reconstruction errors as slow as 7.69 × 10−4%~3.87% for the matrix and 8.27 × 10−4%~2.84% for the fracture).

  16. The milkweed pod1 gene encodes a KANADI protein that is required for abaxial/adaxial patterning in maize leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Candela, Héctor; Johnston, Robyn; Gerhold, Abigail; Foster, Toshi; Hake, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    .... Adaxial/abaxial polarity is thought to be necessary for laminar growth of leaves, as mutants lacking either adaxial or abaxial cell types often develop radially symmetric lateral organs. The milkweed pod1 (mwp1) mutant of maize (Zea mays...

  17. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  18. The effects of iPod and text-messaging use on driver distraction: a bio-behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouloua, M; Ahern, A; Quevedo, A; Jaramillo, D; Rinalducci, E; Smither, J; Alberti, P; Brill, C

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically examine the effects of iPod device and text-messaging activities on driver distraction. Sixty participants were asked to perform a driving simulation task while searching for songs using an iPod device or text messaging. Driving errors as measured by lane deviations were recorded and analyzed as a function of the distracters. Physiological measures (EEG) were also recorded during the driving phases in order to measure participant levels of cortical arousal. It was hypothesized that iPod use and text messaging would result in a profound effect on driving ability. The results showed a significant effect of iPod use and text-messaging on driving performance. Increased numbers of driving errors were recorded during the iPod and text-messaging phases than the pre- and post-allocation phases. Higher levels of Theta activity were also observed during the iPod and Text-messaging phase than the pre- and post-allocation phases. Implications for in-vehicle systems design, training, and safety are also discussed.

  19. Multigenic control of pod shattering resistance in Chinese rapeseed germplasm revealed by genome-wide association and linkage analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to pod shatter in unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH and inter-mated (IF2 crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering and R2 (prone to pod shattering accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02 and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09 and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06 could be repeatedly detected across environments in diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.

  20. Experimental study on hydrodynamics of L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dagang; Guo, Chunyu; Su, Yumin; Dou, Pengfei; Jing, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions using an open-water measuring instrument developed by the authors for podded propulsors, a ship model towing tank, and under water particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement systems. Under the three types of conditions, the main parameters of an L-type podded propulsor were measured, including the propeller thrust and torque, as well as the thrust, side force, and moment of the whole pod unit. In addition, the flow field on the section between the propeller and the strut was analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the dynamic azimuthing rate and direction and the turning direction affect the forces on the propeller and the whole pod unit. Forces are asymmetrically distributed between the left and right azimuthing directions because of the effect of propeller rotation. The findings of this study provide a foundation for further research on L-type podded propulsors.

  1. Nutritive evaluation and effect of Moringa oleifera pod on clastogenic potential in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promkum, Chadamas; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) has been consumed as a vegetable and utilized as a major ingredient of healthy Thai cuisine. Previous studies have shown that M. oleifera pod extracts act as bifunctional inducers along with displaying antioxidant properties and also inhibiting skin papillomagenesis in mice. This study was aimed to determine the nutritive value, and clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials of M. oleifera pod. The nutritive value was determined according to AOAC methods. The clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials were determined using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in the mouse. Eighty male mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% of ground freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod (bMO) for 2 weeks prior to administration of both direct-acting (mitomycin C, MMC) and indirect-acting (7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA), clastogens. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, dropped on acridine orange-coated slides, and then counted for reticulocytes both with and without micronuclei by fluorescence microscopy. The nutritive value of 100 g bMO consisted of: moisture content, 8.2 g; protein, 19.2 g; fat, 3.9 g; carbohydrate (dietary fiber included), 60.5 g; dietary fiber, 37.5 g; ash, 8.1 g and energy, 354 kcal. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera had no clastogenic activity in the mouse while it possessed anticlastogenic activity against both direct and indirect-acting clastogens. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% in the diets decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both MMC and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant in the dose dependent manner only in the MMC-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that bMO has no clastogenicity and possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogens, and particularly a direct-acting clastogen in the mouse.

  2. Growth Inhibition of Cocoa Pod Rot Fungus Phytophthora palmivora byPseudomonas fluorescence and Bacillus subtilis bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Widyanta Pratama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivorafungus is one of the important diseases on cocoa crop. Pod rot is the most important disease because it may cause loss of cocoa pod. Until now, the fungal pathogen of cocoa black pod disease is still a crucial problem and there is no fungicide that is really effective against the disease. One alternative to control the cocoa black pod disease is by using biological agents as biofungicide, including utilizing Pseudomonas fluorescenceand Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The research was done by isolation of P. palmivora from infected pods of Kaliwining Experimental Station to obtain pure cultures of fungus and by multiplication of P. fluorescence and B. subtilis. Antagonist test was performed by inoculating P. palmivora into a petri dish in a distance of 3 cm from the edge. P. fluorescenceand B. Subtilis were inoculated into petridishes in three days after the fungal treatment. Control was inoculated with isolate of P. palmivora only. Fungal growth was measured everyday by measuring radius of fungal colonies first time 24 hours after inoculation. Growth of Phytophthora palmivora in the two treatmens were used to calculate the percentage of inhibition. The results of this study indicated that P. fluorescence and B. subtiliswere able to inhibit fungal growth of P. palmivora. Both bacterial antagonists had the same effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of P. palmivora fungus based on the percentage of inhibition and effectiveness criteria. Based on the results of translucent zones indicated that B. subtiliswas more powerfull in inhibiting growth of P. Palmivora compared to P. fluorescence. Key words: Black pod disease of cocoa, biological control, Phytophthora palmivora, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis

  3. The Copernicus POD Service and beyond: Scientific exploitation of the orbit-related data and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Heike; Fernández, Jaime; Fernández, Carlos; Féménias, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The Copernicus POD (Precise Orbit Determination) Service is part of the Copernicus Processing Data Ground Segment (PDGS) of the Sentinel-1, -2 and -3 missions. A GMV-led consortium is operating the Copernicus POD Service being in charge of generating precise orbital products and auxiliary data files for their use as part of the processing chains of the respective Sentinel PDGS. The orbital products are available through the dedicated Copernicus data hub. The Copernicus POD Service is supported by the Copernicus POD Quality Working Group (QWG) for the validation of the orbit product accuracy. The QWG is delivering independent orbit solutions for the satellites. The cross-comparison of all these orbit solutions is essential to monitor and to improve the orbit accuracy because for Sentinel-1 and -2 this is the only possibility to externally assess the quality of the orbits. Each of the Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 satellites carries dual-frequency GPS receivers delivering the necessary measurements for the precise orbit determination of the satellites. The Sentinel-3 satellites are additionally equipped with a DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) receiver and a Laser Retro Reflector for Satellite Laser Ranging. These two additional observation techniques allow for independent validation of the GPS-derived orbit determination results and for studying biases between the different techniques. The scientific exploitation of the orbit determination and the corresponding input data is manifold. Sophisticated satellite macro models improve the modelling of the non-gravitational forces acting on the satellite. On the other hand, comparisons to orbits based on pure empirical modelling of the non-gravitational forces help to sort out deficiencies in the satellite geometry information. The dual-frequency GPS data delivered by the satellites can give valuable input for ionospheric studies important for Space Weather research. So-called kinematic

  4. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rousse, D

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp. (Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters.

  5. 野生大豆接种大豆疫霉根腐病菌后过氧化物酶(POD)活性变化%Response of POD Activity in Glycine soja Inoculated by Phytophthora sojae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏; 徐鹏飞; 范素杰; 靳立梅; 吴俊江; 王金生; 张淑珍

    2013-01-01

    对大豆疫霉菌胁迫下抗感不同野生大豆根、茎、叶中过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)活性的变化进行了初步研究.结果表明:抗病野生大豆接种后叶中POD活性在病程的大部分阶段高于感病野生大豆,同时高于未接种植株;而根和茎中的POD酶活性在病程的大部分阶段有所增加,但变化幅度不大.%Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a world wide destructive soybean disease,it may attack plants at any growth stage,causing root and stem rot. The principle of POD activity changes in roots,stems and leaves of soybean varieties with different resistance to Phytophthora sojae and the effect of POD on resistance to this disease were researched. The results showed that the POD activities of leaves in resistant soybean varieties increased compared with the susceptible soybean varieties at most of the pathogenicity stages,and it was also higher than that of control. The reaction of POD in roots and stems increased at most of the pathogenicity stages, however, the change extent was relatively low.

  6. Clinical evaluation of Crosstrees pod kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zheng; Huasong, Ma; Tan, Rong; Zou, Dewei

    2013-08-01

    Although percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty have improved the management of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs), these techniques still suffer from inherent disadvantages and complications, such as cement leakage. This prospective pilot study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 15 OVCF patients treated with a new technique, the Crosstrees pod kyphoplasty (C-pod kyphoplasty). This is in fact a balloon kyphoplasty, where the balloon is filled with cement, then opened and removed. The VAS for back pain decreased significantly from 8.9 +/- 1.4 preoperatively to 2.1 +/- 13 at 24hrs postoperatively, and to 2.2 +/-1.5 at final followup (p = 0.001). Likewise, the ODI score decreased significantly from 86.1 +/- 8.7 preoperatively to 30.5+/-7.5 at 24 h, and to 32.8 +/- 8.3 at final follow up (p = 0.001). The average vertebral height increased significantly from 14.50 1.34 mm preoperatively to 23.20 1.12 mm 24 h postoperatively and to 22.82 +/- 0.85 mm at final follow-up (p = 0.002). The kyphotic angle decreased significantly from preoperatively (28.50 +/-1.85 degrees) to 24 h postoperatively (11.30 +/-1.40 degrees) and to final follow-up (12.48 +/- 0.70 degrees) (p = 0.005). Cement leakage, infection, pulmonary embolism or nerve injury were not seen. The C-pod kyphoplasty may be an effective minimally invasive procedure to treat OVCFs, with a decreased complication rate compared with vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty.

  7. Computationally efficient simulation of unsteady aerodynamics using POD on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramos, Ruben; Vega, José M.; Varas, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Modern industrial aircraft design requires a large amount of sufficiently accurate aerodynamic and aeroelastic simulations. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers with aeroelastic capabilities, such as the NASA URANS unstructured solver FUN3D, require very large computational resources. Since a very large amount of simulation is necessary, the CFD cost is just unaffordable in an industrial production environment and must be significantly reduced. Thus, a more inexpensive, yet sufficiently precise solver is strongly needed. An opportunity to approach this goal could follow some recent results (Terragni and Vega 2014 SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst. 13 330-65 Rapun et al 2015 Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng. 104 844-68) on an adaptive reduced order model that combines ‘on the fly’ a standard numerical solver (to compute some representative snapshots), proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) (to extract modes from the snapshots), Galerkin projection (onto the set of POD modes), and several additional ingredients such as projecting the equations using a limited amount of points and fairly generic mode libraries. When applied to the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, the method produces acceleration factors (comparing with standard numerical solvers) of the order of 20 and 300 in one and two space dimensions, respectively. Unfortunately, the extension of the method to unsteady, compressible flows around deformable geometries requires new approaches to deal with deformable meshes, high-Reynolds numbers, and compressibility. A first step in this direction is presented considering the unsteady compressible, two-dimensional flow around an oscillating airfoil using a CFD solver in a rigidly moving mesh. POD on the Fly gives results whose accuracy is comparable to that of the CFD solver used to compute the snapshots.

  8. Effectiveness of Bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensisFormulation Against Cocoa Pod Borer in Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein E Senewe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Field trial of Bt insecticide formulation with a code of formulation-A +1WP against cocoa pod borer (CPB (Conopomorpha cramerella has been conducted at the heavily infested cocoa area in Holo village, Amahai sub district, Central Maluku regency. Formulation-B 2.5 WP as a commercial Bt insecticide which has been distributed widely in the market was used as a comparison Bt insecticide. The results of the trial revealed that compared with untreated treatment, Bt insecticide formulation-A +1WP significantly reduced infestation of CPB, CPB population, and yield losses of dry cocoa bean caused by CPB. At the same concentration (2.5 g/L, the effectiveness of formulation-A +1WP was not significantly different with formulation-B 2.5WP. In the case of production increase, at the same concentration (2.5 g/L formulation-A +1WP caused higher yield than formulation-B 2.5WP, i.e. 39.9% compared with 35.1%, respectively. Both Bt insecticide formulations tried did not caused phytotoxic against cocoa plant. It is recommended that controling of CPB should use concentration of 2.5 g/L Bt insecticide formulation/L of water, and should be applied at around early morning until 09.00 AM and / or at the afternoon after 15.00 PM. Spraying targets should be cocoa pods at the length of less than 8.0 cm which is not laid eggs of CPB yet. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, control, effectiveness, microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis

  9. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  10. Consistent Practices for the Probability of Detection (POD) of Fracture Critical Metallic Components Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughitt, Brian; Generazio, Edward (Principal Investigator); Nichols, Charles; Myers, Mika (Principal Investigator); Spencer, Floyd (Principal Investigator); Waller, Jess (Principal Investigator); Wladyka, Jordan (Principal Investigator); Aldrin, John; Burke, Eric; Cerecerez, Laura; Corbett, Judy; George, Jill; Hodges, Kenneth; Jones, Justin; Parker, Bradford; Petry, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    NASA-STD-5009 requires that successful flaw detection by NDE methods be statistically qualified for use on fracture critical metallic components, but does not standardize practices. This task works towards standardizing calculations and record retention with a web-based tool, the NNWG POD Standards Library or NPSL. Test methods will also be standardized with an appropriately flexible appendix to -5009 identifying best practices. Additionally, this appendix will describe how specimens used to qualify NDE systems will be cataloged, stored and protected from corrosion, damage, or loss.

  11. 苹果第5代iPod U2特别版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    能让苹果(Apple)iPod使用黑色的情况只有一种,那就是U2。没错,最新一代的iPod又一次搭上了U2的车,特别版的iPod通体黑色,只有控制盘采用的是耀眼的红色——这一红一黑的搭配足可让U2版iPod酷到“天荒地老,海枯石烂”。

  12. The precision analysis of continuous zoom lens in airborne electro-optical pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-xu; Li, Da-wei; Han, Jun-feng; Dong, Qiang; Huang, Wei; Wei, Yu

    2014-02-01

    In the research of electro-optical pod, this paper propose a mission requirements that continuous zoom lens system is using for measuring angle in the process. This paper analyzes the influence of angle measurement accuracy from focal length and optical axis errors in the process of continuous zoom, and given the mathematical model of the influence of angle measurement accuracy. The simulation analysis indicated that Angle measuring accuracy is affected by the process of continuous zoom. The simulation analysis results have certain instructive significance to engineering practice.

  13. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  14. Corrosion Inhibition of Leucaena Leucocephala Pod on Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Muthukrishnan; B.Jeyaprabha; P.Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion of the mild steel in 1 mol/L H2SO4 was investigated using Leucaena leucocephala pod extract (LLPE) as corrosion inhibitor by weight loss and electrochemical techniques.Inhibition efficiency of 95% was achieved with 500×10-6 of LLPE at 308 K.The polarization studies showed that LLPE acted as mixed type inhibitor.The adsorption of the studied inhibitor on mild steel obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm.Protective film formation against acid attack was confirmed by FT-IR,XRD and SEM techniques.

  15. Integration Impacts of a Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft-Pod (HCRSP) Arrangement on Naval Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Oil MSC Military Sealift Command n Rotational Speed NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NSWCCD Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division OEM...and guidance on the concept and the study scope • Dr. Colen Kennell for his naval architectural support & advice • Mr. Peter S. Anderson – VP... essential in any totally new design and probably essential if a larger pod is required on a T-AKE 1 hull-form. • On a modified-repeat T-AKE 1, add a

  16. Analysis of pendulum period with an iPod touch/iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggle, Justin

    2013-05-01

    We describe the use of Apple’s iPod touch/iPhone, acting as the pendulum bob, as a means of measuring pendulum period, making use of the device’s three-axis digital accelerometer and the freely available SPARKvue app from PASCO scientific. The method can be readily incorporated into an introductory physics laboratory experiment. Moreover, the principles described may be carried out with any number of smartphone devices containing an integrated accelerometer and paired with an appropriate application for collecting and sending accelerometer data as a comma-separated value file.

  17. Resistance and Stock Propulsion on the High Speed Sealift (HSS) Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft-Pod (HCRSP) Concept, Model 5653-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    pod transmission dynamometers, of 177 lbf. thrust (T) / 112 in-lbf. torque (Q) capacity, manufactured by Force Technology of Denmark. The two pods were... spurred the exploration of alternative ship designs as well as non-conventional propulsion designs on monohulls. The high speed sealift mission profile...complexity required of the coaxial shaftline drive system, and induced problems with expensive gear sets, bearings and seals. Using a pod to drive the aft

  18. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Bornok Venantius P.

    2013-01-01

    BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

  19. Granules Composed of Cocoa Pod Husk Enriched with Minerals and Their Effects on Growth of Coffee and Cocoa Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  20. Comparison between two and three-dimensional POD in a turbulent boundary layer using multi-plane stereoscopic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Hetsroni, Gad

    2011-12-01

    A comparison between two- and three-dimensional analyses using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is performed. The investigated flow field is a turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The decomposition is applied to the vorticity fields measured using a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system. The decomposition was applied using two methods: A) two-dimensional slices of the data that were used separately in a so-called slice-POD, and B) as a volumetric dataset that provides 3D-POD modes. Linear combination of the first three modes, energy distribution and reconstruction of snapshots are compared. Both decompositions capture most of the turbulent flow patterns; yet, the lower order modes show significant discrepancies between the slice-POD and 3D-POD. Therefore, in order to characterize coherent structures in turbulent flows, it is essential to perform both two- and three-dimensional decompositions. These two methods complement each other and can provide an improved interpretation of various flow features.

  1. Comparison between two and three-dimensional POD in a turbulent boundary layer using multi-plane stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberzon, Alex [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gurka, Roi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Hetsroni, Gad, E-mail: alexlib@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-12-22

    A comparison between two- and three-dimensional analyses using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is performed. The investigated flow field is a turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The decomposition is applied to the vorticity fields measured using a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system. The decomposition was applied using two methods: A) two-dimensional slices of the data that were used separately in a so-called slice-POD, and B) as a volumetric dataset that provides 3D-POD modes. Linear combination of the first three modes, energy distribution and reconstruction of snapshots are compared. Both decompositions capture most of the turbulent flow patterns; yet, the lower order modes show significant discrepancies between the slice-POD and 3D-POD. Therefore, in order to characterize coherent structures in turbulent flows, it is essential to perform both two- and three-dimensional decompositions. These two methods complement each other and can provide an improved interpretation of various flow features.

  2. Effect of particle size and addition of cocoa pod husk on the properties of sawdust and coal pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Forero Nuñez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of the world energy demand, the rise of fossil fuels costs, and the strong environmental policies around the globe are some of the reasons for the wood pellets industry increase. However, there are some other available biomass feedstocks capable of being densified for energy production. Among the various options, the use of mixed biomass pellets is becoming remarkable due to the wide variety of species, although more research is needed in order to enhance the mechanical properties of these pellets. This study aims to identify the effect of particle size on the mechanical properties of sawdust and coal pellets when cocoa pod husks are used as an additive. Cocoa pod husks have a similar composition to sawdust and less sulfur and nitrogen than coal. Thus, the use of this additive might decrease the environmental impact during coal pellets combustion. Results show an attractive potential of cocoa pod husks grinds for pellet production, an increase of the durability of coal pellets mixed with this raw material, and similar performance between cocoa pod husks and sawdust pellets. The compression ratio, the compressive and impact resistance varied linearly with the addition of cocoa pod husks.

  3. Riccati-based Feedback Stabilization of an Oscillating Vertical Cylinder using a POD Reduced-Order Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Laurent; Tissot, Gilles; Noack, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this communication is to demonstrate the use of Reduced-Order Model (ROM) based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to stabilize the flow over a circular cylinder in the laminar regime (Reynolds number equal to 60). The control is introduced by vertical oscillations of the cylinder, the objective being to determine by linear control the vertical velocity of the cylinder that stabilizes the flow. Since in Fluid-Structure Interaction, the POD algorithm cannot be applied directly, the fictitious domain method of Glowinski et al. (JMF 1999) is implemented where the solid domain is treated as a fluid undergoing an additional constraint. The POD-ROM is then classically obtained by projecting the Navier-Stokes equations on the first POD modes. The cylinder movement is enforced in the POD-ROM through the introduction of Lagrange multipliers. Finally, a Linear Quadratic Regulator framework is used to determine the optimal control law such that the flow is stabilized. Partially funded by the ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM and the Carnot project INTACOO.

  4. Hybrid POD-FFT analysis of nonlinear evolving coherent structures of DNS wavepacket in laminar-turbulent transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kean Lee; Yeo, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper concerns the study of direct numerical simulation data of a wavepacket in laminar turbulent transition in a Blasius boundary layer. The decomposition of this wavepacket into a set of "modes" (a basis that spans an approximate solution space) can be achieved in a wide variety of ways. Two well-known tools are the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To synergize the strengths of both methods, a hybrid POD-FFT is pioneered, using the FFT as a tool for interpreting the POD modes. The POD-FFT automatically identifies well-known fundamental, subharmonic, and Klebanoff modes in the flow, even though it is blind to the underlying physics. Moreover, the POD-FFT further separates the subharmonic content of the wavepacket into three fairly distinct parts: a positively detuned mode resembling a Lambda-vortex, a Craik-type tuned mode, and a Herbert-type positive-negative detuned mode pair, in decreasing order of energy. This distinction is less widely recognized, but it provides a possible explanation for the slightly positively detuned subharmonic mode often observed in previous experiments and simulations.

  5. 给你的nano带上套吧 Macaw比优丽iPod nano(5th)专用套装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    如果你是苹果的忠实粉丝,刚好你又在使用iPod nano(5th),那么我们为你推荐Macaw比优丽专门为iPod nano(5th)定制的外套。多样的色彩,透明的材质,不仅与iPod nano相得益彰,还能为你的iPod Nano保驾护航,延长nano的使用寿命。

  6. Simulation supported POD for RT test case-concept and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, C.; Bellon, C.; Deresch, A.; Ewert, U.; Jaenisch, G.-R.; Zscherpel, U.; Mistral, Q.

    2012-05-01

    Within the framework of the European project PICASSO, the radiographic simulator aRTist (analytical Radiographic Testing inspection simulation tool) developed by BAM has been extended for reliability assessment of film and digital radiography. NDT of safety relevant components of aerospace industry requires the proof of probability of detection (POD) of the inspection. Modeling tools can reduce the expense of such extended, time consuming NDT trials, if the result of simulation fits to the experiment. Our analytic simulation tool consists of three modules for the description of the radiation source, the interaction of radiation with test pieces and flaws, and the detection process with special focus on film and digital industrial radiography. It features high processing speed with near-interactive frame rates and a high level of realism. A concept has been developed as well as a software extension for reliability investigations, completed by a user interface for planning automatic simulations with varying parameters and defects. Furthermore, an automatic image analysis procedure is included to evaluate the defect visibility. The radiographic modeling from 3D CAD of aero engine components and quality test samples are compared as a precondition for real trials. This enables the evaluation and optimization of film replacement for application of modern digital equipment for economical NDT and defined POD.

  7. PROOF on the Cloud for ALICE using PoD and OpenNebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Bagnasco, S.; Brunetti, R.; Lusso, S.

    2012-06-01

    In order to optimize the use and management of computing centres, their conversion to cloud facilities is becoming increasingly popular. In a medium to large cloud facility, many different virtual clusters may concur for the same resources: unused resources can be freed either by turning off idle virtual machines, or by lowering resources assigned to a virtual machine at runtime. PROOF, a ROOT-based parallel and interactive analysis framework, is officially endorsed in the computing model of the ALICE experiment as complementary to the Grid, and it has become very popular over the last three years. The locality of PROOF-based analysis facilities forces system administrators to scavenge resources, yet the chaotic nature of user analysis tasks deems them unstable and inconstantly used, making PROOF a typical use-case for HPC cloud computing. Currently, PoD dynamically and easily provides a PROOF-enabled cluster by submitting agents to a job scheduler. Unfortunately, a Tier-2 does not comfortably share the same queue between interactive and batch jobs, due to the very large average time to completion of the latter: an elastic cloud approach would enable interactive virtual machines to temporarily subtract resources to the batch ones, without a noticeable impact on them. In this work we describe our setup of a dynamic PROOF-based cloud analysis facility based on PoD and OpenNebula, orchestrated by a simple and lightweight control daemon that makes virtualization transparent for the user.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of D-pinitol from carob pods using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Nedim; Yüksel, Esra

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on the optimization of the conditions of extraction of D-pinitol compound from carob pods by using ultrasonication. For this purpose, the Box-Behnken design, which is a widely used form of Response Surface Methodology, was used to investigate the effects of parameters on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. Four independent variables, temperature (°C), ultrasonic power (W), dilution rate (material:water ratio) and time (min), were studied. The results showed that the highest D-pinitol concentration of 11.98 g/L was obtained with an extraction temperature of 50 °C, ultrasonic power of 207 W, a dilution rate of 1:4 and an extraction time of 120 min. It was found that the D-pinitol concentration of carob extract increased with the effect of ultrasonication during the extraction process. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted extraction could be used as an alternative to conventional hot water extraction with respect to the recovery of D-pinitol from carob pods with the advantages of lower extraction temperatures, shorter extraction time and reduced energy consumption.

  9. Potency and Utilization of Cocoa Pod Husk as an Alternative Feed for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk (CPH is potential as an alternative source of feed for ruminants due to its quantity and quality. The availability of CPH in Indonesia during the harvest season is abundant and able to feed around 635,305 animal unit (AU per year. Cocoa pod husk as a feedstuff which contains crude protein between 6.80-13.78%; NDF 55.30-73.90% and ADF 38.31-58.98% is a source of fiber and can replace grass. However, CPH also contains antinutritional compounds such as lignin, tannin and theobromine. In order to optimize the use of CPH as feed, treatments are needed to improve the nutritive value and digestibility, to reduce negative effects and to extend shelf life. Processing methods can be conducted physically, chemically and microbiologically. Processing can improve the nutritional value of CPH especially the protein content. Feeding livestock using processed CPH showed better weight gain than that of unprocessed CPH. Besides, the attempt to utilize CPH as feed can overcome the shortage of forage, especially during dry season and increase ruminant productivity around the area of cocoa plantations.

  10. POD analysis of the turbulent flow downstream a mild and sharp bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakli Vester, Athanasia; Örlü, Ramis; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements have been taken of the turbulent flow at the exit plane of a mild and a sharp pipe bend. Cross-sectional flow fields were obtained 1, 2 and 3 pipe diameters downstream the bend in order to capture the flow evolution. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied in order to identify the underlying vortical patterns and revealed the existence of a single cell spanning the whole cross section as the most dominant structure, while the Dean cells appeared in the next most energetic modes. The results from these investigations, which indicate the origin of the oscillatory motion of the Dean vortices, the so-called swirl switching, were found to agree with those presented by Hellström et al. (J Fluid Mech 735:R7, 2013). Furthermore, the effect of a honeycomb, mounted at the bend inlet, on the flow field has been studied by means of statistical and POD analysis in order to test the hypothesis by Sakakibara and Machida (Phys Fluids 24:041702, 2012), viz. whether the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells is related to large-scale structures existing upstream the bend. As a consequence of the honeycomb, the Dean vortices do not appear in the mean field, nor in the most energetic modes, which opens possibilities to overcome or at least delay the problem of fatigue in piping systems which can be caused by the swirl switching.

  11. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  12. Automated recognition and tracking of aerosol threat plumes with an IR camera pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Ryan; Powell, Christopher; Gruber, Thomas; Clapp, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Protection of fixed sites from chemical, biological, or radiological aerosol plume attacks depends on early warning so that there is time to take mitigating actions. Early warning requires continuous, autonomous, and rapid coverage of large surrounding areas; however, this must be done at an affordable cost. Once a potential threat plume is detected though, a different type of sensor (e.g., a more expensive, slower sensor) may be cued for identification purposes, but the problem is to quickly identify all of the potential threats around the fixed site of interest. To address this problem of low cost, persistent, wide area surveillance, an IR camera pod and multi-image stitching and processing algorithms have been developed for automatic recognition and tracking of aerosol plumes. A rugged, modular, static pod design, which accommodates as many as four micro-bolometer IR cameras for 45deg to 180deg of azimuth coverage, is presented. Various OpenCV1 based image-processing algorithms, including stitching of multiple adjacent FOVs, recognition of aerosol plume objects, and the tracking of aerosol plumes, are presented using process block diagrams and sample field test results, including chemical and biological simulant plumes. Methods for dealing with the background removal, brightness equalization between images, and focus quality for optimal plume tracking are also discussed.

  13. Adsorption of direct dye onto activated carbon prepared from areca nut pod--an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswami, P; Sivakumar, N; Ponnuswamy, S; Venkateswaren, V; Kavitha, G

    2010-10-01

    Activated carbons are made from various agricultural wastes by physical and chemical activation. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and also provides an excellent method for the solid waste disposal thereby reduce pollution. Areca nut pod, which is an agricultural waste, has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon (AAC) by four different methods. The adsorption of Direct blue dye used in textile industry on the porous areca nut pod activated carbon was investigated. The activated carbon AAC has an average surface area of 502 m2/g. CAC, the commercial reference was mainly micro porous with a surface area of 1026 m2/g .The study investigated the removal of direct dye from simulated water. The effects of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The results indicate that AAC could be employed as low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of acid dyes.

  14. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Is It Time to Rename PCOS to HA-PODS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Suvarna Satish

    2016-04-01

    The term polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) came into existence 80 years ago. Pathophysiology of PCOS remains ill understood despite extensive research in this field. It is now accepted that the manifestations of PCOS are not confined to the reproductive dysfunction, and there are endocrine-metabolic implications to PCOS with several consequences to female health. PCOS is a misnomer as ovaries do not contain epithelial cysts, but they are actually antral follicles. Moreover, the name PCOS neither reflects the hyperandrogenism which is essential for diagnosis nor the metabolic derangements. While various authors have expressed the need for change of the name, a suitable new option has not yet been established. This review aims to analyse the current understanding of pathophysiology of PCOS and addresses to the controversies associated with its diagnosis and nomenclature. The name "Hyperandrogenic Persistent Ovulatory Dysfunction Syndrome or HA-PODS" is proposed here to overcome diagnostic pitfalls of previous nomenclature. This new name will help formulate appropriate treatment and promote consistency in research as well. Further categorizations of HA-PODS are also discussed in the article.

  15. Adsorption of naphthalene from aqueous solution on activated carbons obtained from bean pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Belen; Budinova, Temenuzhka; Ania, Conchi O; Tsyntsarski, Boyko; Parra, José B; Petrova, Bilyana

    2009-01-30

    The preparation of activated carbons from bean pods waste by chemical (K(2)CO(3)) and physical (water vapor) activation was investigated. The carbon prepared by chemical activation presented a more developed porous structure (surface area 1580 m(2) g(-1) and pore volume 0.809 cm(3) g(-1)) than the one obtained by water vapor activation (258 m(2) g(-1) and 0.206 cm(3) g(-1)). These carbons were explored as adsorbents for the adsorption of naphthalene from water solutions at low concentration and room temperature and their properties are compared with those of commercial activated carbons. Naphthalene adsorption on the carbons obtained from agricultural waste was stronger than that of carbon adsorbents reported in the literature. This seems to be due to the presence of large amounts of basic groups on the bean-pod-based carbons. The adsorption capacity evaluated from Freundlich equation was found to depend on both the textural and chemical properties of the carbons. Naphthalene uptake on biomass-derived carbons was 300 and 85 mg g(-1) for the carbon prepared by chemical and physical activation, respectively. Moreover, when the uptake is normalized per unit area of adsorbent, the least porous carbon displays enhanced naphthalene removal. The results suggest an important role of the carbon composition including mineral matter in naphthalene retention. This issue remains under investigation.

  16. The GLAS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Precision Orbit Determination (POD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Hyung Jin; Yoon, S. P.; Schultz, Bob E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was the sole instrument for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry mission. The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to make ice sheet elevation measurements of the polar regions. Additional goals were to measure the global distribution of clouds and aerosols and to map sea ice, land topography and vegetation. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission to be used to determine the mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as for providing cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. The GLAS instrument operated from 2003 to 2009 and provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine changes in sea ice freeboard, land topography and vegetation around the globe, in addition to elevation changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. This document describes the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) algorithm for the ICESat mission. The problem of determining an accurate ephemeris for an orbiting satellite involves estimating the position and velocity of the satellite from a sequence of observations. The ICESatGLAS elevation measurements must be very accurately geolocated, combining precise orbit information with precision pointing information. The ICESat mission POD requirement states that the position of the instrument should be determined with an accuracy of 5 and 20 cm (1-s) in radial and horizontal components, respectively, to meet the science requirements for determining elevation change.

  17. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, computation fluid dynamics (CFD and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermodynamic over a hypersonic surface indicate that: the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.

  18. A reduced order aerothermodynamic modeling framework for hypersonic vehicles based on surrogate and POD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen X in; Liu Li; Long Teng; Yue Zhenjiang

    2015-01-01

    Aerothermoelasticity is one of the key technologies for hypersonic vehicles. Accurate and efficient computation of the aerothermodynamics is one of the primary challenges for hypersonic aerothermoelastic analysis. Aimed at solving the shortcomings of engineering calculation, compu-tation fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigation, a reduced order modeling (ROM) framework for aerothermodynamics based on CFD predictions using an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is developed. Both proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and surrogate are considered and compared to construct ROMs. Two surrogate approaches named Kriging and optimized radial basis function (ORBF) are utilized to construct ROMs. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm of fast maximin Latin hypercube design is proposed, which proves to be helpful to improve the precisions of ROMs. Test results for the three-dimensional aerothermody-namic over a hypersonic surface indicate that:the ROMs precision based on Kriging is better than that by ORBF, ROMs based on Kriging are marginally more accurate than ROMs based on POD-Kriging. In a word, the ROM framework for hypersonic aerothermodynamics has good precision and efficiency.

  19. The effect of genetic parameters on inheritance of the first pod hight in snap bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the inheritance, gene effect, combination abilities and genetic variance components, we investigated six divergent snap bean genotypes (Supernor, Darija, Grinkrop, Palanačka rana, Šumadinka and Zora and their F1 progeny created by diallel crossing without reciprocals. For the trait of height of forming the first pod, variance of average value of parents and hybrids was highly significant. The value of dominant components (H1 and H2 was higher than additive component (D, meaning that dominant genes control the inheritance of number of pods per plant. The average level of domination √Hl/D is higher than 1, pointing to superdomination. Heritability in broader sence amounts 90% pointing to high contribution in inheriting the number of pods per plant.

  20. Att bygga ett starkt varumärke i teori och praktik : En fallstudie av iPod

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ly, David; Hamza, Pako

    2009-01-01

    Denna uppsats är en fallstudie med fokus på huruvida iPod uppfyller det teoretiska krav som föreligger för ett starkt varumärke. Apple är ett företag med ett varumärke som anses vara ett av de starkaste i världen och därför finner vi det intressant att studera hur de har gått tillväga när det gäller mp3- spelaren iPod. Det är av intresse att studera just iPod då det är en produkt som har lyckats när man ser till försäljningssiffror och produktens ställning på marknaden....

  1. 无处不在 苹果iPod shuffle 06款MP3随身听

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    沉寂多时,几乎改变了整个MP3随身听设计理念的苹果(Apple)又携其iPod系列06款新品出现在了我们面前。此次发布的产品囊括了iPod nano、iPod(Video)、iPod shuffle三线,但笔者认为改变最大、最值得一提还是这只06款iPod shuffle。不仅是因为它背负着世界最小数字音乐随身听的名分,而且它对MP3随身听的含义更进一步的诠释。

  2. Data in support of proteome analysis of gynophores and early swelling pods of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different from most of other plants, peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a typical geocarpic species which flowering and forming pegs (gynophores above the ground. Pegs penetrate into soil for embryo and pod development. To investigate the molecular mechanism of geocarpy feature of peanut, the proteome profiles of aerial grown gynophores (S1, subterranean unswollen gynophores (S2, and gynophores that had just started to swell into pods (S3 were analyzed by combining 1 DE with nano LC–MS/MS approaches. The proteomic data provided valuable information for understanding pod development of peanut. The data described here can be found in the PRIDE Archive using the reference number PXD002579-81. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article in BMC Plant Biology (Zhao et al., 2015 [1].

  3. PARTIAL OPTIMIZATION AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE (PPO AND PEROXIDASE (POD EXTRACTED FROM CHILLY PEPPER PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase(PPO (E.C. number 1.10.3.1 has ubiquitous distribution in almost all living organism. Whereas, peroxidase(POD (E.C. number 1.11.1 act as hormone regulation and defense mechanism in plants. Keeping in pace with their present-day industrial application, efforts have been made to evaluate the activity of these two enzymes (PPO and POD using pepper pericarp (Capsicum annuum L. as an experimental material using catechol and guaiacol as a substrate, respectively. The effects of enzyme extract, substrate, hydrogen peroxide concentration (only for POD, pH and temperature and antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains were investigated.

  4. Total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of seed and pod of Prosopis farcta from Sistan region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poudineh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Prosopis farcta (Fabaceae were investigated. The extracts were derived from seed and fruit pod parts by Ethanol, Methanol, Octanol and n-heptan solvents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure antioxidant activities. Among the extracts, the seed Octanol extract (IC50=0.95 µg/ml showed the best antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities in various solvents showed different trends that may be as a result of differences in polarity and H-bonding ability of each solvent. The highest phenolic content of P. farcta was also obtained by the Octanol extraction in both seed and pod organs. Antibacterial properties of extracts were only recorded by methanol and ethanol extracts of the fruit pods which inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli. The results of the present work indicated that the selective extraction of Prosopis farcta by appropriate solvents could be very important to obtain bioactive fractions.

  5. An Extraction of the Dominant Rotor-Stator Interaction Modes by the Use of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. TREBINJAC; N. ROCHUON; G. BILLONNET

    2006-01-01

    The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method is applied to the instantaneous velocity field within the rotor-stator inter-row region of a high-speed high-pressure centrifugal compressor. The processed data come from experiments and numerical simulations. In comparison with a Fourier transform, the POD gives the best modal approximation for both initial fields, in terms of the energy expressed on any given number of modes to be taken into account: to reach 98% of the total energy of the velocity field, the required number of POD modes is around nine times smaller than the number of Fourier harmonics. The individual POD modes are given and show that the unsteady rotor-stator interaction is already present in the very first modes.

  6. Marketingový plán fitness centra Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad

    OpenAIRE

    Štěchová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    Title: The marketing plan of fitness center Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad. Objectives: The main aim of the dimploma thesis is to construct a marketing plan for fitness center Expreska Jiřího z Poděbrad for the year 2017. The proposed marketing strategy, including the implementation plan will be directed to achieve marketing and business goals of the organization. Methods: For analysis of the microenvironment is used Porter matrix. Analysis of macroenvironment is done with the help of PEST analys...

  7. Obravnava škodnih primerov avtomobilskih zavarovanj ob sumu vožnje pod vplivom prepovedanih substanc

    OpenAIRE

    Kuštrin, Samo

    2017-01-01

    Magistrsko delo, ki je pred vami, predstavlja sintezo dveh problematičnih področij v Sloveniji, in sicer pojavnosti zavarovalniških goljufij/prevar (v sklopu avtomobilskega zavarovanja) ter vožnje pod vplivom alkohola, prepovedanih substanc in trigoničnih zdravil. Prekrivanje teh dveh področij je polje potencialnih in dejanskih zavarovalniških goljufij/prevar zaradi škodnih dogodkov, ki so nastali zaradi vožnje pod vplivom prepovedanih substanc in trigoničnih zdravil. Zavarovalniške golju...

  8. Low frequency magnetic emissions and resulting induced voltages in a pacemaker by iPod portable music players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassen Howard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, malfunctioning of a cardiac pacemaker electromagnetic, caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI by fields emitted by personal portable music players was highly publicized around the world. A clinical study of one patient was performed and two types of interference were observed when the clinicians placed a pacemaker programming head and an iPod were placed adjacent to the patient's implanted pacemaker. The authors concluded that "Warning labels may be needed to avoid close contact between pacemakers and iPods". We performed an in-vitro study to evaluate these claims of EMI and present our findings of no-effects" in this paper. Methods We performed in-vitro evaluations of the low frequency magnetic field emissions from various models of the Apple Inc. iPod music player. We measured magnetic field emissions with a 3-coil sensor (diameter of 3.5 cm placed within 1 cm of the surface of the player. Highly localized fields were observed (only existing in a one square cm area. We also measured the voltages induced inside an 'instrumented-can' pacemaker with two standard unipolar leads. Each iPod was placed in the air, 2.7 cm above the pacemaker case. The pacemaker case and leads were placed in a saline filled torso simulator per pacemaker electromagnetic compatibility standard ANSI/AAMI PC69:2000. Voltages inside the can were measured. Results Emissions were strongest (≈ 0.2 μT pp near a few localized points on the cases of the two iPods with hard drives. Emissions consisted of 100 kHz sinusoidal signal with lower frequency (20 msec wide pulsed amplitude modulation. Voltages induced in the iPods were below the noise level of our instruments (0.5 mV pp in the 0 – 1 kHz band or 2 mV pp in the 0 – 5 MHz bandwidth. Conclusion Our measurements of the magnitude and the spatial distribution of low frequency magnetic flux density emissions by 4 different models of iPod portable music players. Levels of less than 0.2

  9. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  10. A method for creating interactive content for the iPod, and its potential use as a learning tool: Technical Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podcasting is currently a popular means of delivery of information with a large number of podcasts specifically tailored for educational purposes. It can be argued that the passive nature of this teaching methodology limits the educational benefit that can be derived from podcasts. This paper describes the development and construction of interactive material for the iPod, and a survey of student attitudes towards this type of learning material. Methods The development of interactive material for an iPod is described in detail. This material was developed and demonstrated to 50 medical students. These students completed a paper-based survey on the potential uses of this technology, before and after a 20 minute presentation in class of an interactive case-study on an iPod. Results A technical description of how to develop interactive content for the iPod was created. The results of the student survey indicate a favourable shift in student attitudes after viewing the interactive case. Despite only 15% of the students owning an iPod, 57% of the students were positive about having access to interactive iPod content and 59% believed they would use it whilst travelling. The percentage of students who felt podcasting was a useful means of learning increased from 9% to 41%. Conclusion The development of interactive content for the iPod is feasible. There are indications that students view interactive iPod cases as having value as an additional learning resource.

  11. Examining the Effectiveness of an iPod Touch with Video Prompts to Teach Community Based Vocational Tasks to Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Angela A.

    2012-01-01

    Three student employees with intellectual disabilities and autism used an iPod touch with video prompts to increase their level of independence at work. Using the iPod, they each experienced an increase in correct task completion across three work tasks. In addition, I conducted a social validation study to determine if employers and job coaches…

  12. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  13. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  14. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent body fat in collegiate track and field female athletes: a comparison of four methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzur, Keren M; Kravitz, Len; Lockner, Donna W

    2008-11-01

    This investigation examined the accuracy of the BOD POD on a group of Division I collegiate track and field female athletes (N = 30). Hydrostatic weighing (HW) was used as the gold standard method. Body density (Db) values obtained from the BOD POD (Db BP) were compared with those determined by HW (Db HW). Both Db values were converted to percent body fat (%BF) using the Siri equation for comparison. Percent body fat values obtained from the BOD POD (BF BP) were also compared with those obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, BF DXA) and skinfold (SF, BF SF). The validity of the BOD POD was assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the relationship between the methods was examined through Pearson correlation. Average Db BP was 0.00890 g x cm(-3) lower (p BOD POD. Values for BFDXA and BFBP also differed significantly (p BOD POD has the potential to be used as a body composition analysis tool for female athletes. The advantages of the BOD POD over HW encourage further investigation of this instrument. However, the fact that the BOD POD and SF results did not differ significantly might suggest that the SF could be used in its place until a better rate of accuracy for this instrument is established.

  15. Use of iPads and iPods for Academic Performance and Engagement of Prek-12 Students with Disabilities: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Min Wook; Kim, Woori

    2017-01-01

    New technology devices such as iPads and iPods have become very popular and widely used in special education settings to teach students with disabilities. The 20 selected single-case design studies published by November 2015 were comprehensively reviewed to examine the effects of using iPads and iPods on academic performance and engagement of…

  16. Use of iPads and iPods for Academic Performance and Engagement of Prek-12 Students with Disabilities: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Min Wook; Kim, Woori

    2017-01-01

    New technology devices such as iPads and iPods have become very popular and widely used in special education settings to teach students with disabilities. The 20 selected single-case design studies published by November 2015 were comprehensively reviewed to examine the effects of using iPads and iPods on academic performance and engagement of…

  17. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  18. Electronic interactions between "pea" and "pod": the case of oligothiophenes encapsulated in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Blondeau, Pascal; Salice, Patrizio; Menna, Enzo; Bártová, Barbora; Hébert, Cécile; Leschner, Jens; Kaiser, Ute; Milko, Matus; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2011-07-04

    One of the most challenging strategies to achieve tunable nanophotonic devices is to build robust nanohybrids with variable emission in the visible spectral range, while keeping the merits of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). This goal is realized by filling SWNTs ("pods") with a series of oligothiophene molecules ("peas"). The physical properties of these peapods are depicted by using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and other optical methods including steady-state and time-resolved measurements. Visible photoluminescence with quantum yields up to 30% is observed for all the hybrids. The underlying electronic structure is investigated by density functional theory calculations for a series of peapods with different molecular lengths and tube diameters, which demonstrate that van der Waals interactions are the bonding mechanism between the encapsulated molecule and the tube.

  19. POD of vorticity fields: A method for spatial characterization of coherent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurka, Roi [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)]. E-mail: rgurka@eng.uwo.ca; Liberzon, Alexander [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: liberzon@ihw.baug.ethz.ch; Hetsroni, Gad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: hetsroni@tx.technion.ac.il

    2006-06-15

    We present a method to identify large scale coherent structures, in turbulent flows, and characterize them. The method is based on the linear combination of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes of vorticity. Spanwise vorticity is derived from the two-dimensional and two-component velocity fields measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the streamwise-wall normal plane of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The identification method makes use of the whole data set simultaneously, through the two-point correlation tensor, providing a statistical description of the dominant coherent motions in a turbulent boundary layer. The identified pattern resembles an elongated, quasi-streamwise, vortical structure with streamwise length equal to the water height in the flume and inclined upwards in the streamwise-wall normal plane at angle of approximately 8{sup o}.

  20. A Wing Pod-based Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar on HIAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Jothiram; Tsai, Peisang; Ellis, Scott; Loew, Eric; Lee, Wen-Chau; Emmett, Joanthan

    2014-05-01

    One of the attractive features of a millimeter wave radar system is its ability to detect micron-sized particles that constitute clouds with lower than 0.1 g m-3 liquid or ice water content. Scanning or vertically-pointing ground-based millimeter wavelength radars are used to study stratocumulus (Vali et al. 1998; Kollias and Albrecht 2000) and fair-weather cumulus (Kollias et al. 2001). Airborne millimeter wavelength radars have been used for atmospheric remote sensing since the early 1990s (Pazmany et al. 1995). Airborne millimeter wavelength radar systems, such as the University of Wyoming King Air Cloud Radar (WCR) and the NASA ER-2 Cloud Radar System (CRS), have added mobility to observe clouds in remote regions and over oceans. Scientific requirements of millimeter wavelength radar are mainly driven by climate and cloud initiation studies. Survey results from the cloud radar user community indicated a common preference for a narrow beam W-band radar with polarimetric and Doppler capabilities for airborne remote sensing of clouds. For detecting small amounts of liquid and ice, it is desired to have -30 dBZ sensitivity at a 10 km range. Additional desired capabilities included a second wavelength and/or dual-Doppler winds. Modern radar technology offers various options (e.g., dual-polarization and dual-wavelength). Even though a basic fixed beam Doppler radar system with a sensitivity of -30 dBZ at 10 km is capable of satisfying cloud detection requirements, the above-mentioned additional options, namely dual-wavelength, and dual-polarization, significantly extend the measurement capabilities to further reduce any uncertainty in radar-based retrievals of cloud properties. This paper describes a novel, airborne pod-based millimeter wave radar, preliminary radar measurements and corresponding derived scientific products. Since some of the primary engineering requirements of this millimeter wave radar are that it should be deployable on an airborne platform

  1. Antinociceptive and Toxicological Effects of Dioclea grandiflora Seed Pod in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract from the seed pod of Dioclea grandiflora (EDgP at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive effect as displayed by the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin test. The antinociception was observed through the first (neurogenic pain and second (inflammatory pain phases in the formalin test. The hot plate test did not show an increase in the antinociceptive latency whereas the motor performance was affected by the administration at 300 mg/kg at the beginning (30 minutes of the observation period but not at later periods (60 and 120 minutes. These results suggest that EDgP has a central antinociceptive action and a possible anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

  2. AppLe iPod Shuffle MP3播放器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MC

    2005-01-01

    简约精巧是苹果公司设计产品的经典原则.这个思想同样在年初问世的iPod Shuffle上得到传神体现。在其修长的白色外壳里.封装的是一个集成512MB或1GB闪存的音乐播放器。对于使用者而言.机身上的几个按键如何使用可谓一目了然——前面板上.iPod风格的转轮上分布着前进、后退和音量调节.转轮的中间则是大大的播放/暂停钮。

  3. POD based analysis of three-dimensional stall over a pitching wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Matthew; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Mulleners, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine blade is a predominant factor in its power production. Under dynamic loading conditions, predicted aerodynamic loads often do not match operational loads. In the interest of gaining understanding of the complex flow over wind turbine blades, a three-dimensional scaled blade model has been designed and manufactured to be dynamically similar to a rotating full-scale NREL 5MW wind turbine blade. Time resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements collected over the suction surface of an inboard section of the experimental turbine blade. Flow characteristics are analyzed using coherent structure identification techniques to capture dynamic stall behavior. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the velocity field providing information about separation point and stall development time scales based on the associated time coefficients and modes. Additionally, continuity and circulation calculations are used to capture three dimensional effects within stalled volumes during developing stall and re-attachment phases of dynamic stall.

  4. Robust Controller Design Using the Nevanlinna-Pick Interpolation in Gyro Stabilized Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity minimization of feedback system is solved based on the theory of Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation with degree constraint without using weighting functions. More details of the dynamic characteristic of second-order system investigated, which is determined by the location of spectral zeroes, the upper bound γ of S, the length of the spectral radius and the additional interpolation constraints. And the guidelines on how to tune the design parameters are provided. Gyro stabilized pod as a typical tracking system is studied, which is based on the typical structure of two-axis and four-frame. The robust controller is designed based on Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation with degree constraint. When both friction of LuGre model and disturbance exist, the closed-loop system has stronger disturbance rejection ability and high tracking precision. Numerical examples illustrate the potential of the method in designing robust controllers with relatively low degrees.

  5. Stereoscopic PIV and POD applied to the far turbulent axisymmetric jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wähnström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on asymptotic high Reynolds number turbulent jet have shown a difference between results from the slice POD applied to the full velocity vector and to the streamwise component of velocity only. In particular, the evolution of the peak in the energy toward azimuthal mode-2...... in the streamwise velocity component decomposition noted in earlier experiments, shifted to mode-1 if all three components of velocity were considered. This is in contrast to what appears to be the case for the jet mixing layer and the axisymmetric wake6 where no such differences were observed. The work reported...... here applies stereoscopic PIV to the far field of the same jet in which the mode-2 phenomenon was first noticed. Indeed azimuthal mode-1 is maximal if all three velocity components are considered, so the new findings are confirmed. This work also addresses a number of outstanding issues from all...

  6. Effects of lanthanum on POD expression and DNA methylation of purple pepper under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡能兵; 隋益虎; 蔡永萍; 樊洪泓; 林毅

    2014-01-01

    Pepper seedlings were hydroponically cultivated in 0-20 mg/L extraneous lanthanum chloride (La3+) for different numbers of days to investigate its regulating effects under salt stress. The results showed that, depending on the salt stress of 0.75 g/L, a lower concentration of La3+(1.0 mg/L) might result in the lowest death rate, increase POD activity and change the band type of the stem and root on the 8th day. Furthermore, a methylation analysis by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique indicated that a lower concentration of La3+ (1.0 mg/L) triggered the lowest methylation level of 26.1%, of which the hypermethylation events were the primary type of methylation. In addition, the sequencing of 14 differ-entially expressed polymorphic fragments and the subsequent blast search revealed that La3+ could induce methylation events in salt-tolerance sequences.

  7. EpiPOD : community vaccination and dispensing model user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M.; Samsa, M.; Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-01-09

    EpiPOD is a modeling system that enables local, regional, and county health departments to evaluate and refine their plans for mass distribution of antiviral and antibiotic medications and vaccines. An intuitive interface requires users to input as few or as many plan specifics as are available in order to simulate a mass treatment campaign. Behind the input interface, a system dynamics model simulates pharmaceutical supply logistics, hospital and first-responder personnel treatment, population arrival dynamics and treatment, and disease spread. When the simulation is complete, users have estimates of the number of illnesses in the population at large, the number of ill persons seeking treatment, and queuing and delays within the mass treatment system--all metrics by which the plan can be judged.

  8. Application of POD on time-resolved schlieren in supersonic multi-stream rectangular jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. G.; Magstadt, A. S.; Glauser, M. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental investigation of a supersonic rectangular nozzle with aft deck used for three-stream engines. The jet utilizes a single expansion ramp nozzle (SERN) configuration along with multiple streams, operating at a bulk flow Mj,1 = 1.6 and bypass stream Mj,3 = 1.0. This idealized representation consists of two canonical flows: a supersonic convergent-divergent (CD) jet and a sonic wall jet. Time-resolved schlieren experiments were performed up to 100 kHz. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), as suggested by Lumley for structure identification in turbulent flows, is applied to the schlieren images and the spatial eigenfunctions and time-dependent coefficients are related to the flow structures. This research seeks to lay a foundation for fundamental testing of multi-stream SERNs and the identification of the flow physics that dominate these modern military nozzles.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of Parkia speciosa Hassk pods assisted by microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of the microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using extract of stinky bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk pods (BP. The formation of Ag NPs was identified by instrumental analysis consists of UV–vis spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. Furthermore, Ag NPs were used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicate rapid formation of Ag NPs during microwave irradiation with similar properties to those obtained through the aging method. In general, the use of microwave irradiation yields larger particles, and it is affected by volume ratio of the extract to the AgNO3 solution. The prepared materials demonstrated antibacterial activity.

  10. Identification of Large-Scale Structure Fluctuations in IC Engines using POD-Based Conditional Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.

  11. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  12. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  13. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of pymetrozine on these crops, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs from 2 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg in lamb`s lettuce and to 7 mg/kg in beans (with pods. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the residue trials on lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods were not valid because the samples were stored for a period for which integrity of the samples is not guaranteed. The proposal to compensate for the potential loss of residues during storage by applying a correction factor is not acceptable because the instability of pymetrozine residues in watery matrices is not only affected by the nature of the crop, but might depend also on other factors such as the preparation of samples and the design of the residue decline studies. EFSA therefore concludes that the available data are not sufficient to derive a MRL proposal for lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods reflecting the intended GAP notified in this application.

  14. Survey of High School Students' Perceptions about Their iPod Use, Knowledge of Hearing Health, and Need for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Dunne, Aislinn F.; Young, Matthew D.; Rotan, Suzanne N.; Snelson, Tasha A.; Stockwell, Jennifer S.; McLain, Michelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: High school students' knowledge about hearing health and their perceptions of how they use personal listening devices (PLDs) including iPods were surveyed to determine the need, content, and preferred format for educational outreach to them. Method: This study was a descriptive convenience survey of students at a California high school.…

  15. An Investigation of Using iPod Fluency Apps and Repeated Reading with Self-Recording for CLDE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Deanna J.

    2012-01-01

    School districts are struggling with how to meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse exceptional (CLDE) students. Research has correlated improvement in core language learning--writing, reading decoding, reading comprehension, and listening--with the use of iPods. This dissertation therefore examines the ability of current, portable…

  16. Using Video Modeling Delivered through iPods to Teach Vocational Tasks to Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellems, Ryan O.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling delivered through a Portable media player (video iPod) as a means of teaching three job-related tasks to four young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a community-based employment setting. The videos used in the study were enhanced by adding written…

  17. Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers' Perceptions of iPod and Mp3 Technology Integration into Curricular and Cocurricular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe agricultural science and technology teachers' reaction to iPod and mp3 technology use and potential use in both curricular and cocurricular activities. A total of 112 unique respondents provided written responses to open-ended questions. Study findings reveal that agricultural science and technology…

  18. Three Students with Developmental Disabilities Learn to Operate an iPod to Access Age-Appropriate Entertainment Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M.

    2011-01-01

    Students with developmental disabilities may not have the necessary skills or the same opportunities to access multimedia-based leisure materials as their typical peers. Portable multimedia devices such as the iPod Touch[R] may provide them with a useful tool for accessing age-appropriate leisure material. The present study examined the…

  19. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  20. Pod mesocarp flour of North and South American species of Leguminous tree (mesquite): Composition and food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour from the mesocarp of pods of the tree legume known as mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in North America or algarrobo in South America was one of the most important food staples for desert people. Contemporary milling techniques produces a similar flour that is about 40% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, and...

  1. Evaluation of bioethanol production from carob pods by Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae In solid submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharkhiz, Saeed; Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol production from carob pods has attracted many researchers due to its high sugar content. Both Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used previously for this purpose in submerged and solid-state fermentation. Since extraction of sugars from the carob pod particles is a costly process, solid-state and solid submerged fermentations, which do not require the sugar extraction step, may be economical processes for bioethanol production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bioethanol production in solid submerged fermentation from carob pods. The maximum ethanol production of 0.42 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained for Z. mobilis at 30°C, initial pH 5.3, and inoculum size of 5% v/v, 9 g carob powder per 50 mL of culture media, agitation rate 0 rpm, and fermentation time of 40 hr. The maximum ethanol production for S. cerevisiae was 0.40 g g(-1) initial sugar under the same condition. The results obtained in this research are comparable to those of Z. mobilis and S. cerevisiae performance in other culture mediums from various agricultural sources. Accordingly, solid submerged fermentation has a potential to be an economical process for bioethanol production from carob pods.

  2. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  3. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  4. Computational Aerodynamic Prediction for Integration of an Advanced Reconnaissance Pod on a 5th Generation Fighter Type Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paolis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a computational aerodynamic prediction to support the aeromechanical integration of an advanced reconnaissance pod on a 5th generation fighter type aircraft is presented. The aim of the activity was to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the new pod to a previous one already cleared on the same aircraft fleet, given verified inertial and structural similarity. Verifying the aforementioned aerodynamic similarity without involving extensive flight test activity was a must, to save time and to reduce costs. A two steps approach was required by the Certification Authority to verify, initially, the performance data compatibility in terms of aerodynamic coefficients of the old pod with the new one, in order to allow performance flight manual data interchangeability (a quantitative comparison was required; afterwards, a qualitative assessment was conducted to verify the absence of unsteadiness induced by the introduction in the external structure of the new pod of an auxiliary antenna case. Computational results are presented both for Straight and Level Un-accelerated Flight and SteadySideslip flight conditions at different Angles of Attack.

  5. Enabling data analysis à la PROOF on the Italian ATLAS Tier2's using PoD

    CERN Document Server

    Ganis, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Antonelli, M; Carlino, G; De Salvo, A; Di Nardo, R; Doria, A; Manafov, A; Martini, A; Testa, M; Vilucchi, E

    2012-01-01

    We describe our experience using PROOF for data analysis on the Italian ATLAS-Tier2 in Frascati, Napoli and Roma1. To enable PROOF on the cluster we used PoD, Proof- on-Demand. PoD is a set of tools designed to interact with any resource management system (RMS) to start the PROOF daemons. In this way any user can quickly setup its own PROOF cluster on the resources, with the RMS taking care of scheduling, priorities and accounting. Usage of PoD has steadily increased in the last years, and the product has now reached a production level quality. PoD features an abstract interface to RMSs and provides several plugins for the most common RMSs. In our tests we used both the gLite and PBS plug-ins, the latter being the native RMS handling the resources under test. Data were accessed via xrootd, with file discovery provided by the standard ATLAS tools. The SRM is DPM (Disk Pool Manager) which has rfio as standard data access protocol; so we provided DPM of Xrootd protocol too. We will describe the configuration and...

  6. Personal Devices in Public Settings: Lessons Learned from an iPod Touch/iPad Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Susan; Pegler, Karen; White, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Our paper reports findings from a two-phase deployment of iPod Touch and iPad devices in a large, urban Canadian school board. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the infrastructure required to support handheld devices in classrooms; the opportunities and challenges teachers face as they begin to use handheld devices for…

  7. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.Gupta; J.B.S.Kachhawa; R.Chaudhary

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male albino rats. Methods: The methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck was administrated orally for 60 days at 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1·day-1 to male albino rats. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymides were assessed.Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in blood samples and reproductive organs. Results: A. lebbeck pod extract brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testis, seminal vesicles, epdidymis and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the numbers of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The Sertoli cell count as well as its cross sectional surface area were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol content of the testis, the fructose in the seminal vesicles and protein in the epididymis were significantly decreased. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin,haematocrit and blood sugar were within the normal range. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck pods causes spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats.

  8. Analysis of time-resolved PIV measurements of a confined turbulent jet using POD and Koopman modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Lundell, Fredrik [KTH Mechanics, Linne Flow Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Bellani, Gabriele [KTH Mechanics, Linne Flow Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We present a comparative analysis of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) computed from experimental data of a turbulent, quasi 2-D, confined jet with co-flow (Re = 11,500, co-flow ratio inner-to-outer flow {approx}2:1). The experimental data come from high-speed 2-D particle image velocimetry. The flow is fully turbulent, and it contains geometry-dependent large-scale coherent structures; thus, it provides an interesting benchmark case for the comparison between POD and DMD. In this work, we address issues related to snapshot selections (1), convergence (2) and the physical interpretation (3) of both POD and DMD modes. We found that the convergence of POD modes follows the criteria of statistical convergence of the autocovariance matrix. For the computation of DMD modes, we suggest a methodology based on two criteria: the analysis of the residuals to optimize the sampling parameters of the snapshots, and a time-shifting procedure that allows us to identify the spurious modes and retain the modes that consistently appear in the spectrum. These modes are found to be the ones with nearly null growth rate. We then present the selected modes, and we discuss the way POD and DMD rank them. POD analysis reveals that the most energetic spatial structures are related to the large-scale oscillation of the inner jet (flapping); from the temporal analysis emerges that these modes are associated with a low-frequency peak at St = 0.02. At this frequency, DMD identifies a similar mode, where oblique structures from the walls appear together with the flapping mode. The second most energetic group of modes identified is associated with shear-layer oscillations, and to a recirculation zone near the inner jet. Temporal analysis of these modes shows that the flapping of the inner jet might be sustained by the recirculation. In the DMD, the shear-layer modes are separated from the recirculation modes. These have large amplitudes in the DMD. In

  9. A Combined Approach to Model Reduction for Nonlinear Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Simulations Using POD and DEIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Z.; Boyce, S. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Model reduction techniques using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) have been very effective in applications to confined groundwater flow models. These techniques consist of performing a projection of the solution of the full model onto a reduced basis. POD combined with the snapshot approach has been successfully applied to highly discretized linear models. In many cases, the reduced model is orders of magnitude smaller than the full model and runs 1,000 times faster. For nonlinear models, such as the unconfined groundwater flow, direct application of POD requires additional calls to the full model to generate additional snapshots. This is time consuming and increases the dimension of the reduced model. The discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) is a technique that avoids the additional full model calls and captures the dynamics of the nonlinear term while reducing the dimensions. Here, POD and DEIM are combined to reduce both the nonlinear unconfined groundwater flow and solute transport equations. To prove the concept, simple one-dimensional models are created for MODFLOW and MT3DMS separately. The dual approach is then tested on a density-dependent flow and transport simulation using the LMT package developed for MODFLOW. For each iteration of the nonlinear flow solver and the transport solver, the respective reduced models are solved instead. Numerical experiments show that significant reduction is obtainable before errors become too large. This method is well suited for a coastal aquifer seawater intrusion scenario, where nonlinearities only exist in small subregions of the model domain. A fine discretization can be utilized and POD will effectively eliminate unnecessary parameterization by projecting the full model system matrix onto a subspace with fewer column dimensions. DEIM can then reduce the row dimension of the original system by using only those state variable nodes with the most influence. This combined approach allows for full

  10. Analysis of mitochondrial control region nucleotide sequences from Baffin Bay beluga, (Delphinapterus leucas: detecting pods or sub-populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Jakob Palsbøll

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of an analysis of the variation in the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial control region obtained in 218 samples collected from belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, around the Baffin Bay. We detected multiple instances of significant heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation among the analyzed mitochondrial control region sequences on a spatial as well as temporal scale indicating a high degree of maternal population structure. The detection of significant levels of heterogeneity between samples collected in different years but within the same area and season was unexpected. Re-examination of earlier results presented by Brown Gladden and coworkers also revealed temporal genetic heterogeneity within the one area where sufficient (n>15 samples were collected in multiple years. These findings suggest that non-random breeding and maternally directed site-fidelity are not the sole causes of genetic heterogeneity among belugas but that a matrilineal pod structure might cause significant levels of genetic heterogeneity as well, even within the same area. We propose that a maternal pod structure, which has been shown to be the cause of significant genetic heterogeneity in other odontocetes, may add to the overall level of heterogeneity in the maternally inherited DNA and hence that much of the spatial heterogeneity observed in this and previous studies might be attributed to pod rather than population structure. Our findings suggest that it is important to estimate the contribution of pod structure to overall heterogeneity before defining populations or management units in order to avoid interpreting heterogeneity due to sampling of different pods as different populations/management units.

  11. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (p<0.05) of cocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (p<0.01) with an increase of 105% and 92%, respectively. Such higher daily gain was concomitant with higher N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake in CAm and CPh treatments than those of control (p<0.05). It can be concluded from this study that treatment with either urea or P. chrysosporium is effective in improving the nutritive value of cocoa pod.

  12. Bits and pieces ehk kolumna. White label : Semia Napasov - nervnõe kletki. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Popmuusikasündmustest. Vene hiphop: Kõrgepingerajoon - 2 lugu. Heliplaatidest: Echo And The Bunnymen "The Works - A3 CD Retrispective", Morrissey "Greatest Hits", The Hold Steady "Boys and Girls in America", Dreamtheater "Greatest Hits", "Eesti Drum'n'Bass Vol. 2", Raisk "Transilvaania Krahvid", "Eesti Rock Antoloogia. Blacky", Teräsbetoni "Myrskyntuoja",Tiken Jah Fakoly "The African", Sild "Tro", Duffy "Rockferry", Adele "19"

  13. Bits and pieces ehk kolumna. White label : Semia Napasov - nervnõe kletki. Kuula / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2008-01-01

    Popmuusikasündmustest. Vene hiphop: Kõrgepingerajoon - 2 lugu. Heliplaatidest: Echo And The Bunnymen "The Works - A3 CD Retrispective", Morrissey "Greatest Hits", The Hold Steady "Boys and Girls in America", Dreamtheater "Greatest Hits", "Eesti Drum'n'Bass Vol. 2", Raisk "Transilvaania Krahvid", "Eesti Rock Antoloogia. Blacky", Teräsbetoni "Myrskyntuoja",Tiken Jah Fakoly "The African", Sild "Tro", Duffy "Rockferry", Adele "19"

  14. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Bauman, Ingrid; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-12-01

    Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products).

  15. Using iPods(®) and iPads(®) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M; van der Meer, Larah; Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio E; Davis, Tonya N; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B; Sutherland, Dean; Green, Vanessa A; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods(®), iPads(®), and related devices (e.g., iPhones(®)) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings. The 15 studies reported outcomes for 47 participants, who ranged from 4 to 27 years of age and had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or intellectual disability. Most studies involved the use of iPods(®) or iPads(®) and aimed to either (a) deliver instructional prompts via the iPod Touch(®) or iPad(®), or (b) teach the person to operate an iPod Touch(®) or iPad(®) to access preferred stimuli. The latter also included operating an iPod Touch(®) or an iPad(®) as a speech-generating device (SGD) to request preferred stimuli. The results of these 15 studies were largely positive, suggesting that iPods(®), iPod Touch(®), iPads(®), and related devices are viable technological aids for individuals with developmental disabilities.

  16. POD promoted oxidative gelation of water-extractable arabinoxylan through ferulic acid dimers. Evidence for its negative effect on malt filterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianhui; Zhou, Ting; Li, Xiaomin; Cai, Guolin; Lu, Jian

    2016-04-15

    As a major component of non-starch polysaccharide in barley, arabinoxylan (AX) plays an important role in quality traits of malt and the final beer product. The Chinese barley malt has encountered filterability problems for a long time. The main reason caused by barley cultivar has been accepted in the malting and brewing industries. In our previous proteomic study, the peroxidase (POD) BP1 was found to be in quite high abundant in the filterability defect Chinese barley malt. Therefore, the present study tried to verify its negative effect on filterability, by surveying its activity in different malt samples and detecting effects of POD on AX gelation and filterability. The results showed that the activity of POD, as well as the content of AX bounded ferulic acid, were both negatively correlated with filterability, while the feruloyl esterase activity was positively correlated with it. In addition, AX gelation catalyzed by POD caused worse filterability, and the natural inhibitor of POD, vitamin C, could blocked the cross linking catalyzed by POD and thus improve the filterability. These results all suggested the great negative effect of POD on malt filterability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Drying Characteristics and Texture in 
Relation with Micromorphological Traits of Carob 
(Ceratonia silliqua L.) Pods and Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Ježek, Damir; Karlović, Sven; Kremer, Dario; Karlović, Ksenija; Erhatić, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a perennial leguminous evergreen tree native to the coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin and is considered to be an important component of vegetation for economic and environmental reasons. Two constituents of the pod, pulp and seeds, can be used as feed or in food production. In this study, drying characteristics, texture and microstructure of carob pods were studied. Three different carob samples were prepared: whole carob pod, carob pod parts and carob seed. The drying experiments and the modelling showed that carob seeds had the highest drying rate, followed by pod parts and the whole, intact carob fruit. Texture studies showed that the maximum compression force depended on the area of the carob fruit on which compression tests were performed. The seeds showed the highest compression force, followed by the stem zone, the tip and the centre of the fruit. Differences in drying behaviour and texture of carob pods can successfully be interpreted by the micromorphology of the carob pods and seeds. Determining the drying rate, maximum compressive force and micromorphological traits is of great importance for further carob processing (e.g. milling, sieving, carob bean gum production or usage in food or feed products). PMID:28115900

  18. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  19. Evaluating Large-Eddy Simulation (LES and High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV with Phase-Invariant Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a program to understand the stochastic variations in IC engine flows; in particular, it is a comparison of measured (PIV and computed (LES velocity from multiple cycles of the same motored engine. Comparison procedures included traditional RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes decomposition (ensemble-averaged and RMS (Root Mean Square velocity, phase-dependent, and phase- invariant POD. Phase-dependent POD was performed on the PIV and LES samples separately and on the combined samples, thus creating separate or a single POD mode sets, respectively. The phase- invariant POD was performed both on normalized snapshots and on snapshots where the original energy was conserved. Initial comparisons of the mass-specific kinetic energies of the ensemble average and RMS velocities revealed that the PIV and LES data sets differed significantly during most of the intake stroke. This discrepancy was quantifiedfirst by comparing the relevance indices calculated between ensemble average velocity fields and, second, using phase-dependent POD, which quantified cycle-to-cycle flow variations of the RANS average and turbulence. Phase-dependent POD was applied separately to the PIV and LES data sets during the intake stroke (76° ATDCE, After Top Dead Center Exhaust, where the intake-valve jet is strong and the PIV and LES data were earlier found to be significantly different. The cyclic variability of the LES ensemble average was estimated to be significantly higher than that of the PIV data set. POD was also applied to the combined sample of LES and PIV snapshots for quantitative comparison creating a single set of modes, so that comparison could be made with POD coefficients alone. Example comparisons were made at again for data at 76° and also 330° ATDCE, which is a viable spark timing in a fired engine. The results at 76° ATDCE were similar to those obtained with the POD analysis of the separate samples. At 330° ATDCE, the PIV

  20. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  1. Compounds from the pods of Astragalus armatus with antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antibacterial and phagocytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labed, Amira; Ferhat, Maria; Labed-Zouad, Ilhem; Kaplaner, Erhan; Zerizer, Sakina; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Semra, Zahia; Kabouche, Ahmed; Kabouche, Zahia; Öztürk, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The phytochemical study and biological activities of Astragalus armatus Willd. subsp. numidicus (Fabaceae) pods, an endemic shrub of Maghreb, are reported. This study isolates the secondary metabolites and determines the bioactivities of Astragalus armatus pods. The chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of hydro-ethanolic extracts were studied. Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous chelating assays at concentrations ranging from 3 to 200 μg/mL. Anticholinesterase activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes at 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL. Antibacterial activity was performed according to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Carbon clearance method in albino mice was used for the phagocytic activity at concentrations 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the compounds. Ethyl acetate extract afforded a flavonoid (1) while the n-butanol extract gave four flavonoids (2-5), a cyclitol (6) and a cycloartane-type saponin (7). The ethyl acetate extract exhibited highest antioxidant activity in DPPH (IC50: 67.90 ± 0.57 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50: 11.30 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and CUPRAC (A0.50: 50.60 ± 0.9 μg/mL) assays. The chloroform extract exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, each with 80 μg/mL MIC values. The n-butanol extract enhanced phagocytic activity. Isorhamnetin (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-d-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-(2,6-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-(2,6-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), pinitol (6) and cyclomacroside D (7) were isolated whereas 1, 2, 6 and 7 are reported for the first time from A

  2. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Daniel; Müller, Christina; Pitkänen, Jorma

    2015-03-01

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the "â vs. a" (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the indication) and

  3. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  4. Combining of different data pools for calculating a reliable POD for real defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzler, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kanzler@bam.de, E-mail: christina.mueller@bam.de; Müller, Christina, E-mail: daniel.kanzler@bam.de, E-mail: christina.mueller@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Testing and Research, Berlin (Germany); Pitkänen, Jorma, E-mail: jorma.pitkanen@posiva.fi [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2015-03-31

    Real defects are essential for the evaluation of the reliability of non destructive testing (NDT) methods, especially in relation to the integrity of components. But in most of the cases the amount of available real defects is not sufficient to evaluate the system. Model-assisted and transfer functions are one way to handle that challenge. This study is focused on a combination of different data pools to create a sufficient amount of data for the reliability estimation. A widespread approach for calculating the Probability of Detection (POD) was used on a radiographic testing (RT) method. The highest contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of each indication is usually selected as the signal in the 'â vs. a' (signal-response) approach for RT. By combining real and artificial defects (flat bottom holes, side drill holes, flat bottom squares, notches, etc) in RT the highest signals are close to each other, but the process of creating and evaluating real defects is much more complex. The solution is seen in the combination of real and artificial data using a weighted least square approach. The weights for real or artificial data were based on the importance, the value and the different detection behavior of the different data. For comparison, the alternative combination through the Bayesian Updating was also applied. As verification, a data pool with a large amount of real data was available. In an advanced approach for evaluating the digital RT data, the size of the indication (perpendicular to the X-ray beam) was introduced as additional information. The signal now consists of the CNR and the area of the indication. The detectability is changing depending on the area of the indication, a fact that was ignored in the previous POD calculations for RT. This points out that a weighted least square approach to pool the data might no longer be adequate. The Bayesian Updating of the estimated parameters of the relationship between the signal field (the area of the

  5. Influence of the location and setting of UPFC FACTS devices / POD in damping of electric power system oscillations; Influencia da localizacao e do ajuste de dispositivos FACTS UPFC/POD no amortecimento de oscilacoes do sistema eletrico de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, R.F. de; Furini, M.A.; Araujo, P.B. de; Moura, R.F. de; Araujo, Percival Bueno de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: moura@dee.feis.unesp.br; mafurini@aluno.feis.unesp.br, percival@dee.feis.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    It is analyzed the ability of the Unified Power Flow Controller - FACTS UPFC, when equipped to Power Oscillation Damping - (POD) - a additional controller - to cushion low frequency oscillations in the electric power system (EPS). For this purpose, the MPS - Model of the Power Sensibility, which has as the main concept the application of the power nodal balance in each bar of the system, is used to represent the EPS. The analysis of sensibility, through the method of residues - that gives information about the control and observation of an input and output set to the controller - will provide the best place to install the UPFC/POD set and the procedures to adjust the parameters of the controller.

  6. Experimental POD measurement using ultrasonic phased arrays for incorporating nondestructive testes in probabilistic failure analyses; Experimentelle POD Bestimmung mittels Ultraschall Phased Array zur Einbeziehung zerstoerungsfreier Pruefungen in probabilistische Versagensanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Jochen H.; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren (IZFP), Saarbruecken (Germany); Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Roos, Eberhard [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2011-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, nondestructive tests are carried out during construction and during inspections. The type and extent of the tests are specified in the KTA rules. All tests must be qualified. In the past, the qualifications were made by extensive performance demonstrations of the test teams and equipment, which were judged by experts. This provided primarily pragmatic information on fault detection performance. In the USA, qualification of EPRI test teams also includes testing of test pieces with hidden (unknown) defects, of which a certain percentage must be detected. There is still a lack of information on the probability of detection (POD), in the form of POD curves, of specific defects in given test situations, using specifically selected testing techniques. Quantification of POD and the integration of relevant data in the probabilistic evaluation chain is one of the key goals of a research project whose first results are presented here. The concept of the project and first results of ultrasonic tests are presented. Defect distributions in the test pieces, experiment planning, and test specifications are gone into more closely. One of the most important goals is the specification of the residual uncertainty of components failure on the basis of the investigations. An outlook is presented for this.

  7. Tests of PoD with ATLAS Prodsys2 and first experience with HTTP Federation

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Roberto; The ATLAS collaboration; Ganis, Gerardo; Antonelli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC Run-1, Grid resources in ATLAS have been managed by the PanDA and DQ2 systems. In order to meet the needs for the LHC Run-2, Prodsys2 and Rucio are used as the new ATLAS Workload and Data Management systems. The data are stored under various formats in ROOT files and end-user physicists have the choice to use either the ATHENA framework or directly ROOT. Within the ROOT data analysis framework it is possible to perform analysis of huge sets of ROOT files in parallel with PROOF on clusters of computers (usually organised in analysis facilities) or multi-core machines. In addition, PROOF-on-Demand (PoD) can be used to enable PROOF on top of an existing resource management system. In this work, we present the first performances obtained enabling PROOF-based analysis in the Italian ATLAS Tier-1/Tier-2 sites within the new ATLAS workload system. Benchmark tests of data access with the httpd protocol, using also the httpd redirector, will be shown. We also present results on the startup latency tests...

  8. Pod shattering resistance associated with domestication is mediated by a NAC gene in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Yang, Xia; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bo-Han; Liu, Bo-Ling; Wang, Yin-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Loss of seed dispersal is a key agronomical trait targeted by ancient human selection and has been regarded as a milestone of crop domestication. In this study, in the legume crop soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. which provides vegetable oils and proteins for humans, we show that the key cellular feature of the shattering-resistant trait lies in the excessively lignified fibre cap cells (FCC) with the abscission layer unchanged in the pod ventral suture. We demonstrate that a NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) gene shattering1-5 (SHAT1-5) functionally activates secondary wall biosynthesis and promotes the significant thickening of FCC secondary walls by expression at 15-fold the level of the wild allele, which is attributed to functional disruption of the upstream repressor. We show that strong artificial selection of SHAT1-5 has caused a severe selective sweep across ~ 116 kb on chromosome 16. This locus and regulation mechanism could be applicable to legume crop improvement.

  9. A new Cre driver mouse line, Tcf21/Pod1-Cre, targets metanephric mesenchyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Maezawa

    Full Text Available Conditional gene targeting in mice has provided great insight into the role of gene function in kidney development and disease. Although a number of Cre-driver mouse strains already exist for the kidney, development of additional strains with unique expression patterns is needed. Here we report the generation and validation of a Tcf21/Pod1-Cre driver strain that expresses Cre recombinase throughout the condensing and stromal mesenchyme of developing kidneys and in their derivatives including epithelial components of the nephron and interstitial cells. To test the efficiency of this line, we crossed it to mice transgenic for either loss or gain of function β-catenin conditional alleles. Mice with deletion of β-catenin from Tcf21-expressing cells are born with hypoplastic kidneys, hydroureters and hydronephrosis. By contrast, Tcf21-Cre driven gain of function for β-catenin in mice results in fused midline kidneys and hypoplastic kidneys. Finally, we report the first renal mesenchymal deletion of Patched1 (Ptch1, the receptor for sonic hedgehog (Shh, which results in renal cysts demonstrating a functional role of Shh signaling pathway in renal cystogensis. In summary, we report the generation and validation of a new Cre driver strain that provides robust excision in metanephric mesenchyme.

  10. Synthetic aperture radar data visualization on the iPod Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Aaron; Vickery, Rhonda; Majumder, Uttam; Burchett, Tracy; Klein, Troy; Minardi, Michael

    2010-04-01

    A major area of focus for the Air Force is sensor performance in urban environments. Aircraft with multiple sensor modalities, such as Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR), Infrared (IR), and Electro-Optics (EO), are essential for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) of current and future urban battlefields. Although applications exist for visualization of these types of imagery, they usually require at least a laptop computer and internet connection. Field operatives need to be able to access georeferenced information about imagery as part of a Geographic Information System (GIS) on mobile devices. The iPod/iPhone has a 640x480 resolution multi-touch display, making it an excellent device for interacting with georeferenced imagery. We created an iPhone application that loads SAR imagery and allows the user to interact with it. The user multi-touch interface provides pan and zoom capabilities as well as options to change parameters relating to the query. We describe how operatives in the field can use this application to investigate SAR and GIS related problems on the iPhone mobile device, which otherwise would require a computer and Internet connection.

  11. Teaching Newton's Laws with the iPod Touch in Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching physics is helping students achieve a conceptual understanding of Newton's laws. I find that students fresh from middle school can sometimes recite the laws verbatim ("An object in motion stays in motion…" and "For every action…"), but they rarely demonstrate a working knowledge of how to apply them to observable phenomena. As a firm believer in inquiry-based teaching methods, I like to develop activities where students can experiment and construct understandings based on relevant personal experiences. Consequently, I am always looking for exciting new technologies that can readily demonstrate how physics affects everyday things. In a conceptual physics class designed for ninth-graders, I created a structured activity where students applied Newton's laws to a series of free applications downloaded on iPod Touches. The laws had been introduced during the prior class session with textual descriptions and graphical representations. The course is offered as part of the Enlace Latino Collegiate Society, a weekend enrichment program for middle and high school students in the Bronx. The majority of students had limited or no prior exposure to physics concepts, and many attended high schools where physics was not offered at all.

  12. Simulation in Nursing Education: iPod As a Teaching Tool for Undergraduate Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer; Webster, Sue; Gallagher, Susan; Brown, Peter; Sinclair, John

    2015-07-01

    Most people with psychosis and schizophrenia experience auditory hallucinations, particularly the hearing of voices. A common cause of frustration and alienation for consumers is the lack of understanding by therapists, family members and caregivers, who find it difficult to relate to the consumers' experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate whether students' participation in a simulated auditory hallucination will increase their understanding and knowledge about psychosis and auditory hallucinations. The design method consisted of a lecture on psychosis and schizophrenia disorders, followed by a simulation of auditory hallucinations using iPods. Students' knowledge and perceptions of psychosis and hallucinations was assessed using quasi-experimental pre-post matched-design questionnaires. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, the first comprised closed questions to assess students' knowledge, and the second part consisted of open-ended questions to collect information about students' perceptions of auditory hallucinations. The results confirmed that students' knowledge of psychosis and hallucination increased following the teaching session and simulation is a useful tool to prepare students for clinical placements in mental health practice.

  13. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C C; Ximenes, N C A; Aguiar, J S; Nascimento, S C; Lins, T U L; Magalhães, L R; Coelho, L C B B; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Gonçalves-Silva, T; Correia, M T S

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD(50) for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice). In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  14. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in athletic high school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Costa, Pablo B; Smalls, Marcus; Mieding, William K; O'Kroy, Joseph A; Zoeller, Robert F; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the percentage of body fat (%BF) values estimated from the BOD POD (BP) with those obtained from hydrostatic weighing (HW) in athletic American high school boys. Additionally, the %BF values measured via near-infrared interactance (NIR), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and skinfold (SF) were compared to HW to determine the validity of these measures. Thirty white boys (mean age +/- SD = 15.8 +/- 1.0 years) who where currently participating in organized sports volunteered to have their %BF estimated. Measurements were obtained from NIR, BP, BIA, and SF in random order and concluded with HW. The findings from the present study indicated that the NIR and BIA instruments produced significant (P 4.0%BF). The BP produced a significantly (P 0.008) and had the lowest TE values compared to HW. These data suggest that the BP can produce acceptable body fat measures for athletic white boys but is not superior to estimates made by the SF equations used in this study.

  16. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lippautz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making.

  17. Purification and Properties of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Immature Pods of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, H R; Singh, R

    1986-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) was purified to homogeneity with about 29% recovery from immature pods of chickpea using ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme with molecular weight of about 200,000 daltons was a tetramer of four identical subunits and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8.1. Mg(2+) ions were specifically required for the enzyme activity. The enzyme showed typical hyperbolic kinetics with phosphoenolpyruvate with a K(m) of 0.74 millimolar, whereas sigmoidal response was observed with increasing concentrations of HCO(3) (-) with S(0.5) value as 7.6 millimolar. The enzyme was activated by inorganic phosphate and phosphate esters like glucose-6-phosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and inhibited by nucleotide triphosphates, organic acids, and divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Oxaloacetate and malate inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively. Glucose-6-phosphate reversed the inhibitory effects of oxaloacetate and malate.

  18. Book Review: Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varsalone, J. (Tech. Ed., Kubasiak, R.R., Morrissey, S., et al. (2009. Mac OS X, iPod, and iPhone Forensic Analysis DVD Toolkit. Burlington, MA: Syngress. 551 + xix pages, ISBN: 978-1-59749-297-3, US$59.95.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduAt last! A quality book about computer forensics for Apple products! Alas, I get ahead of myself.Apple's hold on the personal computer marketplace started dwindling on August 12, 1981, the day that the IBM PC was introduced. As an Apple ][+ bigot myself, I refused to touch a PC for some years. But I was also a command line bigot, so when the first Macintosh was introduced in 1983 and hermetically sealed the operating system from users, I did not go out and buy one. In fact, like many of my era, I did eventually end up on the PC side which, ironically, let me do many of the things that my trusty Apple ][+ had in earlier times -- write code, play with the hardware, and, indeed, get to a command line. And, of course, tons of application developers flocked to the PC because of its open architecture.(see PDF for full review

  19. Dynamic Flow Modeling Using Double POD and ANN-ARX System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan; Seidel, Jürgen; Cohen, Kelly; Aradag, Selin; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Double Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (DPOD), a modification of conventional POD, is a powerful tool for modeling of transient flow field spatial features, in particular, a 2D cylinder wake at a Reynolds number of 100. To develop a model for control design, the interaction of DPOD mode amplitudes with open-loop control inputs needs to be captured. Traditionally, Galerkin projection onto the Navier Stokes equations has been used for that purpose. Given the stability problems as well as issues in correctly modeling actuation input, we propose a different approach. We demonstrate that the ARX (Auto Regressive eXternal input) system identification method in connection with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) nonlinear structure leads to a model that captures the dynamic behavior of the unforced and transient forced open loop data used for model development. Moreover, we also show that the model is valid at different Reynolds numbers, for different open loop forcing parameters, as well as for closed loop flow states with excellent accuracy. Thus, we present with this DPOD-ANN-ARX model a paradigm shift for laminar circular cylinder wake modeling that is proven valid for feedback flow controller development.

  20. Křížení silnice I/42 a stezky podél Svitavy

    OpenAIRE

    Dušek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Předmětem bakalářské práce je problémová část cyklostezky kolem řeky Svitavy křížící ulici Hladíková. V tomto místě cyklostezky chybí bezpečný přechod pro chodce / cyklisty / bruslaře, tento je pak řešen přebíháním přes frekventovanou čtyřproudovou silnici I/42. V bakalářské práci je cyklostezka projektována na západní straně řeky Svitavy pod silničním mostem, aby se úplně vyloučila nutnost kontaktu cyklistů se silnicí I/42 a zajistil se co nejrychlejší a nejbezpečnější průjezd cyklistů i voz...

  1. Temporal and spatial Bean pod mottle virus-induced gene silencing in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvale, Parijat S; Hewezi, Tarek; Zhang, Chunquan; Kandoth, Pramod Kaitheri; Mitchum, Melissa G; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Baum, Thomas J

    2012-12-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful reverse genetics tool in plant science. In this study, we investigated the temporal and spatial silencing patterns achieved by Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based VIGS in soybean using virus constructs targeting green fluorescence protein (GFP). Silencing GFP enabled an in-depth analysis of silencing in soybean tissues over time in a transgenic line constitutively expressing GFP. We discovered evidence for variable GFP silencing based on insert orientation and targeted region in the coding sequence. A 3' sequence in reverse orientation produced the strongest silencing phenotypes. Furthermore, we documented that BPMV VIGS can achieve widespread silencing in a broad range of tissues, including leaves, stems, flowers and roots. Near-complete silencing was attained in leaves and flowers. Although weaker than in shoots, the observed gene silencing in soybean roots will also allow reverse genetics studies in this tissue. When GFP fluorescence was assayed in cross-sections of stems and leaf petioles, near-complete and uniform silencing was observed in all cell types. Silencing was observed from as early as 2 weeks post-virus inoculation in leaves to 7 weeks post-virus inoculation in flowers, suggesting that this system can induce and maintain silencing for significant durations.

  2. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution.

  3. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mesquite pod meal in elephant grass silages - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.12506

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of elephant grass silages at different growth stages (70, 90 and 110 days, with the addition (0, 5, 10 and 15%, on a fresh matter basis of mesquite pod meal. A completely randomized design (CRD was used in a factorial arrangement with four replications. PVC pipes 100 mm in diameter were used as experimental silos. After 30 days of ensilage, samples were taken from the open silos to determine chemical composition and IVDMD. The inclusion of mesquite pod meal (MPM increased (p 0.01 was detected between MPM concentrations and elephant grass cutting age for DM, CP and NDF contents in the silages. A decrease (p  

  5. Sugar composition and yield of syrup production from the pulp of Moroccan carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Batal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to provide a process for obtaining natural carob syrup of Morocco carob pods and their total and reducing sugar. Samples were collected from different regions in the agro-forestry system of Morocco. The total sugar and reducing sugar in pods obtained from different regions were 31.5–50.1 and 10.2–14.6 g/100 g “%w/w”, respectively. The yield of syrup from the different regions varies between 28.76 and 37.22 g/100 g “%w/w”. Populations from Essaouira and Beni-mellal have higher levels of sugar and yield of syrup. The values obtained vary according to the origin of the samples.

  6. Driving error and anxiety related to iPod mp3 player use in a simulated driving experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ashley R; Carden, Randy L

    2009-08-01

    Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of vehicular accidents; however, the literature regarding the use of other personal electronic devices while driving is relatively sparse. It was hypothesized that the usage of an mp3 player would result in an increase in not only driving error while operating a driving simulator, but driver anxiety scores as well. It was also hypothesized that anxiety scores would be positively related to driving errors when using an mp3 player. 32 participants drove through a set course in a driving simulator twice, once with and once without an iPod mp3 player, with the order counterbalanced. Number of driving errors per course, such as leaving the road, impacts with stationary objects, loss of vehicular control, etc., and anxiety were significantly higher when an iPod was in use. Anxiety scores were unrelated to number of driving errors.

  7. LES of turbulent jet in cross flow: Part 2 – POD analysis and identification of coherent structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2012-01-01

    results are directly compared and found to be in close agreement with results of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) based planar (2D) snapshot POD analysis by Meyer et al. (JFM 583, p. 199–227, 2007), indicating that LES is able to predict the same large scale flow dynamics as that captured by PIV. Some...... are validated against pointwise time averaged Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements in PART1 of this study. In PART2 of the presented study – a planar (2D) LES based snapshot POD analysis is first conducted on two mutually perpendicular planes located in the jet-to-crossflow entrance zone. The obtained...... differences are also observed, but appear to be directly connected to the differences in levels of the resolved turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) between LES and PIV datasets. Those differences proved to be linked to the process of filtering out the small-scale fluctuations implicit to the PIV measurement...

  8. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS OF CAROB PODS, TANNIC ACID, AND THEIR DERIVATIVES ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENIS, Y; TAGARI, H; VOLCANI, R

    1964-05-01

    The effect of aqueous extracts of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods, gallotannic acid, gallic acid, and catechol on several microorganisms was studied. Carob pod extract and tannic acid showed a strong antimicrobial activity toward some cellulolytic bacteria. On the basis of tannin content, to which antimicrobial effect was related, carob pod extracts inhibited Cellvibrio fulvus and Clostridium cellulosolvens at 15 mug/ml, Sporocytophaga myxococcoides at 45 mug/ml, and Bacillus subtilis at 75 mug/ml. The inhibiting concentrations for tannic acid were found to be 12, 10, 45, and 30 mug/ml, respectively. Gallic acid and catechol were much less effective. Tannic acid and the tannin fraction of carob extract exerted both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on C. fulvus. Respiration of C. fulvus in the presence of bactericidal concentrations of tannic acid or tannin fraction of carob extract was inhibited less than 30%. A partial formation of "protoplasts" by C. fulvus was obtained after 2 hr of incubation in a growth medium to which 20% sucrose, 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O, and 10 to 50 mug/ml of tannic acid or 500mug/ml of penicillin, or both, had been added. Tannic acid and the tannin fraction of carob extract protected C. fulvus from metabolic lysis in sucrose solution. Although the growth of other microorganisms tested was only slightly affected, the morphology of some of them was drastically changed in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of carob pod extracts of tannic acid. It is suggested that the site of action of tannins on sensitive microorganisms is primarily the cell envelope.

  9. The Economic Effect of a Daily Supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on Rumen Fermentation and Lactating Goats Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of a daily supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on rumen fermentation and milk production of goats. Thirty two lactating does (weight ranged from 33�35 kg, aged 2-4 years old and from 2nd to 3th lactation season were randomly allocated into four similar groups (8 animals each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Carob pods was daily supplemented at the rate of 0, 25, 50 or 100g /h/d. The lactating trial was extended for 75 days where goats were fed individually and fresh water was available at all time. Rumen fermentation parameters were monitored on three fistulated adult does. Results indicated that volatile fatty acids concentration, rumen volume, microbial protein synthesis and total bacteria counts were highest (P<0.05 with C50 group compared with other groups. While, ammonia-N concentration and protozoa count were lower (P<0.05 with C100 group compared with other groups. Milk production, protein and fat percentage were better (P<0.05 for C50 and C25 groups than those of C100 group. Supplementation of Carob pods at 50 g caused a marked (P<0.05 increase in the enzymatic antioxidant activity (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH but had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBARS compared to control group. Thus, it could be concluded that daily supplement of 50 g carob pods could be reasonable amount for goats performance without any adverse effect.

  10. A stabilized MFE reduced-order extrapolation model based on POD for the 2D unsteady conduction-convection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Luo, Zhendong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we devote ourselves to establishing a stabilized mixed finite element (MFE) reduced-order extrapolation (SMFEROE) model holding seldom unknowns for the two-dimensional (2D) unsteady conduction-convection problem via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique, analyzing the existence and uniqueness and the stability as well as the convergence of the SMFEROE solutions and validating the correctness and dependability of the SMFEROE model by means of numerical simulations.

  11. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  12. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured.

  13. A hybrid anchored-ANOVA - POD/Kriging method for uncertainty quantification in unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Luca; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    To significantly increase the contribution of numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for risk assessment and decision making, it is important to quantitatively measure the impact of uncertainties to assess the reliability and robustness of the results. As unsteady high-fidelity CFD simulations are becoming the standard for industrial applications, reducing the number of required samples to perform sensitivity (SA) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is an actual engineering challenge. The novel approach presented in this paper is based on an efficient hybridization between the anchored-ANOVA and the POD/Kriging methods, which have already been used in CFD-UQ realistic applications, and the definition of best practices to achieve global accuracy. The anchored-ANOVA method is used to efficiently reduce the UQ dimension space, while the POD/Kriging is used to smooth and interpolate each anchored-ANOVA term. The main advantages of the proposed method are illustrated through four applications with increasing complexity, most of them based on Large-Eddy Simulation as a high-fidelity CFD tool: the turbulent channel flow, the flow around an isolated bluff-body, a pedestrian wind comfort study in a full scale urban area and an application to toxic gas dispersion in a full scale city area. The proposed c-APK method (anchored-ANOVA-POD/Kriging) inherits the advantages of each key element: interpolation through POD/Kriging precludes the use of quadrature schemes therefore allowing for a more flexible sampling strategy while the ANOVA decomposition allows for a better domain exploration. A comparison of the three methods is given for each application. In addition, the importance of adding flexibility to the control parameters and the choice of the quantity of interest (QoI) are discussed. As a result, global accuracy can be achieved with a reasonable number of samples allowing computationally expensive CFD-UQ analysis.

  14. "Uzhe katitsja pod goru leto..." : [luuletused] / Hando Runnel ; tlk. Svetlan Semenenko, lühibiograafia: T. L. [Toomas Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Runnel, Hando, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: "Uzhe katitsja pod goru leto..." ; Pokoi ; "Poidjot po zhilam trevozhnõi..." ; Nashlo ; Kristina ; "Kogda razbedutsja..." ; "Tri tsherepa branilis..." ; Tak mnogo kljatv ; Ottsõ i deti ; Radi petshalnõh ; Postizhenije ; Dobro i zlo ; Otkrõtije. Orig.: "Juba suvi kaob allamäge..." ; Rahu ; Kihk ; Kristiine on karjanaine ; "Kui pidud on peetud..." ; Võllalaul ; Nii palju tõotusi ; Isad ja pojad ; Kurbade kaitseks ; Mõistmine ; Heast ja halvast ; Avanemine

  15. Thermal Modelling of Permanent Magnent Machines Using double layer winding - Strategies for cooling of PM motors in ship propulsion pods

    OpenAIRE

    Therattil Mohanan, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    The trend to carry out thermal analysis of Electric Motor is increasing day by day so as to improve the performance of the machines. This paper deals with the thermal analysis of Electric Motors and their cooling solutions, focusing on Ship Propulsion Pods. Using Finite element analysis (FEM), temperature distribution in two coils in a slot, with different turn profiles are considered in this study. The effect of temperature with the use of different conductor s shapes in slot of the machine,...

  16. Finanční analýza firmy Poděbradka, a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Beissembayeva, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the financial analysis of the company Poděbradka, a.s. It is divided into two parts: methodical and practical. Methodological part introduces the definition of financial analysis and all the methods used for conducting the analysis. The data provided by the first part is applied to the second part, which presents the financial analysis of the company for the last five years. The paper focuses on analyzing financial statements and indicators of profitability, liquidity, ...

  17. El Centro Histórico de Guanajuato, el iPod y los jóvenes

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ DE JESÚS CORDERO DOMÍNGUEZ

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se refl exiona sobre la relación entre el uso del iPod y las prácticas sociales de jóvenes universitarios en el Centro Histórico de Guanajuato, como síntesis del espíritu de la época : individualismo y aislamiento como expresión de identidad.

  18. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h.

  19. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  20. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Astudillo-Reyes

    Full Text Available Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA. Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381 were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP, zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF and heavy metal associated (HMA family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  1. Transcriptome Characterization of Developing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Pods from Two Genotypes with Contrasting Seed Zinc Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Reyes, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C; Cichy, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a rich source of dietary zinc, especially for people consuming plant-based diets. Within P. vulgaris there is at least two-fold variation in seed Zn concentration. Genetic studies have revealed seed Zn differences to be controlled by a single gene in two closely related navy bean genotypes, Albion and Voyager. In this study, these two genotypes were grown under controlled fertilization conditions and the Zn concentration of various plant parts was determined. The two genotypes had similar levels of Zn in their leaves and pods but Voyager had 52% more Zn in its seeds than Albion. RNA was sequenced from developing pods of both genotypes. Transcriptome analysis of these genotypes identified 27,198 genes in the developing bean pods, representing 86% of the genes in the P. vulgaris genome (v 1.0 DOE-JGI and USDA-NIFA). Expression was detected in 18,438 genes. A relatively small number of genes (381) were differentially expressed between Albion and Voyager. Differentially expressed genes included three genes potentially involved in Zn transport, including zinc-regulated transporter, iron regulated transporter like (ZIP), zinc-induced facilitator (ZIF) and heavy metal associated (HMA) family genes. In addition 12,118 SNPs were identified between the two genotypes. Of the gene families related to Zn and/or Fe transport, eleven genes were found to contain SNPs between Albion and Voyager.

  2. Growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of hydroponically grown peanut in response to CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciel, K.; Mortley, D. G.; Hileman, D. R.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on growth, pod, and seed yield, and gas exchange of 'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. Plants were exposed to concentrations of 400 (ambient), 800, and 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in reach-in growth chambers. Foliage fresh and dry weights increased with increased CO2 up to 800 micromoles mol-1, but declined at 1200 micromoles mol-1. The number and the fresh and dry weights of pods also increased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, the yield of immature pods was not significantly influenced by increased CO2. Total seed yield increased 33% from ambient to 800 micromoles mol-1 CO2, and 4% from 800 to 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Harvest index increased with increasing CO2. Branch length increased while specific leaf area decreased linearly as CO2 increased from ambient to 1200 micromoles mol-1. Net photosynthetic rate was highest among plants grown at 800 micromoles mol-1. Stomatal conductance decreased with increased CO2. Carboxylation efficiency was similar among plants grown at 400 and 800 micromoles mol-1 and decreased at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 micromoles mol-1 had positive effects on peanut growth and yield, but above 800 micromoles mol-1 enrichment seed yield increased only marginally.

  3. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  4. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...... in a genomic sample and isolated using pyrosequencing. Eleven primer pairs were characterized in two populations of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso (each with 40 trees). The number of alleles per locus ranged from eight to 15, and one locus had null alleles. We genotyped seeds from 24 open-pollinated pods....... The genotypic profiles of seeds per pod suggest that all seeds are outcrossed and that only one pollen donor sires all ovules in a single fruit.  Conclusions: Ten microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. All seeds per pod of P. biglobosa were full siblings. The markers will be useful for reproductive...

  5. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods.

  6. Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mubeena; Moosa Hasany, S; Bhanger, M I; Iqbal, Shahid

    2007-03-22

    Moringa oleifera pods Lamarck (Drumstick or Horseradish) is a multipurpose medium or small size tree from sub-Himalayan regions of north-west India and indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands. Its pods (MOP) have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and cumene (BTEC) from aqueous solutions using HPLC method. Effect of different parameters, i.e., sorbent dose 0.05-0.8g, 25cm(-3) agitation time 5-120min, pH 1-10, temperature 283-308K and concentration of sorbate (1.3-13)x10(-3), (1.1-11)x10(-3), (0.9-9)x10(-3), (0.8-8)x10(-3)moldm(-3), on the sorption potential of MOP for BTEC have been investigated. The pore area and average pore diameter of the MOP by BET method using nitrogen as a standard are calculated to be 28.06+/-0.8m(2)g(-1) and 86.2+/-1.3nm respectively. Freundlich, Langumir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms were employed to evaluate the sorption capacity of MOP. Sorption capacities of BTEC onto MOP have been found to be 46+/-10, 84+/-9, 101+/-4, 106+/-32mmolg(-1) by Freundlich, 8+/-0.1, 9+/-0.1, 10+/-0.3, 9+/-0.1mmolg(-1) by Langumir and 15+/-1, 21+/-1, 23+/-2, 22+/-3mmolg(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, from BTEC solutions at 303K. While the mean energy of sorption process 9.6+/-0.3, 9.2+/-0.2, 9.3+/-0.3, 9.5+/-0.4kJmol(-1) for BTEC is calculated by D-R isotherm only. Rate constant of BTEC onto MOP 0.033+/-0.003, 0.030+/-0.002, 0.029+/-0.002, 0.027+/-0.002min(-1) at solution concentration of 1.3x10(-3), 1.1x10(-3), 0.9x10(-3) and 0.8x10(-3)moldm(-3) and at 303K have been calculated by employing Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters DeltaH -8+/-0.4, -10+/-0.6, -11+/-0.7, -11+/-0.7kJmol(-1), DeltaS -22+/-2, -26+/-2, -27+/-2, -29+/-3Jmol(-1)K(-1) and DeltaG(303K) -0.9+/-0.2, -1.9+/-0.2, -2.3+/-0.1 and -2.6+/-0.2kJmol(-1) were also estimated for BTEC respectively at temperatures 283-308K. The

  7. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, N. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and “algarrobo” pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las

  8. Optimization of Pre-treatment Process of Cocoa Pod Husk Using Various Chemical Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novizar Nazir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to see the effect of type of reagent (NaOH, H2O2 and H2SO4 and the condition of  pre-treatment  of cocoa pod husk towards lignin content after pre-treatment and hydrolysis,  reducing sugar and total sugar content.  Response Surface Method (RSM was used to optimize process conditions of pre-treatment (delignification.  Hydrolysis for all pre-treated sample were carried out using 3% H2SO4 with a ratio of cocoa pod husk to solvent (1:10  for 2 hours at a temperature of 110 oC using an autoclave.  The chemical  pre-treatment with NaOH was optimized by varying the  concentrations of NaOH (4-8% (w/v, centre point: 6%,  reaction time (60-100 minutes, centre point: 80 minutes and ratio of biomass to solvent (1:15-1:25, centre point 1:20 w/v.  The optimum conditions in this study was at the concentration of NaOH (X1 of 4% w/v, reaction time  (X2 of 100 minutes; ratio of biomass/solvent  (X3 of 1:25 (w/v.   The lignin content after pre-treatment was  15.03% lignin, lignin content after hydrolysis was  19.57%,  11.75% of reducing sugar, and 12.78% of total sugar. The chemical  pre-treatment with alkaline peroxide  (H2O2  was optimized by varying the  concentrations of H2O2  (4-7% w/v, centre point 5.5% (w/v,  reaction time (40-90 minutes, centre point: 65 minutes, and ratio of biomass/solvent (4-7% w/v.   The optimum conditions in this study was at the concentration of H2O2 concentration (X1 of 5.52% w/v, reaction time (X2 of 61.97 minutes, biomass loading in solvent (X3 7% w/v.  The lignin content after pre-treatment was  8.759, lignin content after  hydrolysis was 25.029%,  8.169%  of reducing sugar, and 10.371% of total sugar.  The chemical pre-treatment with H2SO4  was optimized by varying the  concentrations of H2SO4  (0.5-1.5% w/v,  reaction time (60-120 minutes, centre point: 90 minutes, and ratio of biomass to solvent (1:4-1:6 w/v, centre point 1:5 w/v. The

  9. Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Mubeena [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-76080 (Pakistan)]. E-mail: profmarao@yahoo.com; Moosa Hasany, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bhanger, M.I. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-76080 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid [Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha-40100 (Pakistan)]. E-mail: ranashahid313@gmail.com

    2007-03-22

    Moringa oleifera pods Lamarck (Drumstick or Horseradish) is a multipurpose medium or small size tree from sub-Himalayan regions of north-west India and indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands. Its pods (MOP) have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and cumene (BTEC) from aqueous solutions using HPLC method. Effect of different parameters, i.e., sorbent dose 0.05-0.8 g, 25 cm{sup -3} agitation time 5-120 min, pH 1-10, temperature 283-308 K and concentration of sorbate (1.3-13) x 10{sup -3}, (1.1-11) x 10{sup -3}, (0.9-9) x 10{sup -3}, (0.8-8) x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}, on the sorption potential of MOP for BTEC have been investigated. The pore area and average pore diameter of the MOP by BET method using nitrogen as a standard are calculated to be 28.06 {+-} 0.8 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 86.2 {+-} 1.3 nm respectively. Freundlich, Langumir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms were employed to evaluate the sorption capacity of MOP. Sorption capacities of BTEC onto MOP have been found to be 46 {+-} 10, 84 {+-} 9, 101 {+-} 4, 106 {+-} 32 mmol g{sup -1} by Freundlich, 8 {+-} 0.1, 9 {+-} 0.1, 10 {+-} 0.3, 9 {+-} 0.1 mmol g{sup -1} by Langumir and 15 {+-} 1, 21 {+-} 1, 23 {+-} 2, 22 {+-} 3 mmol g{sup -1} by D-R isotherms respectively, from BTEC solutions at 303 K. While the mean energy of sorption process 9.6 {+-} 0.3, 9.2 {+-} 0.2, 9.3 {+-} 0.3, 9.5 {+-} 0.4 kJ mol{sup -1} for BTEC is calculated by D-R isotherm only. Rate constant of BTEC onto MOP 0.033 {+-} 0.003, 0.030 {+-} 0.002, 0.029 {+-} 0.002, 0.027 {+-} 0.002 min{sup -1} at solution concentration of 1.3 x 10{sup -3}, 1.1 x 10{sup -3}, 0.9 x 10{sup -3} and 0.8 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} and at 303 K have been calculated by employing Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters {delta}H -8 {+-} 0.4, -10 {+-} 0.6, -11 {+-} 0.7, -11 {+-} 0.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, {delta

  10. Body-density measurement in children: the BOD POD versus Hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jason C; Gibson, Ann L; Cremades, J Gualberto; Mier, Constance M

    2011-06-01

    To compare estimates of body density (Db) from air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with measured and predicted thoracic-gas-volume (TGV) measurements and those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in children. Seventeen participants (13 male and 4 female; 10.1 ± 2.20 yr, 42.0 ± 15.03 kg, 145.6 ± 17.41 cm, 30.0 ± 8.66 kg/m²) were tested using ADP and HD, with ADP always preceding HD. Db estimates were compared between ADP with measured TGV, ADP with predicted TGV, and the reference measure, HD. Regression analyses were used to assess the accuracy of the ADP methods, and potential bias between the ADP procedures and HD were evaluated using Bland-Altman analyses. The cross-validation criteria described by Lohman for estimating Db relative to HD were used to interpret the results of the study. A significant difference was found between Db estimates from ADP with measured TGV (1.0453 ± 0.01934 g/cm³) and ADP with predicted TGV (1.0415 ± 0.01858 g/cm³); however, neither was significantly different from Db obtained by the reference HD procedure (1.0417 ± 0.02391 g/cm³). For both ADP procedures, regression analyses produced an r = .737-.738, r² = .543-.544, and SEE = 0.02 g/cm³, and the regression lines deviated significantly from the line of identity; however, no significant biases were indicated. Despite no significant mean differences between Db estimates from the ADP procedures and HD, more cross-validation research is needed before recommending the BOD POD for routine use with children in clinical and research settings.

  11. Music provided through a portable media player (iPod) blunts pain during physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Cioncoloni, David; Mazzanti, Sandra; Bianchi, Maria Elena; Morrone, Ilenia; Becattelli, Rossana; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    This research studied, 25 adult patients who underwent physical therapy to assess the analgesic effect of distraction with the use of music during physical therapy. Patients randomly underwent physical therapy once with music provided by an iPod and once without music. In both sessions patients underwent identical physical procedures. At end of both sessions patients filled in 5-item questionnaire where they scored pain and other parameters, such as stress, enjoyment, interaction, and satisfaction, on 10-cm visual analog scale. The mean scores (range, 0-10) of the two sessions were statistically compared. Mean pain scores were significantly lower (p = .031) during the session in which patients received music (4.8 ± 2.5) than during the session without music (5.8 ± 2.3). The other items of the questionnaire did not disclose any statistically significant difference when the sessions with versus without music were compared. Enjoyment (8.5 ± 1.6), interaction (8.3 ± 1.9), and satisfaction (8.6 ± 1.7) scores with music did not significantly differ in the sessions without music (8.5 ± 2.1, 8.5 ± 1.9, and, 8.5 ± 1.5, respectively); mean stress score was, 3.9 in both sessions. The conclusion of the study is that music provided through a portable media player has an analgesic effect. This can be an effective analgesic strategy during painful physical therapy.

  12. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent fat in female college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; Hildebrandt, Leslie; Miller, Wayne; Hammer, Roger; Spiller, Amanda

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) estimates obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) using the BOD POD Body Composition System compared with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group of female college athletes (n = 80). In addition, %BF estimates by skinfold measures (SF) were also obtained for comparison. A lean subset (n = 39) of the sample was also examined. Mean %BF estimated for the entire sample by ADP (21.2 +/- 5.9%) was significantly greater than that determined by HW (19.4 +/- 6.4%) and SF (18.8 +/- 5.5%). Results from the lean subset also revealed that %BF determined by ADP (17.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly higher than %BF estimates by HW (14.3 +/- 2.8%) and SF (15.2 +/- 3.2%). The regression equation for the entire sample (%BF HW = 0.937%BF ADP - 0.452, r(2) = 0.73, standard error of estimates (SEE) = 3.34) did not differ from the line of identity. In contrast, the line of identity differed significantly from the regression equation for the lean subset of female athletes (%BF HW = 0.48%BF ADP + 6.115, r(2) = 0.41, SEE = 2.18). The results of this investigation indicate that ADP significantly overestimated %BF by 8% in female athletes and by 16% for a leaner subset of the sample compared with HW. It appears that %BF estimates by SF may be more accurate than those obtained by ADP for female college athletes, regardless of body composition. Coaches and trainers evaluating body composition should consider the use of SF before ADP when measuring %BF in female college athletes. Sports scientists should continue to examine the possible gender and body composition bias for ADP.

  13. Molecular structure, chemical properties and biological activities of Pinto bean pod polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Fazlina; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-07-01

    Pinto bean pod polysaccharide (PBPP) was successfully extracted with yield of 38.5g/100g and the PBPP gave total carbohydrate and uronic acid contents of 286.2mg maltose equivalent/g and 374.3mgGal/g, respectively. The Mw of PBPP was 270.6kDa with intrinsic viscosity of 0.262dm(3)/g, which composed of mannose (2.5%), galacturonic acid (15.0%), rhamnose (4.0%), glucose (9.0%), galactose (62.2%), xylose (2.9%) and arabinose (4.3%) with trace amount of ribose and fucose. The result suggested that PBPP has a spherical conformation with a highly branched structure. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis showed that PBPP has a similar structure as commercial pectin with an esterification degree of 59.9%, whereas scanning electron microscopy study showed that the crude polysaccharide formed a thin layer of film that was made of multiple micro strands of fibre. PBPP exhibited substantial free radical scavenging activity (7.7%), metal reducing capability (2.04mmol/dm(3)) and α-amylase inhibitory activity (97.6%) at a total amount of 1mg. PBPP also exhibited high water- and oil-holding capacities (3.6g/g and 2.8g/g, respectively). At a low concentration, PBPP exhibited emulsifying activity of 39.6% with stability of 38.6%. Apart from that, PBPP was able to show thickening capability at low concentration (0.005kg/dm(3)).

  14. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.

  15. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  16. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE A ATIVIDADE DE PEROXIDASE (POD E POLIFENOLOXIDASE (PPO EM MAÇÃ (Mallus comunis EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENTS ON PEROXIDASE (POD AND POLYPHENOLOXIDASE (PPO ACTIVITIES OF APPLE (Mallus comunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia VALDERRAMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O extrato enzimático foi preparado a partir da polpa e casca da maçã de cultivares Fuji e Gala utilizando tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM, pH 5,0 como solução extratora. Dentre as análises determinou-se a concentração de proteína nos extratos enzimáticos concentrados de polpa e casca, sendo que o cultivar Fuji apresentou teores mais elevados em comparação ao cultivar Gala. Os tratamentos térmicos foram realizados nas temperaturas de 60, 65, 70 e 75°C por períodos que variaram de 1 a 10 minutos, sendo observado diminuição da atividade de POD e PPO com o aumento da temperatura e tempo; no entanto a POD não chegou a ser inativada em nenhum dos tratamentos realizados. A PPO foi inativada totalmente após 10 minutos de tratamento a 75°C. A eletroforese mostrou uma composição diferente de isoenzimas aniônicas e catiônicas da peroxidase.The enzymatic extract was prepared using the pulp and the peel of the apples from Fuji and Gala cultivar using sodium phosphate buffer 100 mM, pH 5.0 as the extraction solution. The protein concentration was determined and the Fuji cultivar showed higher amounts of protein than the Gala cultivar. The thermal treatments were carried out in the temperatures of 60, 65, 70 and 75°C for periods that varied from 1 to 10 minutes. A decrease in the activities of POD and PPO with the increase of the temperature and time was observed; however POD was not inactived following any of the treatments used. PPO was totally inativated after 10 minutes of treatment for 75°C. The electrophoresis showed a different pattern for the anionic and cationic peroxidase isoenzymes.

  17. Model reduction in coupled groundwater-surface water systems - potentials and limitations of the applied proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosses, Moritz; Moore, Catherine; Wöhling, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of many groundwater-surface water models often results in long model run times even on today's computer systems. This becomes even more problematic in combination with the necessity of (many) repeated model runs for parameter estimation and later model purposes like predictive uncertainty analysis or monitoring network optimization. Model complexity reduction is a promising approach to reduce the computational effort of physically-based models. Its impact on the conservation of uncertainty as determined by the (more) complex model is not well known, though. A potential under-estimation of predictive uncertainty has, however, a significant impact on model applications such as model-based monitoring network optimization. Can we use model reduction techniques to significantly reduce run times of highly complex groundwater models and yet estimate accurate uncertainty levels? Our planned research project hopes to assess this question and apply model reduction to non-linear groundwater systems. Several encouraging model simplification methods have been developed in recent years. To analyze their respective performance, we will choose three different model reduction methods and apply them to both synthetic and real-world test cases to benchmark their computational efficiency and prediction accuracy. The three methods for benchmarking will be proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) (following Siade et al. 2010), the eigenmodel method (Sahuquillo et al. 1983) and inversion-based upscaling (Doherty and Christensen, 2011). In a further step, efficient model reduction methods for application to non-linear groundwater-surface water systems will be developed and applied to monitoring network optimization. In a first step we present here one variant of the implementation and benchmarking of the POD method. POD reduces model complexity by working in a subspace of the model matrices resulting from spatial discretization with the same significant eigenvalue spectrum

  18. Remediation of uranium in-situ leaching area at Straz Pod Ralskem, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokal, Vojtech; Muzak, Jiri; Ekert, Vladimir [DIAMO, s. e., TUU, Pod Vinici 84, Straz pod Ralskem, 471 27 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    A large-scale development in exploration and production of uranium ores in the Czech Republic was done in the 2nd half of the 20. century. Many uranium deposits were discovered in the territory of the Czech Republic. One of the most considerable deposits in the Czech Republic is the site Hamr na Jezere - Straz pod Ralskem where both mining methods - the underground mining and the acidic in-situ leaching - were used. The extensive production of uranium led to widespread environmental impacts and contamination of ground waters. Over the period of 'chemical' leaching of uranium (ca. 32 years), a total of more than 4 million tons of sulphuric acid and other chemicals have been injected into the ground. Most of the products (approx. 99.5 %) of the acids reactions with the rocks are located in the Cenomanian aquifer. The contamination of Cenomanian aquifer covers the area larger then 27 km{sup 2}. The influenced volume of groundwater is more than 380 million m{sup 3}. The total amount of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is about 3.6 million tons. After 1990 a large-scale environmental program was established and the Czech government decided to liquidate the ISL Mine and start the remediation in 1996. The remediation consists of contaminated groundwater pumping, removing of the contaminants and discharging or reinjection of treated water. Nowadays four main remedial technological installations with sufficient capacity for reaching of the target values of remedial parameters in 2037 are used - the 'Station for Acid Solutions Liquidation No. One', the 'Mother liquor reprocessing' station, the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 6' and the 'Neutralization and Decontamination Station NDS 10'. It is expected that the amount of withdrawn contaminants will vary from 80 000 to 120 000 tons per year. Total costs of all remediation activities are expected to be in excess of 2 billion EUR. (authors)

  19. The effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) feeding regimes on the control of lamb coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, A; Voutzourakis, N; Theodosiou, T; Stefanakis, A; Sotiraki, S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has suggested that plants containing condensed tannins may offer a promising alternative approach for the control of coccidiosis in lambs and goat kids. The present study aimed to examine the potential effect of condensed tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) incorporated in sheep rations against lamb coccidiosis. The above tannin-rich sources were studied in three independent feeding trials in which the animals (naturally infected by Eimeria spp. ewes and their lambs) were allocated (i) in the control group and received a tannin-free diet (lucerne hay), or (ii) in the treatment groups and received a tannin-rich diet based on sainfoin hay (in trials 1 and 2), or in carob pod meal and a combination of carob pod meal and sainfoin hay (in trial 3). In total, 95 newborn lambs (and their 73 ewes) were enrolled in all trials which started a month before lambing and ended 8-10 weeks after lambs were born (at weaning). The course of coccidial infection was monitored in lambs by faecal oocyst counts and consistencies which were recorded at weekly intervals. Moreover, lambs total weight gain was evaluated at the end of each trial. During all trials, 100 % of the animals got naturally infected by Eimeria species and the infection burden was higher in trials 2 and 3 compared to trial 1 but in all cases, severe signs of diarrhoea were not observed. Tannin-rich diets were well accepted by the animals not affecting their feed intake and body weight gain when compared to the controls. The results suggest that incorporation of both tannin-rich resources (especially sainfoin) in sheep rations can reduce Eimeria oocyst excretion rates by the lambs, which can decrease subsequently the contamination of the farm environment with the parasite. However, the high variability noted on the results is not allowing us to draw any definite conclusions at least until the potential of those plants is further investigated.

  20. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamayor, Juan C; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Schmutz, Jeremy; Haiminen, Niina; Livingstone, Donald; Cornejo, Omar; Findley, Seth D; Zheng, Ping; Utro, Filippo; Royaert, Stefan; Saski, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Podicheti, Ram; Zhao, Meixia; Scheffler, Brian E; Stack, Joseph C; Feltus, Frank A; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Amores, Freddy; Phillips, Wilbert; Marelli, Jean Philippe; May, Gregory D; Shapiro, Howard; Ma, Jianxin; Bustamante, Carlos D; Schnell, Raymond J; Main, Dorrie; Gilbert, Don; Parida, Laxmi; Kuhn, David N

    2013-06-03

    Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits.

  1. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  2. POD analysis of flow over a backward-facing step forced by right-angle-shaped plasma actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Huaxing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present flow control over the backward-facing step with specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator and analyzed the influence of various scales of flow structures on the Reynolds stress through snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). 2D particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted on region (x/h = 0-2.25) and reattachment zone in the x-y plane over the backward-facing step at a Reynolds number of Re h  = 27,766 (based on step height [Formula: see text] and free stream velocity [Formula: see text]. The separated shear layer was excited by specially designed right-angle-shaped plasma actuator under the normalized excitation frequency St h  ≈ 0.345 along the 45° direction. The spatial distribution of each Reynolds stress component was reconstructed using an increasing number of POD modes. The POD analysis indicated that the flow dynamic downstream of the step was dominated by large-scale flow structures, which contributed to streamwise Reynolds stress and Reynolds shear stress. The intense Reynolds stress localized to a narrow strip within the shear layer was mainly affected by small-scale flow structures, which were responsible for the recovery of the Reynolds stress peak. With plasma excitation, a significant increase was obtained in the vertical Reynolds stress peak. Under the dimensionless frequencies St h  ≈ 0.345 and [Formula: see text] which are based on the step height and momentum thickness, the effectiveness of the flow control forced by the plasma actuator along the 45° direction was ordinary. Only the vertical Reynolds stress was significantly affected.

  3. POD improvements of GALILEO satellites through the measurement of their non-gravitational accelerations by means of an onboard accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David M.; Santoli, Francesco; Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Kalarus, Maciej; Zielinski, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the satellites of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) represents the basic prerequisite in order to provide refined ephemerides for their orbit, aimed at providing a precise and accurate positioning on the Earth. An important factor that impacts negatively in the POD of these satellites is the limited modeling of the accelerations produced by the non-gravitational accelerations. These, indeed, are subtle and generally complex to model properly, especially in the case of a complex in shape spacecraft, with solar panels and antennae for microwave link and the mutual shadowing effects among the many surfaces involved. We have to notice that their modeling has an important impact in the determination of a number of geophysical parameters of interest, such as stations coordinates, Earth's geocenter and orientation parameters. In the case of GNSS satellites, the main NGP acceleration is the one produced by the direct solar radiation pressure, with non-negligible contributions due to Earth's albedo, thermal effects and power radiated by the antennae. The models developed so far for these perturbative effects have shown many limits, as pointed out in the literature. Currently, the models developed for the NGPs are mainly based on empirical blind models (with the goal of absorb unknowns quantities) and more recently with the use of wing-box models, that try to provide a finite-elements approach to the modeling. The European Space Agency (ESA) - in the context of the development of the GALILEO constellation, and especially in view of the next generation of GALILEO spacecraft - besides being interested in possible improvements of the NGPs models, is also envisaging the use of an onboard accelerometer to directly measure them in order to improve the POD of each spacecraft of the constellation. We have been involved in this study by means of a proposal to ESA denominated GALileo and ACcelerometry (GALAC) led by the Space

  4. “苹果”更美味——Apple iPod Hi-Fi音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏锋

    2006-01-01

    这款型号为A1121的iPod Hi-Fi音箱是Apple公司专门为iPod设计的高保真音响系统。它让我们感受到了从内在音质到外在风格的完美统一.堪称iPod系列产品的绝配。如果你能够承受得起3000多元的价格的话。

  5. Cellular uptake and apoptosis induction of podophyllotoxin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in human keratinocytes%POD-SLN对人角质形成细胞凋亡的影响及其在细胞内的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史毓杰; 曾抗; 李国锋; 杨健

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究鬼臼毒素固体脂质纳米粒(POD-SLN)对人角质形成细胞凋亡的影响及在细胞内的分布.方法 设鬼臼毒素(POD)组、POD-SLN组和对照组,分别处理人角质形成细胞,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡和细胞周期,激光共聚焦显微镜(CLSM)观察POD-SLN在人角质形成细胞的俘获分布.结果 POD和POD-SLN均能够显著促进细胞凋亡,POD-SLN诱导细胞凋亡的效果优于POD,并且以早期凋亡为主(P0.05).CLSM呈现红色荧光聚集在细胞核的倾向,并且POD-SLN较POD的荧光强度增高.结论 POD-SLN较POD对角质形成细胞具有更强的诱导凋亡的效应.

  6. Emergent, Self-Directed, and Self-Organized Learning: Literacy, Numeracy, and the iPod Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricci

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses narrative and storying to retell how two girls ages 5 and 7 continue to make use of an iPod touch to expand their literacy and numeracy. The paper explores the stopwatch and alarm features within the clock application, as well as the weather application, and the Internet browsing capability of the iPod touch. It also explores some of the challenges and inequities inherent in using this type of technology. The paper concludes with the author’s belief that it is important to allow learners freedom to explore and freely play with the technology and that emergent, self-directed, and self-organized learning is a natural and gentle approach to lifelong learning.Becoming literate and numerate is infinitely complicated, yet very simple. It is infinitely complicated because there are so many variables within and without the individual who is learning these skills that understanding the process fully is nearly impossible. Yet, it is simple because so many successfully become literate and numerate so naturally. Relating to this point Schuerwegen (2011 writes, Ergo, when a child grows up in a reading, writing, counting environment, especially an electronically driven society such as ours, he will one day find the need to pick up all these skills, at least as much as he needs them. (p. 22

  7. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  8. Teaching students with developmental disabilities to operate an iPod Touch(®) to listen to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M; Sigafoos, Jeff; Achmadi, Donna; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an intervention procedure for teaching three students with developmental disabilities to independently operate a portable multimedia device (i.e., an iPod Touch(®)) to listen to music. The intervention procedure included the use of video modeling, which was presented on the same iPod Touch(®) that the students were taught to operate to listen to music. Four phases (i.e., baseline, intervention, fading, and follow-up) were arranged in accordance with a delayed multiple-probe across participants design. During baseline, the students performed from 25 to 62.5% of the task analyzed steps correctly. With intervention, all three students correctly performed 80-100% of the steps and maintained this level of performance when video modeling was removed and during follow-up. The findings suggest that the video modeling procedure was effective for teaching the students to independently operate a portable multimedia device to access age-appropriate leisure content.

  9. Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Yatmaz; Irfan, Turhan; Mustafa, Karhan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract was carried out by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that Ca-alginate concentration and the amount of immobilized cells had significant effects on yield. Optimum conditions for ethanol fermentation were determined to be 2% Ca-alginate concentration, 150 rpm agitation rate, 5% yeast cells entrapped in beads and pH 5.5. After validation experiments; ethanol concentration, yield, production rate and sugar utilization rate were respectively 40.10 g/L, 46.32%, 3.19 g/L/h and 90.66%; and the fermentation time was decreased to 24 h. In addition, the immobilized cells were shown to be reusable for five cycles, though a decrease in yield was observed. Finally, carob pod extract was used for ethanol fermentation by controlled and uncontrolled pH without any enrichment, and the results suggest that carob extract can be utilized effectively by immobilized-cell fermentation without the use of enrichments to facilitate yeast growth.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of the Alkaloid-Enriched Extract from Prosopis juliflora Pods and Its Influence on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Edilene T.; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A.; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P.G.; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C.; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G.; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A.; Silva, Herymá Giovane O.; Freitas, Giovana C.; Figueiredo, Mauro P.; de Oliveira, Fernando F.; Batista, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion. PMID:23595000

  11. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.

  12. Optimized Production of Vanillin from Green Vanilla Pods by Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Combined with Pre-Freezing and Thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb, which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98% and viscozyme extract (2.36%, the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  13. Optimized production of vanillin from green vanilla pods by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Mo, Limei; Chen, Feng; Lu, Minquan; Dong, Wenjiang; Wang, Qinghuang; Xu, Fei; Gu, Fenglin

    2014-02-19

    Production of vanillin from natural green vanilla pods was carried out by enzyme-assisted extraction combined with pre-freezing and thawing. In the first step the green vanilla pods were pre-frozen and then thawed to destroy cellular compartmentation. In the second step pectinase from Aspergillus niger was used to hydrolyze the pectin between the glucovanillin substrate and β-glucosidase. Four main variables, including enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time and pH, which were of significance for the vanillin content were studied and a central composite design (CCD) based on the results of a single-factor tests was used. Response surface methodology based on CCD was employed to optimize the combination of enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH for maximum vanillin production. This resulted in the optimal condition in regards of the enzyme amount, reaction temperature, time, and pH at 84.2 mg, 49.5 °C, 7.1 h, and 4.2, respectively. Under the optimal condition, the experimental yield of vanillin was 4.63% ± 0.11% (dwb), which was in good agreement with the value predicted by the model. Compared to the traditional curing process (1.98%) and viscozyme extract (2.36%), the optimized method for the vanillin production significantly increased the yield by 133.85% and 96%, respectively.

  14. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses.

  15. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid-enriched extract from Prosopis juliflora pods and its influence on in vitro ruminal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilene T; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P G; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Silva, Herymá Giovane O; Freitas, Giovana C; Figueiredo, Mauro P; de Oliveira, Fernando F; Batista, Ronan

    2013-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion.

  16. Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Deleixhe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historic novel under the vigilance of the censor – analysis of texts This article focuses on the relation that Jacek Bochenski’s historical novel entitled The poet Naso published in 1969 presents towards the concept of censorship. In the article the author aims at proving that the understanding of censorship by Bochenski is similar to the observations of the Hungarian essayist Mikos Haraszti. Tracking the allegoric references scattered through the novel, the author of the article reconstructs Bochenski’s reflection about this internalized censorship and checks its convergence with Haraszti’s remarks. From this exercise emerges a definition of the role of the artist that seems to be inherited from the romantic period: an artist as a person that subordinates himself unconditionally to art, and not to the temporal power. The author of the article then interrogates the respect which Bochenski has been showing to his definition in his literary work. It appears that the writer has been prone to make bigger concessions in order to soften the reception of his book by the censors than he advises his writing colleagues. However, the literary strategies deployed by Bochenski operate on two levels: creating an overall ambiguity about the guilt of its main protagonist, they tend to soften its reception by the censorship; while at the same time, rendering this overall atmosphere of ambiguity, they give a literary form to the spectral character of the guilt of the artist, who – as in Ovidius’ case – is permanently accountable for what he has not yet done in the building of communism.   Powieść historyczna pod czujnym okiem cenzora – analiza tekstów Artykuł poświęcony jest  powieści historycznej Jacka Bocheńskiego pt. Nazo poeta z roku 1969 i jego rozumieniu pojęcia cenzury uwewnętrznionej. Autor artkułu udowadnia, że ujęcie problemu cenzury przez Bocheńskiego jest zbliżone do konstatacji węgierskiego eseisty Mikl

  17. 人工授粉对香荚兰果荚生长的影响%Effect of Different Ways of Pollination on Development of Pod of Vanilla planifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文进; 江明; 谢文申

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiment of self-pollination, cross-pollination and artificial pollination with different a-mount of pollen, we analyzed the relationship of the success rate of pollination, formation rate of pod and pod number with different ways of pollination.It showed that the fruiting rate and pod formation rate from self-pollination was 13.74% , which was higher than that from cross-pollination, and the average length of pod and weight variation were 0.51 cm and 1.29g respectively.Moreover, the successful pollination rate and fruiting rate were higher than cross-pollination, as pollination rate increased, the rate of failed pod and fruiting rate, and pod formation rate increased.%通过对香荚兰自花授粉、异花授粉以及不同花粉量的授粉实验,分析了授粉成功率、落荚率和果荚生长量与授粉方式的关系.结果表明:自花授粉挂果率和果荚生长量均优于异花授粉,挂果率差异高达13.74%,果荚平均长和重差异分别为0.51 cm、1.29g,且授粉成功率和挂果率均较异花授粉高;随授粉量的增加,落荚率降低,挂果率增高,果荚生长量增加.

  18. iPod - Var mans leksak? : Den sociala bakgrundens betydelse för användning av och attityd till Apples mp3-modell

    OpenAIRE

    von Schantz, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purpose/Aim: My study aims to analyse, using Pierre Bourdieu´s theory, whether the social background plays a significant part in the attitudes and use of Apples mp3-player iPod. The study also aims to determine whether it is possible to group the focus groups used in my study and iPod into Bourdieu´s model. Material/Method: The reference material used in this paper is mainly gathered from books concerning Pierre Bourdieu´s theories. I have also had four focus groups of two different ...

  19. 路创电子宣布其照明控制系统可使用Apple iPhoneTM和iPod Touch控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    北京一照明控制系统制造商路创电子(Lutron)宣布其HomeWorks 创煌家 家居照明控制系统现可通过Apple iPhoneTM和iPod Touch进行控制。创煌家的用户可在iTunes App Store免费下载软件,然后通过Wi—Fi网络,利用iPhone或iPod Touch轻易地控制创煌家照明控制系统。

  20. Branding identity with Apple`s iPod : constructing meaning and identity in a consumption culture by using technological equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Blichfeldt, Mathilde F.

    2004-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This thesis shows how Apple’s mp3 player iPod can serve as an example for how people construct meaning and identity through the use of particular objects while living and participating in a consumption culture. The empirical examples are derived from complex and contextual analysis of iPod; I have performed and analysed four qualitative interviews, various Internet pages, and advertisements for the gadget. In addition, I have in general been observant on how this phenomenon has b...

  1. Las deformidades podálicas en la infancia: Un problema de salud en los círculos infantiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jiménez Vázquez

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan 96 niños de 3 a 5 años y de ambos sexos del Círculo Infantil "Sueños de Martí" del municipio Cienfuegos, para observar el comportamiento de las deformidades podálicas y la atención en los afectados. Se realiza un examen físico ortopédico con enfásis en las deformidades podálicas. Se toman en consideración algunos aspectos de interés como: edad, sexo, deformidades podálicas, deformidades asociadas y atención ortopédica anterior. Estas afecciones se presentaron en el 80,7 % de la muestra; el pie plano fue la deformidad más frecuente y predominó en el sexo masculino; el genus valgus fue la deformidad asociada más encontrada. Se observa que más del 70 % de los afectados carecían de atención ortopédica anterior. Se impuso tratamiento a los niños con ejercicios correctores, y se confeccionó un esquema de ejercicios al efecto, el cual fue incluido en las actividades programadas en el círculo infantil de referencia96 children aged 3 to 5 years from «Sueños de Martí» day-care center in Cienfuegos municipality were analyzed to observe any podalic deformity and the care given to the affected children. A physical orthopedic examination focused on podalic deformities was carried out. Some aspects of interest were considered such as age, sex, podalic deformities, foot-related deformities and previous orthopedic treatment. These podalic problems were found in 80.7 % of the group; flat foot was the most common and predominant in boys; genus valgun was the most observed foot-associated deformity. Over 70 % of affected children had not been orthopedically treated before. Affected children were cared for with correction exercises and a physical exercise program was made to be included in the planned activities of the mentioned day-care center

  2. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line and on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARIN Level-2 geophysical data products.. The Processor will make use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products. These output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), and they are compatible with BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and other NetCDF tool. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARIN FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, according their specific requirements, setting a list of configurable options. The processing service is meant to be used for research & development experiments, to support the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training in training courses and workshops, cross-comparison against third party products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation for the Sentinel-3 Topographic mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal

  3. Penambahan Multi Enzim dan Ragi Tape dalam Ransum Berserat Tinggi (Pod–Kakao untuk Menurunkan Kolesterol Daging Broiler MULTYENZYM AND YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION IN HIGH CRUDE FIBER RATION (CACCAO-POD DECREASING MEAT CHOLESTROL OF BROILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciani .

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been conducted to investigate the effect of multy enzym (optizyme enzyme andyeast addited to caccao-pod in the ration to reduce 6 weeks broiler meat cholesterol. This research used acompletely randomized design (CRD with four treatments: as a control ration (0% caccao-pod; 15%caccao-pod; 15% cacao-pod + 0,20% optizyme enzyme and 15% caccao-pod + 0,20% yeast, with six replicates.There were five broilers 2 weeks similar on the same weight in each replicate. The experimental diets forthe 6 weeks finishing period were formulated to 20% crude protein and Energy Metabolish (2900 ME kcal/kg in mash formed diet while drinking water was given ad libitum. The experiment was done 4 weeks.The result there was a significant decreas of cholesterol on the diet content 0,20% optizyme enzyme or0,20% yeast, were reduced distribution body fat and meat cholesterol.

  4. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (155'000 SAR passes and 41'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing according to their specific requirements by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing, which can be lengthy due to the required intense number-crunching inherent to SAR processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the awarded development contracts by confronting the deliverables to ESA's prototype, is now made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for on-site demonstrations/training in

  5. Cocoa pod husk: A new source of CLEA-lipase for preparation of low-cost biodiesel: An optimized process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanahmadi, Soofia; Yusof, Faridah; Chyuan Ong, Hwai; Amid, Azura; Shah, Harmen

    2016-08-10

    Enzymatic reactions involving lipases as catalyst in transesterification can be an excellent alternative to produce environmental-friendly biodiesel. In this study, lipase extracted from Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) and immobilized through cross linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) technology catalysed the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil successfully. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to get the optimal conditions of 3% (w/w) enzyme loading, 4h reaction time and 1:6 oil/ethanol ratio to achieve the highest conversion of free fatty acid and glycerides into biodiesel (93%). The reusability of CLEA-lipase was tested and after seven cycles, the conversion percentage reduced to 58%. The results revealed that CLEA lipase from CPH is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  6. Book Review: iOS Forensic Analysis: For iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schulte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As Digital Forensics practitioners, we know that our discipline is constantly evolving. Keeping abreast means we need to continually refine and broaden our knowledge pools through experience, education, research, peer exchange, and more. Mobile device forensics can be especially dynamic and challenging. With multiple standards in place at the hardware, operating system, and user interface levels, it can be daunting to preserve, analyze, search and report on these tiny yet ubiquitous hand-held computers. Apple Computer’s line of mobile products (iOS devices - iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch is no exception to this rule.(see PDF for full review

  7. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error).

  8. Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Investigations of Sesbania rostrata Dc (Fabaceae Extracts form Leaves, Stems, Granulates, Pods and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Ouattara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and the phytochemical analysis of Sesbania rostrata used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso were investigated. Aqueous, methanolic and hydro-acetone extracts from leaves, stems, granules, pods and roots organs have demonstrated a good polyphenolic, tannin and flavonoids with variable anti-DPPH, Iron III reduction and antibacterial capacities. Particularly methanol extract form leaves possessed 46.33 mgEGA/100 mg and 25.98 mgETA/100 mg in polyphenolic and tannin content respectively. Beside TLC analysis of this extract demonstrated the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, caffeic and gallic acids. It was presented a good possibility to inhibit bacteria growth, radical DPPH and to reduce Iron III. These biological activities could support the traditional uses of this plant.

  9. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-05

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  10. High quality permanent draft genome sequence of Phaseolibacter flectens ATCC 12775(T), a plant pathogen of French bean pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pillay, Manoj; Markowitz, Victor; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Phaseolibacter flectens strain ATCC 12775(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:268-273, 2013) is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. Ph. flectens is as a plant-pathogenic bacterium on pods of French bean and was first identified by Johnson (1956) as Pseudomonas flectens. After its phylogenetic position was reexamined, Pseudomonas flectens was transferred to the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 44.34 mol%. The chromosome length is 2,748,442 bp. It encodes 2,437 proteins and 89 RNA genes. Ph. flectens genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes study.

  11. 苹果电脑将iPod及iPod photo 产品线合二为一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 苹果电脑宣布将iPod和iPod photo产品线融合,形成一条单一的白色iPod产品线.所有的iPod均为彩屏,可浏览影集、图片,并可演示幻灯片,颜色十分绚丽.简化后的iPod产品线有两种型号:一种是20GB可容纳5千首歌曲及60GB可容纳1万5千首歌曲.同时,iPod还将提供易用的播客(Podcast)菜单,内含播客(Podcast)内的书签功能以及用彩色显示图示的能力.

  12. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  14. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.

  15. Transfer of anthracnose resistance and pod coiling traits from Medicago arborea to M. sativa by sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, D J; Mackie, J M; Musial, J M; Irwin, J A G

    2008-07-01

    Five asymmetric hybrid plants were obtained between Medicago sativa (2n = 4x = 32) and Medicago arborea (2n = 4x = 32) through sexual reproduction and the use of a cytoplasmically male sterile M. sativa genotype. Over 2,000 pollinations were made to obtain these hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that in the most studied hybrid (WA2273), 4% of the bands unique to the M. arborea parent were present, versus 72% for the unique M. sativa bands. This suggests that only a single M. arborea chromosome or chromosome parts has been transferred. WA2273 had 7% of AFLP bands which were not present in either parent, which is suggestive of chromosome rearrangements as would be expected if only chromosome parts or a single part had been transferred from M. arborea. Phenotypic evidence for hybridity was obtained for pod coiling (1.4 coils in WA2273 versus three coils in the M. sativa parent and its self and testcross populations, and one coil in M. arborea), and Colletotrichum trifolii race 2 resistance (transferred from the resistant M. arborea parent, as the M. sativa parent and the self populations were highly susceptible). The hybrids were self sterile, but were female fertile to a high level when crossed with 4x, but not 2x, M. sativa, indicating they were at or near 4x. Both the pod coiling trait and anthracnose resistance segregated in the progeny of testcrosses between WA2273 and M. sativa. The work demonstrates that agronomically useful traits can be introgressed into M. sativa from M. arborea by use of male sterile M. sativa and sexual reproduction.

  16. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  17. An investigation on different harvesting methods on young pods of KKU # 922 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar for baby corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikranan, S

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to search for the best indicator to be used for the harvest of maize pods for baby corn production. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The treatments are: T1 (Control) Taking sample when silks of female flower had extended from tip of pod up to 3 cm long T2, silks had extended 1 cm long T3, silks had extended 2 cm long T4, blooming of female flower for 2 days T5, blooming of female flowers for 4 days T6, blooming of female flower for 6 days T7, one third blooming of male flower T8, two third blooming of male flower and T9, full bloom of male flower. Five baby corn Characteristics were used i.e., (1) fresh weight of whole ears, (2) fresh weight of ears without husk, (3) commercial standard ears, (4) off standard ears and (5) disordered kernel-rows of ears. A range of scores from 1 to 9 was applied to judge quality and yield in each item of the five baby corn characteristics. A score of 1 = the best whilst further increases in scores indicated the decline in quality of baby corn. The results showed that an indicator for use in harvesting pods of maize for baby corn production was found with T6, i.e. the best time for the harvest of pods is when the female flowers had bloomed for 6 days after the appearance of silks.

  18. El uso de podómetros para incrementar la actividad física en población adulta: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miragall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La inactividad física se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública, siendo uno de los mayores factores de riesgo para muchas enfermedades. Caminar es una forma sencilla de aumentar la actividad física (AF y los podómetros son dispositivos tecnológicos que pueden ayudar a aumentar y mantener la motivación para caminar y para la AF en general. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar la literatura científica sobre la eficacia de las intervenciones con podómetros en población adulta. Para ello, se analizan las características de los podómetros y de las intervenciones que los utilizan, las características de los usuarios que se benefician más de estas intervenciones, las principales teorías de la motivación que las sustentan, las ventajas y desventajas de su uso, así como las potencialidades de los dispositivos de nueva generación. Aunque es necesario obtener mayor evidencia, los resultados señalan que los podómetros son herramientas útiles para incrementar la AF.

  19. Using iPods[R] and iPads[R] in Teaching Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Davis, Tonya N.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Sutherland, Dean; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods[R], iPads[R], and related devices (e.g., iPhones[R]) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings.…

  20. Using an iPod Touch to Teach Social and Self-Management Skills to an Elementary Student with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Erika; Johnson, Jesse W.; Ridenour, Lindsey; Simmons, Karen; Crouch, Starline

    2011-01-01

    A ten year-old boy exhibiting frequent off-task and disruptive behavior during small group math instruction was taught to use an iPod Touch for video modeling and self-monitoring purposes. A single-subject changing conditions (A-B-BC) design was used to investigate the differential effects of video modeling versus a combination of video modeling…