WorldWideScience

Sample records for optometry

  1. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  2. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  3. School of Optometry at Inter American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Henry W.

    1981-01-01

    The optometry program at the Inter American University in Puerto Rico is profiled, with highlights of admission criteria, temporary and permanent facilities, faculty, governance structure, curriculum, research opportunities, and relationship with the university as a whole. (MSE)

  4. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN OPTOMETRY ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    Epidemiology aims to describe the distribution and magnitude of health and disease problems, ... JNOA - VOL 15, 2009. 49 sectors? Where and for whom these activities ... specialists, mid level personnel and community level. The causes of blindness in Nigeria are shown ... Throughout the world optometry has been the.

  6. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  7. Requirements for Hepatitis B Vaccinations among Optometry Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Norma K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Data on the incidence of hepatitis B viral infection are examined, and a telephone survey of 19 schools of optometry concerning administrative policy about student immunization is reported. Results show less than one-third of schools require student vaccination. It is recommended that schools mandate immunization for all students. (MSE)

  8. Meeting Future Demands for Educators in Geriatric Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumosa, Nina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A University of Missouri-St. Louis program combines a two-year optometric residency with a master of science degree in gerontology to prepare clinicians as teachers of geriatric optometry. The interdisciplinary program's components include optometric care of elderly patients, supervised student teaching, and coursework in geriatrics. (Author/MSE)

  9. Heuristic Evaluation of Optical and Optometry Franchise Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Martínez Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the degree of quality, stated in terms of interactivity and usability, of websites from Spanish franchises in the field of Optics and Optometry. For this purpose, all the existing bibliography was checked and the concept of interactivity and usability in websites was also defined. Besides, a series of indicators (Nielsen were chosen which enabled us to set up parameters to measure the level of interactivity. The objective public for the franchise company was outlined and hence the analysis of websites of companies from the Optical and Optometry sector was carried out. The techniques of analysis used were those which limit observation to a single moment in time with the aim of describing the present situation. The objective was to determine whether the websites are being designed, and therefore used, as corporate catalogues or else, they favour the participation of possible users (customers, current franchisers and potential franchise-holders thus establishing a feed-back process by means of which the addressees play an active role. As a final conclusion, the hypothesis of the research is corroborated and it can be stated that websites of franchises from the Optical and Optometry sector are not designed offering a high degree in interactivity and accesibility in communication through the Internet with their different objective publics. The possible advantages of the Internet are wasted by a low level of interaction. Our research team is in favour of a higher interactivity level which corresponds to that in which a marketing and communication strategy of the franchise may offer added value to the brand and could let the contributions of customers, franchisers and potential franchise holders be taken into account.

  10. Effects of Optometry School Recruitment Efforts on Urban and Suburban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew D.; Shepard, Jodi; Orleans, Elizabeth; Chae, Eunmi; Ng-Sarver, Joy

    1999-01-01

    In two Oakland (California) high schools, one urban and one suburban, an audiovisual presentation designed to enhance student interest in optometry as a career was given. Results of the presentation, measured by a questionnaire, suggest that few high school students are considering pursuing an optometry doctoral degree, but an on-site presentation…

  11. Webcams as a tool for teaching in Optometry training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo, A.; Arines, J.

    2015-04-01

    Clinical Optometry lab training is devoted to develop the students skills needed in eye healthcare professional practice. Nevertheless, students always find difficulties in the management of some optometric instruments and in the understanding of the evaluation techniques. Moreover, teachers also have problems in explaining the eye evaluation tests or making demonstrations of instruments handling. In order to facilitate the learning process, webcams adapted to the optometric devices represent a helpful and useful tool. In this work we present the use of webcams in some of the most common clinical test in Optometry as ocular refraction, colour vision test, eye health evaluation with slip-lamp, retinoscopy, ophthalmoscopy and contact lens fitting. Our experience shows that with this simple approach we can do things easier: show the instrument handling to all the students at the same time; take pictures or videos of different eye health conditions or exploratory routines for posterior visualization with all the students; recreate visual experience of the patient during optometric exam; simulate colour vision pathologies; increase the interactions between students allowing them to help and correct each other; and also record the final routine exam in order to make possible its revision with the students.

  12. Update on Autism Spectrum Disorders for Optometry: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kristi A. Jensen, OD; Elizabeth Hoppe, OD, MPH, DrPH; Kristy Remick-Waltman, OD; Frank Spors, EurOptom, MS, PhD; Donald Egan, OD

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the paper is to review current literature on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and to inform doctors of optometry who will provide care for patients with ASD and their families. As primary care providers, it is important that doctors of optometry have the knowledge and skills required to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASD and to contribute to the multi-disciplinary team for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A review and synthesis of current relevant ...

  13. Predicting the academic performance of Asian, black, and Hispanic optometry students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1990-03-01

    As optometry schools receive increasing numbers of Asian, Black, and Hispanic applications, it is appropriate for us to ask whether minority students differ in meaningful ways from nonminority students in measures used in admissions, and whether these variables have differential validity in predicting their achievement in optometry school. This study compares Asian, Black, Hispanic, and nonminority students at entry to the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) from 1981 through 1986 and tests the validity of admissions indices to predict optometry grades, academic dropout, and high-level achievement for these ethnic groups. Although preoptometry grade point average (GPA) was the best predictor of optometry grades for all students, measures of verbal ability were additional predictors for Asian students and, for Black and Hispanic students, ability in study/reading and math were predictors. In addition, personality inventory measures and ratings of the competitiveness of the undergraduate institution were important in differentiating minority academic dropouts from retained students. Suggestions are made for optometry college programs which will enhance the probability of success for minority students.

  14. Update on Autism Spectrum Disorders for Optometry: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A. Jensen, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the paper is to review current literature on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and to inform doctors of optometry who will provide care for patients with ASD and their families. As primary care providers, it is important that doctors of optometry have the knowledge and skills required to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASD and to contribute to the multi-disciplinary team for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A review and synthesis of current relevant literature was conducted. Results: Publications describing the epidemiology of autism, risk factors, screening, and diagnosis are reviewed. Optometry is not currently listed as one of the multi-disciplinary professions in the ASD team, and this article proposes potential roles of the doctor of optometry to fill in the missing piece in the coordination of care of ASD patients. Conclusions: Doctors of optometry should play an important role in the care of individuals with ASD. It is time that optometrists assume their role as primary care providers to care for vulnerable populations such as individuals on the autism spectrum. Optometrists should be aware of current diagnostic criteria and research regarding patterns of autism and potential risk indicators. Familiarity with types of healthcare providers, local community resources, and screening and diagnostic tools that can assist both in making a definitive diagnosis and in managing autism spectrum disorders is important for the optometric provider.

  15. "Eye-T": information technology adoption and use in Canada's optometry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; McKillop, Ian; McMurray, Josephine; Strong, J Graham; Jones, Deborah A; Hildebrand, Jenna M

    2011-03-01

    While information technology (IT) is playing an increasing role in the delivery of optometric services, little specific information is available about how IT is changing the practice of optometry in Canada or whether optometry schools are adequately preparing their students to use this technology when they graduate. Quantitative data on how IT is being used, as well as related barriers and potential benefits, were obtained in a survey of Canadian optometrists (N = 474). Three site visits were made to geographically dispersed Canadian optometry practices identified as exemplars of IT adoption. More than 96% of Canadian optometrists use computers in their practices, but fewer have integrated computers into their examination rooms. Optometrists are regularly using computers to manage their practices and medical record keeping. The automated perimeter is the clinical assessment technology most used (88.4%), followed by the autorefractor (83.9%) and the autokeratometer (72.2%). The anterior segment camera is the technology most likely to be acquired within the next 5 years (36.9%), followed by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (26.8%). Major benefits of IT for optometrists include being better able to provide patients with images and information to explain results and to inspire greater patient confidence that the practice is state of the art. Perceived barriers include the need for frequent updates, lack of resources for training, and cost. There is support for increased exposure to IT as part of training in optometry. Use of IT in optometry practices is widespread and likely to continue to increase in the years ahead. IT may be a key element in the future success of optometry practices in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Perceptions of high investment and training costs are barriers to further adoption. Optometrists may benefit from increased exposure to IT as part of their training. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Application of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ping Yin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe and study the comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia.METHODS:Eighty-four children with hyperopia who were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry in our hospital from February 2014 to March 2015 were selected as the research object,and they were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry by tropicamide or hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops. The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration and at different time after administration of the two methods were compared,and the detected results of the two groups with different severity degree were compared too.RESULTS:The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration of the two eye drops had no significant differences(all P>0.05,while the residual regulation after using hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops at 20, 40, 60min and 24h were all smaller than those after using tropicamide(all PP>0.05. The pupil diameter of the two groups at 48h after administration both had no significant differences to those before administration(all P>0.05.CONCLUSION:The comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry of children with hyperopia is better,and its paralysis effect for ciliaris is obvious.

  17. Attending to Audience: Comparing Optometry Student Talk "with" and "about" Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Jenna M.; Spafford, Marlee M.; Schryer, Catherine F.

    2009-01-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk "with" patients in eye examinations and their talk "about" patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient "chief concern or request", "illness experience", and "management" utterances were observed in ten eye…

  18. Communication self-efficacy in optometry: the mediating role of mindfulness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Elde, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between optometry students’ communication self-efficacy and their level of mindfulness and empathy. The study had a cross-sectional design. The sample included qualified optometrists in their first year of the Masters’ degree programme. The stude

  19. Communication self-efficacy in optometry: the mediating role of mindfulness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Elde, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between optometry students’ communication self-efficacy and their level of mindfulness and empathy. The study had a cross-sectional design. The sample included qualified optometrists in their first year of the Masters’ degree programme. The

  20. Communication self-efficacy in optometry: the mediating role of mindfulness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Elde, H.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between optometry students’ communication self-efficacy and their level of mindfulness and empathy. The study had a cross-sectional design. The sample included qualified optometrists in their first year of the Masters’ degree programme. The stude

  1. Perceptions and opinions of graduating South African optometry students on the proposed community service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community service (CS was introduced inSouth Africa in an attempt to address the shortageand maldistribution of health care professionalswithin the public sector. The Professional Board forOptometry and Dispensing Opticians (PBODOhas approved legislation for the introductionof CS for graduating optometry students. This study examined the perceptions and opinionsof graduating optometry students regarding the proposed CS. A mixed-method design(questionnaires and interviews was used. Bothapproaches yielded similar results. The quantitativecomponent included 119 participants, aged between 20 and 35 years (mean age and standard deviation;22.8 ± 2.3 years. There were 43.2% Blacks, 28.5%Whites, 19.1% Indians and 9.2% Coloureds. The qualitative part included fourteen participantsfrom the Optometry Department of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The major themes emergingfrom the questions concerning the participants’ perceived advantages and benefits of CS were (i it would improve the eye care service delivery to disadvantaged communities; (ii it would improve the technical and clinical skills of the graduating optometrists and (iii it would enhance their confidence, personal and social skills. Some of the perceived drawbacks cited by the participants about such service included poor remuneration and concerns about personal safety, transport and accommodation. The findings of this study suggest that graduating optometry students acknowledge the importance of CS in improving access of many South Africans to quality eye care. In order to maximise the full benefits of CS, all stakeholders need to address the highlighted concerns of the participants. (S Afr Optom 2013 72(1 11-18

  2. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Gupta, Veer B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in ...

  3. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek K.; Gupta, Veer B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines. PMID:27854266

  4. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek K; Gupta, Veer B

    2016-11-15

    Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT) and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines.

  5. Using Technology, Bioinformatics and Health Informatics Approaches to Improve Learning Experiences in Optometry Education, Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Gupta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in ocular diagnostic approaches and emerging links of pathological changes in the eye with systemic disorders have widened the scope of optometry as the front line of eye health care. Expanding professional requirements stipulate that optometry students get a meticulous training in relevant information and communication technologies (ICT and various bioinformatics and health informatics software to meet current and future challenges. Greater incorporation of ICT approaches in optometry education can facilitate increased student engagement in shared learning experiences and improve collaborative learning. This, in turn, will enable students to participate in and prepare for the complex real-world situations. A judicious use of ICTs by teachers in learning endeavors can help students develop innovative patterns of thinking to be a successful optometry professional. ICT-facilitated learning enables students and professionals to carry out their own research and take initiatives and thus shifts the equilibrium towards self-education. It is important that optometry and allied vision science schools adapt to the changing professional requirements with pedagogical evolution and react appropriately to provide the best educational experience for the students and teachers. This review aims to highlight the scope of ICT applications in optometry education and professional development drawing from similar experiences in other disciplines. Further, while enhanced use of ICT in optometry has the potential to create opportunities for transformative learning experiences, many schools use it merely to reinforce conventional teaching practices. Tremendous developments in ICT should allow educators to consider using ICT tools to enhance communication as well as providing a novel, richer, and more meaningful medium for the comprehensive knowledge construction in optometry and allied health disciplines.

  6. Balancing patient care and student education: learning to deliver bad news in an optometry teaching clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Creutz, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Learning to counsel patients in a teaching clinic or hospital occurs in the presence of the competing agendas of patient care and student education. We wondered about the challenges that these tensions create for clinical novices learning to deliver bad news to patients. In this preliminary study, we audio-taped and transcribed the interviews of seven senior optometry students and six optometrist instructors at a Canadian optometry teaching clinic. The participants described their experiences in learning to deliver bad news. Using a grounded theory approach, our analysis was informed by situated learning and activity theory. Optometry students received formal classroom training regarding how to deliver bad news, including exposure to the medically-based six-step SPIKES protocol (Baile et al. The Oncologist, 5, 302-311, 2000). Yet, application of this protocol to the teaching clinic was limited by the lack of exposure most instructors had received to this strategy. Determinants of the students' complex learning process during their clinical apprenticeship, included: (i) knowing one's place, (ii) knowing one's audience, (iii) knowing through feedback, and (iv) knowing who speaks. The experiences of these participants pointed toward the need for: (1) more instructional "scaffolding" (Bruner and Sherwood Play: Its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) in the clinical setting when the learning task is complex, and (2) explicit discussions about the impacts that unfold when the activities of patient care and student education overlap. We reflect on the possible consequences to student education and patient care in the absence of these changes.

  7. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Richard; Majcher, Carolyn; Rabin, Jeff; Kent, Theresa; Maki, Yutaka; Wingert, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum. Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group) or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group). The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes. There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5). Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; peducational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences.

  8. The Effectiveness of an Educational Game for Teaching Optometry Students Basic and Applied Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Trevino

    Full Text Available To compare the effectiveness of an educational board game with interactive didactic instruction for teaching optometry students elements of the core optometric curriculum.Forty-two optometry students were divided into two GPA-matched groups and assigned to either 12 hours of game play (game group or 12 hours of interactive didactic instruction (lecture group. The same material from the core optometric curriculum was delivered to both groups. Game play was accomplished via an original board game. Written examinations assessed change in knowledge level. A post-intervention opinion survey assessed student attitudes.There was no significant difference in pre- or post-intervention test scores between the lecture and game groups (Pre-test: p = 0.9; Post-test: p = 0.5. Post-intervention test scores increased significantly from baseline (Game group: 29.3% gain, Didactic group: 31.5% gain; p<0.001 for each. The score increase difference between groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.6. The post-intervention attitude survey did not reveal any significant between group differences (p = 0.5.Our results indicate that an educational game and interactive didactic instruction can be equally effective in teaching optometry students basic and applied science. Furthermore, both modes of instruction have the potential to be equally engaging and enjoyable experiences.

  9. A Comparison of Spectacles Purchased Online and in UK Optometry Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Alison J.; Green, Alison; Whitaker, David; Scally, Andrew J.; Elliott, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To compare spectacles bought online with spectacles from optometry practices. Methods Thirty-three participants consisting of single vision spectacle wearers with either a low (N = 12, mean age 34 ± 14 years) or high prescription (N = 11, mean age 28 ± 9 years) and 10 presbyopic participants (mean age 59 ± 4 years) wearing progressive addition lenses (PALs) purchased 154 pairs of spectacles online and 154 from UK optometry practices. The spectacles were compared via participant-reported preference, acceptability, and safety; the assessment of lens, frame, and fit quality; and the accuracy of the lens prescriptions to international standard ISO 21987:2009. Results Participants preferred the practice spectacles (median ranking 4th, IQR 1–6) more than online (6th, IQR 4–8; Mann-Whitney U = 7345, p < 0.001) and practice PALs (median ranking 2nd, IQR 1–4) were particularly preferred (online 6.5th, IQR 4–9, Mann-Whitney U = 455, p < 0.001). Of those deemed unacceptable and unsafe, significantly more were bought online (unacceptable: online 43/154 vs. practice 15/154, Fisher’s exact p = 0.0001; unsafe: online 14/154 vs. practice 5/154, Fisher’s exact p = 0.03). Conclusions Participants preferred spectacles from optometry practice rather than those bought online, despite lens quality and prescription accuracy being similar. A greater number of online spectacles were deemed unsafe or unacceptable because of poor spectacle frame fit, poor cosmetic appearance, and inaccurate optical centration. This seems particularly pertinent to PAL lenses, which are known to increase falls risk. Recommendations are made to improve both forms of spectacle provision. PMID:27536974

  10. Factors influencing South African optometry students in choosing their career and institution of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thechoice of an appropriate career, occupation or profession is one of the most important decisions hat one makes in life and there are many factors which may influence such a decision. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors which influenced students currently studying optometry in South African institutions in deciding on the course of study and choice of institution. Data was collected with a questionnaire on demographics of the students and the factors that might have influenced their choice of optometry as a career and their institution of learning. Data was analysed with descriptive and cross-tabulation statistics. Three hundred and eighty seven students responded to the questionnaire (80.1% response rate. Their ages ranged from 17 to 40 years with a mean of 20.73 ± 2.46 years and included 30.5% males and 69.5% females. They were from the University of Free State 25.1%, University of Johannesburg (29.5%, University of KwaZulu-Natal (29.7% and the University of Limpopo(15.7%. There were 38% Whites, 36.7% Blacks, 22.2% Indians and 3.1% Coloureds. The highest rated factors which influenced their choice of optometry were the desire to help other people (92.8%, job availability after graduation (92%, subjects passed and points obtained in the matric year (91.2% and the potential to earn a good salary (88.6%, respectively. Few rated news and other media (20.9% as an important factor in their decision to choose their current institution of learning while 29.5% reported that failure to gain admission to study other degrees was an important factor. These results may be useful to institutions offering optometry degrees to formulate effective recruitment strategies to attract quality students. Also, they may be useful to career counsellors in counselling prospective students on their career choice and institution of learning. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 21-28

  11. The influence of learning styles, enrollment status and gender on academic performance of optometry undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Bhavna; Dunne, Mark; Bartlett, Hannah; Cubbidge, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether the academic performance of optometry undergraduates is influenced by enrollment status, learning style or gender. Three hundred and sixty undergraduates in all 3 years of the optometry degree course at Aston University during 2008-2009 were asked for their informed consent to participate in this study. Enrollment status was known from admissions records. An Index of Learning Styles (http://www4.nscu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning-Styles.html) determined learning style preference with respect to four different learning style axes; active-reflective, sensing-intuitive, visual-verbal and sequential-global. The influence of these factors on academic performance was investigated. Two hundred and seventy students agreed to take part (75% of the cohort). 63% of the sample was female. There were 213 home non-graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher), 14 home graduates (entrants from the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher), 28 international non-graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union without a bachelor's degree or higher) and 15 international graduates (entrants from outside the UK or European Union with a bachelor's degree or higher). The majority of students were balanced learners (between 48% and 64% across four learning style axes). Any preferences were towards active, sensing, visual and sequential learning styles. Of the factors investigated in this study, learning styles were influenced by gender; females expressed a disproportionate preference for the reflective and visual learning styles. Academic performance was influenced by enrollment status; international graduates (95% confidence limits: 64-72%) outperformed all other student groups (home non graduates, 60-62%; international non graduates, 55-63%) apart from home graduates (57-69%). Our research has shown that the majority of optometry students

  12. The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Eperjesi, F; Gilmartin, B

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the most efficient method available for the analysis of experimental data. Analysis of variance is a method of considerable complexity and subtlety, with many different variations, each of which applies in a particular experimental context. Hence, it is possible to apply the wrong type of ANOVA to data and, therefore, to draw an erroneous conclusion from an experiment. This article reviews the types of ANOVA most likely to arise in clinical experiments in optometry including the one-way ANOVA ('fixed' and 'random effect' models), two-way ANOVA in randomised blocks, three-way ANOVA, and factorial experimental designs (including the varieties known as 'split-plot' and 'repeated measures'). For each ANOVA, the appropriate experimental design is described, a statistical model is formulated, and the advantages and limitations of each type of design discussed. In addition, the problems of non-conformity to the statistical model and determination of the number of replications are considered.

  13. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  14. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  15. Attending to audience: comparing optometry student talk with and about patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Jenna M; Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F

    2009-12-01

    We explored mediating concepts that affect clinical novices shifting between their talk with patients in eye examinations and their talk about patients in case presentations (nCPs). In a Canadian optometry teaching clinic, patient 'chief concern or request', 'illness experience', and 'management' utterances were observed in ten eye examinations and nCPs. Twenty-three participants (8 students, 5 instructors, and 10 patients) were observed; 22 were subsequently interviewed. Of 10 nCPs, the 'chief concern or request' was absent in four, the 'illness experience' was incomplete or absent in 9 and 5 of 19 (35.7%) 'management' topics were not discussed with patients. During eye exams, 17 of 31 (54.8%) 'management' discussions with patients were not discussed with instructors during nCPs. Instructional 'scaffolding' (Bruner and Sherwood in Play: its role in development and evolution, p. 280, 1976) appeared limited regarding talk with and about patients. The limited and recontextualized reporting of patient concerns and experiences in nCPs represented lost opportunities to provide and learn patient-centered care. While Goffman's (The presentation of the self in everyday life, p. 114, 1969) 'front stage' performances and Mishler's (The discourse of medicine: dialectics of medical interviews, p. 14, 1984) healthcare 'voices' suggest separate worlds of talk before patients and instructors, we found these worlds were not wholly separate for neophyte speakers. Mediating concepts that influence clinical novices shifting their performances before their audiences, included: (1) pedagogical inconsistencies, (2) incompatible values associated with talk, (3) discordance between patient care and student education, (4) time limitations for teaching, and (5) insufficient instructional 'scaffolding' about talk.

  16. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

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    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas.Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions.Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions.Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only.Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  17. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p influencer leur décision. Méthode C’est une étude quantitative transversale utilisant un instrument de sondage contenant des questions semi-structurées fermée et ouvertes. Résultats Quatre cent trente-huit étudiants ont répondu au questionnaire (un taux de réponse de 85.4%). En général, un grand nombre de répondants ne voulaient pas ouvrir leur premier (66%) ou deuxième cabinet (64.6%) dans les zones rurales. Cependant, la plupart des répondants originaires de la campagne ont répondu qu’ils ouvriraient leur premier cabinet (77.2%) ou leur second (79.4%) dans les zones rurales. Les raisons principales citées par les répondants pour ne pas vouloir travailler dans les zones rurales étaient des préoccupations financières (81.2%), la sécurité personnelle (80.1%) et les mauvaises conditions de vie (75.3%), avec un plus grand nombre (p < 0.05) de la part des r

  18. Grader agreement, and sensitivity and specificity of digital photography in a community optometry-based diabetic eye screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellahewa L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Luckni Sellahewa,1,2 Craig Simpson,2 Prema Maharajan,2 John Duffy,2 Iskandar Idris3 1Diabetic Medicine Department, Nottingham University Hospitals, 2North Nottinghamshire Eye Screening Service, Sherwood Forest Hospitals Foundation Trust, 3Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Background: Digital retinal photography with mydriasis is the preferred modality for diabetes eye screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate agreement in grading levels between primary and secondary graders and to calculate their sensitivity and specificity for identifying sight-threatening disease in an optometry-based retinopathy screening program.Methods: This was a retrospective study using data from 8,977 patients registered in the North Nottinghamshire retinal screening program. In all cases, the ophthalmology diagnosis was used as the arbitrator and considered to be the gold standard. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the level of agreement between graders.Results: Agreement between primary and secondary graders was 51.4% and 79.7% for detecting no retinopathy (R0 and background retinopathy (R1, respectively. For preproliferative (R2 and proliferative retinopathy (R3 at primary grading, agreement between the primary and secondary grader was 100%. Where there was disagreement between the primary and secondary grader for R1, only 2.6% (n=41 were upgraded by an ophthalmologist. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting R3 was 78.2% and 98.1%, respectively. None of the patients upgraded from any level of retinopathy to R3 required photocoagulation therapy. The observed kappa between the primary and secondary grader was 0.3223 (95% confidence interval 0.2937–0.3509, ie, fair agreement, and between the primary grader and ophthalmology for R3 was 0.5667 (95% confidence interval 0.4557–0.6123, ie, moderate agreement. Conclusion: These data provide information on the

  19. An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Slade, S V; Eperjesi, F

    2000-05-01

    This article is aimed primarily at eye care practitioners who are undertaking advanced clinical research, and who wish to apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to their data. ANOVA is a data analysis method of great utility and flexibility. This article describes why and how ANOVA was developed, the basic logic which underlies the method and the assumptions that the method makes for it to be validly applied to data from clinical experiments in optometry. The application of the method to the analysis of a simple data set is then described. In addition, the methods available for making planned comparisons between treatment means and for making post hoc tests are evaluated. The problem of determining the number of replicates or patients required in a given experimental situation is also discussed.

  20. Teleophthalmology with optical coherence tomography imaging in community optometry. Evaluation of a quality improvement for macular patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly1, Ian Wallwork2, David Haider1, Kashif Qureshi11Ophthalmology Department, Royal Bolton Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, Bolton, 2Wallwork Opticians, Salford, UKPurpose: To describe a quality improvement for referral of National Health Service patients with macular disorders from a community optometry setting in an urban area.Methods: Service evaluation of teleophthalmology consultation based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired by the community optometrist and transmitted to hospital eye services.Results: Fifty patients with suspected macular conditions were managed via telemedicine consultation over 1 year. Responses were provided by hospital eye service-based ophthalmologists to the community optometrist or patient within the next day in 48 cases (96% and in 34 (68% patients on the same day. In the consensus opinion of the optometrist and ophthalmologist, 33 (66% patients required further “face-to-face” medical examination and were triaged on clinical urgency. Seventeen cases (34% were managed in the community and are a potential cost improvement. Specialty trainees were supervised in telemedicine consultations.Conclusion: Innovation and quality improvement were demonstrated in both optometry to ophthalmology referrals and in primary optometric care by use of telemedicine with spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. E-referral of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images assists triage of macular patients and swifter care of urgent cases. Teleophthalmology is also, in the authors’ opinion, a tool to improve interdisciplinary professional working with community optometrists. Implications for progress are discussed.Keywords: telemedicine, teleophthalmology, innovation, community referral, optical coherence tomography, service evaluation

  1. American Academy of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CE Basics Past Abstract & Outline Search Past Ocular Photography Contest Winners FAQs Become a Fellow Why Become ... 844) 323-EYES (3937) Toll Free | 2909 Fairgreen Street | Orlando, FL 32803 AAO Privacy Policy Legal Restrictions ...

  2. Optometry Experience of 23 Cases of Suspected Keratoconus%23例可疑圆锥角膜验光体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 黄学文

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the early suspicious keratoconus refractive changes by optometry. Methods:Follow up in 2 years through 23 cases of myopia and astigmatism increased in patients with refractive errors,refractive status,cycloplegic refraction computer optometry suspected keratoconus,corneal topography examination follow-up to understand the circumstances that may occur keratoconus.Results:Confirmed 4 cases of keratoconus,9 cases of suspected keratoconus,10 cases no keratoconus possible. Conclusion:The progressive increase in myopia and astigmatism,corneal curvature increased significantly people should be take keratoconus investigation.%  目的:通过验光了解可疑圆锥角膜的早期屈光改变。方法:通过23例近视及散光进行性增加的屈光不正患者2年的屈光状况的散瞳验光电脑验光追踪随访,怀疑圆锥角膜进行角膜地形图检查,随访了解可能发生圆锥角膜的情况。结果:4例确诊圆锥角膜,9例可疑圆锥角膜,10例暂时没有圆锥角膜发生可能。结论:对近视及散光进行性增加,角膜曲率增加明显者应行圆锥角膜排查。

  3. Recent developments on the scientific research in optometry and visual science in China%我国眼视光学近五年发展状况及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿佳

    2010-01-01

    本文主要回顾了我国近五年来眼视光学领域科学研究的状况,展示我国在近视基础研究和视觉科学应用研究方面的进步和成就,分析科学研究对解决临床视觉问题的指导作用和对大众眼保健的重要意义.本文通过展示具体研究现状和成果表明:眼的生物和光学双重属性赋予眼视光学研究的鲜明特色,多学科交叉合作进一步推动了眼视光学和视觉科研领域的创新.今后,我国眼视光学和视觉科学领域将直面更多的原创性和系统性研究工作,近视防治仍然是该领域长期而艰难的攻关课题.%The current text reviewed the situation of the scientific research in the field of Optometry and visual sciences in the recent 5 to 6 years in our country. It showed the advancement and achievement in the myopic fundamental research and the application research of visual science. In addition, it also analyzed the guidance of research in solving the clinical visual issues and the significance of community service of research in eye care in public. This text indicated by the concrete current situation and the result data of research that the biology and optics, the double property of the eye endowed the distinguished feature to the research in Ophthalmology and Optometry, and that the cross cooperation of multidisciplinary promoted the innovation in the fields of Optometry and visual research. In future, the fields of Optometry and visual science in China will face up to more and more anticipations of the original and systematic research. The prophylaxis and treatment of myopia would be still a long-term and rough exploration theme in these fields.

  4. Application of 3D simulation technology in Ophthalmology & Optometry teaching%三维仿真技术在眼视光教学中应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜; 郭长锋

    2013-01-01

    三维仿真技术是指利用计算机技术生成的一个逼真的,具有视、听、触、味等多种感知的虚拟环境,用户可以同虚拟环境中的实体相互作用的一种多媒体技术,其以生动形象的虚拟现实(VR)技术在医学教育方面受到越来越多的重视,也为眼视光学的教育和教学提供了新的发展平台.笔者主要介绍三维仿真模型、三维动画技术、虚拟现实技术在眼视光学和眼科学教学中的具体应用和发展现状.%The three-dimensional simulation technology refers to the technology which can use the computer technology to generate a realistic virtual environment with visual,hearing,touch,taste,and other perception.Users can have interaction with entity in the virtual environment.With its very vivid virtual reality (VR) technology,3D simulation technology has gained more and more attention and provided a new development platform for ophthalmology and optometry teaching.This paper mainly introduced teaching the present development situation and the specific application of the 3D simulation model,3D animation technology,virtual reality technology in optometry and ophthalmology.

  5. A Study On The Frequency Of Different Types Of Optical Low Vision Aids Prescribed For Low Vision Patients Examined In The Clinic Of Optometry, Faculty Of Rehabilitation Sciences Shahid Beheshti University Of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1387

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghassemi Broumand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Different diseases can be the cause of low vision. In the case of low vision, visual acuity with conventional optical devices such as glasses and contact lenses is between” 20/70 to 20/200”. To improve the visual performance in these patients, low vision aids are prescribed.The types of prescribed low vision aids vary in different diseases. The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of optical aids prescribed for low vision patients examined in optometry clinic of Rehabilitation faculty of shahid Beheshti University in 1387. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 204 low vision patients went under investigation. In the present study variables including type and rate of refractive error, visual acuity with the best correction, type of diseases and type of prescribed optical low vision aids were investigated.Results: The frequency of prescribed distance glasses in diabetic retinopathy was 97%, age related macular degeneration 86.2%, Stargarts 92%, retinitis pigmentosa 86.4% and albinism 88.2%, Also the frequency of prescribed microscope in diabetic retinopathy was 81.82% , age related macular degeneration 48.27%, Stargarts 40% , retinitis pigmentosa 35.3% , albinism 35.3% and the frequency of prescribed magnifier in diabetic retinopathy was18.18%, age related macular degeneration 24.12% , Stargarts 52%, retinitis pigmentosa18.18% and albinism 29.4%.Conclusion: In many low vision conditions, it is more suitable to prescribe distance glasses rather than telescope. In this study the distance glass with the frequency of 84.8% is seen more acceptable in comparison with the telescope with the frequency of 41.7%. Among near optical low vision aids, microscope with the frequency of 50.5% is more accepted by the patients compared to magnifier with the frequency of 26% and CCTV with the frequency of 0.50%.

  6. Association of Regulatory Boards of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CE Search COPE Qualified Courses Search COPE Accredited Activities State/Province CE Requirements COPE Administrator Login COPE Administrator List COPE Information Glossary Downloads FAQ OE TRACKER Features Set Up Username/Password Optometrist Options/Login ...

  7. The Role of Optometry in VISION 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brien A Holden

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The global initiative, Vision 2020: The Right to Sight, established by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, has created valuable and effective collaborations of organisations involved in a wide range of eyecare and community healthcare activities aimed at the elimination of avoidable blindness and impaired vision.

  8. 盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液联合复方托吡卡胺滴眼液在学龄期儿童散瞳验光中的应用临床研究%combined application of Cyclopentolate hydrochloride drop eye fluid and Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops in school -age children in mydriatic optometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪茶花

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液联合复方托吡卡胺滴眼液在学龄期儿童散瞳验光中的应用效果。方法60名学龄期儿童,120眼。每例先后用盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液联合复方托吡卡胺滴眼液及1%阿托品扩瞳验光取得验光数值,做自身对照。结果球镜结果相差≤0.25D的总计有115眼,占95.83%;球镜结果相差>0.25D总计有5眼,占4.17%。结论盐酸环喷托酯滴眼液联合复方托吡卡胺滴眼液用于学龄期儿童单纯近视或远视的散瞳效果好,可以替代阿托品,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To observe the ef ect of cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops combined with Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops in school-age children in the application ef ect of mydriasis optometry.Methods 60 school-age children,120 eyes.Each case has cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops combined with Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops and 1%atropine myd-riatic optometry .optometry values obtained,do their own control.Results the mirror bal result diference is less than 0.25D in 115 eyes,accounting for 95.83%;the mirror bal result difer-ence is >0.25D a total of 5 eyes,accounting for 4.17%.Conclusion cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops combined with Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops for school-age children simple myopia or hyperopia mydriatic ef ect is good,can replace atropine,worthy of clinical application.

  9. Image processing and analysis using neural networks for optometry area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we describe the framework of a functional system for processing and analyzing images of the human eye acquired by the Hartmann-Shack technique (HS), in order to extract information to formulate a diagnosis of eye refractive errors (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia). The analysis is to be carried out using an Artificial Intelligence system based on Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Classifier Combination. The major goal is to establish the basis of a new technology to effectively measure ocular refractive errors that is based on methods alternative those adopted in current patented systems. Moreover, analysis of images acquired with the Hartmann-Shack technique may enable the extraction of additional information on the health of an eye under exam from the same image used to detect refraction errors.

  10. Finding, retrieving and evaluating journal and web-based information for evidence-based optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ann-Maree

    2007-07-01

    How can optometrists ensure they are basing their advice to patients on the most reliable information available? This paper discusses search tools, databases, websites and journals, which provide free, full-text, web-based access to evidence-based literature. Brief tips on searching these resources are provided for the time-poor practitioner or researcher. Criteria, such as credibility, currency and bias are used to evaluate written material and will be discussed with particular reference to the problems inherent in evaluating web pages.

  11. [Accuracy of three common optometry methods in examination of refraction in juveniles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting; Min, Xiaoshan; Liu, Shuangzhen; Li, Fengyun; Tan, Xingping; Zhong, Yanni; Deng, Shaoling

    2016-02-01

    目的:使用视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪与视网膜检影等3种常用验光方法比较分析青少年屈光不正患者散瞳前后的检测结果。方法:对78例(156只眼)53~17岁青少年分别在自然瞳孔下应用WelchAllyn Suresight手持式视力筛查仪及NIDEK ARK-510A型自动电脑验光仪进行验光。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后,行视力筛查仪、电脑验光仪和视网膜检影3种验光法。结果:各方法散瞳前球镜代数值均低于散瞳后,数值更偏近视(P0.05),两者的一致性优于电脑验光与视网膜检影,但是所得数值偏近视倾向;散瞳前电脑验光与检影验光比较,球镜值和柱镜值差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);散瞳后视力筛查仪与检影验光比较,球镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而散瞳后电脑验光与检影验光比较,柱镜值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对于青少年验光,睫状肌麻痹散瞳后检影验光必不可少。自然瞳孔下,视力筛查仪验光优于电脑验光,尤其在判断屈光不正的性质方面(球镜值更准)。但是两者都有高估近视程度的倾向。散瞳后,电脑验光准确性高于视力筛查仪,可作为试镜的参考。充分睫状肌麻痹散瞳后视网膜检影验光结合主观试镜仍是检查屈光不正最为有效的方法。.

  12. Curves and surfaces in the context of optometry. Part 1: Curves*

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the differential geom-etry of curves in Euclidean 3-space, the motiva-tion being the writer’s belief that, despite their fundamental importance, curves are inadequate-ly treated in optometric educational programs. Curvature and torsion are defined along a curve. Two  numerical  examples  are  presented.  The fundamental theorem of curves is stated. The relationship of the geometry of varifocal lenses and curves known as involutes are discussed. A brief treatment of the t...

  13. Curves and surfaces in the context of optometry. Part 1: Curves*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.F. Harris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the differential geom-etry of curves in Euclidean 3-space, the motiva-tion being the writer’s belief that, despite their fundamental importance, curves are inadequate-ly treated in optometric educational programs. Curvature and torsion are defined along a curve. Two  numerical  examples  are  presented.  The fundamental theorem of curves is stated. The relationship of the geometry of varifocal lenses and curves known as involutes are discussed. A brief treatment of the theory of contact is given with  suggestions  of  applications  in  contact between  spectacle  lenses  and  frames,  contact lenses and corneas (including orthokeratology, intra-ocular lenses and structures in the eye, and spectacle frames and the face.

  14. Optometry/Ophthalmology Assistants, AFSC 4V0X1/A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    foreign bodies 4 F256 Remove nonembedded nonmetallic ocular foreign bodies 0019 Training 1 D80 Administer or score training tests 2 D85 Conduct...F207 Perform accommodation tests using Prince Rule devices 13 F221 Perform central visual fields tests using Tangent Screen 14 F243 Perform plus lens...tests using Reichert XPERT 91 F238 Perform NCT tests using other than Reichert XPERT or Reichert NCT I or NCT II 92 F239 Perform night vision goggles

  15. 42 CFR 66.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). (e) Residency means post-graduate training for doctors of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry... doctor of philosophy, science, medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary...

  16. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Air Force Optometry Augmentation Team (FFDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    POROUS WOVEN 1INX10YD 12S PG 938BK 1 1.040 0.040 $17.57 6510011077575 PAD EYE COTTON GAUZE 2.5X2IN 50S PG 938AA 1 0.470 1.000 $10.43 6515009051473...likely patient types to be encountered by a particular type of medical treatment asset, including combat wounds, non -battle injuries, and illnesses...for a range of non - surgical injuries and illnesses that would typically be seen and treated by an optometrist and one technician working 12-hour days

  17. 视觉2020/视光学资助视觉行动机构%VISION 2020/Optometry Giving Sight Campaign Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce E. Spivey

    2004-01-01

    VISION 2020: The Right to Sight is a global initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB), with a coalition of international Non-Governmental Organisations. VISION 2020 aims to eliminate unnecessary blindness in order to give all people in the world, particularly the millions of needlessly blind, the Right to Sight.

  18. 《眼视光器械学》实验课设计和学生专业素质培养探讨%Experimental Course Design of Optometry Equipment and Training of Students’ Professional Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关弘

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the initial ideas to adapt to the experimental reform in our hospital, wants to understand the content of teaching for students by new experimental projects, advanced test equipment, and happy learning environment, and deepens the understanding of the phenomenon and the training of certain ability.%本文提出了与我院相适应的实验改革的初步设想.用新颖的实验项目、先进的实验设备、快乐的学习环境促进学生对授课内容理解,深化对现象的认识和一定的能力培养.

  19. 循证医学在眼视光学的应用(Ⅱ)系统评价的临床应用%Evidence-based medicime in optometry and ophthalmology( Ⅱ The clinical study of systematic review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽萍; 瞿佳

    2002-01-01

    @@ 系统评价(systematic review)是循证医学的重要方法,即根据某一具体的临床问题(如疾病的治疗、诊断),采用系统、明确的方法来收集、选择和评估相关的临床原始研究,并从中提取信息和分析数据,进行定性或定量合成,为疾病的诊治和临床决策提供科学的依据[1].

  20. Orbscan II、电脑验光仪、综合验光测量散光的对比观察%Comparison of computer optometer, Orbscan II and comprehensive optometry in measurement of astigmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 王育良; 吴静; 张玉娟

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析准分子手术前近视散光患者术前应用Orbscan II 眼前节分析系统,自动电脑验光仪测得的柱镜和散光轴向与综合验光测得结果的差异及关系.方法采用Orbscan II 眼前节分析系统、小瞳下电脑验光、散瞳后电脑验光和综合验光4种测量方法,对130例(250只眼)近视散光进行检查并比较.结果综合验光、小瞳电脑验光和散瞳电脑验光3种方法测得的轴向基本一致,统计学分析无显著性差异(P>0.05),而Orbscan II与综合验光测得的轴向统计学上有显著性差异(P<0.01);综合验光、小瞳电脑验光和散瞳电脑验光3种方法测得的散光度数统计学上有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论角膜地形图检查能反映角膜屈光状况,电脑验光仪对散光轴向的准确性较高,但临床检查仍应以睫状肌麻痹前后综合验光检查作为确定近视散光及散光轴的标准.

  1. Prevalence and associated factors of presbyopia among school teachers in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andualem HB; Assefa NL; Weldemichael DZ; Tefera TK

    2017-01-01

    Hiwot Berhanu Andualem, Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Tsehay Kassa Tefera Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction...

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of computer vision syndrome among bank workers in Gondar City, northwest Ethiopia, 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Assefa NL; Weldemichael DZ; Alemu HW; Anbesse DH

    2017-01-01

    Natnael Lakachew Assefa, Dawit Zenebe Weldemichael, Haile Woretaw Alemu, Dereje Hayilu Anbesse Department of Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction...

  3. 77 FR 25283 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Changes in Provider and Supplier Enrollment, Ordering and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... in osteopathy, dentistry, and podiatry, as required in order to become certified by the appropriate... doctors of medicine and osteopathy, optometry, podiatry, dental medicine, dental surgery, and...

  4. Differences among Myopes, Emmetropes, and Hyperopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    optometer (see Simonelli, 1979). Near point was measured using the RAF Near Point Rule. A rubber bellows was placed securely around the subject’s...Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry, 1960, 37, 551-571. Simonelli, N. M. Polarized vernier optometer (BEL-79-4/AFOSR-79-8). Las Cruces, NM

  5. Children's vision--a 20/20 outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R W

    1975-10-01

    Twenty years ago, A. M. Skeffington, O.D., talked about the "uniqueness" of optometry which included prevention, remediation and enhancement. Fifteen years ago, Arnold Gesell, M.D., urged optometry to pay attention to the preschool years and to examine and supervise (with optometric expertise) the vision of these children and to learn to identify those children who would present difficulties in learning. At the same time, Darell Boyd Harmon, Ph.D., suggested that optometry "gear up" for an expected avalanche of visually-related learning problems. Optometry did listen and learn, the avalanche is here and developmental optometry has prospered. This paper briefly explores some of the long and short-range benefits of vision therapy.

  6. 78 FR 63993 - ``Low-Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... background in making eligibility and funding determinations generally make awards to: Accredited schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, public health, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, pharmacy, allied health, podiatric medicine, nursing, chiropractic, public or private nonprofit schools which offer...

  7. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... determinations generally make awards to: accredited schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, public health, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, pharmacy, allied health podiatric medicine, nursing, chiropractic, public or private nonprofit schools which offer graduate programs in behavioral health and mental health...

  8. Find a Doctor - American Optometric Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctor Login Join Find a Doctor Find a Doctor Search our database of 28,417 Optometrists. 1 ... Guidelines Evidence-based Optometry Marketplace Home > Find a Doctor Basic Search Advanced Search Fine Tune Your Results ...

  9. A Simulation of Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A simulation of the decreased visual acuity of individuals with amblyopia is used in one optometry program to help students understand how amblyopia patients see. Students act as patient, then as doctor, proceeding through clinical diagnosis. (MSE)

  10. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundmark PO; Luraas K

    2017-01-01

    Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter...

  11. 75 FR 43452 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by State and Local Governments and Places of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... conditions, including depression, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and... requirements for non-fixed equipment and furniture, including medical equipment, exercise equipment, accessible... tables or chairs include ophthalmology, optometry, podiatry, oncology, physical therapy, chiropractic...

  12. Kids with Concussion Need Vision Check Before Return to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to School Lingering eye problems linked to poorer academic performance To use the sharing features on this page, ... symptoms, hearing disturbances and difficulty concentrating often have academic ... at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. "As ...

  13. Investigation of the relationship between intraocular pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the relationship between intraocular pressure and total body water. ... Journal of Health and Visual Sciences ... attending Abia State University Optometry Clinic, Uturu, 100 healthy subjects of either sex were enlisted into study, ...

  14. Merton C. Flom, OD, PhD--a paradigm of optometric leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2007-11-01

    Dr. Merton Flom serves as the quintessential model for demonstrating what it takes to be an outstanding scientist, clinician, and educator. Professor Flom's career as a clinician, vision scientist, and visionary in optometry is well known to most faculty in optometric institutions, but many in the profession may not be aware of his enormous contributions. This profile captures Dr. Flom's professional and personal views about optometry, vision research, and education.

  15. Soveltuvuuskokeella täydennetty opiskelijavalinta : Seurantatutkimus eräiden sosiaali- ja terveysalan teknisluonteisten koulutusohjelmien (apuvälinetekniikka, hammastekniikka ja optometria) opiskelijavalinnan toteuttamisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Posti, Pauli

    2006-01-01

    Aptitude-based student selection: A study concerning the admission processes of some technically oriented healthcare degree programmes in Finland (Orthotics and Prosthetics, Dental Technology and Optometry). The data studied consisted of conveniencesamples of preadmission information and the results of the admission processes of three technically oriented healthcare degree programmes (Orthotics and Prosthetics, Dental Technology and Optometry) in Finland during the years 1977-1986 and 20...

  16. The role of optometrists in India: an integral part of an eye health team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Neilsen; Cui, Yu; Looi, Stephanie; Paudel, Prakash; Shinde, Lakshmi; Kumar, Krishna; Berwal, Rajbir; Wadhwa, Rajesh; Daniel, Vinod; Flanagan, Judith; Holden, Brien

    2012-01-01

    India has a proud tradition of blindness prevention, being the first country in the world to implement a blindness control programme which focused on a model to address blinding eye disease. However, with 133 million people blind or vision impaired due to the lack of an eye examination and provision of an appropriate pair of spectacles, it is imperative to establish a cadre of eye care professionals to work in conjunction with ophthalmologists to deliver comprehensive eye care. The integration of highly educated four year trained optometrists into primary health services is a practical means of correcting refractive error and detecting ocular disease, enabling co-managed care between ophthalmologists and optometrists. At present, the training of optometrists varies from two year trained ophthalmic assistants/optometrists or refractionists to four year degree trained optometrists. The profession of optometry in India is not regulated, integrated into the health care system or recognised by the majority of people in India as provider of comprehensive eye care services. In the last two years, the profession of optometry in India is beginning to take the necessary steps to gain recognition and regulation to become an independent primary health care profession. The formation of the Indian Optometry Federation as the single peak body of optometry in India and the soon to be established Optometry Council of India are key organisations working towards the development and regulation of optometry.

  17. Perceptions of acceptable conducts by university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Dora Nazaré; Macedo, António Filipe

    2016-01-01

    To determine perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst under and postgraduate optometry students and to compare them with students from other disciplines. Students (under/postgraduate) of optometry (n=156) and other courses (n=54) from University of Minho participated in a voluntary online questionnaire about perception of conducts, classifying as acceptable or unacceptable 15 academic or professional scenarios. 210 questionnaires were analyzed. Differences in perceptions were found between optometry under and postgraduates in scenario 5, Chi-square(2,156)=4.3, p=0.038, and scenario 7, Chi-square(2,156)=7.0, p=0.008 (both with cheating more acceptable for postgrads). Differences between under and postgraduates from other courses were found in scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for undergrads), Chi-square(1,54)=5.0, p=0.025, and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=3.9, p=0.046. Differences between optometry and other courses undergraduates were observed in scenario 2 (plagiarism more acceptable for optometry undergrads), Chi-square(1,154)=8.3, p=0.004 and scenario 9 (taking supplies from classroom more acceptable for other undergrads), chi-square(1,54)=7.8, p=0.005. Differences between optometry and other courses postgraduates were observed in scenario 7, Chi-square(1,56)=5.8, p=0.016, scenario 10 (both with cheating more acceptable for optometry postgrads), chi-square(1,54)=8.1, p=0.004 and scenario 14 (forging a signature more acceptable for other postgrads), Chi-square(1,54)=6.1, p=0.026. Academic misconducts were mainly considered more acceptable than professional misconducts. Our results show that perceptions of acceptable conducts amongst optometry students are not very different from other students, and, against our initial prediction, do not show a general change in misconduct perception when students become more mature. Universities should pay more attention to this problem and take

  18. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bray

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing privileges from a specific list of drugs. The goals of the optometry reform were to increase access to care, decrease burden on medical and hospital resources and allow optometrists to practice to their full scope. The policy response was spurred by a recommendation from the Health Professions Regulatory Advisory Council and the prescribing precedence in other Canadian jurisdictions. Bill 171, The Health Systems Improvement Act, amended The Optometry Act, 1991, Section 4 to include the authorized act of prescribing designated drugs, while The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice, passed on 6 April 2011, listed the individual drugs optometrists are authorized to prescribe. The resulting response of a specific list of authorized drugs was seen as a limiting and inflexible system that will require changes as newer drugs are developed.

  19. Robert Mandell: a pioneer and giant in the art and science of contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polse, Kenneth A

    2008-10-01

    Robert B. Mandell is the quintessential modern clinical scientist. Over his long academic career, he has pioneered many advances in contact lens practice, ranging from a more complete understanding of corneal shape to the effects of contact lenses on corneal health. His classic text, Contact Lens Practice, first published in 1965, was reprinted 14 times in four editions up to 1988. Mandell's contributions to the advancement of the profession of optometry have always been characterized by a genuine concern for the patient and a steadfast belief that his research must have relevance to the practice of optometry.

  20. 45 CFR 83.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Civil Rights of the Department. (f) Entity means (1) a school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathy, school of pharmacy, school of optometry, school of podiatry, school of veterinary medicine, or school of public health, as defined by section 724 of the Act; (2) A school of nursing, as...

  1. 42 CFR 136.310 - Health professions recruitment grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... education or training in the health professions and encouraging and assisting them (1) To enroll in schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, public health, nursing, or allied health professions; or (2), if they are not qualified to enroll in any such school, to...

  2. 78 FR 35286 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... provided federally-insured loans to students in schools of allopathic medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, pharmacy, public health, allied health, or... agencies, HEAL schools, and insurance companies made new refinanced HEAL loans which are insured by the...

  3. 42 CFR 62.9 - Under what circumstances can the period of obligated service be deferred to complete approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry or pharmacy, the Secretary will defer the beginning date of the obligated service to allow the participant to... for any participant receiving a degree from a school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry, or (2) one...

  4. 42 CFR 57.1503 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this subpart, the applicant shall: (1) Be a nonprofit private school of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health, or any combination of such schools... approved by the school of medicine, osteopathy or dentistry with which the hospital or outpatient facility...

  5. 77 FR 3782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ...)-- The HPSL Program provides long-term, low-interest loans to students attending schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, and pharmacy. The NSL program provides long-term, low-interest loans to students who attend eligible schools of nursing in...

  6. 77 FR 22789 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ...)-- The HPSL Program provides long-term, low interest loans to students attending schools of medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatric medicine, and pharmacy. The NSL Program provides long-term, low-interest loans to students who attend eligible schools of nursing in...

  7. 42 CFR 57.1502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services to whom the authority involved may be delegated. (d) School means a school of medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which... equivalent degree, doctor of podiatry or an equivalent degree, bachelor of science in pharmacy or an...

  8. 42 CFR 57.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... professions school and pursuing a course of study which is a full-time academic workload, as determined by the... medicine, osteopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, podiatric medicine, optometry, or veterinary medicine... school of medicine, school of dentistry, school of osteopathic medicine, school of pharmacy, school...

  9. Integrating an Interprofessional Education Model at a Private University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ramona Ann; Gottlieb, Helmut; Dominguez, Daniel G.; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C.; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a private University in South Texas sought to prepare eight cohorts of 25 nursing, optometry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and health care administration students with an interprofessional education activity as a model for collaborative learning. The two semester interprofessional activity used a blended model (Blackboard Learn®,…

  10. 38 CFR 17.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Veterans Affairs health care facility and a school of medicine or osteopathy. (d) Advanced clinical training means those programs of graduate training in medicine including osteopathy which (1) lead... osteopathy, doctor of dentistry, doctor of optometry, doctor of podiatry, or an associate...

  11. The Health Professional as Writer: Two Models for Integrating Writing into the Curricula of Baccalaureate Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneline, Douglas

    Current changes in health care professions requiring practitioners to have more and better communications skills are necessitating the integration of writing into the health curricula of higher education programs. At Ferris State University, a number of models (in Optometry, Dental Hygiene, Health Systems Management, Nursing, Pharmacy, Medical…

  12. 76 FR 8748 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Masters level. (f) Dentistry: DDS and DMD. (g) Dental Hygiene. (h) Pharmacy: B.S., Pharm.D. (i) Optometry... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions... program in a health profession; or (B) Have a degree in a health profession and a license to practice in...

  13. 77 FR 3269 - Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans; Announcement Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... (i) Dental Hygiene. (j) Dental Assistant: Certified. (k) Pharmacy: B.S., Pharm.D. (l) Optometry: O.D...] Loan Repayment Program for Repayment of Health Professions Educational Loans; Announcement Type... program in a health profession; or (B) Have a degree in a health profession and a license to practice in...

  14. Flight and Operational Medicine Clinic (FOMC) Task Process Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    weight measurement within the past year Complete Snellen eye exam Does further analysis needed? Complete all patient interview and PHA assessment...this risk Is Snellen eye exam required? Refer to optometry Identify and address all CPS IAW local PHA business rules Print out all paperwork and

  15. Defense Force Management: Occupation Distribution and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    diitteseilss lyve medicine, veterinary medicine. optometry, phlysilolgy. diet therapy . medical equipmerint main- s2. Clericaj/Personne-Includes combined...Includes ecology, zoý- 61. Health Services Administration Officers-4n. ology, botany, horticulture , conservatioand at cludles all medical and health

  16. 47th ANZAAS Congress (abstracts) Vol. I, Sections 1-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 250 papers. The subject areas covered by the papers include the following: (1) physics, (2) chemistry, (3) geology, (4) architecture and town planning, (5) pharmaceutical sciences, (6) optometry, (7) zoology, (8) botany, (9) agriculture and forestry, (10) physiology, and (11) food science and nutrition. An author index is included. (MOW)

  17. Recertification and Relicensure--Implications for the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, George B.; Swinford, David N.

    1975-01-01

    The study surveyed the extent of the movement to require continuing education in 14 professions: accountancy, architecture, dentistry, dietetics, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, optometry, osteopathy, pharmacy, physical therapy, real estate, social work, and veterinary medicine. The report provides some general conclusions and a summary of…

  18. The Standardized 2-Dimensional PMP: A New Assessment Technique in Optometric Credentialing and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Leon J.

    1983-01-01

    A written clinical simulation exercise known as patient management problems (PMP) developed by the National Board of Examiners in Optometry is discussed. The new PMP format is considered standardized in the sense that the "visible" portion of the problem will be identical. (MLW)

  19. Recruitment and Selection Strategies in Optometric Education towards Addressing Human Resource Disparities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, V. R.; Loughman, James; Naidoo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The dire need for eye care services and a dearth of human resources (HR) in sub-Saharan Africa motivated the setting up of new optometry programmes. However, to make a meaningful impact, geographical, gender, economic and educational disparities must additionally be addressed. A qualitative study utilizing purposive sampling to select academic…

  20. Installation Restoration Program. Phase I. Records Search, Hancock Field, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Additional services include laboratory, x-ray, pharmacy, immunizations and optometry. Physical examinations for non-military persons are not available... Diazinon Pyr imidinyl) Phosphorothioate (None Determined) D-Tox 0, O-Diethyl---(3,51 6-Trichloro-2- Dursban 4E, Pyr idyl) Phosphoroth ioate Dursban

  1. PATHWAYS TO HEALTH CAREERS, EXPLORING HEALTH OCCUPATIONS AND PROFESSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Careers Council of Illinois, Chicago.

    CAREERS IN THE AREAS OF DENTISTRY, DIETETICS, MEDICAL RECORD LIBRARY SCIENCE, MEDICAL LABORATORY WORK, MEDICINE, NURSING, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY, OPTOMETRY, PHARMACY, PHYSICAL THERAPY, PODIATRY, PUBLIC HEALTH, RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, SOCIAL WORK, VETERINARY MEDICINE, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION, AND OTHER HEALTH OCCUPATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE…

  2. Costs of Education in the Health Professions: Report of a Study Parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

    This report contains aggregate data on costs for all schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, veterinary medicine, and nursing, and the average education costs per student in these fields for a sample of schools during the 1972-73 academic year. Context for the study is provided by an appraisal of the educational…

  3. Institutional Resource Requirements and Cost Per Student for Contemporary Pharmaceutical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swintosky, Joseph V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the IOM study that determined the average annual education costs per student, for the first professional degree. Colleges of pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, veterinary medicine, podiatry, optometry, and nursing were included. The data are assessed with particular reference to the University of Kentucky.…

  4. Development of the Air Force-Army Military Skill Linkage System (MISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Orthopedic Surgeon, Sports Medicine Orthopedic Surgeon, Spine Surgery Orthopedic Surgeon, Oncology Orthopedic Surgeon, Replacement Arthroplasty...0 67B Laboratory Sciences o 67C Preventive Medicine Sciences o 67D Behavioral Sciences 0 67E Pharmacy 0 67F Optometry o 67G Podiatry o 67J

  5. Reawakening Resistance to Draft Registration: Some Implications for the 1980’s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Resource Center for Nonviolence. Many cars and trucks in the neighborhood sported anti-nuclear bumper stickers. The leader of the meeting wore an anti...shool or ichools of dentistry, amste at mos.t jraft zounseivng centers. 3elsZt. e osteopathy, optometry. podiatry . veterinary Service takes the positon

  6. Six-Month Evaluation of Extended Wear Soft Contact Lenses Among Armored Troops. Part 1. Clinical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Doctini Cou i Id s K.. ’rned A’ ’is TeSI I oumicroscorry onl asyr iptoirnac coritact-lens-wearing recruits Ar. I vili riili a I To a, QiiuviiridW ,’a...Optometry The University of Alabama, Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294 About the Authors William G. Bachman received the Doctor of Op- tometry degree from

  7. Recent Optometric Education Developments in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    Two optometry schools, established at the University of the North and the University of Durban-Westville in South Africa which were authorized by separate government departments for Black and Indian ethnic categories, are described. No attempt is made to evaluate the relative quality of the two programs. (MLW)

  8. A Strategic Approach to Humanitarian Medical Manpower Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    population dynamics, nutrition , reproductive health, health financing, medical resources and usage, immunization, infectious diseases , HIV/Aids, and...maternal health, nutrition , optometry, and preventive health. A second data request by disease cluster to NMCSD for M-2 data focused on capturing...increasing, see Figure 3. In addition, the top ten diseases are identified as ear infection, rheumatism , eye infections, urinary tract infections

  9. Air Force Health Care Providers: Automation Concerns Relating to - Needs, Experience, and Support,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-22

    handle and transfer the wounded. Helicopters pick up the wounded on the front lines and transfer them to staging areas. After stabilization, the patients...radiology surgery urology ophthalmology otorhinolaryngology anesthesiology obstetrics/gynecology physical medicine psychiatry internal medicine oncology...aerospace physiology clinical psychology clinical social work alcohol rehabilitation dietitian occupational theraphy pharmacy optometry podiatry

  10. 高职眼视光专业学生就业问题及改革思路探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜世超; 胡立新

    2015-01-01

    随着经济的发展,人们生活水平的提高,人们的用眼程度增加,人们的视力呈现下降趋势,因此,社会需要大量眼视光人才。但是,眼视光专业的学生就业并不乐观,学生对自己的就业满意度不高,企业招收不到合适的员工,而且员工流失量增加。各个高职的眼视光教育需要逐步完善教育教学,顺应时代发展需要,提升眼视光专业学生的社会地位。本文就高职眼视光专业学生就业现状、就业分析、改革对策三个方面加以简要分析。%With the development of economy, improvement of people's living standard, people's eye level in-creased, and the sight of the people presented downward trend. Therefore, the needs of the society a large number of optometry personnel. However, optometry professional students employment are not optimistic, students in their job sat-isfaction is not high, enterprise recruit to the right staff, but also to increase employee loss. Each higher vocational optometry education need to gradually improve the education and teaching, in order to adapt to the needs of the de-velopment of the times, enhance the optometry students' social status. Brief analysis of the students in Higher Voca-tional optometry professional employment situation, employment analysis, reform measures in three aspects.

  11. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  12. A Markov Model for Forecasting Inventory Levels for U.S Navy Medical Service Corps Healthcare Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Exper Psych 30 4% Clinical Dietetics 26 3% Financial Mgt 78 8% Research Psych 17 3% Optometry 109 11% MPT&E 31 3% Entomology 39 6% Pharmacy , General 136...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A MARKOV MODEL FOR...FORECASTING INVENTORY LEVELS FOR U.S NAVY MEDICAL SERVICE CORPS HEALTHCARE ADMINISTRATORS by Sobondo Josiah March 2014 Thesis Co

  13. Muscular and intraocular pressure responses among ocular-hypertensive subjects: is there a rationale for biofeedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, J M; Mason, D A; Wilson, R P; Silvia, E S; Kleinstein, R N

    1985-12-01

    Several animal and human investigations have indicated that intraocular pressure (IOP) levels may be associated with extreme drug-induced changes in the extraocular muscles. Further, recent data suggest that, among individuals with normal IOP level, moderate increases in facial muscle (EMG) activity around the eye while the eye is open are associated with increases in IOP. To investigate further the relationship between facial EMG activity and IOP levels and to examine a group of individuals with elevated IOP levels, subjects were recruited from outpatients at an optometry clinic. Three groups of subjects were selected: a group of ocular hypertensive subjects who showed elevated pressures at the optometry clinic and upon the day of testing, a group of labile ocular hypertensive subjects who evinced elevated pressures during their visit to the optometry clinic but lower pressures on the day of testing, and a group of normal IOP subjects who showed normal pressures both during their optometry clinic visit and on the day of testing. To investigate anxiety differences, subjects were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, but subsequent analysis revealed no group differences. To evaluate the role of stress upon muscle (EMG) functioning around the eye, subjects were subjected to imagery and standardized mental arithmetic stressors; analyses of these results also revealed no significant group differences. Finally, subjects were given EMG biofeedback for muscle activity around the eye while IOP was assessed during five alternating periods in which they made decreases and increases in EMG activity. Results revealed significant group, period, and group by period interaction effects. The pattern of results is interpreted as implicating EMG activity in IOP fluctuations; the implications of these data for potential biofeedback and stress management treatments are discussed.

  14. Ophthalmic manifestations of children with Down syndrome in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adio AO; Wajuihian SO

    2012-01-01

    Adedayo Omobolanle Adio,1 Samuel Otabor Wajuihian21University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 2Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAim: The aim of this study was to provide a profile of oculo-visual anomalies in children with Down syndrome (DS) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Methods: This comparative study assessed the visual functions of 120 children (42 DS and 78 developmentally normal children). The visual functions evaluated and...

  15. Student portfolio as a learning tool in UPC-BarcelonaTech technical and health degrees. Good practices in GTPoE-RIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Fransoy Bel, Marta; Sánchez Robert, Francesc Josep; Augè Serra, Montserrat; Salán Ballesteros, Maria Núria

    2012-01-01

    The Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, UPC-BARCELONATECH (http://www.upc.edu), is a technical university that teaches engineering, architecture and optometry degrees. RIMA project (http://www.upc.edu/rima) has been created as a meeting point for Communities of Practice (C&P) at UPC-BARCELONATECH in research devoted to teaching and learning methodologies. RIMA project includes Student Portfolio Community of Practice, GTPoE, focused on portfolio design models and templates. The main goal of ...

  16. An Analysis of the Allocation of Funds for the Direct Health Care Provider Program (DHCPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-26

    RENEWAL 15 __ OPTOMET 16 __ PREVMED 25 -REQ_$ 17 __ PA $ (000) 18 __ ENLISTED 26 --- REQ_$/WY $ (000) 27 _%_WORK 28 _AMEPFUND $ (000) 29 __ FY88 Other...Nutrition Care Provider NUTRI .5329 .0154 Optometry Provider OPTOMET .3439 .0544 Preventive Med. Provider PREVMED .33/2 .0024 z Physician Assistant Prov...RAD) + .6419 (PHYSMED) + .4350 (FAMPRAC) + .3190 (SOCIAL) + .4789 (PHARM) + .5329 (NUTRI) + .3439 ( OPTOMET ) + .3372 (PREVMED) + .3758 (PA) + .3331

  17. Improving patient outcomes: role of the primary care optometrist in the early diagnosis and management of age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu L.; Swanson M

    2013-01-01

    Lei Liu, Mark SwansonSchool of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Not long ago, the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was confined to rehabilitating whatever vision had not been damaged by the disease. The recent successes of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the antioxidant clinical trials have revolutionized AMD treatment. For the first time, there is realistic hope that the progression of AMD can be slowed do...

  18. The Future Role of Army National Guard Special Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an... Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the...also possess a working knowledge of dentistry , veterinary care, public sanitation, water quality and optometry. Finally, there is one senior and one

  19. Why don't we have enough cornea donors? A literature review and survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchet, G; Carr, J; Harris, M G

    2000-05-01

    Organ donation provides a second chance for those who have experienced severe disease or injury. Unfortunately there is a huge discrepancy between the supply and demand of transplantable organs, despite the existence of sufficient numbers of potential donors. Through a review of the literature and a survey of optometry students, this article provides insight into the reasons for the shortage of corneal donors and how more corneal donors might be obtained. A survey of 200 optometry students at the University California, Berkeley, School of Optometry was conducted to augment the literature review. Seventy-six students (38% of those surveyed) completed the survey process. Results of the survey indicated that 64.5% of who responded were willing to donate body organs, while 31.6% were not. Of those not willing to donate organs, 11.8% cited religious reasons. Other personal reasons included: fear (4%), respect for the human body (7.9%), and parental disapproval (6.4%). Only 46.1% of respondents had donation stickers on their driver's licenses. The literature review and survey indicate that age, religion, culture, personality characteristics, views on death and mortality, body image, and humanitarian concerns are among the many factors that influence people's opinion concerning organ donations. Education of the public and health care professionals' awareness of the importance of obtaining corneas for donation is crucial to end the shortage of organ donors.

  20. Academic dropout or academic success: a model for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1986-09-01

    Why do some students who qualify for admission to optometry school become academic dropouts while others succeed? This question was addressed in a study which compared the admission records of 21 academic dropouts from three classes at the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) with 269 retained students. Academic dropouts were found to have significantly lower preoptometry grades, lower Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT) scores, attended less competitive (i.e., less selective) undergraduate institutions, scored lower on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and were older than retained students. When these differentiating admission variables, excepting age, were applied to a new entering class, prediction of subsequent academic dismissal or serious academic difficulty was highly accurate. However, it was found that such prediction must take into account not only areas of weakness, i.e., academic and psychological factors which place a student at risk, but also areas of strength which give the student an advantage. For all students, regardless of age, sex, or ethnic origin, it was the ratio of "advantage" factors to "risk" factors which gave the most valid prediction of academic success or failure.

  1. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  2. The influence of a novel simulated learning environment upon student clinical subjective refraction performance: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman-Pieterse, Emily C; De Souza, Neilsen J; Vincent, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    Optometry students are taught the process of subjective refraction through lectures and laboratory-based practicals before progressing to supervised clinical practice. Simulated leaning environments (SLEs) form part of an emerging technology used in a range of health disciplines; however, there is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of clinical simulators as educational tools. Forty optometry students (20 fourth year and 20 fifth year) were assessed twice by a qualified optometrist (two examinations separated by four to eight weeks), while completing a monocular non-cycloplegic subjective refraction on the same patient with an unknown refractive error, simulated using contact lenses. Half of the students were granted access to an online simulated learning environment, The Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI) Virtual Refractor, and the remaining students formed a control group. The primary outcome measures at each visit were; accuracy of the clinical refraction compared to a qualified optometrist and relative to the Optometry Council of Australia and New Zealand (OCANZ) subjective refraction examination criteria. Secondary measures of interest included descriptors of student SLE engagement, student self-reported confidence levels and correlations between performance in the simulated and real-world clinical environment. Eighty per cent of students in the intervention group interacted with the simulated learning environment (for an average of 100 minutes); however, there was no correlation between measures of student engagement with the BHVI Virtual Refractor and speed or accuracy of clinical subjective refractions. Fifth year students were typically more confident and refracted more accurately and more quickly than fourth year students. A year group by experimental group interaction (p = 0.03) was observed for accuracy of the spherical component of refraction and post hoc analysis revealed that less experienced students exhibited greater gains in

  3. 探讨复方托吡卡胺在儿童屈光检查中的应用价值%Discussion in the Application Value of Compound Tropicamide Children with Refractive Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨复方托吡卡胺在儿童屈光检查的应用价值探讨。方法需要屈光检查的儿童同时采用复方托吡卡胺和阿托品散瞳用药后屈光检查,以阿托品散瞳检影验光的远视屈光度为标准值,并比较两者的屈光差异。结果复方托吡卡散瞳验光110眼总屈光度低于阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度者95眼,占86.36%,低幅为0.25~1.25D,平均每眼低0.63D;复方托吡卡胺散瞳验光总屈光度高于阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度者13眼,占11.82%,高幅为0.25~0.75D,平均每眼高0.50D;相同者2眼,占1.82%。结论复方托吡卡胺散瞳验光总屈光度与阿托品散瞳验光总屈光度接近,在配眼镜时考虑这些因素,可以替代阿托品散瞳减少患儿的散瞳后各种不适。%Objective To study the compound supporting pyrazole card amine in children with refractive inspection application value. Methods Children need refractive check at the same time using compound pyrazole amine and atropine mydriatic refractive check, the medicine with atropine mydriatic optometry high hyperopia diopter of shadow to standard, and compares the difference of refractive. Results Compound pyrazole card mydriatic optometry total 110 eyes diopter is lower than atropine mydriatic optometry total 95 eyes diopter, accounted for 86.36%, low-rising 0.25-1.25 D, 0.63 D low average eye;Amine compound supporting pyrazole card mydriatic optometry dioptre always higher than atropine mydriatic optometry total 13 eyes diopter, accounted for 11.82%, high amplitude of 0.25-0.75 D, an average of 0.50 D per eye high;Are common in 2 eyes, accounting for 1.82%. Are common in 2 eyes, accounting for 1.82%. Conclusion Compound pyrazole card amine mydriatic optometry total dioptre and atropine mydriatic optometry dioptre always close, consider these factors when glasses, can replace atropine mydriatic reduce aches after children with mydriatic.

  4. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Neisha M; Romero, Angel F

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>-0.50D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50 D, and emmetropia as a SE between -0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0-55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5-37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1-17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8-73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the VISX wavescan and OPD-scan III with the subjective refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R; Long, K-L; Wu, X-M; Li, Q-D

    2016-07-01

    To compare the refractive errors measured by the VISX WaveScan, OPD-Scan III and the subjective refraction. The optometry accuracy of computer operated aberrometer used before refractive surgery has been debatable. Hence, a clear study on the role of such automated equipment in optometry is the need of the hour as compared to subjective refraction. Seventy-six patients (152 eyes) were recruited from January 2013 to December 2013. All patients were measured with subjective refraction by the phoropter (NIDEK, RT-5100), objective refraction by the WaveScan (AMO Company, USA), OPD-Scan III (Nidek Technologies, Japan). The sphere, cylinder, axis of the three methods were compared and analyzed. The diopter of sphere power measured by WaveScan was lower than that of the subjective refraction and the difference was 0.13 ± 0. 30D (t = 3. 753, p refraction (p >0. 05). The value of the difference between WaveScan and subjective refraction was 5.87°±6.19°on average, while the difference between OPD-Scan III and subjective refraction was 3.82°±3.95°on average. The differences between the two were statistically significant (t =2. 817, p =0. 006). The results of sphere and cylinder measured by WaveScan and subjective refraction were different. As the latest integrated equipment, the Nidek OPD-Scan III gives a more accurate measurement of objective refraction when compared with subjective refraction. The latest Nidek OPD-Scan III may prove to be an useful tool for preoperative optometry deviation based on objective refraction.

  6. A critical evaluation of the evidence supporting the practice of behavioural vision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brendan T

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the UK's College of Optometrists commissioned a report to critically evaluate the theory and practice of behavioural optometry. The report which followed Jennings (2000; Behavioural optometry--a critical review. Optom. Pract. 1: 67) concluded that there was a lack of controlled clinical trials to support behavioural management strategies. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the evidence in support of behavioural approaches as it stands in 2008. The available evidence was reviewed under 10 headings, selected because they represent patient groups/conditions that behavioural optometrists are treating, or because they represent approaches to treatment that have been advocated in the behavioural literature. The headings selected were: (1) vision therapy for accommodation/vergence disorders; (2) the underachieving child; (3) prisms for near binocular disorders and for producing postural change; (4) near point stress and low-plus prescriptions; (5) use of low-plus lenses at near to slow the progression of myopia; (6) therapy to reduce myopia; (7) behavioural approaches to the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia; (8) training central and peripheral awareness and syntonics; (9) sports vision therapy; (10) neurological disorders and neuro-rehabilitation after trauma/stroke. There is a continued paucity of controlled trials in the literature to support behavioural optometry approaches. Although there are areas where the available evidence is consistent with claims made by behavioural optometrists (most notably in relation to the treatment of convergence insufficiency, the use of yoked prisms in neurological patients, and in vision rehabilitation after brain disease/injury), a large majority of behavioural management approaches are not evidence-based, and thus cannot be advocated.

  7. A cross-sectional survey of optometrists and optometric practices in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Ntodie, Michael; Mashige, Khathutshelo Percy; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Antwi Osei, Kwaku

    2015-09-01

    The study was conducted to profile optometrists and optometric practices in Ghana. An online survey was conducted among 146 optometrists, who were registered with the Ghana Optometric Association (GOA). It included questions on their demographics, equipment, ophthalmic procedures routinely conducted and the barriers to providing a full scope of optometric services. Ninety registered optometrists (62 per cent) responded, their mean age being 28.97 ± 3.36 years. There were more males (68.9 per cent) than females and most had the Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree, the profession's highest degree in Ghana. There were more practitioners in urban centres (71.1 per cent) and most practices had basic optometric instruments, such as direct ophthalmoscopes, slitlamp biomicroscopes and retinoscopes. Many optometrists routinely conducted direct ophthalmoscopy (100 per cent), slitlamp biomicroscopy (87.5 per cent) and contact tonometry (55.7 per cent); however, few provided contact lens (10.2 per cent) and low vision (9.1 per cent) assessments, with 76 per cent stating that it was due to the unavailability of low vision devices, poor sources of contact lenses (27 per cent) and perceived insufficient training (11.2 per cent). Many practitioners (97 per cent) reported the use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents (96.6 per cent). Most practitioners (52.9 per cent) preferred conferences for the delivery of continuous professional development over publications (26.4 per cent) and internet resources (12.6 per cent). The data elicited in this study provide a basis for addressing the country's unmet eye-care needs and can be used to determine training and support guidelines for the profession. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  8. Myopia onset and role of peripheral refraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotolo M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maurilia Rotolo,1,2 Giancarlo Montani,2 Raul Martin1,3 1Optometry Research Group, IOBA Eye Institute, School of Optometry, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Optics and Optometry, Corso di Ottica e Optometria, Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy; 3Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, School of Health Professions, Plymouth University, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth, UK Background: To determine the peripheral refraction characteristics related to 18-month changes in refraction in Caucasian (Mediterranean children.Methods: Non-cycloplegic peripheral refraction at 10° intervals over the central ±30° of horizontal visual field over 18 months (baseline, 12 months, and 18 months of follow-up was conducted in 50 healthy children who were 8 years old. Axial length (AL was also recorded. Relative peripheral refraction (RPR was calculated and eyes were divided into three study groups: non-myopic eyes, myopic eyes, and eyes that develop myopia.Results: Myopic eyes showed hyperopic RPR and emetropic and hyperopic eyes showed myopic RPR. Univariate analysis of variance did not find any statistically significant effect of peripheral refraction (F36=0.13; P=1.00 and RPR (F36=0.79; P=0.80 on myopia onset (eyes that developed myopia along the study. All the studied groups showed an increase of AL, without statistically significant differences between the studied groups (F6=0.09; P=0.99.Conclusion: Hyperopic relative peripheral shift change in eyes that develop myopia has been found with differences in RPR between myopic (hyperopic RPR and hyperopic or emmetropic eyes (with myopic RPR. The results suggest that RPR cannot predict development or progression of myopia in Caucasian (Mediterranean children and the efficacy in slowing myopia progression obtained with treatments that manipulate the peripheral refraction is not just driven with RPR. Keywords: myopia, refractive errors, myopia onset, peripheral refraction, relative peripheral

  9. Merging the Military Health System (MHS) and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) into a Single Governance Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-07

    63 inpatient facilities, 1,087 medical, dental, and veterinary clinics, and almost 131,000 military and civilian personnel providing medical services...8,000 by FY2010. Cardiology Shared cardiologist at either CTVHCS (S&W) or CRDAMC. Both facilities demonstrated a need for increased cardiology services...Social Work Services 17,042 7.1 Psychology 12,042 5.4 Optometry 7,107 1.7 Psychiatry 6,242 2.2 Orthopedics 4,715 .7 Internal Medicine 2,648 .8 Cardiology

  10. Contact lens associated microbial keratitis: practical considerations for the optometrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman AB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aaron B Zimmerman, Alex D Nixon, Erin M Rueff College of Optometry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Microbial keratitis (MK is a corneal condition that encompasses several different pathogens and etiologies. While contact lens associated MK is most often associated with bacterial infections, other pathogens (fungi, Acanthamoeba species, etc may be responsible. This review summarizes the risk factors, microbiology, diagnostic characteristics, and treatment options for all forms of contact lens-related MK.Keywords: corneal ulcer, fungal keratitis, bacterial keratitis, Acanthamoeba, Fusarium, Pseudomonas

  11. The cornea in systemic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic  disease  often  results  in  corneal signs that are easily observable by means of bio-microscopy. Optometry is in a unique position to detect the corneal manifestations of systemic disease. This review presents corneal signs of various systemic diseases. The list is not com-plete but the review rather attempts to empha-size the importance of detection, and referral, of systemic diseases.

  12. The Cost of Workplace Flexibility for High-Powered Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia D. Goldin; Katz, Lawrence F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors study the pecuniary penalties for family-related amenities in the workplace (e.g., job interruptions, short hours, part-time work, and flexibility during the workday), how women have responded to them, and how the penalties have changed over time. The pecuniary penalties to behaviors that are beneficial to family appear to have decreased in many professions. Self-employment has declined in many of the high-end professions (e.g., pharmacy, optometry, dentistry, law, medicine, and v...

  13. Ophthalmic Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Bhootra, Ajay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    This book is uniquely meant for the ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians to help the world see better by excellent vision through the services of technicians and clinical principle based ophthalmology so that the management of ocular problems can be done for a better vision . Informs that a wide range of material and design of ophthalmic lenses with innovative developments is available. This book presents comprehensively rich information about the ophthalmic lenses and their dispensing tips . It will be highly useful mainly for the students of optometry and opticians, ophthalmologists,

  14. Patients with Paranoid Symptoms: Considerations for the Optometrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bampton, MS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathological paranoia involves a pervasive style of thinking and relating to others that is unyielding to reason and is independent of transient influences. Paranoia associated with drug abuse, neurodegenerative disease, and mental health issues will be discussed and care strategies explored. Optometrists will undoubtedly encounter patients with varying degrees and forms of paranoid symptoms. In order to provide the best possible vision care for these patients, it is essential that the optometrist be well prepared for the tension and resistance that is likely to occur during the exam. This paper will focus on patients who exhibit problematic paranoid symptoms and the relevant considerations for optometry.

  15. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Helland, Magne

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision issues by including optometry as a part of the problem-solving team. Computer workstation design is increasing in complexity. There are at least ten different professions who contribute to workstation design or who provide advice to improve worker comfort, safety and efficiency. Optometrists have a role identifying and solving computer-related vision issues and in prescribing appropriate optical devices. However, it is possible that advice given by optometrists to improve visual comfort may conflict with other requirements and demands within the workplace. A multidisciplinary approach has been advocated for solving computer related vision issues. There are opportunities for optometrists to collaborate with ergonomists, who coordinate information from physical, cognitive and organisational disciplines to enact holistic solutions to problems. This paper proposes a model of collaboration and examples of successful partnerships at a number of professional levels including individual relationships between optometrists and ergonomists when they have mutual clients/patients, in undergraduate and postgraduate education and in research. There is also scope for dialogue between optometry and ergonomics professional associations. A multidisciplinary approach offers the opportunity to solve vision related computer issues in a cohesive, rather than fragmented way. Further exploration is required to understand the barriers to these professional relationships. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  18. The Clinical Study on the Effect of Tropicamide and Atropine Ophthalmic Solution in Mydriatic Refractometry for Children%托吡卡胺与阿托品对儿童散瞳验光效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战梅; 黄海; 周李

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of tropicamide and atropine ophthalmic solution in mydriatic refractometry for children.Methods:Totally 260 cases (520 eyes) of ametropia children from 4 to 14 years without other eye disease were received optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops and 1%atropine sulfate,The results of optometry were compared by paired T-test.Results:There existed statistically significant difference between the hyperopia and myopia in 4 to 7 years old group,hyperopia in 8 to 11 years old group.But there were no significant difference between the myopia in 8 to 11 years old group,myopia and hyperopia in 12 to 14 years old group.Conclusion:Aged 8 years and older children with myopia and hyperopia in aged 12 years and above children could receive optometry after using the tropicamide eye drops.%  目的:对比托吡卡胺与阿托品眼液对儿童散瞳验光的效果。方法:用托吡卡胺眼液和1%硫酸阿托品眼膏先后分别对4~14岁260例(520只眼),无其它眼疾,眼位正常的屈光不正儿童散瞳后进行电脑验光,采用自身配对t检验对两种药物验光结果进行比较。结果:4~7岁组远视、近视和8~11岁组远视两种药物散瞳验光所得结果差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:托吡卡胺散瞳验光方法适用于眼位正常的8岁及以上近视儿童和12岁及以上远视儿童。

  19. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundmark PO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter Optometri, Rjukan, Norway Purpose: The increasing demand for primary eye care due to an aging population implicates an enhanced role of optometrists in the communities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the rate of referrals and returning medical reports between optometrists and health care professionals in Norway. The secondary objectives were to investigate the conformity of diagnoses in referrals and medical reports, the extent of optometric follow-up examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs in optometric practice.Materials and methods: This study is an ongoing prospective electronic survey administered on the Internet between November 2014 and December 2017. Optometrists in private optometric practice are eligible. Participants register data for up to 1 year, including examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs; referrals, including International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2 codes; medical reports, including the ICD-10 codes; and optometric follow-up enquiries. Analysis of agreement between referred and diagnosed conditions was made possible by encoding patients’ ID.Results: Seventeen months into the study, 67 optometrists were included (Female: 60%, mean age: 41 years.. There were 49,510 registered examinations (60% general, 28% contact lens, 12% auxiliary. Diagnostic drugs were used in 4% of these and in 14% of the examinations that resulted in a referral. There were 1,779 referrals (97% to ophthalmologists. Top three diagnoses were cataract (36%, glaucoma (11%, and age-related macular degeneration (7%. There were 1,036 returned medical reports, of which 76% could be linked with registered referrals. Diagnostic agreement was observed in 80% of the cases (74% for

  20. Physics education through computational tools: the case of geometrical and physical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Y.; Santana, A.; Mendoza, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, with the development of more powerful and accurate computational tools, the inclusion of new didactic materials in the classroom is known to have increased. However, the form in which these materials can be used to enhance the learning process is still under debate. Many different methodologies have been suggested for constructing new relevant curricular material and, among them, just-in-time teaching (JiTT) has arisen as an effective and successful way to improve the content of classes. In this paper, we will show the implemented pedagogic strategies for the courses of geometrical and optical physics for students of optometry. Thus, the use of the GeoGebra software for the geometrical optics class and the employment of new in-house software for the physical optics class created using the high-level programming language Python is shown with the corresponding activities developed for each of these applets.

  1. Dyslexia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Wajuihian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and a balanced sociocultural background.  Dyslexia is the most common type of learning disorder.  Reading difficulties affect a child’s academic achievement.  As primary eye care practitioners, optometrists have a role in attending to patients who may present with symptoms indicative of dyslexia, therefore an understanding of dyslexia will be beneficial to the optometrist.  This paper presents an overview of dyslexia and discusses its prevalence, aetiology, classifications, neural pathways involved in reading, theories, neuro-imaging techniques and management options. The role of optometry in the multidisciplinary management of dyslexia is discussed.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 89-98

  2. Refractive sectors in the visual field of the pigeon eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzke, F W; Hayes, B P; Hodos, W; Holden, A L; Low, J C

    1985-12-01

    Scheiner's principle has been used in electroretinographic optometry to refract the photoreceptor plane in different regions of the visual field of the pigeon eye. Along the horizon and in the upper visual field the eye is emmetropic, or nearly so. Below the horizon the eye becomes progressively more myopic at more negative elevations, refractive state falling to -5D at -90 deg. Lower field myopia is not an artifact of oblique astigmatism, nor of an aberration symmetrical about the optical axis. It is suggested that lower field myopia is a biological adaptation suited to keep the photoreceptors in the upper retina conjugate with the ground. Refractive state below the horizon can be fitted with a sine function by varying a parameter H (eye-ground height). The value of H agrees well with directly measured eye-ground height.

  3. Image analysis of ocular fundus for retinopathy characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Cuadros, Jorge

    2010-02-05

    Automated analysis of ocular fundus images is a common procedure in countries as England, including both nonemergency examination and retinal screening of patients with diabetes mellitus. This involves digital image capture and transmission of the images to a digital reading center for evaluation and treatment referral. In collaboration with the Optometry Department, University of California, Berkeley, we have tested computer vision algorithms to segment vessels and lesions in ground-truth data (DRIVE database) and hundreds of images of non-macular centric and nonuniform illumination views of the eye fundus from EyePACS program. Methods under investigation involve mathematical morphology (Figure 1) for image enhancement and pattern matching. Recently, we have focused in more efficient techniques to model the ocular fundus vasculature (Figure 2), using deformable contours. Preliminary results show accurate segmentation of vessels and high level of true-positive microaneurysms.

  4. Experimental validation of a Bayesian model of visual acuity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalimier, Eugénie

    2009-01-01

    Based on standard procedures used in optometry clinics, we compare measurements of visual acuity for 10 subjects (11 eyes tested) in the presence of natural ocular aberrations and different degrees of induced defocus, with the predictions given by a Bayesian model customized with aberrometric data of the eye. The absolute predictions of the model, without any adjustment, show good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of correlation and absolute error. The efficiency of the model is discussed in comparison with image quality metrics and other customized visual process models. An analysis of the importance and customization of each stage of the model is also given; it stresses the potential high predictive power from precise modeling of ocular and neural transfer functions.

  5. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  6. Juvenile ametropia optician matters needing attention%青少年屈光异常配镜的注意事项

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙殊民

    2012-01-01

      青少年屈光异常极为常见,青少年正处于成长期,所以青少年配镜至关重要。首先我们应掌握屈光异常配镜的原则,根据不同的屈光不正进行正确验光配镜。在配镜过程中有很多细节需要注意,并且可以指导青少年自我调正眼镜。%  refractive anomalies are extremely common in adolescents, adolescents are in the growth stage, so teenagers optician is crucial. First of all we should grasp the abnormal refraction optical principle, according to the different refractive error correct optometry. In the dispensing process there are many details need attention, and can guide the youth self adjustable glasses.

  7. Integrating direct electronic collection of data from patients into the process of care for eye care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F; Waters, M Andrew; Keatts, Shelley; Kimrey, Kathy L; Caldwell, Jennifer V; Rafferty, William; Asrani, Sanjay; Lee, Paul P

    2010-11-13

    Enabling collection of clinical data directly from patients has the potential to increase data accuracy and augment patient engagement in the care process. Most patient data entry systems have been created independent of electronic health records, and few studies have explored how patient entered data can be integrated in the documentation of a clinical encounter. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified requirements for direct data entry by patients and the subsequent incorporation of these data into the documentation process. The greatest challenges included ensuring confidentiality of records between patients, capturing medication histories from patients, displaying and distinguishing new and previously entered data for provider review, and supporting patient educational needs. The resulting computer tablet-based data collection tool has been deployed to 30 primary care optometry practices where it is successfully used to document care for patients with glaucoma.

  8. Improving vision awareness in autism services: Evaluation of a dedicated education programme for support practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph J; Butchart, Maggie; Brown, Michael; Bain, Janice; McMillan, Anne; Karatzias, Thanos

    2017-02-20

    The research reported here sought to evaluate whether a dedicated education programme in vision awareness improved the knowledge and skills of autism support practitioners in identifying visual impairment in autistic people with intellectual disabilities and providing better support to those individuals identified as visually impaired. Researchers undertook a mixed methods evaluation. A survey questionnaire was devised and administered before and after training and focus groups were undertaken in order to gain qualitative data relating how practitioners implemented their learning in practice. Knowledge confidence and practice confidence scores of participants were significantly improved by the programme, which maintained its impact one year on. Practitioners reported increased access to optometry, changes to support practice and improvements to service environments as a result of the training. Autism support practitioners' skills in identifying and supporting people with visual impairments were demonstrably enhanced through dedicated vision training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Corneal Regeneration After Photorefractive Keratectomy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane; Hanneken, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) remodels corneal stroma to compensate refractive errors. The removal of epithelium and the ablation of stroma provoke the disruption of corneal nerves and a release of several peptides from tears, epithelium, stroma and nerves. A myriad of cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases participate in the process of corneal wound healing. Their balance will determine if reepithelization and stromal remodeling are appropriate. The final aim is to achieve corneal transparency for restoring corneal function, and a proper visual quality. Therefore, wound-healing response is critical for a successful refractive surgery. Our goal is to provide an overview into how corneal wounding develops following PRK. We will also review the influence of intraoperative application of mitomycin C, bandage contact lenses, anti-inflammatory and other drugs in preventing corneal haze and post-PRK pain. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St John of God Community Services Limited, Louth

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalimier, Eugénie

    2009-01-01

    Based on standard procedures used in optometry clinics, we compare measurements of visual acuity for 10 subjects (11 eyes tested) in the presence of natural ocular aberrations and different degrees of induced defocus, with the predictions given by a Bayesian model customized with aberrometric data of the eye. The absolute predictions of the model, without any adjustment, show good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of correlation and absolute error. The efficiency of the model is discussed in comparison with image quality metrics and other customized visual process models. An analysis of the importance and customization of each stage of the model is also given; it stresses the potential high predictive power from precise modeling of ocular and neural transfer functions.

  11. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  12. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  13. Development and Validation of a Diabetic Retinopathy Referral Algorithm Based on Single-Field Fundus Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Shetty, Sharan; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Sharma, Tarun; Raman, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simplified algorithm to identify and refer diabetic retinopathy (DR) from single-field retinal images specifically for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy for appropriate care (ii) to determine the agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the algorithm as a pilot study among optometrists versus “gold standard” (retinal specialist grading). Methods The severity of DR was scored based on colour photo using a colour coded algorithm, which included the lesions of DR and number of quadrants involved. A total of 99 participants underwent training followed by evaluation. Data of the 99 participants were analyzed. Fifty posterior pole 45 degree retinal images with all stages of DR were presented. Kappa scores (κ), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs), sensitivity and specificity were determined, with further comparison between working optometrists and optometry students. Results Mean age of the participants was 22 years (range: 19–43 years), 87% being women. Participants correctly identified 91.5% images that required immediate referral (κ) = 0.696), 62.5% of images as requiring review after 6 months (κ = 0.462), and 51.2% of those requiring review after 1 year (κ = 0.532). The sensitivity and specificity of the optometrists were 91% and 78% for immediate referral, 62% and 84% for review after 6 months, and 51% and 95% for review after 1 year, respectively. The AUC was the highest (0.855) for immediate referral, second highest (0.824) for review after 1 year, and 0.727 for review after 6 months criteria. Optometry students performed better than the working optometrists for all grades of referral. Conclusions The diabetic retinopathy algorithm assessed in this work is a simple and a fairly accurate method for appropriate referral based on single-field 45 degree posterior pole retinal images. PMID:27661981

  14. Ethical issues in optometric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sithole

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethics as a discipline is the study and analysis of values and standards related to duty, responsibility, and right and wrong behavior. The ethical obligations of optometry toward patients are similar to those of other health professionals. These obligations generally require optometrists to recognize, respect, and protect the rights of their patients. This approach encourages patients to participate actively in their care and allows them to develop arelationship with their optometrist based on trust. The ethical codes which contain guiding principles serve to help practitioners in their decisions and in practicing in accordance with a set of standards that are expected of a health care practitioner. There are four major ethical principles in health care, namely; beneficence, non-maleficence, and respect for autonomy and justice. Because these principles are easily recognized as being among the primary ethical goals of health care, using them as the basis for ethical analysis may help to explain the moral justification for certain professional actions as well as to identify unethical behavior. However, in clinical practice, the specific demands and rationales of these broad principles may be difficult to apply. This illustrates the paradox that whilst these principles are essential tools for ethical practice, if applied too rigidly, they can be problematic. How-ever, the goal of ethical decision making in optometry should be to identify one or more courses of action that will honor the profession’s essential values while minimizing conflict with other values and professional standards. Every profession, every practice and every practitioner is governed by not only legal constraints, but also by the ethical concerns of ensuring that the patient is properly served. Considering our practices from a patient’s perspective can help optometrists understand the multiple responsibilities of clinical practice. (S Afr Optom 2010 69(2 93-99

  15. Functional Outcomes of the Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Ashley D.; Massof, Robert W.; Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Piersol, Catherine V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was assessed with the activity inventory (AI) in which participants rate the difficulty level of goals and corresponding tasks. Participants were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Results Improvements in functional vision measures were seen in both the BA + OT-LVR and ST groups at the goal level (d = 0.71; d = 0.56 respectively). At the task level, BA + OT-LVR patients showed more improvement in reading, inside-the-home tasks and outside-the-home tasks, when compared to ST patients. The greatest effects were seen in the BA + OT-LVR group in subjects with a visual acuity ≥20/70 (d = 0.360 reading; d = 0.500 inside the home; d = 0.468 outside the home). Conclusions Based on the trends of the AI data, we suggest that BA + OT-LVR services, provided by an OT in the patient's home following conventional low vision optometry services, are more effective than conventional optometric low vision services alone for those with mild visual impairment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00769015.) PMID:28273318

  16. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Salazar, Francisco; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Gomez-Campaña, Humberto; Cruz-Zamudio, Cinthia; Chaidez-Felix, Mariano; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Hector; Muro-Amador, Secundino; Guadron-Llanos, Alma Marlene; Martinez-Garcia, Javier J.; Murillo-Llanes, Joel; Sanchez-Cuen, Jaime; Llausas-Vargas, Alejando; Alapizco-Castro, Gerardo; Irineo-Cabrales, Ana; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique; Ramirez-Luquin, Tito; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. RESULTS The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old), and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%). There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older). The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2%) than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001). From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. CONCLUSION Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population. PMID:28546940

  17. Influence of Optic Disc Size on Identifying Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy.

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    Nixon, Gregory J; Watanabe, Ronald K; Sullivan-Mee, Michael; DeWilde, Anthony; Young, Lisa; Mitchell, G Lynn

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use a large group of observers to test prior research findings that suggest optic disc size, clinical evaluation of the neuroretinal rim (ISNT rule), and practitioner characteristics influence the accuracy of differentiating normal from glaucomatous optic nerves. Participant observers were optometrists, optometry students, and vision scientists/researchers attending the 2013 American Academy of Optometry Annual Meeting. Each observer viewed and judged six sets of stereoscopic photographs of normal and clinically confirmed glaucomatous optic nerves of different sizes presented in random order. Observers were queried on whether each nerve was glaucomatous or normal, whether the nerve followed the ISNT rule, and whether further evaluation with advanced imaging techniques was indicated. Of the 261 observers who participated, 59% were practicing optometrists, 7% were vision scientists, and 34% were residents or students. Of practicing optometrists and vision scientists, half (49%) had more than 15 years of experience, whereas 11% had less than 2 years of experience. Diagnostic accuracy differed based on optic nerve size: average-sized nerves were correctly identified by 90% of subjects, whereas small nerves and large nerves were correctly identified by 42% and 62%, respectively. Notably, only 9% of subjects correctly identified the small glaucomatous nerve, and only 34% correctly identified the large normal nerve. No practitioner characteristics were associated with diagnostic accuracy. Accurate identification of glaucomatous optic neuropathy was significantly influenced by optic disc size. This was particularly evident for the large normal nerve and the small glaucomatous nerve. The ISNT rule provided value for differentiating normal from glaucomatous nerves, but its subjective interpretation resulted in considerable intergrader variability. These findings agree with other studies utilizing smaller numbers of observers but larger numbers of

  18. A comparison in university students of the amplitude of accommodation determined subjectively

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    Solani D. Mathebula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, the push-up and the minus lens methods have been used for the measurements of the amplitude of accommodation, and the differences between the results of these methods are well known.Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare three methods for determining the monocular amplitude of accommodation and consider whether agreement exists between such methods.Setting: The study was conducted at the Optometry Clinic, University of Limpopo.Method: Thirty-four (N = 34 African optometry students participated in this study. There were 20 female and 14 male students. The age range of the participants was 20–34 years. Amplitude of accommodation was measured via the subjective push-up, push-down and minus lens methods only on the right eyes of the sample.Results: The highest average amplitude of accommodation was obtained with the push-up method (10.20 D ± 0.96 D, while the minus lens method produced the smallest mean amplitude of accommodation (9.66 D ± 0.75 D. A higher correlation was found between the push-up and push-down methods (r = 0.80, p = 0.06. The smallest correlation was observed between the push-up and the minus lens methods (r = 0.60, p = 0.062. There were no statistically significant differences between the amplitude of accommodation in male and female students for all three methods (p > 0.005.Conclusion: It seems easier to recognise the point where one can identify a target in pushdown amplitude than the point of first sustained blur in the push-up method. The push-up method tends to overestimate the actual amplitude of accommodation because of the effects of depth of focus. The less evaluated method in the literature is the push-away method; however, further research is necessary to answer the question of which (if any method is more accurate.

  19. The use of SD-OCT in the differential diagnosis of dots, spots and other white retinal lesions

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    Zaharova E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Zaharova1, Jerome Sherman1-31State University of New York's State College of Optometry, University Eye Center, New York, NY, USA; 2SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY, USA; 3New York Eye Institute and Laser Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To demonstrate the utility of a retinal imaging technique using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for creating a B-scan layer-by-layer analysis to aid in the differential diagnosis of various retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions.Design: Review.Methods: A retrospective review of imaging studies performed with SD-OCT (Topcon, 3DOCT-2000, Oakland, NJ at SUNY State College of Optometry.Results: B-scan layer-by-layer analysis and unique SD-OCT reflectivity patterns of the following retinal white lesions are reviewed in the order of their retinal layer localization: myelinated nerve fiber layer, cotton wool spot, exudates, edema residues, drusen, fundus albipunctatus, Stargardt disease, Bietti crystalline dystrophy, punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC, presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS, post-photocoagulation chorioretinal scarring, and osseous choristoma.Conclusion: The reviewed images demonstrate the utility of SD-OCT in the identification of the unique characteristics of the presented retinal pathologies. SD-OCT is ideal for retinal layer localization of lesions, thus enhancing the differential diagnosis of retinal dots, spots, and other white lesions. Even though true pathognomonic patterns are rare, highly suggestive findings of certain retinal abnormalities often facilitate immediate recognition and diagnosis.Keywords: SD-OCT, photoreceptor integrity line, retinal pigment epithelium, white dot syndrome, retinal pathology, imaging

  20. Comparison of progressive addition lenses for general purpose and for computer vision: an office field study.

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    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    Two types of progressive addition lenses (PALs) were compared in an office field study: 1. General purpose PALs with continuous clear vision between infinity and near reading distances and 2. Computer vision PALs with a wider zone of clear vision at the monitor and in near vision but no clear distance vision. Twenty-three presbyopic participants wore each type of lens for two weeks in a double-masked four-week quasi-experimental procedure that included an adaptation phase (Weeks 1 and 2) and a test phase (Weeks 3 and 4). Questionnaires on visual and musculoskeletal conditions as well as preferences regarding the type of lenses were administered. After eight more weeks of free use of the spectacles, the preferences were assessed again. The ergonomic conditions were analysed from photographs. Head inclination when looking at the monitor was significantly lower by 2.3 degrees with the computer vision PALs than with the general purpose PALs. Vision at the monitor was judged significantly better with computer PALs, while distance vision was judged better with general purpose PALs; however, the reported advantage of computer vision PALs differed in extent between participants. Accordingly, 61 per cent of the participants preferred the computer vision PALs, when asked without information about lens design. After full information about lens characteristics and additional eight weeks of free spectacle use, 44 per cent preferred the computer vision PALs. On average, computer vision PALs were rated significantly better with respect to vision at the monitor during the experimental part of the study. In the final forced-choice ratings, approximately half of the participants preferred either the computer vision PAL or the general purpose PAL. Individual factors seem to play a role in this preference and in the rated advantage of computer vision PALs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  1. Computer vision syndrome in presbyopia and beginning presbyopia: effects of spectacle lens type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschinski, Wolfgang; König, Mirjam; Mekontso, Tiofil M; Ohlendorf, Arne; Welscher, Monique

    2015-05-01

    This office field study investigated the effects of different types of spectacle lenses habitually worn by computer users with presbyopia and in the beginning stages of presbyopia. Computer vision syndrome was assessed through reported complaints and ergonomic conditions. A questionnaire regarding the type of habitually worn near-vision lenses at the workplace, visual conditions and the levels of different types of complaints was administered to 175 participants aged 35 years and older (mean ± SD: 52.0 ± 6.7 years). Statistical factor analysis identified five specific aspects of the complaints. Workplace conditions were analysed based on photographs taken in typical working conditions. In the subgroup of 25 users between the ages of 36 and 57 years (mean 44 ± 5 years), who wore distance-vision lenses and performed more demanding occupational tasks, the reported extents of 'ocular strain', 'musculoskeletal strain' and 'headache' increased with the daily duration of computer work and explained up to 44 per cent of the variance (rs = 0.66). In the other subgroups, this effect was smaller, while in the complete sample (n = 175), this correlation was approximately rs = 0.2. The subgroup of 85 general-purpose progressive lens users (mean age 54 years) adopted head inclinations that were approximately seven degrees more elevated than those of the subgroups with single vision lenses. The present questionnaire was able to assess the complaints of computer users depending on the type of spectacle lenses worn. A missing near-vision addition among participants in the early stages of presbyopia was identified as a risk factor for complaints among those with longer daily durations of demanding computer work. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  2. The prevalence of poor ocular motilities in a mainstream school compared to two learning-disabled schools in Johannesburg

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    Ingrid T. Metsing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular motilities play a major role when reading for the continuous acquisition and updating of visually presented information. Accurate oculomotor control is required to be able to learn how to read and to efficiently read to learn. This process requires accurate decoding accomplished by precise oculomotor control.Aim: A comparison of the prevalence of poor ocular motilities between mainstream and learning-disabled schools were explored from three different schools; one mainstream and two disabled schools. One hundred and ninety-two children, age range 8–13 years (mean = 10.30, s.d.: ± 0.999 in grades 3 and 4, with 112 children from the two learning-disabled schools and 80 children from the mainstream school participated in the study.Method: The standardised direct observation test, using the Northeastern State University College of Optometry scoring criteria, was used to evaluate saccadic and pursuit eye movements. Fixation maintenance was evaluated using the Southern California College of Optometry scoring criteria. The Gulden fixation stick with a 6/24 letter E was used as a fixation target.Results: The results showed that children from the learning-disabled schools appeared to have a higher incidence of poor saccadic accuracy compared with children from the mainstream school. No significant associations in both the mainstream and the learning-disabled children were found for head movements, pursuits and fixation ability. However, the results suggest a statistically significant association between poor saccadic accuracy and children from the learning-disabled schools. Conclusion: This study provides further evidence for a link between poor saccadic accuracy and children from the school of the learning disabled. Keywords: Ocular motor dysfunction, saccadics, pursuits, learning disability, schools, fixation ability, visual attention

  3. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico

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    Francisco Gomez-Salazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico. METHODS: Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE, as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D, hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D, emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50, and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D. A negative cylinder was selected as a notation. RESULTS: The proportion (95% confidence interval among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0, emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8, myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9 and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5. Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old, however, hyperopia increased among the aging population (40 to 79 years old, and astigmatism alone showed a decreasing trend with age (6 to 90y; from 19.7% to 10.8%. There was a relationship between age and all refractive errors (approximately 60%, aged 50 and older. The proportion of any clinically important refractive error was higher in males (61.2% than in females (58.3%; P<0.0001. From fourteen states that collected information, the proportion of refractive error showed variability in different geographical areas of Mexico. CONCLUSION: Myopia is the most common refractive error in the population studied. This study provides the first data on refractive error in Mexico. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the Mexican population.

  4. 强效睫状肌麻痹剂环戊通能否替代阿托品%Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江涛

    2012-01-01

    For a long time,atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China,while internationally,cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic.In recent years,1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country.This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedoophthalmiaters.According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs,the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children.However,the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So,for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old,all esotropia children,Am children,and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry.In this article,we also discuss the medication dosage,medication method,possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.%阿托品眼膏长期以来都是中国儿童验光主流使用的睫状肌麻痹剂,而国际上则普遍使用环戊通滴眼液作为一线的睫状肌麻痹药物.近年来,国内引了进1%盐酸环戊通眼液,这种快速强效的睫状肌麻痹剂已被国内小儿眼科医师所关注.一系列国内外自身对照药物疗效研究证实,环戊通的睫状肌麻痹效果接近于阿托品,能广泛应用于中国儿童验光前的睫状肌麻痹.尽管如此,其药物疗效仍略逊于阿托品,故对于7岁以内的远视儿童、所有内斜视儿童、混合性散光儿童及短期内视力下降需要排除调节性近视的儿童,验光前仍应常规使用阿托品眼膏行睫状肌麻痹.本文同时对环戊通眼液的用药剂量、用药方法、可

  5. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

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    Jorge J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber depth (ACD with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively.Methods: CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry.Results: CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 µm and 541 ± 35 µm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 µm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 µm. ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm. When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm.Conclusion: CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably.Keywords: Scheimpflug corneal tomography, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound pachymetry, limits of agreement

  6. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

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    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists.Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes.Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  7. In vitro release of two anti-muscarinic drugs from soft contact lenses

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    Hui A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alex Hui,1 Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak,2 Chau-Minh Phan,3 Lyndon Jones3 1School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Mechanics, Material Science and Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Centre for Contact Lens Research, School of Optometry & Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of the anti-myopia drugs atropine sulfate and pirenzepine dihydrochloride from commercially available soft contact lenses. Standard ultraviolet (UV absorbance–concentration curves were generated for atropine and pirenzepine. Ten commercially available contact lenses, including four multifocal lenses, were loaded by soaking in atropine or pirenzepine solutions at two different concentrations (10 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. The release of the drugs into phosphate-buffered saline was determined over the course of 24 hours at 34°C using UV absorbance. Materials with surface charge released the greatest amount of atropine when loaded with either concentration when compared to the other lens types (p<0.05, releasing upward of 1.026±0.035 mg/lens and 0.979±0.024 mg/lens from etafilcon A and ocufilcon A, respectively. There were no significant differences in the amount of atropine or pirenzepine released from the multifocal and non-multifocal lenses made from the same lens materials. Narafilcon A material demonstrated prolonged release of up to 8 hours when loaded with pirenzepine, although the overall dose delivered from the lens into the solution was among the lowest of the materials investigated. The rest of the lenses reached a plateau within 2 hours of release, suggesting that they were unable to sustain drug release into the solution for long periods of time. Given that no single method of myopia control has yet shown itself to be completely effective in preventing myopia progression, a combination of

  8. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  9. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

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    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  10. “梦戴维”角膜塑形镜矫治青少年轻中度近视的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凌莉; 余铮; 宋晏平

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过观察“梦戴维”高透氧夜戴型硬性角膜塑形镜的临床应用情况,评价“梦戴维”角膜塑形镜矫治青少年轻中度近视临床使用的安全性、有效性,同时分析其相关因素。方法:选择我院眼科门诊的12~18周岁轻中度近视眼青少年73例143眼,按照我院角膜塑形镜验配流程规范验配,均配戴夜戴镜片,随访1年,观察其疗效、并发症及配戴者主观症状。结果:配戴1年后配戴者主观症状基本良好;1年后裸眼视力、屈光度、角膜地形图(K值)与配戴前比较差异统计上均有显著性(P0.05)。结论:“梦戴维”角膜塑形镜矫治青少年轻中度近视是安全有效的,但必须进行规范的验配并且长期配戴必须严密观察及随诊,以确保长期治疗的安全性和有效性。%Aim To observe the clinical effects of rigid gas permeable contact lens for overnight orthokeratology, evaluate the safety and effectivity of orthkeratology in pre-adolescent myopes, and analyze relevant factors.MethodsSeventy-three pre-adolescent myopes(143 eyes ,aging from 12 to 18 years old) were follwed up for one year. All patient wore night orthokertology lens afer standard optometry for spectacles. The therapeutic effect and complications, subjective feeling were observed.Results All patients after one year wearing felt favorable. Uncorrected visual acuity was improved after one year, Diopters and K value were lower than past. The difference was significant(P0.05).Conclusion Orthokeratology lens are safe and effective for treating mild and middle myopia of teenager’s. But must be standard optometry for spectacles and the further study is needed to ensure the safety and effectivity for long wearing.

  11. The status of refractive errors in elementary school children in South Jeolla Province, South Korea

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    Jang JU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jung Un Jang,1 Inn-Jee Park2 1Department of Optometry, Eulji University, Seongnam, 2Department of Optometry, Kaya University, Gimhae, South Korea Purpose: To assess the prevalence of refractive errors among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea. Methods: The subjects were aged 8–13 years; a total of 1,079 elementary school children from Mokpo, South Jeolla Province, were included. In all participants, uncorrected visual acuity and objective and subjective refractions were determined using auto Ref-Keratometer and phoropter. A spherical equivalent of -0.50 diopter (D or worse was defined as myopia, +0.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Results: Out of 1,079 elementary school children, the prevalence of uncorrected, best-corrected, and corrected visual acuity with own spectacles of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 26.1%, 0.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in the better eye in 5.7% of school children, and 5.2% of them already wore corrective spectacles. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.56–49.5, 6.2% (95% CI: 4.92–7.81, and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.76–11.25, respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals a considerably higher prevalence of refractive error among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea, exceeding 50% of subjects. The prevalence of myopia in the school children in Korea is similar to many other countries including People’s Republic of China, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. This may indicate that genetics and educational influences, such as studying and learning, may play a role in the progression of myopia in Korean elementary school children. Keywords: refractive error, elementary school children, visual acuity, myopia, astigmatism

  12. Effectiveness of in-office blood pressure measurement by eye care practitioners in early detection and management of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saud; A.Al; Anazi; Uchechukwu; L.Osuagwu; Turki; M.Al; Mubrad; Hany; K.Ahmed; Kelechi; C.Ogbuehi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of hypertensive patients, the optometrist is able to identify by routinely taking blood pressure(BP) measurements for patients in "at-risk" groups, and to sample patients’ opinions regarding in-office BP measurement. Many of the optometrists in Saudi Arabia practice in optical stores.These stores are wide spread, easily accessible and seldom need appointments. The expanding role of the optometrist as a primary health care provider(PHCP) and the increasing global prevalence of hypertension,highlight the need for an integrated approach towards detecting and monitoring hypertension.METHODS: Automated BP measurements were made twice(during the same session) at five selected optometry practices using a validated BP monitor(Omron M6) to assess the number of patients with high BP(HBP)- in at-risk groups-visiting the eye clinic routinely. Prior to data collection, practitioners underwent a two-day training workshop by a cardiologist on hypertension and how to obtain accurate BP readings. A protocol for BP measurement was distributed and retained in all participating clinics. The general,,.,attitude towards cardiovascular health of 480 patients aged 37.2(±12.4)y and their opinion towards in-office BP measurement was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire.RESULTS: A response rate of 83.6% was obtained for the survey. Ninety-three of the 443 patients(21.0%)tested for BP in this study had HBP. Of these,(62subjects) 67.7% were unaware of their HBP status. Thirty of the 105 subjects(28.6%) who had previously been diagnosed with HBP, still had HBP at the time of this study, and only 22(73.3%) of these patients were on medication. Also, only 25% of the diagnosed hypertensive patients owned a BP monitor.CONCLUSION: Taking BP measurements in optometry practices, we were able to identify one previously undiagnosed patient with HBP for every 8 adults tested.We also identified 30 of 105 previously diagnosed patients whose BP was poorly

  13. Relevant Factors of Estrogen Changes of Myopia in Adolescent Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan-Fen Gong; Hong-Li Xie; Xin-Jie Mao; Xue-Bo Zhu; Zuo-Kai Xie; Hai-Hong Yang; Yang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Gender is one of the risk factors accounting for the high prevalence of adolescent myopia.Considerable research results have shown that myopia incidence of female is higher than that of male.This study aimed to analyze the correlation between ocular parameters and serum estrogen level and to investigate the vision changes along with estrogen change in menstrual cycle of adolescent females.Methods:A total of 120 young females aged between 15 and 16 years,diagnosed with myopia were recruited.Spherical lens,cylindrical lens,axis,interpupillary distance (IPD),and vision in each tested eye of the same subject were measured by automatic optometry and comprehensive optometry,with repetition of all measurements in the menstrual cycle of the 2nd or 3rd days,14th days,and 282 days,respectively.Serum estradiol (E2) levels were assayed by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the same three times points of the menstrual cycle mentioned above.Results:In young females with myopia,the spherical lens showed a statistically significant difference among all different time in menstrual cycle (all P < 0.0001).The cylindrical lens,axis,and IPD were changed significantly during the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05).The vision of the three different time points in menstrual cycle had a significant difference (x2 =6.35,P =0.042).The vision during the 14th and 28th day was higher compared to that on the 2nd or 3rd days (P =0.021).Serum E2 levels were significantly different at different time points in menstrual cycle (P < 0.05).E2 levels reached its maximum value on the 142 day and the minimum value on the 2nd or 3rd day.Conclusions:In adolescent females,the spherical lens and other related ocular parameters vary sensitively with different levels of E2 in menstrual cycle.Vision in late menstrual stage is significantly higher than that in premenstrual stage.

  14. Contenidos teóricos de las materias generales y especializadas en los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud Theoretic contents of general and specialized subjects in core curricula of health sciences professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Arias Navalón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar cuantitativamente los contenidos teóricos, generales y especializados, de los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España. A partir de esos datos se harán algunas recomendaciones y se destacarán aspectos que podrían necesitar modificaciones. Diseño: Revisión sistemática. Emplazamiento y material de estudio: Planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España: Enfermería, Fisioterapia, Logopedia, Nutrición humana y dietética, Óptica y optometría, Podología y Terapia ocupacional. Mediciones: Número de horas teóricas dedicadas a materias troncales, detallando su carácter general o especializado. Resultados y conclusiones: En conjunto, los contenidos especializados y generales suponen, respectivamente, el 66,7 y el 33,3%. La mayoría de las carreras tienen más horas asignadas a materias especializadas. Los resultados oscilan entre la ausencia de materias troncales generales en las carreras de Óptica y optometría y de Logopedia y el 71,4% de carga lectiva de carácter general en la carrera de Terapia ocupacional. La carencia de conocimientos generales sobre la salud y la enfermedad puede tener consecuencias negativas en la práctica diaria y en las expectativas que tienen para hacer investigación los profesionales implicados.Objective: To assess general and specialized theoretic contents of core curricula of health professions in Spain, in order to make some recommendations to improve these curricula and to highlight some areas needing further modifications. Design: Systematic revision. Setting and study selection: Core curricula of health professions in Spain: Nursing, Physical therapy, Speech-language pathology, Nutrition and dietetics, Optometry, Podiatry and Occupational therapy. Measurements: Number of theoretic hours devoted to both general and specialized subjects. Results and conclusions: Overall, specialized and general contents are 66.7% and 33

  15. Human resources for refraction services in Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Himal; Murthy, G V S; Bascaran, Covadonga

    2015-07-01

    refraction services in the Central Region and in Nepal as a whole. The equitable distribution of the refractionists, their community-outreach services and awareness raising activities should be emphasised. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  16. The Power of Color: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Esposito, OD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of colored light, filters, and therapeutic tinting dates back to the early years of optometry. It has been used by optometrists and other professionals throughout history for a variety of different reasons, including photophobia, near point stress, migraines, and dyslexia. Case Series: A series of cases are presented where color is used to help patients resolve their visual disturbances. The patients who were identified are those suffering from photophobia, reading difficulties, and visual changes related to a vestibular condition. The colors are chosen using the Intuitive Colorimeter. This instrument is used to investigate the possible preferences for a specific color to reduce the patient’s symptomatology. This is done logically and sequentially to explore color space in order to find the optimal precision tint for the relief of perceptual distortions. Discussion: Tinting contact lenses and/or glasses for therapeutic reasons can be time consuming but can be a rewarding experience for both the clinician and the patient.

  17. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Mehrotra, Ateev; Chari, Ramya

    2013-11-09

    The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for "medical malls". Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities.We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and "one stop shopping" for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth.

  18. Ophthalmology and vision science research. Part 1: Understanding and using journal impact factors and citation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Victoria A; McGhee, Charles N J

    2005-10-01

    In an increasingly "publish or perish" clinical and academic environment, all clinicians and clinician-scientists involved in research must have a firm understanding of the measures commonly used to assess the quality of scientific journals and, by default, those extended to grade individual articles and authors. The publication of research is a vital part of clinical and experimental research, and citation analyses of research publications have increasingly been adopted as a means of assessing the apparent quality of journals and the research published therein. In the first of a series of articles for those embarking on ophthalmic and vision science research, this paper discusses the key features of citation analysis, concentrating on the 2004 Journal Citation Report figures for the field of ophthalmology that include 42 ophthalmology, vision science, physiological optics, and optometry journals. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) calculates a number of parameters including citation counts, Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Immediacy Index, and cited/citing half-life. This article discusses the methods of calculation and possible uses along with current controversies and potential abuses. The JIF and its relevance, potential bias, and limitations are discussed in depth as it has become the most widely used analysis of journal quality. The possible alternatives to ISI citation analysis are presented, and we conclude that citation analysis can be considered a reasonable measure of journal research quality only if used correctly.

  19. Refractive ocular conditions and reasons for spectacles renewal in a resource-limited economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunso Francisca N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a leading cause of visual impairment and a treatable cause of blindness globally, the pattern of refractive errors in many populations is unknown. This study determined the pattern of refractive ocular conditions, reasons for spectacles renewal and the effect of correction on refractive errors in a resource-limited community. Methods A retrospective review of case records of 1,413 consecutive patients seen in a private optometry practice, Nigeria between January 2006 and July 2007. Results A total number of 1,216 (86.1% patients comprising of (486, 40% males and (730, 60% females with a mean age of 41.02 years SD 14.19 were analyzed. The age distribution peaked at peri-adolescent and the middle age years. The main ocular complaints were spectacles loss and discomfort (412, 33.9%, blurred near vision (399, 32.8% and asthenopia (255, 20.9%. The mean duration of ocular symptoms before consultation was 2.05 years SD 1.92. The most common refractive errors include presbyopia (431, 35.3%, hyperopic astigmatism (240, 19.7% and presbyopia with hyperopia (276, 22.7%. Only (59, 4.9% had myopia. Following correction, there were reductions in magnitudes of the blind (VA Conclusions Adequate correction of refractive errors reduces visual impairment and avoidable blindness and to achieve optimal control of refractive errors in the community, services should be targeted at individuals in the peri-adolescent and the middle age years.

  20. Visual tracing of diffusion and biodistribution for amphiphilic cationic nanoparticles using photoacoustic imaging after ex vivo intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu X

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xu Xu,* Zhaokang Xu,* Junyi Liu, Zhaoliang Zhang, Hao Chen, Xingyi Li, Shuai Shi Institute of Biomedical Engineering, School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To visually trace the diffusion and biodistribution of amphiphilic cation micelles after vitreous injection, various triblock copolymers of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol–poly(ε-caprolactone–polyethylenimine were synthesized with different structures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments, followed by labeling with near-infrared fluorescent dye Cyanine5 or Cyanine7. The micellar size, polydispersity index, and surface charge were measured by dynamic light scattering. The diffusion was monitored using photoacoustic imaging in real time after intravitreal injections. Moreover, the labeled nanoparticle distribution in the posterior segment of the eye was imaged histologically by confocal microscopy. The results showed that the hydrophilic segment increased vitreous diffusion, while a positive charge on the particle surface hindered diffusion. In addition, the particles diffused through the retinal layers and were enriched in the retinal pigment epithelial layer. This work tried to study the diffusion rate via a simple method by using visible images, and then provided basic data for the development of intraocular drug carriers. Keywords: visible tracing, cavum vitreum, biodistribution, diffusion rate

  1. Refraction during incipient presbyopia: The Aston Longitudinal Assessment of Presbyopia (ALAP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughton, Deborah S; Sheppard, Amy L; Davies, Leon N

    2017-06-06

    To investigate non-cycloplegic changes in refractive error prior to the onset of presbyopia. The Aston Longitudinal Assessment of Presbyopia (ALAP) study is a prospective 2.5 year longitudinal study, measuring objective refractive error using a binocular open-field WAM-5500 autorefractor at 6-month intervals in participants aged between 33 and 45 years. From the 58 participants recruited, 51 participants (88%) completed the final visit. At baseline, 21 participants were myopic (MSE -3.25±2.28 DS; baseline age 38.6±3.1 years) and 30 were emmetropic (MSE -0.17±0.32 DS; baseline age 39.0±2.9 years). After 2.5 years, 10% of the myopic group experienced a hypermetropic shift (≥0.50 D), 5% a myopic shift (≥0.50 D) and 85% had no significant change in refraction (refraction (refraction during incipient presbyopia does not appear to be as large as previously indicated by retrospective research. The changes in axis indicate ocular astigmatism tends towards the against-the-rule direction with age. The structural origin(s) of the reported myopic shift in refraction during incipient presbyopia warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the auto-refraction function of the Nidek OPD-Scan III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnigle, Samantha; Naroo, Shehzad A; Eperjesi, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the validity and repeatability of the auto-refraction function of the Nidek OPD-Scan III (Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) compared with non-cycloplegic subjective refraction. The Nidek OPD-Scan III is a new aberrometer/corneal topographer workstation based on the skiascopy principle. It combines a wavefront aberrometer, topographer, autorefractor, auto keratometer and pupillometer/pupillographer. Objective refraction results obtained using the Nidek OPD-Scan III were compared with non-cycloplegic subjective refraction for 108 eyes of 54 participants (29 female) with a mean age of 23.7 ± 9.5 years. Intra-session and inter-session variability were assessed on 14 subjects (28 eyes). The Nidek OPD-Scan III gave slightly more negative readings than results obtained by subjective refraction (Nidek mean difference -0.19 ± 0.36 DS, p refraction. There was high intra-session and inter-session repeatability for all parameters; 90 per cent of inter-session repeatability results were within 0.25 D. The Nidek OPD-Scan III gives valid and repeatable measures of objective refraction when compared with non-cycloplegic subjective refraction. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  3. 青少年近视眼雾视配镜法的临床观察%Clinical Observation of the Method of Matching the Lens of Fog forJuvenile Possessing Nearsightedness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 徐艳春; 阚丹; 范春雷; 张福生; 高照亮

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察低度雾视配镜法的准确性、实用性.方法 眼视光门诊就诊91例(182只眼)青少年近视患者,男46例,女45例,年龄8~18岁,平均(12.82+0.51)岁,屈光度-0.50D~4.00D,均值(-2.18±0.14)D,裸眼视力(0.41±0.03).电脑验光后先戴比实际度数低1.00~2.00D的镜片,试戴30min后,检查视力.达不到1.0者再适当增加凹透镜度数、调整散光度数及散光轴使视力达到1.0,记录矫正度数.当日对低度雾视验光矫正试镜后患者用美多丽-P散瞳,每5min滴药一次,共6次,最后一次滴药40min后再次电脑验光,并插片矫正使视力达1.0.结果 美多丽-P散瞳前平均屈光度(-2.18±0.14)D,散瞳后平均屈光度(-1.94±0.14)D,二者配对t检验差异有显著意义(t-6.982;P<0.001).美多丽-P散瞳配镜平均度数(-1.69±0.131)D,低度雾视配镜平均度数(-1.694±0.14)D.二者配对t检验差异无统计学意义(t-0.453;P>0.05).结论 低度雾视配镜法与美多丽-P散瞳后配镜法等效球镜值差异无统计学意义.不同性别及年龄组患者分别用这两种方法配镜等效球镜差异无显著性.青少年近视眼雾视配镜法是科学、准确、实用、方便的验光配镜方法.对于8岁以上疑似近视眼的青少年可以用雾视配镜法代替美多丽-P快速散瞳配镜法.%Objective To observe the accuracy and the practicability of the low-degree matching fog lens in myopia.Methods Ninety-one eases(182 eyes,46 males and 45 females)of juvenile myopia in the ophthalmology and optometry clinic were included in this study.Aged 8-18 years old,the average was(12.82 ±0.51)years old.The diopter was between-0.50D and-4.00D,the average was(-2.24±0.15)D,and the average uncorrected visual acuity was(0.41±0.03).First,the patients wear the lenses of 1.00D~2.00D lower than the actual diopter according to the computer optometry examination.Second,cheek the eyesight after of wearing the glasses 30 minutes.Last,for those whose eyesight was

  4. Ophthalmic findings in a family with early-onset isolated ectopia lentis and the p.Arg62Cys mutation of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Hong; Jin, Tian-Bo; Liu, Qing-Bo; Chen, Chao; Hu, Hai-Tao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe ophthalmic findings in a family with isolated ectopia lentis (EL) caused by a specific FBN1 mutation. Detailed family histories and clinical data were recorded for six isolated EL patients of 11 family members. The ophthalmological and systematic examinations were performed on patients and unaffected members of the investigated family. The detailed ocular examinations included visual acuity, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, lens location, optometry, central corneal thickness, keratometry, slitlamp examination, fundus examination, axial length, ocular B-ultrasound, gonioscope checking, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and intraocular pressure (IOP; Goldmann applanation tonometer). Systematic examinations included the measurement of echocardiogram, height, arm span, skull, face, jaw, tooth, breast bone, spinal column, and skin. Genomic DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform extraction method for all subjects, and sequencing was carried out on an ABI Prism 3730 Genetic Analyzer. A heterozygous mutation, c.184C>T (p.Arg62Cys) in exon 2 of FBN1 was identified in all affected members but was not found in any unaffected member of the family. Our study presented detailed clinical manifestations, including some novel ophthalmic findings, such as pupillary abnormality, different types of glaucoma, and progressive hyperopia. Ophthalmic findings and the p.Arg62Cys mutation of FBN1 gene were reported in a family with early-onset isolated ectopia lentis.

  5. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David

    2013-09-01

    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  6. Electronic Referrals and Digital Imaging Systems in Ophthalmology: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Hall, H Nikki; Sanders, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmology departments face intensifying pressure to expedite sight-saving treatments and reduce the global burden of disease. The use of electronic communication systems, digital imaging, and redesigned service care models is imperative for addressing such demands. The recently developed Scottish Eyecare Integration Project involves an electronic referral system from community optometry to the hospital ophthalmology department using National Health Service (NHS) email with digital ophthalmic images attached, via a virtual private network connection. The benefits over the previous system include reduced waiting times, improved triage, e-diagnosis in 20% without the need for hospital attendance, and rapid electronic feedback to referrers. We draw on the experience of the Scottish Eyecare Integration Project and discuss the global applications of this and other advances in teleophthalmology. We focus particularly on the implications for management and screening of chronic disease, such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, and ophthalmic disease, such as retinopathy of prematurity where diagnosis is almost entirely and critically dependent on fundus appearance. Currently in Scotland, approximately 75% of all referrals are electronic from community to hospital. The Scottish Eyecare Integration Project is globally the first of its kind and unique in a national health service. Such speedy, safe, and efficient models of communication are geographically sensitive to service provision, especially in remote and rural regions. Along with advances in teleophthalmology, such systems promote the earlier detection of sight-threatening disease and safe follow-up of non-sight-threatening disease in the community.

  7. Does the treatment of amblyopia normalise subfoveal choroidal thickness in amblyopic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Veysi; Bulut, Asker

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have found a choroidal thickening in amblyopic eyes and suggested that there might be a relationship between the choroid and amblyopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of a six-month treatment of amblyopia on choroidal thickness in anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic children. Thirty-two anisometropic hyperopic children with unilateral amblyopia were included in this prospective study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured as the distance between the retinal pigment epithelium and the chorioscleral edge, by using spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. The treatment of amblyopia was performed based on the full correction of the refractive error with eyeglasses, a refractive adaptation phase and occlusion by patching the fellow eye. The mean visual acuity of the amblyopic eyes significantly increased from 0.35 ± 0.3 to 0.16 ± 0.2 logMAR after the treatment (p amblyopia increased the visual acuity of the anisometropic hyperopic amblyopic eyes, it could not significantly change choroidal thickness. Our results were in accordance with the conventional explanation, which suggests visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus abnormalities in the pathophysiology of amblyopia. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  8. Epidemiological survey of school-age children with low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Xin Yang,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To have a detailed picture of school-age children's eyesight status, and the main factors that caused their low vision in Zhouqu County of Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Gansu province. METHODS: The census work of knowing school-age children's eyesight status was implemented through visual inspection, conventional ophthalmic examination, optometry checks, etc. The results were compared with other domestic epidemiological data. RESULTS: Altogether 536 people with low vision were identified through survey and the rate was 21.12%. Among those people, the number of myopia patients accounted for 80.59% and the prevalence rate was 17.02%. Besides, the prevalence rate of presbyopia was 2.05%, amblyopia 2.76%, strabismus 1.02%, ocular trauma 0.95%, and congenital eye disease 0.71%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of low vision was related with several factors such as gender and nationality. The rate increases with age and the myopia is the primary element that causes low vision.

  9. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  10. Early interventions to prevent retinal vasculopathy in diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease

  11. The intelligent anatomy spotter: A new approach to incorporate higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L

    2016-10-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of Manchester study the functional anatomy of the eye in the first semester of their first year. Included in the assessment of this unit is a spotter examination worth 45% of the total unit mark. Due to the factors listed above, a new spotter format was designed. Students had to answer three questions per specimen where the answers to the questions were the labeled structures themselves (A, B, C, or D). They had to work out the answer to the question and then work out which of the labeled structures was the correct structure, negating the "cueing effect" of standard multiple choice questions. Examination results were analyzed over a six-year period (control groups 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011; treatment groups 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014). There were no significant differences between marks obtained for the new spotter format when compared with the traditional format. The new format spotter tested comprehension rather than just knowledge, and facilitated marking because subjectiveness was erased, and less time was spent determining whether an answer was correct or not. Anat Sci Educ 9: 440-445. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Helping patients with diabetes: resources from the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Philip T

    2012-01-01

    To familiarize pharmacists with the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) and to demonstrate the value of NDEP materials in the care of patients with diabetes. The NDEP website (www.ndep.nih.gov) and PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). NDEP is a collaboration between the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many organization partners. Since 1997, a large number of materials have been created by NDEP using an evidence-based, expert- and patient-reviewed approach to development. Materials are nonbranded and reflect current medical knowledge and practice. Educational materials are available for persons at risk for diabetes, those with diabetes, family members of persons with diabetes, employers, and professionals. The Pharmacy, Podiatry, Optometry, and Dentistry (PPOD) workgroup of NDEP promotes the value of pharmacists and other professionals in diabetes education and management. Resources are available to educate about the value of the PPOD professionals. NDEP provides evidence-based, high-quality educational materials that pharmacists will find useful in the counseling of persons with diabetes.

  13. Yves Le Grand on matrices in optics with application to vision: Translation and critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Frith Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An appendix to Le Grand’s 1945 book, Optique Physiologique: Tome Premier: La Dioptrique de l’Œil et Sa Correction, briefly dealt with the application of matrices in optics.  However the appendix was omitted from the well-known English translation, Physiological Optics, which appeared in 1980.  Consequently the material is all but forgotten.  This is unfortunate in view of the importance of the dioptric power matrix and the ray transference which entered the optometricliterature many years later.  Motivated by the perception that there has not been enough care in optometry to attribute concepts appropriately this paper attempts a careful analysis of Le Grand’s thinking as reflected in his appendix.  A translation into English is provided in the appendix to this paper.  The paper opens with a summary of the basics of Gaussian and linear optics sufficient for the interpretation of Le Grand’s appendix which follows.  The paper looks more particularly at what Le Grand says in relation to the transference and the dioptric power matrix though many other issues are also touched on including the conditions under which distant objects will map to clear images on the retina and, more particularly, to clear images that are undistorted.  Detailed annotations of Le Grand’s translated appendix are provided. (S Afr Optom 2013 72(4 145-166

  14. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  15. Diagnosis and management of blepharitis: an optometrist’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnam CM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Putnam College of Optometry, Adjunct Faculty, University of Missouri-St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Blepharitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margin and is a common cause of discomfort and irritation among people of all ages, ethnicity, and sex. In general, blepharitis is not a sight-threatening condition, but if left untreated has the potential to cause keratopathy, corneal neovascularization and ulceration, and permanent alterations in eyelid morphology. Historically, blepharitis has been categorized according to multiple structural classifications, including anatomic location, duration, and etiology. The substantial overlap of symptoms and signs from the differing structural classifications has led to initial misdiagnoses, clinical underreporting, and variability in treatment of blepharitis. The multifactorial nature is still not fully appreciated but infection and inflammation have been identified as the primary contributors. Ongoing clinical research continues the pursuit for a treatment panacea; however, long-term management of the underlying causes of blepharitis remains the best clinical approach. Here, we will attempt to review the existing literature as it pertains to clinical management of blepharitis and address a stepwise approach to diagnosis, treatment, and management. Keywords: blepharitis, categorization, seborrhea, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye syndrome

  16. Screening for High Blood Pressure in Adults During Ambulatory Nonprimary Care Visits: Opportunities to Improve Hypertension Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Joel; Mohan, Yasmina; Kanter, Michael H; Reynolds, Kristi; Li, Xia; Nguyen, Miki; Young, Deborah R; Koebnick, Corinna

    2015-06-01

    Visits with nonprimary care providers such as optometrists may be missed opportunities for the detection of high blood pressure (BP). For this study, normotensive adults with at least 12 months of health plan membership on January 1, 2009 (n=1,075,522) were followed-up for high BP through March 14, 2011. Of 111,996 patients with a BP measurement ≥140/90 mm Hg, 82.7% were measured during primary care visits and 17.3% during nonprimary care visits. Individuals with a BP ≥140/90 mm Hg measured during nonprimary care visits were older and more likely to be male and non-Hispanic white. The proportion of patients with follow-up and false-positives were comparable between primary and nonprimary care. The main nonprimary care specialty to identify a first BP ≥140/90 mm Hg was ophthalmology/optometry with 24.5% of all patients. Results suggest that expanding screening for hypertension to nonprimary care settings may improve the detection of hypertension.

  17. Scleral lens for keratoconus: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi VM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Varsha M Rathi,1 Preeji S Mandathara,2 Mukesh Taneja,1 Srikanth Dumpati,1 Virender S Sangwan1 1L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; 2School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia Abstract: Scleral lenses are large diameter lenses which rest over the sclera, unlike the conventional contact lenses which rest on the cornea. These lenses are fitted to not touch the cornea and there is a space created between the cornea and the lens. These lenses are inserted in the eyes after filling with sterile isotonic fluid. Generally, scleral contact lenses are used for high irregular astigmatism as seen in various corneal ectatic diseases such as keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, or/and as liquid bandage in ocular surface disorders. In this article, we review the new developments, that have taken place over the years, in the field of scleral contact lenses as regard to new designs, materials, manufacturing technologies, and fitting strategies particularly for keratoconus. Keywords: keratoconus, scleral lens, technology update, PROSE

  18. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neera; Ciuffreda, Kenneth Joseph

    2017-07-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training. For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.

  19. Should we add visual acuity ratios to referral criteria for potential cerebral visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Ymie J; Stiers, Peter; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    To determine whether the assessment of visual acuity ratios might improve the referral of children with (sub)normal visual acuity but at risk of cerebral visual impairment. In an exploratory study, we assessed visual acuity, crowding ratio and the ratios between grating acuity (Teller Acuity Cards-II) and optotype acuity (Cambridge Crowding Cards) in 60 typically developing school children (mean age 5y8m±1y1m), 21 children with ocular abnormalities only (5y7m±1y9m) and 26 children with (suspected) brain damage (5y7m±1y11m). Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for targets and controls from the perspective of different groups of diagnosticians: youth health care professionals (target: children with any visual abnormalities), ophthalmologists and low vision experts (target: children at risk of cerebral visual impairment). For youth health care professionals subnormal visual acuity had the best sensitivity (76%) and specificity (70%). For ophthalmologists and low vision experts the crowding ratio had the best sensitivity (67%) and specificity (79 and 86%). Youth health care professionals best continue applying subnormal visual acuity for screening, whereas ophthalmologists and low vision experts best add the crowding ratio to their routine diagnostics, to distinguish children at risk of visual impairment in the context of brain damage from children with ocular pathology only. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Customized photorefractive keratectomy to correct high ametropia after penetrating keratoplasty: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Boccia, Rosa; Santamaria, Carmine; Fabbozzi, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Luigi; Lanza, Michele

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate preliminarily the safety and efficacy of customized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) to correct ametropia and irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). This pilot study included five eyes of five patients with a mean spherical equivalent of -5.1±1.46D (range from -2.75 to -6.50D). In all cases, ametropia and irregular astigmatism was corrected with topography-guided customized PRK. Ocular examinations with topographic analysis were performed preoperatively as well as at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. All eyes gained postoperatively at least three Snellen lines of uncorrected visual acuity. Mean refractive spherical equivalent was 0.62±0.63D (range from -0.25 to -1.75D) at 6 months postoperatively. Our pilot study suggests that customized PRK can be a safe and effective method for treating ametropia and irregular astigmatisms after PK. Future studies with larger samples and longer follow-ups should be performed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Matlab GUI educational software to assist a laboratory of physical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; García, Celia; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2014-07-01

    Physical optics is one of the subjects in the Grade of Optics and Optometry in Spanish universities. The students who come to this degree often have difficulties to understand subjects that are related to physics. For this reason, the aim of this work is to develop optics simulation software that provides a virtual laboratory for studying the effects of different aspects of physical optics phenomena. This software can let optical undergraduates simulate many optical systems for a better understanding of the practical competences associated with the theoretical concepts studied in class. This interactive environment unifies the information that brings the manual of the practices, provides the visualization of the physical phenomena and allows users to vary the values of the parameters that come into play to check its effect. So, this virtual tool is the perfect complement to learning more about the practices developed in the laboratory. This software will be developed through the choices which have the Matlab to generate Graphical User Interfaces or GUIs. A set of knobs, buttons and handles will be included in the GUI's in order to control the parameters of the different physics phenomena. Graphics can also be inserted in the GUIs to show the behavior of such phenomena. Specifically, by using this software, the student is able to analyze the behaviour of the transmittance and reflectance of the TE and TM modes, the polarized light through of the Malus'Law or degree of polarization.

  2. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  3. Perceptions and understanding of genetics and genetic eye disease and attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy in a primary eye care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, Pratyusha; Garrioch, Robert; Votruba, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Genetic eye pathology represents a significant percentage of the causes of blindness in industrialized countries. This study explores the level of understanding and perceptions of genetics and inherited eye diseases and the attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The study was conducted in two parts. Participant groups included were: undergraduate students of optometry, primary eye care professionals and members of the general public. A preliminary study aimed to understand perceptions and to explore the level of knowledge about genetics in general, eye genetics and gene therapy. A second survey was designed to explore attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The majority of participants (82%) perceived genetics as an important science. However, none of them showed a high level of understanding of genetics and inherited eye diseases. Undergraduate students and primary eye care professionals were better informed about inherited eye diseases than the general public (p = 0.001). The majority (80%) across all three groups had a positive attitude to genetic testing and gene therapy. There was a lack of knowledge about the genetic services available among all groups of participants. This calls for serious thinking about the level of dissemination of information about genetics and inherited eye diseases. It shows a broadly supportive attitude to genomic medicine among the public. Improving public awareness and education in inherited eye diseases can improve the utility of genetic testing and therapy.

  4. Electro-optic control of photographic imaging quality through ‘Smart Glass’ windows in optics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Paulins, Paulis

    2017-09-01

    An experimental setup allowing the modeling of conditions in optical devices and in the eye at various degrees of scattering such as cataract pathology in human eyes is presented. The scattering in cells of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) and ‘Smart Glass’ windows is used in the modeling experiments. Both applications are used as optical obstacles placed in different positions of the optical information flow pathway either directly on the stimuli demonstration computer screen or mounted directly after the image-formation lens of a digital camera. The degree of scattering is changed continuously by applying an AC voltage of up to 30-80 V to the PDLC cell. The setup uses a camera with 14 bit depth and a 24 mm focal length lens. Light-emitting diodes and diode-pumped solid-state lasers emitting radiation of different wavelengths are used as portable small-divergence light sources in the experiments. Image formation, optical system point spread function, modulation transfer functions, and system resolution limits are determined for such sample optical systems in student optics and optometry experimental exercises.

  5. Concomitant multiple myeloma spectrum diagnosis in a central retinal vein occlusion: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma-cell disorder resulting from malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It can cause a hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to the paraproteinaemia associated with the disease. The increased hyperviscosity can lead to retinal vein occlusions and other ocular problems that may challenge clinicians. In patients with multiple myeloma and hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, retinal changes appear similar and changes due to one disease or the other may be difficult to determine. A 48-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a complaint of blurry vision in her left eye. A full comprehensive ocular examination revealed a central retinal vein occlusion presumably from the patient's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. Further bloodwork revealed monoclonal protein in the patient's serum and an increased percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. She was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, part of the multiple myeloma disease spectrum. She was referred to a retinal specialist for initiation of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple myeloma has been implicated in younger patients as an underlying cause of retinal vein occlusions. Multiple myeloma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal vein occlusions, even if other risk factors for venous occlusion like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia are present. Timely referral to the patient's primary care physician and haematologist is important for appropriate treatment and control of underlying systemic conditions. © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  6. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory/University of California lighting program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, S.

    1981-12-01

    The objective of the Lighting Program is to assist and work in concert with the lighting community (composed of manufacturers, designers, and users) to achieve a more efficient lighting economy. To implement its objectives, the Lighting Program has been divided into three major categories: technical engineering, buildings applications, and human impacts (impacts on health and vision). The technical program aims to undertake research and development projects that are both long-range and high-risk and which the lighting industry has little interest in pursuing on its own, but from which significant benefits could accrue to both the public and the industry. The building applications program studies the effects that introducing daylighting in commercial buildings has on lighting and cooling electrical energy requirements as well as on peak demand. This program also examines optimization strategies for integrating energy-efficient design, lighting hardware, daylighting, and overall building energy requirements. The impacts program examines relationships between the user and the physical lighting environment, in particular how new energy-efficient technologies relate to human productivity and health. These efforts are interdisciplinary, involving engineering, optometry, and medicine. The program facilities are described and the personnel in the program is identified.

  7. Factors influencing accuracy of referral and the likelihood of false positive referral by optometrists in Bradford, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Christopher James; Scally, Andrew J; Green, Clare; Mitchell, Edwin S; Elliott, David B

    2016-01-01

    Levels of false positive referral to ophthalmology departments can be high. This study aimed to evaluate commonality between false positive referrals in order to find the factors which may influence referral accuracy. In 2007/08, a sample of 431 new Ophthalmology referrals from the catchment area of Bradford Royal Infirmary were retrospectively analysed. The proportion of false positive referrals generated by optometrists decreases with experience at a rate of 6.2% per year since registration (p<0.0001). Community services which involved further investigation done by the optometrist before directly referring to the hospital were 2.7 times less likely to refer false positively than other referral formats (p=0.007). Male optometrists were about half as likely to generate a false positive referral than females (OR=0.51, p=0.008) and as multiple/corporate practices in the Bradford area employ less experienced and more female staff, independent practices generate about half the number of false positive referrals (OR=0.52, p=0.005). Clinician experience has the greatest effect on referral accuracy although there is also a significant effect of gender with women tending to refer more false positives. This may be due to a different approach to patient care and possibly a greater sensitivity to litigation. The improved accuracy of community services (which often refer directly after further investigation) supports further growth of these schemes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Practice of “one week with one case” teaching method with college-enterprise cooperation in the theoretical classes of contact lens courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effects of “one week with one case” teaching method with college-enterprise cooperation in the theoretical classes of contact lens courses, which provide the basis for teaching reform. METHODS: Fifty-six students in optometry major of Grade 2012 from Xi'an Medical College were divided into 2 groups randomly. The experimental group of 28 students used “one week with one case” teaching method with college-enterprise cooperation; the control group of 28 people used traditional “one week with one case” teaching method. The examination scores and questionnaire were used to evaluate the teaching effects. RESULTS: The students of experimental group acquired higher test scores in short-answer questions and the case analysis questions compared with students of control group(PPPCONCLUSION:“One week with one case” teaching method with college-enterprise cooperation can improve comprehensive ability of students. It is an effective teaching method with the characteristics of the contact lens courses.

  9. Coordination of diabetic retinopathy screening in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Verity; Turner, Angus

    2017-04-01

    To determine the coverage provided by the Kimberley Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program and evaluate the impact of the Kimberley diabetic eye health coordinator (KDEHC) position using an evidence-based approach. Retrospective audit. Primary care services in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Individuals with diabetes mellitus who underwent screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2014. A KDEHC was engaged from February 2012 to provide coordination and support for the DR screening program. Coverage provided by the program for Indigenous Australians with diabetes, as measured against annual projected needs for diabetic eye examinations. Data were collected for 1247 screening episodes for 947 Indigenous Australian patients. Coverage provided by the program increased from 9.44% in 2010-2011 to 29.8% in 2013-2014 (P region. This may be explained by examinations provided by other services in the Kimberley region, namely visiting optometry services, but also highlights a large proportion of the population not undergoing screening. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Efficient numerical modeling of the cornea, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Navarro, Rafael M.; Hdez-Matamoros, J. L.

    2004-10-01

    Corneal topography has shown to be an essential tool in the ophthalmology clinic both in diagnosis and custom treatments (refractive surgery, keratoplastia), having also a strong potential in optometry. The post processing and analysis of corneal elevation, or local curvature data, is a necessary step to refine the data and also to extract relevant information for the clinician. In this context a parametric cornea model is proposed consisting of a surface described mathematically by two terms: one general ellipsoid corresponding to a regular base surface, expressed by a general quadric term located at an arbitrary position and free orientation in 3D space and a second term, described by a Zernike polynomial expansion, which accounts for irregularities and departures from the basic geometry. The model has been validated obtaining better adjustment of experimental data than other previous models. Among other potential applications, here we present the determination of the optical axis of the cornea by transforming the general quadric to its canonical form. This has permitted us to perform 3D registration of corneal topographical maps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Other basic and clinical applications are also explored.

  11. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Color vision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot visual evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Banaschewski, Tobias; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to manifest visual problems (including ophthalmological and color perception, particularly for blue-yellow stimuli), but findings are inconsistent. Accordingly, this study investigated visual function and color perception in adolescents with ADHD using color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which provides an objective measure of color perception. Thirty-one adolescents (aged 13-18), 16 with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD, and 15 healthy peers, matched for age, gender, and IQ participated in the study. All underwent an ophthalmological exam, as well as electrophysiological testing color Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP), which measured the latency and amplitude of the neural P1 response to chromatic (blue-yellow, red-green) and achromatic stimuli. No intergroup differences were found in the ophthalmological exam. However, significantly larger P1 amplitude was found for blue and yellow stimuli, but not red/green or achromatic stimuli, in the ADHD group (particularly in the medicated group) compared to controls. Larger amplitude in the P1 component for blue-yellow in the ADHD group compared to controls may account for the lack of difference in color perception tasks. We speculate that the larger amplitude for blue-yellow stimuli in early sensory processing (P1) might reflect a compensatory strategy for underlying problems including compromised retinal input of s-cones due to hypo-dopaminergic tone. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis: optometric management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harthan JS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Harthan,1 Dominick L Opitz,2 Stephanie R Fromstein,1 Christina E Morettin3 1Cornea Center for Clinical Experience, 2Ophthalmology Services and Practice Development, 3Urgent Eye Care Service, Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Anterior uveitis encompasses inflammation of the iris and/or ciliary body and is one of the most common types of ocular inflammation that primary eye care practitioners will encounter. Anterior uveitis may be caused by a variety of etiologies, including infectious, noninfectious, and masquerade diseases. The short-term and long-term treatment of uveitis should include the evaluation of location, duration, pathology, and laterality, in addition to presenting signs and symptoms of the disease. A complete review of systems, thorough examination, and laboratory testing, may assist the practitioner in narrowing the list of possible causes for the uveitis. This is imperative as once a list of diagnoses has been made, a targeted approach to treatment can be pursued. Keywords: anterior uveitis, iritis, inflammation

  14. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Achromatopsia: case presentation and literature review emphasising the value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao Xi; Rego, Robert E; Shechtman, Diana

    2014-11-01

    A literature review and case presentation are used to discuss the diagnostic value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the assessment and management of congenital achromatopsia. A 24-year-old Hispanic man presented to the clinic with a longstanding history of decreased vision and associated possible recent progression. A comprehensive eye examination and a battery of tests including SD-OCT, fundus photography, electroretinogram (ERG) and Farnsworth D-15 were completed. SD-OCT and photopic ERG confirmed the clinical diagnosis of congenital achromatopsia. There was the classic subfoveal flattened hyporeflective 'punched out' zone, resulting from an absence of inner segment/outer segment junction. SD-OCT findings associated with congenital achromatopsia have been documented recently, helping in the diagnosis of the condition. The SD-OCT findings have further expanded our knowledge of congenital achromatopsia, while also aiding in the management of the disease. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  16. Visual function among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Asare, Frederick Afum; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Awuah, Agnes; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To determine the relationship between some visual functions: colour vision defects, abnormal stereopsis, visual acuity and the occurrence of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana, and to assess their knowledge of these anomalies. A descriptive cross-sectional study employing a multi-stage random sampling approach was conducted in the major commercial towns within the central region of Ghana. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination after the administration of a structured questionnaire. 520 male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 39.23 years ±10.96 years and mean visual acuity of 0.02±0.08 logMAR. Protans were more likely to be involved in RTAs (χ(2)=6.194, p=0.034). However, there was no statistically significant association between abnormal stereopsis (OR=0.89 95% CI: 0.44-1.80, p=0.56), poor vision due to refractive error (χ(2)=3.090, p=0.388) and the occurrence of RTAs. While 86.9% were aware of abnormal stereopsis, only 45% were aware of colour vision defects. There was a statistically significant association between stereopsis anomaly and colour vision defect (r=0.371, pstereopsis anomalies, refractive errors and the occurrence of RTAs. Drivers were less knowledgeable on colour vision defects as compared to stereopsis anomalies. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R J; Edwards, Michael C; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R

    2016-08-01

    The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users' subjective experiences with contact lenses. The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties.

  18. New drugs for the treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridder III WH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available William H Ridder III, Apoorva Karsolia Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Dry eye disease (DED is one of the most commonly encountered conditions for eye care practitioners. The prevalence of DED can be as high as 30% of the population. In the past decade, only one drug has been approved for the treatment of DED by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in the USA (ie, Restasis® by Allergan, Inc.. The total annual cost (ie, treatment and lost productivity due to symptoms to the US economy of dry eye can be more than $55 billion. Thus, the development of new drug treatments for dry eye is important for both the dry eye patient and the ophthalmic industry. There are many drugs in development for the treatment of dry eye. This manuscript reviews the drugs listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website (FDA list of clinical trials being investigated for the treatment of dry eye. A large number of these drugs are designed to target a specific cause of dry eye and some of these drugs will be approved for clinical use in the next 10 years. This will result in a significant increase in the clinician’s choice of treatment and potentially better control of the dry eye patient's condition. Keywords: keratoconjunctivitis sicca, clinical trials, anti-inflammatory, secretagogues

  19. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  20. The effects of preterm birth on visual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Myra Ps; Thompson, Benjamin; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Alsweiler, Jane M

    2017-09-03

    Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care. However, routine screening may not detect other vision problems, such as reduced visual fields, impaired contrast sensitivity and deficits in cortical visual processing, that may occur in children born preterm. For example, visual functions associated with the dorsal visual processing stream, such as global motion perception and visuomotor integration, may be impaired by preterm birth. These impairments can continue into adolescence and adulthood and may contribute to the difficulties in learning (particularly reading and mathematics), attention, behaviour and cognition that some children born preterm experience. Improvements in understanding the mechanisms by which preterm birth affects vision will inform future screening and interventions for children born preterm. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  1. [What can be done and by who in Public Health? Professional competencies as a base for the design of University degrees curricula in the European Space for Higher Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó, Mari Carmen; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ronda, Elena; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To conform a frame of reference for the organization of the public health teaching in university degrees in Spain, in agreement with the directives of the European Space for Higher Education. Specific professional competencies in public health have been extracted from the Libros blancos published by the ANECA (National Agency of Quality Evaluation) for the degrees on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, veterinary, social work, occupational relations, teacher training, and environmental sciences. Following the framework proposed by the Working Group on professional competencies in public health in Spain, we have selected those competences that enable future professionals to participate in the development of the public health from their field of activity. We have also identified and correlated the specific competences of each degree with the corresponding activities and functions. All the studied degrees have competences in public health functions. The majority has also defined activities in community health analysis, design and implementation of health interventions and programmes, promotion of social participation and citizen's control of their own health. There is academic space for the multidisciplinary development of the public health in Spain beyond the health professions. The identification of the specific competencies of each degree related with activities on public health reveal what are the contents to be in included in each syllabus.

  2. Distribution of optometric practices relative to deprivation index in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Robin; Strang, Niall C; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-07-19

    The UK National Health Service aims to provide universal availability of healthcare, and eye-care availability was a primary driver in the development of the Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) model. Accordingly, a relatively equal distribution of optometry practices across socio-economic areas is required. We examined practice distribution relative to deprivation. 672 practices were sampled from nine Health Boards within Scotland. Practices were assigned a deprivation ranking by referencing their postcode with the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) tool (Scottish Executive National Statistics: General Report. 2016). Averaged across Health Boards, the share of practices for the five deprivation quintiles was 25, 33, 18, 14 and 11% from most to least deprived area, respectively. Although there was some variation of relative practice distribution in individual Health Boards, 17 of the 45 regions (nine Health Boards, five quintiles) had a close balance between population and share of practices. There was no clear pattern of practice distribution as a function of deprivation rank. Analysis revealed good correlation between practice and population share for each Health Board, and for the combined data (R2 = 0.898, P relatively balanced across socio-economic areas, suggesting that differences in eye-examination uptake across social strata are unrelated to service availability.

  3. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing using Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh

    2017-08-03

    To evaluate the agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (TCAVec) and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing (TCARay). This study enrolled a total of 204 right eyes of 204 normal subjects. The eyes were measured using a Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer. The measured parameters included simulated keratometric astigmatism using the keratometric index, anterior corneal astigmatism using the corneal refractive index, posterior corneal astigmatism, and TCARay. TCAVec was derived by vector summation of the astigmatism on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The magnitudes and axes of TCAVec and TCARay were compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the relationship and agreement between TCAVec and TCARay, respectively. The mean TCAVec and TCARay magnitudes were 0.76±0.57D and 1.00±0.78D, respectively (Pvector summation and ray tracing methods cannot be used interchangeably. There was a systematic error between the TCAVec and TCARay magnitudes. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of patient satisfaction with services of vision centers in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovai Vilas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the satisfaction of patients with the services of Vision Center services (primary eye care in large village (s and small village (s in rural settings in Andhra Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: We have administered standard questionnaires to randomly selected patients to assess patient satisfaction when assessing Vision Center Services. We used the Chi-square ( P <0.05 to explore differences in satisfaction of patients with Vision Center services located in the large village (s and small village (s rural settings. Results: Vision Center patients at the large village (s expressed higher levels of satisfaction (median 78% than patients treated at the Vision Center at small village (s (median 69%. The difference was statistically significant (Chi square P value ranging from <0.001 to 0.03 for all the items except two - ′easy to identify vision center location′ and ′spectacles dispensing time′ as compared to other (privately run optometry facilities (Chi square P value=0.498 and 0.993 respectively. The location of the Vision Center, convenience of journey, ophthalmic technician′s behavior with patients, are some of the most important factors that determined the patient perception about Vision Center services. Conclusion: The overall satisfaction levels of the Vision Center experience at 78% and 69% were good. However, continual improvement is to be made in service time, staff performance, cost and quality of vision care, especially at more remote primary eye Care Centers.

  6. Improvements in performance following optometric vision therapy in a child with dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Caroline M F; Van de Weyer, Sarah; Smith, Claire; Adler, Paul M

    2006-03-01

    SS, an 8-year-old boy with dyspraxia, presented for behavioural optometry assessment. He had been diagnosed with a subtle form of dyspraxia by his paediatric occupational therapist, based on poor proprioception, delayed bilateral integration and poor visual perception. A full visual assessment was carried out. SS was given a programme of reflex inhibition exercises for 3 months. Then, a programme of optometric vision therapy (OVT) exercises was prescribed at home and in practice for a period of 8 months. SS was assessed using a battery of occupational therapy Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) before optometric intervention, and after OVT. There were significant improvements in fusional reserves, accommodative facility and oculomotor control of pursuit and saccadic eye movements. His reading level had changed by 4 years in 11 months. The SIPT results showed improvements in the visual and motor/visual perception subtests, confirming the significant changes in visual perceptual performance. Consideration is given to treatment modalities for dyspraxia, and the studies confirming their effectivity of approach. This case study provides evidence supporting the use of OVT eye exercises in dyspraxia, ocular motility, accommodative dysfunction, learning difficulties and sports performance. The need for further research and inter-professional working is discussed.

  7. An atypical presentation of visual conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutch, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Nonorganic vision loss accounts for up to 5% of patients and presents in two forms, malingering and visual conversion disorder (VCD). It is described a case of VCD in a new mother struggling both with her husband being deployed overseas and the recent death of her father. In addition, she had been evaluated for a concussion secondary to a motor vehicle accident three months prior. An inexpensive series of clinical tests were performed to rule out organic disease and obtained equivocal results. Some tests revealed intact vision in the affected eye while others supported a neurological cause for the vision loss. However, the patient quickly recovered normal visual acuity when encouraged to discuss situations that have been causing emotional stress. This almost immediate recovery of vision confirmed the diagnosis of VCD. This report should make primary eye care professionals more aware of visual conversion disorder and its clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Customer loyalty among daily disposable contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neelam I; Naroo, Shehzad A; Eperjesi, Frank; Rumney, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    Optometric practices offer contact lenses as cash sale items or as part of monthly payment plans. With the contact lens market becoming increasingly competitive, patients are opting to purchase lenses from supermarkets and Internet suppliers. Monthly payment plans are often implemented to improve loyalty. This study aimed to compare behavioural loyalty between monthly payment plan members and non-members. BBR Optometry Ltd offers a monthly payment plan (Eyelife™) to their contact lens wearers. A retrospective audit of 38 Eyelife™ members (mean±SD: 42.7±15.0 years) and 30 non-members (mean±SD: 40.8±16.7 years) was conducted. Revenue and profits generated, service uptake and product sales between the two groups were compared over a fixed period of 18 months. Eyelife™ members generated significantly higher professional fee revenue (Ployalty among contact lens wearers, particularly service uptake and volume of lens purchases. Additionally the greater professional fees generated, render monthly payment plans an attractive business model and practice builder. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Health and Social Security Act 1984 and the price of spectacles among corporate practices in the United Kingdom (1980-2007): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The Health and Social Security Act 1984 deregulated certain aspects of optometry in the United Kingdom, including advertising and the supply of spectacles, in the hope that greater competition would reduce spectacle prices. The effects of this legislation are tested by plotting the mean prices of private spectacles purchased from corporate optometric practices, from 1980 to 2007. Historical evidence is used to gauge the effect on prices of other factors such as National Health Service (NHS) payments, sight test fees and pressure exerted by consumer organisations. The high prices in 1980 reduced markedly throughout the rest of the 1980s, remained low for most of the 1990s and rose between 1999 and 2003, before falling. Changes in price were associated with changes to the system of NHS payments and variations in private sight test fees, but prices have generally been lower since the deregulation of dispensing than they were before. Although the price of private spectacles remains heavily influenced by other factors, the deregulation of opticians' services has benefited the public by maintaining lower prices, as intended by proponents of the legislation.

  10. Impact of strabismus on the quality of life of Chinese Han teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu CS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Changsen Tu, Liang Ye, Longfei Jiang, Yuwen Wang, Yingzi Li The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers.Methods: The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25 was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus.Results: The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning.Conclusion: Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. Keywords: quality of life, strabismus, NEI-VFQ-25, teenager, HRQoL

  11. Differential Diagnosis for Multiple Sclerosis-related Optic Neuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhang; Xiaolei Liang; Shihui Wei; Hongyang Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:.To analyze clinical features and main causes of multiple sclerosis-related optic neuritis (MS-ON), providing evidence for the differential diagnosis of MS-ON. Methods: Clinical data were collected from 527 patients, 123 males and 404 females, diagnosed with MS-ON between June 2008 and June 2013. Visual acuity, optometry, visual field, slit-lamp microscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy (20D), opti-cal coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Venous blood was sampled for detection of autoimmune antibodies and Aquaporin (AQP-4). Results:.Fifty nine cases were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica-related optic neuritis. (NMO-ON),.27 Sjogren's syn-drome-related optic neuropathy,.22 tumors,.21 anterior is-chemic optic neuropathy, 15 radiation-induced optic neuropa-thy, 14 optic neuropathy-related infection, 17 genetic eye dis-eases and 10 open angle glaucoma. Among168 MS-ON pa-tients undergoing optic nerve MRI,90 cases (53.57%) had a lesion 30 mm in two (1.19%). Conclusion:.MS-ON is more commonly misdiagnosed with NMO-ON and Sjogren's syndrome, when compared to optic neuropathy, tumors and ischemic optic neuropathy.

  12. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  13. Optic neuritis in pediatric population: a review in current tendencies of diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael José; Gómez-Hurtado Cubillana, Aránzazu; Merino-Suárez, María L; Piñero-Llorens, David P; Laria-Ochaita, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve and may be related to different systemic conditions. The clinical presentation of this pathology usually includes sudden loss of visual acuity (VA) which may be unilateral or bilateral, visual field restriction, pain with eye movements, dyschromatopsia, a relative afferent pupillary defect and optic disk swelling. Optic neuritis in children has specific clinical features and a better prognosis than in adulthood. Although usually appears an underlying viral disease, the main concern for practitioners is the relationship of optic neuritis with multiple sclerosis. In addition to the classical techniques as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), current tendencies of diagnosis for eye practitioners include new imaging devices as optical coherence tomography (OCT), useful to show a thinning of the retinal fibers layer (RFL) after the inflammatory episode. Regarding the management of these patients, short-term intravenous steroid dosages seem to be the best option to treat acute attacks characterized by a very poor bilateral VA. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Jackson Cross-Cylinder. Part 1: Properties

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    W. F. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson cross-cylinder is a lens of fundamental importance in optometry with a key role in the refraction routine.  And yet it appears not to be as well understood as perhaps it should be.  The purpose of this paper is to examine the linear optical character of the Jackson cross-cylinder and, in particular, those properties associated with the operations performed on the lens in the refraction routine, namely flipping and turning.  Corresponding to these operations in physical space are steps in an abstract space, symmetric dioptric power space.  The powers of all Jackson cross-cylinders lie in the plane of antistigmatic powers in the abstract space.  In particular the powers of an F Jackson cross-cylinder (for example, a 0.5-D Jackson cross-cylinder has  5 . 0 = F  D lie on a circle of radius F centred onnull power.  Flipping the lens takes one diametrically across the circle; turning the lens takes one around the circle at twice the rate.  A subsequent paper shows how these operations work in defining the cylinder in the refraction routine.

  15. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and evaluation of an intraocular B-scan OCT-guided 36-gauge needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin H.; Joos, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography imaging is widely used in ophthalmology and optometry clinics for diagnosing retinal disorders. External microscope-mounted OCT operating room systems have imaged retinal changes immediately following surgical manipulations. However, the goal is to image critical surgical maneuvers in real time. External microscope-mounted OCT systems have some limitations with problems tracking constantly moving intraocular surgical instruments, and formation of absolute shadows by the metallic surgical instruments upon the underlying tissues of interest. An intraocular OCT-imaging probe was developed to resolve these problems. A disposable 25-gauge probe tip extended beyond the handpiece, with a 36-gauge needle welded to a disposable tip with its end extending an additional 3.5 mm. A sealed 0.35 mm diameter GRIN lens protected the fiber scanner and focused the scanning beam at a 3 to 4 mm distance. The OCT engine was a very high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (870 nm, Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC) which produced 2000 A-scan lines per B-scan image at a frequency of 5 Hz with the fiber optic oscillations matched to this frequency. Real-time imaging of the needle tip as it touched infrared paper was performed. The B-scan OCT-needle was capable of real-time performance and imaging of the phantom material. In the future, the B-scan OCT-guided needle will be used to perform sub-retinal injections.

  17. Institutional, gender and racial profiles of South African optometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Nirghin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to profile optometric gradu-ates in South Africa. The 2008 register of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA was used to identify the number of registered optometrists, their qualifications and institutions where they obtained their primary optometry qualification. The gender and racial profiles of these optometrists were obtained from the institutions where they qualified. A comparison of the profiles ofthe registered practitioners pre-democracy (1930-1994 and post-democracy (1995-2008 was made. Few (28.1% of the optometrists were trained in the years 1930-1994, while the rest (71.9% were trained from 1995-2008. During the period of1930-1994, 64.2% of the optometrists were males and 35.8% were females and from 1995 to 2008, the gender profile changed to 66.4% females and 33.6% males. In the pre-democracy period (1930-1994, almost three quarters (74% of the registered optometrists were White, 15.3% were Indians, 7.9% were Black and 2.8% were Coloured. Many (56.9% that were registered pre-1994 were trained at the Technikon Witwatersrand (TWR, 17.1% were trained at the University of Durban Westville (UDW, 11.9% at the Rand Afrikaans University (RAU, 6.7% at the University of the North (UNIN and 7.4% had trained in institutions outside South Africa. The percentage of White optometrists post-democracy (1995-2008 decreased to 44.3%, while those of Indians increased to 22%, Blacks increased to 28.9% and Coloured to 4.8%. Almost half (48.2% of the optometrists in the post-apartheid era (1995-2008 were trained at the University of Johannesburg (UJ, TWR and RAU, 21.5% at UDW and University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, 23.7% at UNIN and the University of Limpopo (UL, 4% at the University of Free State (UFS and others (2.6% had trained outside South Africa. As at 2008, the majority (51.7% of all registered optometrists were White, 22.2% were Black, 21.9% were Indian while 4.2% were Coloured and included 57.8% females and 42

  18. Competencias y contenidos comunes de salud pública en los programas universitarios de grado Common competencies and contents in public health in graduate programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Davó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar competencias y contenidos básicos de salud pública en los programas de grado de enfermería, farmacia, magisterio, medicina, nutrición humana y dietética, óptica y optometría, relaciones laborales y recursos humanos, y trabajo social, y realizar propuestas de mejora. Métodos: Organización del taller Contenidos de salud pública en los programas de grado en la XXI Escuela de Salud Pública de Menorca. Formación de ocho grupos coordinados por 37 profesores de universidades españolas seleccionados a través de informantes clave y bola de nieve. Se utilizaron dos estudios sobre competencias profesionales en salud pública, y los programas de los participantes, para analizar las competencias profesionales de salud pública, los contenidos y las recomendaciones para mejorar los programas de salud pública. Cada grupo trabajó sobre un grado y se compartieron los resultados. Resultados: Se identificaron competencias profesionales para las tres funciones esenciales de salud pública en todas las titulaciones excepto en magisterio, óptica y optometría, y trabajo social. En enfermería, magisterio, nutrición humana y dietética, y trabajo social, se rescribieron competencias para destacar el papel de cada profesional en las funciones de salud pública. Los grupos coincidieron en los temas de introducción (conceptos fundamentales y determinantes de la salud y en las estrategias de intervención. Conclusión: Se identifican competencias y contenidos comunes en los grados. La actualización de contenidos de salud pública contribuiría a definir y visibilizar el perfil salubrista de los distintos profesionales.Objective: To identify fundamental public health competencies and contents in nursing, pharmacy, teaching, medicine, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, labor relations and human resources, and social work in graduate programs and to formulate proposals for their improvement. Methods: The workshop on

  19. Implementación de la modalidad b-learning en la asignatura optativa Ergonomía Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Verdú, Francisco Miguel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Along past second semester of course 2007-08, at first time a new optional subject, Visual Ergonomics, was taught by blearning methodology in Graduate of Optics and Optometry at the University of Alicante. In this word the some issues most outstanding , both positive and negative, are described in this first implementation with a reduced group of students. The theoretical section was mainly developed by b-learning methodology interchanging on-class training, the most of them as feed-back, with virtual sessions supported by some web 2.0 digital tools as a blog, multimedia and interactive sessions, and team work (where teacher participates as one additional member, inside a strategy pre-conceived of situational leadership applied to classroom. The informal opinion polls, collected in course final, show that, in spite of the fact the students were conscious they had clearly approved this subject, the vast of them did not friendly accept so educational innovations in this short period. Then, as epilogue to this experience in education, this subject could not teach in course 2008-09 because any student is enrolled. Although this discipline is highly recommended from national guidelines for future Graduate in Optics and Optometry, it is not sure it continues at the University of Alicante. However, I hope the positive issues of this experience in education can be extrapolated with success in other pre and university degrees.Durante el segundo cuatrimestre del curso pasado (2007-08 se implementó por primera vez la modalidad b-learning en la asignatura optativa Ergonomía Visual de la Diplomatura de Óptica y Optometría de la Universidad de Alicante. En este trabajo se describen los aspectos más relevantes, tanto positivos y negativos, de esta primera implementación con un grupo reducido de alumnos. La parte teórica se ha desarrollado principalmente en modalidad blearning alternando sesiones presenciales, la mayoría de ellas como retroalimentaci

  20. Perceptual learning for treating amblyopia in children based on activation of visual signal pathway Relationship of curative effects and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Liu; Jiang Shen; Jianzhong Huang; Yan Luo; Hongting Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conventional methods (such as occlusion therapy, fine manipulation, complementary, and alternative medicine) take effects slowly, are time and labor consuming, and have uncertain curative effects in the treatment of amblyopia. Perceptual learning, a new method for treating amblyopia, improves the ability to process signals from the cerebral optic nerve system by specific visual stimulation and visual learning, as well as activation of the visual signal pathway utilizing brain nervous system plasticity.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated and evaluated the curative effects of perceptual learning, which can directionally increase brain plasticity, on the treatment of amblyopia in children. The relationship between curative effect and time was also analyzed.DESIGN: A self-control experiment. SETTING: Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 125 amblyopic children (250 amblyopic eyes), 73 males, 52 females, averaging (6 ± 2) years of age, received treatment at the Visual Science and Optometry Center, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region between September 2006 and February 2007 and were recruited for this study. All children presented with no structural disease of the eyeballs. Written informed consent for therapeutic regiments was obtained from each child's parent. The protocol received approval from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Visual function was tested with a perceptual learning system (Research Center for Human Health and Development of Sun Yat-sen University, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Medical Care Implement) for visual noise, position noise, contour discrimination, contrast sensitivity, grating stereogram, and random-dot fusion. These tests helped to evaluate the efficiency of visual information processing of these children, and to determine the degree of defects of the optic nerve cells and the connections of visual

  1. Glasses Principle and Treatment Effect of Amblyopia due to Mixed Astigmatism in Children%儿童混合性散光所致弱视的配镜原则和疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席斌; 梅妍

    2015-01-01

    探讨儿童混合性散光弱视的配镜原则和临床疗效.选择4~8岁混合性散光弱视儿童161例287眼,用1%阿托品散瞳验光配镜,并配合弱视治疗,连续5年观察屈光状态变化和弱视疗效.随访5年,所有患儿屈光状态呈现出远视等效球镜屈光度逐年减少;近视等效球镜屈光度逐年增加;散光度数及轴位基本不变的趋势.弱视有164(57.14%)只眼进步,102(35.54%)只眼基本痊愈,总有效率为266(92.68%)只眼,无效21(7.32%)只眼.混合性散光弱视的疗效与散光度数呈负相关,与戴镜治疗时间呈正相关.儿童混合性散光的配镜是难点,应根据儿童屈光特点及调节;眼位等情况综合考虑正确配镜,随着年龄增长,混合性散光有向单纯近视散光或复性近视散光发展的趋势,应每半年散瞳验光一次,及时调整镜片度数.同时配合弱视治疗能取得满意的疗效.%To explore glasses principle and treatment effect of amblyopia due to mixed astigmatism in chil-dren.287 eyes of 161 subjects with amblyopia due to mixed astigmatism aged from 4 years to 8 years are en-rolled.All cases are given mydriatic optometry by 1% atropine.Meanwhile,the amblyopia treatments are given as well.Follow -up measures include dioptric situation and amblyopia therapeutic effectiveness lasting for 5 years.Dioptric situation in all cases present that hyperopia spherical equivalent diopter decreases and myopia spherical equivalent diopter increases yearly.Degree and axis of astigmatism nearly keep unchanging.As to am-blyopia,164 eyes (57.14%) have improved,102 eyes (35.54%) have recovered nearly and 21 eyes (7.32%)have no improvement.The total effective rate is 266 cases (92.68%).The therapeutic effect of am-blyopia due to mixed astigmatism has a negative correlation with amblyopia degree and has a positive correlation with time of wearing glasses.The difficulty of children

  2. 1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用%The application of the use of 1% Cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小梅; 杨发斌; 周华; 师文; 李海燕; 王晓林; 马自明; 曹仕涛; 左芸

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the present research is to probe the application of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.Methods There was a ametropia epidemiological investigation carried out among children aged 2 to 6 in seven kindergartens in Yuxi City,Lincang City,using the small-pupil-retinoscope,and examining children with symptoms of direct or indirect shade movements >+1.50DS,or symptom of unsymmetrical shade movements between the two meridians,who can be considered as potential ametropia patients and then notified to their parents.When given 1% cyclopentolate to palsy ciliary muscles,once every five minutes,two to three times in total,there will be a retina retionoscopy optometry 60 minutes later.The patients can be diagnosed as ametrapia if the symptoms maintain.Results The results shows:among the 3378 children (6756 eyes),there were 246 (7.28%) children were notified re-examination.In fact,only 144 (288 eyes/58.54%) children recame,237 eyes were diagnosed as ametropia,83 (1.23%) eyes as potential amblyopia,and 37 (1.10%) children as strabismus.Conclusions The using of 1% cyclopentolate in ametropia epidemiological investigation of children.has been an easy-carrying-out method.The optometry can be done within a day after using the 1% cyclopentolate,therefore,it is well welcomed by both children and parents,bringing more convenience to children and less communication problems between doctors and patients.%目的 探讨1%环戊通在儿童屈光流行病学调查中的应用价值 方法 用小瞳检影法分别对玉溪市、临沧市7所幼儿园2~6岁儿童进行屈光筛查,对在检影时顺影动>+1.50DS(远视)、有逆影动(近视)或两个子午线影动不对称(散光)的儿童,疑为屈光不正,通知家长复诊.对复诊儿童给1%环戊通点眼麻痹睫状肌,5min/次,连续点眼2~3次,休息60 min进行视网膜检影,明确诊断.结果 在受检的3378名(6756

  3. Visual functions and disability in diabetic retinopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Kaiti, Raju

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to find correlations between visual functions and visual disabilities in patients with diabetic retinopathy. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 38 visually impaired diabetic retinopathy subjects at the Low Vision Clinic of B.P. Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Kathmandu. The subjects underwent assessment of distance and near visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, contrast sensitivity, color vision, and central and peripheral visual fields. The visual disabilities of each subject in their daily lives were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis between visual functions and visual disabilities index was assessed. The majority of subjects (42.1%) were of the age group 60-70 years. Best corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.73±0.2 in the better eye and 0.93±0.27 in the worse eye, which was significantly different at p=0.002. Visual disability scores were significantly higher for legibility of letters (1.2±0.3) and sentences (1.4±0.4), and least for clothing (0.7±0.3). Visual disability index for legibility of letters and sentences was significantly correlated with near visual acuity and peripheral visual field. Contrast sensitivity was also significantly correlated with the visual disability index, and total scores. Impairment of near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and peripheral visual field correlated significantly with different types of visual disability. Hence, these clinical tests should be an integral part of the visual assessment of diabetic eyes. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Consideration of growth (age)-related effects on globe size and corneal thickness in ovine eyes for use in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to assess differences in eyeball mass, corneal diameter and central corneal thickness in slaughterhouse-procured ovine eyes. Over a 12-year period, measurements of eye globe mass, horizontal corneal diameter and central corneal thickness were routinely undertaken within two hours post-mortem. Only eyes free of obvious mechanical damage or disease were used. From measurements on 736 quality-selected and trimmed eyes, globe wet mass ranged from 10.4 to 25.2 g, horizontal corneal diameter from 19.0 to 26.5 mm and central corneal thickness measured by ultrasonic pachymetry from 0.543 to 0.836 mm (with an overall average of 690 ± 0.056 mm). The ocular globe mass was strongly correlated to horizontal corneal diameter (r(2)  = 0.829). Central corneal thickness correlated with globe mass (r = 0.543) and to horizontal corneal diameter (r = 0.402). Based on the different anatomical measurements, a lamb's eye would be expected to have a thinner cornea (average 0.640 mm) than that of an adult outbred ewe (average 0.730 mm). In freshly procured eyes showing signs of slight corneal oedema, central corneal thickness was greater (average 0.856 ± 0.052 mm) and up to 24 hours of cold storage resulted in predictable increases in central corneal thickness of six to 24 per cent, especially in eyes showing signs of corneal oedema before storage. Based on the correlations obtained, differences in ovine eyes can be attributed to growth-related differences in the animals and thus, indirectly to their expected ages. A simple measure of the horizontal corneal diameter in ovine eyes used for laboratory studies would be a useful indicator in reporting these studies. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  5. Image remapping strategies applied as protheses for the visually impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Curtis D.

    1993-01-01

    Maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa (rp) are two vision defects which render the afflicted person with impaired ability to read and recognize visual patterns. For some time there has been interest and work on the use of image remapping techniques to provide a visual aid for individuals with these impairments. The basic concept is to remap an image according to some mathematical transformation such that the image is warped around a maculopathic defect (scotoma) or within the rp foveal region of retinal sensitivity. NASA/JSC has been pursuing this research using angle invariant transformations with testing of the resulting remapping using subjects and facilities of the University of Houston, College of Optometry. Testing is facilitated by use of a hardware device, the Programmable Remapper, to provide the remapping of video images. This report presents the results of studies of alternative remapping transformations with the objective of improving subject reading rates and pattern recognition. In particular a form of conformal transformation was developed which provides for a smooth warping of an image around a scotoma. In such a case it is shown that distortion of characters and lines of characters is minimized which should lead to enhanced character recognition. In addition studies were made of alternative transformations which, although not conformal, provide for similar low character distortion remapping. A second, non-conformal transformation was studied for remapping of images to aid rp impairments. In this case a transformation was investigated which allows remapping of a vision field into a circular area representing the foveal retina region. The size and spatial representation of the image are selectable. It is shown that parametric adjustments allow for a wide variation of how a visual field is presented to the sensitive retina. This study also presents some preliminary considerations of how a prosthetic device could be implemented in a practical sense, vis

  6. Spherical subjective refraction with a novel 3D virtual reality based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jaume; Ondategui-Parra, Juan Carlos; Badiella, Llorenç; Otero, Carles; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Aldaba, Mikel

    To conduct a clinical validation of a virtual reality-based experimental system that is able to assess the spherical subjective refraction simplifying the methodology of ocular refraction. For the agreement assessment, spherical refraction measurements were obtained from 104 eyes of 52 subjects using three different methods: subjectively with the experimental prototype (Subj.E) and the classical subjective refraction (Subj.C); and objectively with the WAM-5500 autorefractor (WAM). To evaluate precision (intra- and inter-observer variability) of each refractive tool independently, 26 eyes were measured in four occasions. With regard to agreement, the mean difference (±SD) for the spherical equivalent (M) between the new experimental subjective method (Subj.E) and the classical subjective refraction (Subj.C) was -0.034D (±0.454D). The corresponding 95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) were (-0.856D, 0.924D). In relation to precision, intra-observer mean difference for the M component was 0.034±0.195D for the Subj.C, 0.015±0.177D for the WAM and 0.072±0.197D for the Subj.E. Inter-observer variability showed worse precision values, although still clinically valid (below 0.25D) in all instruments. The spherical equivalent obtained with the new experimental system was precise and in good agreement with the classical subjective routine. The algorithm implemented in this new system and its optical configuration has been shown to be a first valid step for spherical error correction in a semiautomated way. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Under-correction of human myopia--is it myopigenic?: a retrospective analysis of clinical refraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Esposito, Christina; Peterson, Cody; Coronado, Cory; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate retrospectively, based on routine clinical records in an optometric office, the effect of refractive under-correction of the myopic spectacle prescription on myopic progression in children and young adults. Patient records of children and young-adult myopes in a private optometric practice in Glendale, Arizona, USA, were initially reviewed to identify those that met the criteria. Information collected from the patient records included: age, gender, the dates and number of their visits (more than one visit was required for use of the data), final prescription, and non-cycloplegic subjective refraction. For each patient visit, the difference in spherical equivalent (SE) between the subjective refraction for maximum visual acuity and the final prescription was calculated for both the left and right eyes. Myopia progression was defined as the difference in SE between the final subjective refraction of the previous visit and that of the subsequent visit. Based on the study criteria, a total of 275 patient visits were obtained from the data collected in 76 patients. A significant positive correlation was found between the magnitude of under-correction of the refractive error and myopic progression (r=0.301, prefraction (r=0.166, p=0.006); that is, the greater the degree of myopia, the greater the effect of under-correction. However, there was no significant correlation between myopia progression and either age (r=-0.11, p=0.86) or gender (r=-0.82, p=0.17). Under-correction of myopia produced a small but progressively greater degree of myopic progression than did full correction. The present finding is consistent with earlier clinical trials and modeling of human myopia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluations of refraction competencies of ophthalmic technicians in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Chagunda, Margarida; Loughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic technicians (OT) work at health facilities in Mozambique and are trained to provide primary and secondary eye care services including basic refraction. This study was designed to assess OT competence and confidence in refraction, and investigate whether an upskilling programme is effective in developing their competence and confidence at refraction. Thirty-one trainee OTs and 16 qualified OTs were recruited to the study. A background questionnaire was administered to determine the demographic profile of the OTs. A confidence levels questionnaire explored their self-reported skills. Clinical competencies were assessed in relation to knowledge (theory exam) and clinical skills (patient exams). 11 OTs were upskilled and the clinical evaluations carried out post training. Initial evaluations demonstrated that confidence and competence levels varied depending on the OTs training (location and duration), and their location of work (clinical load, availability of equipment and other eye care personnel). The qualified OTs were more competent than trainee OTs in most of the evaluations. Post upskilling results demonstrated significant positive impact on confidence and competence levels. These evaluations identified factors affecting the refraction competencies of the OTs and demonstrated that upskilling is effective in improving confidence and competence levels for refraction. They demonstrate the need for a refraction competency framework. The overarching aim of this research was to inform the development of a nationwide programme of OT mentoring, upskilling and leading to the establishment of clinical competency standards for the new OT curricula, relevant to the professional demands. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Is there an association between functional vision and learning to read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2001-11-01

    Background: Controversy exists about the role of visual parameters and vision in learning to read. This study aims to determine whether ocular parameters or performance on a dynamic test of visual function differs for children of differing reading ability. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-four children (mean age 9.9 +/- 1.8 years) received a vision screening emphasising binocular anomalies associated with discomfort at near (distance and near visual acuity, distance vision challenged with binocular +1 D lenses, near heterophoria, near point of convergence, stereopsis and accommodative facility). Non-verbal mentation age and reading accuracy were assessed. One hundred and six children performed a computerised task of motion coherence detection. Children were classified as normal readers (n = 195), children with dyslexia (n = 49) or learning disabled children (n = 40) based on their mentation age and their reading age. Results: There were no statistically significant differences or correlations between visual parameters and reading performance. Over thirty per cent of the children had accommodative facilities below or equal to six cycles per minute. Children with learning disabilities performed worst on the motion coherence task but this was statistically significant only when compared to the performance of dyslexics. Discussion: The lack of association between ophthalmic parameters and poor reading ability supports the view of the Committee on Children with Disabilities. However, 39 per cent of the children might be expected to experience difficulty 'reading to learn', as suggested by the American Academy of Optometry, as they showed anomalies associated with visual discomfort with prolonged reading. The motion coherence test did not differentiate dyslexics from normal readers and was worst in children with learning disability. Accommodative facility testing remained the most useful predictor of potential visual discomfort.

  10. The natural history of corneal topographic progression of keratoconus after age 30 years in non-contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Akilesh; Patel, Dipika V; Watters, Grant A; McGhee, Charles N J

    2017-06-01

    To determine if significant progression of disease occurs in older, non-contact lens wearing, subjects with keratoconus and to identify potential predictive factors. Clinical and computerised corneal topography records of subjects with keratoconus attending a specialist optometry practice were retrospectively analysed to identify those aged ≥30 years, with ≥2 consultations ≥12 months apart, no contact lens wear and no corneal scarring, surgery or corneal hydrops. Topographic parameters assessed included: maximum keratometry (Kmax), steep keratometry (Ksteep), flat keratometry (Kflat), inferior-superior (I-S) ratio and the surface asymmetry and regularity (surface asymmetry index and surface regularity index) indices. Of the 449 subjects with keratoconus assessed, 43 eyes of 27 patients (6.01%) met inclusion criteria, with median age 38.45 (12.86) years at baseline and median follow-up 4.36 (8.68) years. There was a significant increase in Kmax (0.30 (1.21) D), Ksteep (0.27 (0.90) D), Kflat (0.34 (1.12) D) and I-S (0.26 (0.82) D) between baseline and final review, pkeratoconus may continue to progress beyond age 30. Older subjects with keratoconus should be monitored for progression, particularly with respect to possible corneal collagen cross-linking or astigmatic correction in cataract surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Understanding keratoconus: what have we learned from the New Zealand perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipika; McGhee, Charles

    2013-03-01

    investigating novel therapeutic interventions for, this relatively common corneal disease. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  12. Screening for macular disorders: the optometrist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsner AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann E Elsner, Brett J King School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA Abstract: Macular screening services can take many forms, offering a variety of roles for optometrists. The need for screening has been demonstrated in industrialized and developing nations alike. Populations of particular interest for macular screening services include individuals at high risk for diabetes, not just diagnosed diabetics, since a significant proportion of those with diabetes do not realize it. Individuals who know they have diabetes are frequently not examined at the recommended intervals. Related populations include patients with a high likelihood of retinal vascular disease and high blood pressure. A second population is older individuals, who are at risk for age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia, key causes of vision loss depending upon geographic location and ethnicity. Images showing the complexity of lesions from diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and degenerative myopia illustrate the challenges of screening and classification. A third population to be screened is the large pediatric one. While many children are at risk for developing myopia, which could lead to high myopia, the risk of myopia and retinal damage is far more common in individuals who had low birth weight or premature birth. A variety of types of screening instrumentation are discussed in terms of practicality of use and cost. The technical challenges in populations with dark eyes, small pupils, and poor anterior-segment media are discussed. We discuss the wealth of screening strategies, from permanent sites with trained staff and expert graders to planned campaigns that target specific populations. Successful screening systems include instrumentation that is used within its limits, feedback and supervision during screening and grading, and clear pathways for referral for a complete examination or treatment. Keywords: vision

  13. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Leat, Susan J; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Nine young adult (25±6 years) and 9 older participants (72±4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05±0.02; younger: 0.48±0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ∼104±150ms and ∼124±122ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ∼68±35ms). Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Practitioners’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Phillips

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study to determine optometrists’ opinions on the presentation of ocular pathology and ametropia in patients wearing ready-made reading spectacles. Ninety-seven optometrists completed a questionnaire pertaining to ametropia and ocular diseases among these patients. The questionnaire contained information regarding patient demographics, ocular pathology, ocular ametropia and the regulatory and public health aspects of ready-made readers.Ninety-five percent of respondents stated that they had seen patients with ready-made readers in their practice and 62% of these stated that they had found the presence of ocular pathology in these patients. The pathologies most commonly reported as seen by practitioners were dry eye (86% of practitioners, cataracts (80% and diabetic retinopathy (54%. In addition, 39% of practitioners reported seeing patients with anisometropia. The majority of practitioners (71% stated that they sold ready-made readers in their practice. Sixty-three percentof practitioners indicated that they would be prepared to offer a service whereby a reduced consultation fee and a pair of ready-made readers could be incorporated into an indigent “package”. An overwhelming 88% of the practitioners felt that the sale of ready-made readers should be more regulated and 74% of practitioners felt that the Professional Board for Optometry and Dispensing Opticians should be responsible for monitoring their sale. The research suggests that wearers of ready-made readers should be screened for ocular pathology, reduced visual acuity and amblyopia. Current regulations should be tightened and a public awareness education campaign should be initiated. The use of ready-made reading spectacles, in deference to an eye examination by an optometrist, appears to be largely as a result of the perceived costs of pri-vate practice combined with ignorance and apathy

  15. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  16. The prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity – a study based on vision screening conducted at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thom L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaveson Thom,1 Sanchia Jogessar,1,2 Sara L McGowan,1 Fiona Lawless,1,2 1Department of Optometry, Mzuzu University, Mzuzu, Malawi; 2Brienholden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa Aim: To determine the prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity (VA among pupils recruited in two primary schools in Mzimba district, northern region of Malawi.Materials and methods: The study was based on the vision screening which was conducted by optometrists at Enukweni and Mzuzu Foundation Primary Schools. The measurements during the screening included unaided distance monocular VA by using Low Vision Resource Center and Snellen chart, pinhole VA on any subject with VA of less than 6/6, refraction, pupil evaluations, ocular movements, ocular health, and shadow test.Results: The prevalence of decreased VA was found to be low in school-going population (4%, n=594. Even though Enukweni Primary School had few participants than Mzuzu Foundation Primary School, it had high prevalence of decreased VA (5.8%, n=275 than Mzuzu Foundation Primary School (1.8%, n=319. The principal causes of decreased VA in this study were found to be amblyopia and uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia being the main cause than hyperopia.Conclusion: Based on the low prevalence of decreased VA due to myopia or hyperopia, it should not be concluded that refractive errors are an insignificant contributor to visual disability in Malawi. More vision screenings are required at a large scale on school-aged population to reflect the real situation on the ground. Cost-effective strategies are needed to address this easily treatable cause of vision impairment. Keywords: vision screening, refractive errors, visual acuity, Enukweni, Mzuzu foundation

  17. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  18. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Martínez, Pilar; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the diagnostic criteria used in the scientific literature published in the past 25 years for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to explore if the epidemiological analysis of diagnostic validity has been used to propose which clinical criteria should be used for diagnostic purposes. We carried out a systematic review of papers on accommodative and non-strabic binocular disorders published from 1986 to 2012 analysing the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS databases. We admitted original articles about diagnosis of these anomalies in any population. We identified 839 articles and 12 studies were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The review shows a wide range of clinical signs and cut-off points between authors. Only 3 studies (regarding accommodative anomalies) assessed diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs. Their results suggest using the accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility for diagnosing accommodative insufficiency and a high positive relative accommodation for accommodative excess. The remaining 9 articles did not analyze diagnostic accuracy, assessing a diagnosis with the criteria the authors considered. We also found differences between studies in the way of considering patients' symptomatology. 3 studies of 12 analyzed, performed a validation of a symptom survey used for convergence insufficiency. Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Botulinum toxin for treatment of restrictive strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Pilar S; Vera, Rebeca E; Mariñas, Laura G; Gómez de Liaño, Pilar S; Escribano, Jose V

    To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin. We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. We included 27 cases (mean age, 61.9 years). Horizontal strabismus was diagnosed in 11.1%, vertical in 51.9%, and mixed in 37%. Strabismus was secondary to cataract surgery in 6 cases, high myopia in 6, orbital fractures in 5, retinal surgery in 5, Graves ophthalmopathy in 4, and repair of conjunctival injury in 1 case. Diplopia was diagnosed in all patients, head turn in 33.3%. The initial deviation was 14 PD (range, 2-40), the mean number of injections per patient was 1.6 (range, 1-3), and the mean dose was 9.5 IU (range, 2.5-22.5). At the end of follow-up, diplopia was recorded in 59.3%, head turn in 18.5%, surgical treatment in 51.9%, and need for prism glasses in 14.8%. Outcome was successful in 37% of patients (4 high myopia, 3 orbital fractures, 2 post-surgical retinal detachment, and 1 post-cataract surgery). Mean follow-up was 3±1.8 years. Vertical deviation was observed in half of the sample. The most frequent deviation was secondary to cataract surgery and high myopia. Treatment with botulinum toxin was successful in one-third of the patients at the end of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Compliance and hygiene behaviour among soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Nestha Mohamed, Fathimath; Bist, Jeewanand; Kandel, Himal; Marasini, Sanjay; Khadka, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Significant levels of non-compliance and poor hygiene among contact lens wearers have been reported previously from different parts of the world. This survey aimed at identifying the scope of hygiene and non-compliant behaviour of soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives. Established soft lens wearers attending two eye clinics in Male' city, were interviewed in office or via telephone. A set of interviewer-administered questions was used to access the subjective response on compliance and hygiene behaviour (hand and lens case hygiene, water exposure, adherence to lens replacement schedule, dozing and overnight wear, awareness of aftercare visits and reuse of disinfecting solution). Participants were also asked to rate themselves as a contact lens user based on their perceived compliance and hygiene practices. Out of 107 participants, 79 (74.8 per cent) were interviewed in the office and the rest via telephone. The majority of lens wearers were female, office workers and students, with a mean age of 20.64 ± 4.4 years. Mean duration of lens wear was 28.04 ± 8.36 months. Most of them were using spherical lenses (86.9 per cent) on a daily wear basis (96.3 per cent). Major reported forms of non-compliance were poor hand hygiene (60.7 per cent), lack of aftercare awareness (39.3 per cent), water exposure (35.5 per cent) and over-use of lenses (24.3 per cent). While females were more likely to overuse their lenses than males (p hygienic behaviour. A significant number of Maldivian contact lens wearers exhibited poor levels of hygiene and compliance with contact lenses and lens care systems. An effective educational reinforcement strategy needs to be developed to modify lens wearers' non-compliance. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. Capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C

    2015-10-01

    To examine the capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Prospective study. Straylight, disk halo radius, and high-contrast corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurements were compared between patients with age-related cataract and age-matched normal-sighted control subjects by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic. Measurements were made in 53 eyes of 53 patients with a mean age of 67.94 years ± 7.11 (SD) and 31 eyes of 31 controls with a mean age 66.06 ± 5.43 years. Significantly worse (P < .001) mean straylight (1.38 ± 0.24 log[s]), mean disk halo radius (2.40 ± 0.18 log minutes of arc [arcmin]), and mean CDVA (0.17 ± 0.11 logMAR) were recorded in the cataract group than in the control group (1.17 ± 0.11 log[s], 2.10 ± 0.16 log arcmin, and 0.08 ± 0.08 logMAR). Significant differences in AUCs were observed for disk halo radius (0.89 ± 0.04) versus straylight (0.77 ± 0.05) (P = .03) and disk halo radius versus CDVA (0.72 ± 0.05) (P = .001). The comparison of disk halo radius versus the discriminant function with input from CDVA and straylight (0.80 ± 0.05) was at the limit of significance only (0.091 ± 0.05, P = .051). Although all 3 variables discriminated well between normal eyes and eyes with cataract, the disk halo radius showed the best diagnostic capacity. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A REVIEW ON COMPREHENSIVE EYE EXAMINATION IN PEDIATRIC PHYSICAL THERAPY

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    Rahul Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even early in Eye disease, children have reduced economy of activity of daily living. Early eye examination, diagnosis and management will reduce the consequences of other system originated by eye problems. The current literature is aimed to provide and explore the knowledge of Pediatric Physical Therapist about pediatric eye examination. This will help in early detection of any eye disorder and in good prognosis of visual health, physical growth, social and mental health as well. Methods: The data and contents of current literature have been explored from different webpages, books and by personnel experience in pediatric physical therapy and optometry. Results: In the beginning disclosure and immediate treatment of ocular diseases in children is necessary to prevent lifelong visual deterioration. Checkup of the eyes should be carrying out early in the neonates period and at all well-child visits. Neonates should be checked for ocular structural abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis, which are known to cause in visual problems. Every child who are bring into being have an ocular anomaly or who fail vision examination should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients. Conclusions: Children account for a large and growing percentage of the population of the India. Studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of eye and vision disorders is substantial in this group. Researches also reveal that early detection and intervention are particularly important in children because of the very quick development of the visual system in early childhood and its sensitivity to interference. When disorders such as amblyopia and squint are undetected, the long-term consequences can be serious in terms of quality of life, comfort, appearance, and career opportunities.

  3. Influence of different types of astigmatism on visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remón, Laura; Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D

    To investigate the change in visual acuity (VA) produced by different types of astigmatism (on the basis of the refractive power and position of the principal meridians) on normal accommodating eyes. The lens induced method was employed to simulate a set of 28 astigmatic blur conditions on different healthy emmetropic eyes. Additionally, 24 values of spherical defocus were also simulated on the same eyes for comparison. VA was measured in each case and the results, expressed in logMAR units, were represented against of the modulus of the dioptric power vector (blur strength). LogMAR VA varies in a linear fashion with increasing astigmatic blur, being the slope of the line dependent on the accommodative demand in each type of astigmatism. However, in each case, we found no statistically significant differences between the three axes investigated (0°, 45°, 90°). Non-statistically significant differences were found either for the VA achieved with spherical myopic defocus (MD) and mixed astigmatism (MA). VA with simple hyperopic astigmatism (SHA) was higher than with simple myopic astigmatism (SMA), however, in this case non conclusive results were obtained in terms of statistical significance. The VA achieved with imposed compound hyperopic astigmatism (CHA) was highly influenced by the eye's accommodative response. VA is correlated with the blur strength in a different way for each type of astigmatism, depending on the accommodative demand. VA is better when one of the focal lines lie on the retina irrespective of the axis orientation; accommodation favors this situation. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189±26wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of reduced visual acuity on precision of two-dimensional tracing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domkin, Dmitry; Richter, Hans O; Zetterlund, Christina; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

    2016-01-01

    We intended to assess consequences of reduced visual acuity for performance in a natural simple motor task (tracing) using objective kinematic performance measures. Specifically, we intended to elucidate the kind of relationship between the task performance and best corrected binocular visual acuity and to determine the threshold of visual acuity when task performance starts to deteriorate. Ninety-five individuals with different best corrected visual acuity participated in the study (age 49±12 years, mean±SD, 27 men and 68 women). The participants manually traced maze-like visual patterns of different spatial complexity presented on the screen of a portable notebook computer using Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool software. Tracing error was computed as performance measure in each trial with a spatial pattern matching technique - rigid point set registration method. The segmented linear regression analysis showed that the relation between visual acuity and tracing errors was best described with a regression function having a break point between two data segments. Tracing performance was unaffected by values of visual acuity below 0.2 on logMAR scale, but when logMAR values increased above this critical limit (i.e. when visual acuity is further reduced), tracing errors linearly increased. The rate of the increase of the tracing error correlated with the complexity of visual stimulus shape. Testing of fine motor functions with objective kinematic measures during visuomotor tasks may help differentiating between actual effects of reduced visual acuity on eye-hand coordination in individuals with similar levels of impairment of visual acuity. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of corneal astigmatism following frown and straight incision forms in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedo AO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Ofeibea Amedo, Kwadwo Amoah, Nana Yaa Koomson, David Ben Kumah, Eugene Appenteng Osae Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: To investigate which of two tunnel incision forms (frown versus straight in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery creates more corneal astigmatism. Sixty eyes of 60 patients who had consented to undergo cataract surgery and to partake in this study were followed from baseline through >12-week postoperative period. Values of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism for the 60 eyes, measured with a Bausch and Lomb keratometer, were extracted from the patients’ cataract surgery records. Residual astigmatism was computed as the difference between preoperative and postoperative keratometry readings. Visual acuity was assessed during the preoperative period and at each postoperative visit with a Snellen chart at 6 m. Fifty eyes of 50 patients were successfully followed-up on. Overall, the mean residual astigmatism was 0.75±0.12 diopters. The differences in mean residual astigmatism between the two different incision groups were statistically significant (t [48]=6.33, P<0.05; frown incision group recorded 1.00±0.12 diopters, whereas the straight incision group recorded 0.50±0.12 diopters. No significant difference was observed between male and female groups (t [48]=0.24, P>0.05. Residual corneal astigmatism in the frown incision group was significantly higher than in the straight incision group. Fisher’s exact test did not reveal a significant association between incision forms and visual acuity during the entire postoperative period (P>0.05. Keywords: cataract, residual corneal astigmatism, frown incision, straight incision

  7. Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong; Musa, Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart. Fifty subjects with normal sight were randomly recruited through randomized sampling in this study (mean age=22.98±1.65 years). Subjects were asked to read three different near charts aloud and as quickly as possible at random sequence. The charts were the UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart, respectively. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any errors while reading were noted. Reading performance was quantified in terms of reading speed as words per minute (wpm). The mean reading speed for UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart was 200±30wpm, 196±28wpm and 194±31wpm, respectively. Comparison of reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and MNread Acuity Chart showed no significant difference (t=-0.73, p=0.72). The same happened with the reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart (t=-0.97, p=0.55). Bland and Altman plot showed good agreement between reading speed of UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart with MNread Acuity Chart with the Colenbrander Reading Chart. UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart in Malay language is highly comparable with standardized charts and can be used for evaluating reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of chromatic filters on visual performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimreite, Vanessa; Willeford, Kevin T; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Spectral filters have been used clinically in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, they have not been formally assessed using objective techniques in this population. Thus, the aim of the present pilot study was to determine the effect of spectral filters on reading performance and visuo-cortical responsivity in adults with mTBI. 12 adults with mTBI/concussion were tested. All reported photosensitivity and reading problems. They were compared to 12 visually-normal, asymptomatic adults. There were several test conditions: three luminance-matched control filters (gray neutral density, blue, and red), the patient-selected 'precision tint lens' that provided the most comfort and clarity of text using the Intuitive Colorimeter System, and baseline without any filters. The Visagraph was used to assess reading eye movements and reading speed objectively with each filter. In addition, both the amplitude and latency of the visual-evoked potential (VEP) were assessed with the same filters. There were few significant group differences in either the reading-related parameters or VEP latency for any of the test filter conditions. Subjective improvements were noted in most with mTBI (11/12). The majority of patients with mTBI chose a tinted filter that resulted in increased visual comfort. While significant findings based on the objective testing were found for some conditions, the subjective results suggest that precision tints should be considered as an adjunctive treatment in patients with mTBI and photosensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkader, Balsam; Leat, Susan Jennifer

    Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs. Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens' average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71. The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A Delphi study to develop practical diagnostic guidelines for visual stress (pattern-related visual stress).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bruce J W; Allen, Peter M; Wilkins, Arnold J

    Visual stress (VS) is characterised by symptoms of visual perceptual distortions and eyestrain when viewing text, symptoms that are alleviated by individually prescribed coloured filters. A recent review supports the existence of VS and its treatment, but noted that controversy remains, in part due to inconsistencies in the diagnosis of the condition. The present paper reviews the diagnostic criteria for VS in the literature and reports a Delphi analysis of the criteria currently used in clinical practice. Twenty-six eyecare practitioners were invited to participate in a Delphi study. They were selected because they were frequent prescribers of precision tinted lenses. In the first round they were sent a list of the indicators for which there is literature to suggest a relevance in the diagnosis of VS. The practitioners were invited to rank the indicators and add any additional criteria they use in diagnosis. In the second round a revised list was circulated, including items added from the responses in the first round. The respondents included optometrists, orthoptists and opticians. In the first round the response rate was 85%. Ninety-one percent of those who participated in the first round also responded in the second round. Strong indicators in the second round included the symptom of words moving when reading, voluntary use of an overlay for a prolonged period, improved performance of ≥15% with an overlay on the Wilkins Rate of Reading test, and an abnormally high score on the Pattern Glare Test. The strongest diagnostic criteria are combined in a diagnostic tool. This is proposed as a guide for clinical practice and further research. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution on silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Fraga, José; Blázquez Arauzo, Francisco; Urbano Rodríguez, Rubén; González-García, María J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS) with a formulation that includes aloe vera on its composition. This is a prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial with a crossover design that included seven examinations. Two different MPDSs, Avizor Alvera® (study solution) and All Clean Soft® (control solution), each were used for 1 month. Comfilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses were used during the trial. The main outcome variables were corneal staining and deposits on the surfaces of the contact lenses. Other parameters including ocular surface response, contact lens wettability, user satisfaction, and adverse events, were analyzed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. Twenty subjects (10 women, 10 men) (mean age, 27.7±5.6 years; range, 20-41) were included. No differences between both MPDSs were found in the percentage of subjects with corneal staining >0 at day 30 (study: 35%, control: 50%; p=0.46); neither in the percentage of subjects with deposits on the surface of the contact lens >0 at day 30 (study: 26.32%, control: 52.63%; p=0.18). The study MPDS received higher rates in comfort (study: 8.14±1.09, control: 7.94±0.92; p=0.56) and satisfaction at day 30 (study: 8.63±0.91, control: 8.29±0.80; p=0.19), however the scores were not significantly different with the control MPDS. The clinical trial showed that the study MPDS is safe, efficient, and has acceptable physiologic tolerance, according to the ISO 11980:2010 guidance for clinical investigation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

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    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  13. 重视更新视觉新理念以不断提升角膜屈光手术后视觉质量%Update the concepts on visual correction and enhance the visual quality after corneal refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁

    2016-01-01

    近年来现代眼科学和视光学领域的新技术和新理念不断涌现.波前技术及其衍生的一系列理念不仅将传统屈光不正概念重新定义并补充,出现了更为客观评价人眼光学质量的重要手段和方法,而且基于波前设计的各种手术视觉矫正方案也显示出较好的视觉矫正效果,推动了角膜屈光手术的变革和提高.因此提出临床工作的重点应着眼于视觉新理念的更新,并根据新理念进一步提出提升角膜屈光手术后视觉质量的可能途径.%In recent years, new technologies and ideas of modem ophthalmology and optometry have emerged.Based on the wavefront technology and its derivatives, the traditional concepts of refractive errors and vision correction have been redefined and supplemented.Human optical quality can be evaluated effectively and objectively.Moreover, the studies about the wavefront vision correction have shown preferable vision correction results.Application of these modern methods of wavefront refraction and correction offers important opportunities for better optical quality and visual performance in corneal refractive surgery.It also provides a foundation for creating novel clinical diagnosis and treatment options in vision correction.

  14. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening programs: an evaluation of utility and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuadros JA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jorge A Cuadros Optometry/Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: Diabetes is the main cause of blindness among working age adults, although treatment is highly effective in preventing vision loss. Eye examinations are recommended on a yearly basis for most patients for timely detection of retinal disease. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening (TMDRS programs have been developed to identify patients with sight-threatening diabetic eye disease because patients are often noncompliant with recommended live eye examinations. This article reviews the cost-effectiveness of the various forms of TMDRS. A review of relevant articles, mostly published since 2008, shows that societal benefits generally outweigh the costs of TMDRS. However, advances in technology to improve efficacy, lower costs, and broaden screening to other sight-threatening conditions, such as glaucoma and refractive error, are necessary to improve the sustainability of TMDRS within health care organizations. Patient satisfaction with these telemedicine programs is generally high. New models of shared care with primary care providers and staff are emerging to improve patient engagement and follow-up care when individuals are found to have sight-threatening eye disease. TMDRS programs are growing and provide valuable clinical benefit. The cost-utility is currently well proven in locations with limited access to regular eye care services, such as rural areas, poor communities, and prison systems; however, improvements over time are necessary for these programs to be cost-effective in mainstream medical settings in the future. Keywords: telemedicine, diabetes, retinopathy, retinal imaging

  15. Impact of the Alexander technique on well-being: a randomised controlled trial involving older adults with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Sherrington, Catherine; Lo, Serigne; Auld, Robin; Keay, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Older adults with visual loss have high rates of depression, restricted participation and reduced quality of life. We sought to measure the impact of lessons in the Alexander technique on vision-related emotional and social well-being, as secondary outcomes to a study on improving physical functioning in this population. This is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. One hundred and twenty community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 90 years with visual impairments were randomised to either 12 Alexander lessons over 12 weeks and usual care or usual care. The Perceived Visual Ability Scale, the Keele Assessment of Participation, the emotional subscale of the Impact of Vision Impairment Profile, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale were administered at baseline and three and 12 months. Participants were receiving services from Guide Dogs NSW/ACT. None of the validated questionnaires found statistically significant improvements after adjustment for baseline at three or 12 months, although the emotional subscale of the Impact of Vision Impairment approached significance in favour of the intervention group (4.54 points, 95 per cent CI: -0.14 to 9.21, p = 0.06). Depressive symptoms were prevalent and associated with greater impact of visual impairment on emotional well-being (odds ratio: 1.12, 95 per cent CI: 1.07 to 1.17, p visual impairment showed a trend toward less distress in the intervention group. Our data found that emotional distress associated with visual impairment influences depressive symptoms but contrary to expectations, the level of social support received was not significant. Additionally, gait speed is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, suggesting that general mobility is of importance to the well-being of older adults with visual impairments. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  16. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigbu DI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DeGaulle I Chigbu, Alissa M Coyne Pennsylvania College of Optometry Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA Abstract: Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis

  17. Amplitude of accommodation in an 11- to 17-year-old Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Forouzesh, Samira; Yazdani, Negareh; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to determine normal values of accommodative amplitude (AA) during adolescence in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, sampling was done from high school students in Kermanshah in 2015 through a multi-stage cluster sampling method and selected students were invited to participate in the study. Examinations were performed on-site at each sampled high school. All students had visual acuity and refractive examination followed by measurement of AA. Accommodative amplitude was tested with Donder's push-up method using a Royal Air Force (RAF) near point rule. Of the 1,070 selected students, 901 were included in the study and their mean age was 14.4 ± 1.7 years. Mean AA in this study was 11.53 ± 3.02 D (range: 5.00-28.50 D). Mean AA was 15.33 D in 11-year-olds and significantly decreased with age, until it reached 10.40 D in the 17-year-old age group. Mean AA in boys and girls were 10.09 ± 2.48 D and 11.65 ± 3.03 D, respectively. Based on the multiple linear regression model, younger age (coefficient = -0.774) and female gender (coefficient = 1.060) significantly associated with AA. This study showed that the AA in Iranian teenagers is lower than that calculated with Hofstetter's formula. It is important to take account of this point when making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  18. Thermodynamic measurement after cooling the cornea with intact epithelium and lid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ortueta, Diego; Magnago, Thomas; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the rate of change of ocular surface temperature (OST) under lid manipulation after cooling the intact cornea with balanced salt solution (BSS). In a patient for refractive surgery, prior to the ablation, the temperature of the cornea was continuously recorded with a high speed infrared (350Hz) camera. Two millilitre of chilled BSS with a temperature of 8.6°Celsius (°C) was instilled for about 3s. Using exponential functions, the three contributions have been determined, subjacent corneal layers, environment, and chilled BSS. The mean temperature of the cornea preoperatively was 34.5°C. After applying the chilled BSS the temperature decreased about 14°C down to an OST of 20°C and the time needed afterwards to get the normal (OST) temperature of about 30°C was 40s. Due to the inserted speculum and missing blink, OST did not reach the original OST of 34.5°C and faded at about 32.5°C. According to our best fitted model, absolute value of each contributing component was 31.4°C (subjacent corneal layers), 26.8°C (environment) and 8.6°C (BSS). Applying chilled BSS to the cornea quickly reduces the temperature of the cornea with a thermal relaxation time of 3s and a amplitude decrease of 8.6°C. This together with a relaxation time of 7s for subjacent corneal layers, and 184s for environment after instillation of BSS combined with a well-controlled environment provides a period of 40s of corneal temperature below baseline, which may be of clinical benefit when applying chilled BSS immediately before or immediately after ablation. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of apparent depth cues on accommodation in a Badal optometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Carles; Aldaba, Mikel; Martínez-Navarro, Beatriz; Pujol, Jaume

    2017-03-21

    The aim was to analyse the effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation in Badal optometers. Monocular refractions at 0.17 and 5.00 D of accommodative stimulus were measured with the PowerRef II autorefractor (Plusoptix Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Subjects looked (randomly) at four different scenes, one real scene comprising familiar objects at different depth planes (Real) and three virtual scenes comprising different two-dimensional pictures seen through a Badal lens. The first image consisted of a photograph of the real scene taken in conditions that closely mimic a healthy standard human eye performance (out-of-focus [OoF] blur); the second image was the same photograph rendered with a depth of focus to infinity (OoF sharpness); and finally the third image consisted of a fixation target and a even white surrounding (White). In all cases the field of view was 25.0° and the fixation target was a Maltese cross subtending to two degrees. Twenty-eight right eyes from healthy young subjects were measured. The achieved statistical power was 0.9. At 5.00 D of accommodative stimulus, the repeated measures analysis of variance was statistically significant (p depth cues inaccurately stimulates accommodation in Badal optometers; however, accommodation can be significantly improved in the same Badal optometer, when displaying a realistic image rich in peripheral depth cues, even though these peripheral cues (also referred to as retinal blur cues) are shown in the same plane as the fixation target. These results have important implications in stereoscopic virtual reality systems that fail to represent appropriately retinal blur. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  20. Fabrication of nonfouling, bactericidal, and bacteria corpse release multifunctional surface through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization

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    Wang B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bailiang Wang,1,2 Zi Ye,1 Yihong Tang,1 Yuemei Han,1 Quankui Lin,1,2 Huihua Liu,2 Hao Chen,1,2 Kaihui Nan1,2 1School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Infections after surgery or endophthalmitis are potentially blinding complications caused by bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on the intraocular lens. Neither single-function anti-adhesion surface nor contacting killing surface can exhibit ideal antibacterial function. In this work, a novel (2-(dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (p (DMAEMA-co-MPC brush was synthesized by “grafting from” method through reversible–addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. 1-Bromoheptane was used to quaternize the p (DMAEMA-co-MPC brush coating and to endow the surface with bactericidal function. The success of the surface functionalization was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, water contact angle, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The quaternary ammonium salt units were employed as efficient disinfection that can eliminate bacteria through contact killing, whereas the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine units were introduced to suppress unwanted nonspecific adsorption. The functionalized poly(dimethyl siloxane surfaces showed efficiency in reducing bovine serum albumin adsorption and in inhibiting bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation. The copolymer brushes also demonstrated excellent bactericidal function against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus bacteria measured by bacteria live/dead staining and shake-flask culture methods. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by morphology and activity measurement with human lens epithelial cells in vitro. The achievement of the p (DMAEMA+-co-MPC copolymer brush coating with nonfouling, bactericidal, and

  1. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  2. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging is useful in age-related distance esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sanchez, Pilar; Olavarri González, Gloria; Merino Sanz, Pilar; Escribano Villafruela, Jose C

    2017-06-07

    To describe findings for orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). We compared 31 orbital MRI from patients with ARDE (77±7 SD years) with 2 control groups: 32 orbits from individuals aged 18-50 years (33±8 SD years) and 16 orbits from individuals aged >60 years (77±7 SD years). MRI scans were acquired using 3D fast field echo in T1 sequence without fat saturation. Exclusion criteria for all groups were neurological or thyroid disease and a relevant ophthalmological history (e.g., high myopia, diplopia from another etiology, complicated cataract surgery, etc.). Muscle displacement and characteristics of the lateral rectus-superior rectus (LR-SR) intermuscular band were analyzed. The analysis of the muscles and angles revealed a series of statistically significant differences (p<0.07) between the groups. Subjects with ARDE had LR pulley positions 1.32±0.19mm lower than in younger controls, and the medial rectus (MR) pulley positions were 0.68±0.19mm lower than in younger. Older controls had LR and MR pulley positions 0.85±0.20mm and 0.49±0.23mm lower than in younger. ARDE subjects had LR pulley positions 0.46±0.26mm lower than in older control group. The LR-SR band was absent in 35.5% of ARDE patients and in 12.5% of older control group (p=0.168). MRI showed that displacements of LR and LR-SR band degeneration could facilitate the diagnosis of patients with ARDE. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between vessel diameter and depth measurements within the limbus using ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Emmanuel; Hutchings, Natalie; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Simpson, Trefford

    2017-06-16

    To establish a relationship between the diameter and depth position of vessels in the superior and inferior corneo-scleral limbus using ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT). Volumetric OCT images of the superior and inferior limbus were acquired from 14 healthy subjects with a research-grade UHR-OCT system. Differences in vessel diameter and depth between superior and inferior limbus were analyzed using repeated measured ANOVA in SPSS and R. The mean (± SD) superior and inferior diameters were 29±18μm and 24±18μm respectively, and the mean (± SD) superior and inferior depths were 177±109μm and 207±132μm respectively. The superior limbal vessels were larger than the inferior ones (RM-ANOVA, p=0.004), and the inferior limbal vessels were deeper than the superior vessels (RM-ANOVA, p=0.041). There was a positive linear association between limbal vessel depth and size within the superior and inferior limbus with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.803 and 0.754, respectively. This study demonstrated that the UHR-OCT was capable of imaging morphometric characteristics such as the size and depth of vessels in the limbus. The results of this study suggest a difference in the size and depth of vessels across different positions of the limbus, which may be indicative of adaptations to chronic hypoxia caused by the covering of the superior limbus by the upper eyelid. UHR-OCT may be a useful tool to evaluate the effect of contact lenses on the microvascular properties within the limbus. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.

  4. Paediatric ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hoskin, Annette K; Hanman, Kate; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Lam, Geoffrey C; Mackey, David A

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in children in Perth, Western Australia. This is a hospital-based retrospective review of children admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital for Children with diagnoses of ocular and/or adnexal trauma from 2002-2013. Hospital charts were reviewed for demographic information, injury and management details, follow-up and visual outcome. Final visual acuity was categorised into three groups: 6/12 or better, from 6/12 to 6/60, worse than 6/60. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and predicted probabilities for each category of final visual outcome. Over the 12-year time period, 482 children were admitted with ocular or adnexal injuries - an average of 40 admissions per year. The mean age of the cohort was 7.1 years (range 0.09 to 16.47 years) with a male to female ratio of 2.6:1.0. There were 185 closed-globe injuries, 72 open-globe injuries and 293 adnexal injuries. Fourteen per cent of the cohort sustained a combined globe and adnexal injury. Children in the up to five-year age group were most susceptible to injury. Eighty-two per cent of the group had a final visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Factors associated with poor visual outcomes included younger age (p < 0.01), open-globe injury (p < 0.01) and lens injury (p < 0.01). Based on the outcomes of our review, paediatric ocular and adnexal trauma are significant causes for hospital attendance in childhood. Identifying associated risk factors will help develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  5. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

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    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  6. Comparison of fixation disparity measured by saladin card and disparometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Kelly A; Elston, Phillip; Michalik, Emily; Templeman, Carrah D; Zoltoski, Rebecca K

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fixation disparity (FD) measurements taken with the Saladin Near Point Balance Card (Saladin card) to those made with the Sheedy Disparometer, and to determine if the same clinical norms used with the Disparometer can be applied to the newer Saladin card. Subjects were 44 optometry students (aged 23 to 34 years) without strabismus, amblyopia, or asthenopia during near work. They were randomized to begin at one of three examiners' stations: dissociated near phoria using Modified Thorington card; FD with Saladin card; and FD with Disparometer. Subjects proceeded to each station in turn. FD was measured for each subject through forced vergence demands of 0, 3, 6, and 9 base-in (BI), and 3, 6, 9, 16, and 20 base-out (BO), alternating BI and BO demands. Examiners were masked to subjects' results from the other stations. FD curve (FDC) types were the same with the two instruments in most cases. However, statistically significant differences were found for FDC slopes (p = 0.048), y intercepts (p Saladin card. FD values through BO prisms showed no statistically significant differences but great variability. The two instruments generally produce similar types of FDCs. However, the Disparometer tends to yield more eso/less exo FD measurements compared with the Saladin card. Although the newer Saladin card frequently produces FDC slopes and y intercepts within the expected range (as published for the Disparometer) for asymptomatic subjects, slopes and y intercepts obtained by the Saladin card are not sufficiently similar to those obtained by the Disparometer to warrant use of the same norms. Further study is needed to establish appropriate norms for the Saladin card.

  7. Test-retest reliability of the Saladin card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Amanda; Maples, W C

    2004-10-01

    Test-retest reliability is a measure of the confidence that results will be identical when the same patient is measured with an instrument in the same manner on more than one occasion. Using the Saladin Near Point Balance Card--an instrument designed to test various near visual findings, including visual acuity, phorias, AC/A ratios, dynamic retinoscopy, fixation disparity, associated phorias, fixation disparity curves, as well as accommodative and vergence facilities--28 first- and second-year optometry students were evaluated on two occasions by one clinician, with the tests separated by approximately two weeks. Subjects were required to demonstrate 20/20 distance visual acuity and at least 100 sec of arc stereopsis. A total of 38 findings were compared, which included near horizontal and vertical phorias, associated phoria, and fixation disparity curves. Twenty-two findings were performed through the subjects' habitual prescription and the remaining findings were taken through the lens indicated by MEM retinoscopy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Saladin Near Point Balance Card had acceptable test-retest reliability. If reliability can be demonstrated, this instrument could be used in clinical situations to diagnose visual departures from normal. All but two of the 38 tests performed demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Coefficients of repeatability and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. The Saladin Near Point Balance Card demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability. Since it is light-weight, portable, easily and quickly administered, and reliable, the Saladin card can be used by clinicians who are performing screenings or examinations in non-clinical situations, such as nursing homes or schools.

  8. Antifungal efficacy of soft contact lens disinfecting solutions against Fusarium solani and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadinia, Mohadeseh; Amiri, Mohammad Aghazadeh; Delavari, Fatemeh; Yousefzadeh, Bahman; Maymeh, Maryam Heydarpour

    2012-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the disinfection properties of six multi-purpose contact lens disinfection solutions (MPDS) available in Iran against Fusarium solani and Candida albicans, based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14729 guidelines. Three lots each of six multi-purpose solutions, namely, Renu MultiPlus, Solo Care Aqua, All-Clean soft, Contact All In One Advanced, Hippia, Ginza Multi-Purpose Solution and 0.9% normal saline solution were inoculated with standard strains of Fusarium solani (ATCC 36031) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). Surviving fungi were determined by counting colony-forming units on recovery plates at specified times. The mean log reduction in fungal numbers at the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfection time was determined and compared with the criteria for stand-alone disinfection products for each MPDS against each fungal strain. Renu MultiPlus, Contact All In One Advanced and All-Clean Soft were effective in achieving the mean 1.0 log reduction in fungal numbers, based on ISO 14729 stand-alone primary acceptance criteria. Solo Care Aqua failed to achieve the ISO 14729 stand-alone primary acceptance criteria for Candida albicans. The other solutions were not effective against test microorganisms after the specified times. There were differences in the rates of disinfection efficacy. Generally, Renu MultiPlus, Contact All In One Advanced and All-Clean Soft exceeded the primary acceptance criteria of the ISO 14729 guidelines for stand-alone contact lens solutions. © 2012 Government of Iran. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  9. Influence of age on measured anatomical and physiological interpupillary distance (far and near, and near heterophoria, in Arab males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanazi SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Saud A AlAnazi, Mana A AlAnazi, Uchechukwu L Osuagwu Corneal Research Chair, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Purpose: To compare the effects of age and near phoria on interpupillary distance measured at far (FIPD and near (NIPD using the Viktorin's and pupillometer (PD-5 methods. Methods: Interpupillary distance (IPD by Viktorin's method and the corneal reflex pupillometer (PD-5 method, as well as near heterophoria by the Saladin near point card, were each obtained on 133 randomly selected normal subjects aged 20–67 years. Comparison within and between techniques, influence of age on IPD, and near heterophoria were assessed. Results: The mean FIPD varied significantly from the NIPD (P 0.05 for FIPD, and -3.1 mm and 2.9 mm (P > 0.05 for NIPD. Both IPDs varied significantly across age groups (P 0.04; P < 0.03, both techniques. Conclusion: The difference between FIPD and NIPD (about 4.4 mm in Arab males was observed independent of the technique used. The Viktorin's and the PD-5 methods of IPD assessment resulted in similar values, and therefore, could be interchangeably used. However, caution is advised in cases of high power refractive corrections as the difference could vary from -4 mm to +3 mm (FIPD and -3 mm to +3 mm (NIPD. Both IPDs have demonstrated an increase until the patients are in their early 40s, and a slight decrease has been observed thereafter. Age and NIPD were significantly associated with heterophoria in our subjects. Keywords: phoria, interpupillary distance, Viktorin's method, pupillometer, Saladin near point card, age

  10. Prevalence of Accommodative and Non-Strabismic Binocular Anomalies in a Puerto Rican Pediatric Population

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    Stefania M. Paniccia, OD, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There exists a considerable void in the literature of studies that examine the prevalence of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders in the pediatric population of Puerto Rico. The purpose of this retrospective study was to fill this void by performing a comprehensive record review of the pediatric clinical population of the InterAmerican University College of Optometry satellite clinics. Methods: This study was performed using a random selection of 593 existing health records of patients between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Patients had participated in a complete optometric assessment between the years 2004 and 2012. The criteria for selection were the absence of strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, vertical deviation, corneal pathology, retinal pathology, lens pathology, or any other parameter outside of population requirements. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS program. Results of this study indicate that the most common non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies in the studied population are accommodative insufficiency (39.0%, convergence insufficiency (12.6%, convergence excess (9.1%, and accommodative infacility (7.6%. Conclusions: Accommodative and non-strabismic binocular vision problems are prevalent in the pediatric population of the InterAmerican satellite clinics. This is the first epidemiologic study about the prevalence of these conditions in Puerto Rico. Due to the possibility of these non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies resulting in a reduced quality of life for children and affecting school performance, sports performance, and play activities, an appropriate vision evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is important. Lastly, further comprehensive studies should be conducted in Puerto Rico using this study as a base for data collection and analysis.

  11. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation.

  12. Depression in the elderly with visual impairment and its association with quality of life

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    Renaud J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Judith Renaud, Emmanuelle Bédard School of Optometry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Background: Visual impairment is more prevalent in the elderly and depression is common in this population. Although many studies have investigated depression or quality of life (QOL in older adults with visual impairment, few have looked at the association between these two concepts for this population. The aim of this systematized review was to describe the association between depression and QOL in older adults with visual impairment. Methods: A search was done using multiple electronic databases for studies addressing the relationship between QOL and depression in elders with visual impairment. The concept of QOL was divided into two different approaches, ie, QOL as achievement and QOL as subjective well-being. Comparison of QOL scores between participants with and without depression (Cohen's d and correlations between depression and QOL (Pearson's r were examined. Results: Thirteen studies reported in 18 articles were included in the review. Nearly all of the studies revealed that better QOL was moderately to strongly correlated with less severe depressive symptoms (r = 0.22–0.68 for QOL as achievement; r = 0.68 and 0.72 for QOL as subjective well-being. Effect sizes for the QOL differences between the groups with and without depression ranged from small to large (d = 0.17 to 0.95 for QOL as achievement; no data for QOL as subjective well-being. Conclusion: Additional studies are necessary to pinpoint further the determinants and mediators of this relationship. Considering the high prevalence rate of depression in this community and its disabling effects on QOL, interventions to prevent and treat depression are essential. More efforts are needed in clinical settings to train health care practitioners to identify depressed elders with visual impairment and provide appropriate treatment. Keywords: depressive symptoms, disability, health

  13. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur

    2014-01-01

    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to use of refractive services in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Naidoo, Kovin; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Carmen; Harris, Geoff; Chinanayi, Farai; Loughman, James

    2015-01-01

    Uncorrected refractive error remains a leading cause of visual impairment (VI) across the globe with Mozambique being no exception. The establishment of an optometry profession in Mozambique that is integrated into the public health system denotes significant progress with refractive services becoming available to the population. As the foundations of a comprehensive refractive service have now been established, this article seeks to understand what barriers may limit their uptake by the general population and inform decision making on improved service delivery. A community-based cross-sectional study using two-stage cluster sampling was conducted. Participants with VI were asked to identify barriers that were reflective of their experiences and perceptions of accessing refractive services. A total of 4601 participants were enumerated from 76 clusters in Nampula, Mozambique. A total of 1087 visually impaired participants were identified (884 with near and 203 with distance impairment). Cost was the most frequently cited barrier, identified by more than one in every two participants (53%). Other barriers identified included lack of felt need (20%), distance to travel (15%), and lack of awareness (13%). In general, no significant influence of sex or type of VI on barrier selection was found. Location had a significant impact on the selection of several barriers. Pearson χ analysis indicated that participants from rural areas were found to feel disadvantaged regarding the distance to services (p ≤ 0.001) and adequacy of hospital services (p = 0.001). For a comprehensive public sector refractive service to be successful in Mozambique, those planning its implementation must consider cost and affordability. A clear strategy for overcoming lack of felt need will also be needed, possibly in the form of improved advocacy and health promotion. The delivery of refractive services in more remote rural areas merits careful and comprehensive consideration.

  15. An integrated literature review of undergraduate peer teaching in allied health professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S van Vuuren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The concept of peer-assisted teaching or peer-assisted learning (PAL has been receiving more attention in the teaching of medical and allied health students. Many advantages have been described in the literature, but much more research is needed. Challenges with the academic platform at a specific institution of higher learning necessitate investigation into the current literature on PAL, which can inform decisions in terms of teaching and learning of allied health professions students. Objective. To critically appraise evidence of the effectiveness and implementation of PAL during the professional clinical skills training of undergraduate students in allied health professions to make informed future decisions on teaching and learning. Methods. A literature search was conducted by an experienced librarian in the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa and the researcher in multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Africa-Wide Information, ERIC and PubMed published from 2000 to 2014. Results. One hundred and seventy-five articles on PAL in health professions training were identified. The selected articles (n=20 were independently critically appraised by two researchers by means of the standardised critical appraisal skills programme (CASP and the Author Manuscript of the National Institutes of Health on Appraising Quantitative Research in Health Education. Nine articles were identified to be reviewed (two by the same author. Conclusion. The findings with regard to the limited number of articles reviewed suggested that PAL may address some of the needs of the new generation of students and may be beneficial to the student tutor, student tutee and clinical supervisor. More evidence is needed in terms of the questions arising from the review, especially with regard to occupational therapy, dietetics and nutrition, and optometry, to fully implement PAL.

  16. Advance in mechanism and clinical application of ocular dominance%主视眼的形成机制及临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万博

    2013-01-01

    The researches on ocular dominance have been continuing deeply last decade years since the concept was first described by means by Porta in 1593.Based on the neurophysiology and molecular biology,it is confirmed that the procedure of ocular dominance involves sublayer 4C of the visual cortex,N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor,a-calmodulin kinase Ⅱ (aCaMK Ⅱ),synapses and about candidate gens.Meanwhile,ocular dominance theory plays an important guiding role in optometry,laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis and cataract operation.In this review,the mechanism and clinical application of ocular dominance were summarized.%自Porta提出主视眼的概念以来,有关此领域的研究在不断深入,特别是近十年来通过大脑视皮层的神经生理学、分子生物学的研究证实,主视眼的形成与主视眼柱、N-甲基-D-门冬氨酸(NMDA)受体、aCaMKⅡ、神经突触以及基因有关.目前,眼科临床对主视眼的认识逐渐加深,并开始应用于验光配镜、准分子激光手术以及白内障手术等领域.就近年来主视眼的形成机制和临床应用进展进行综述.

  17. Research on the teaching practice of "vocational ability" of physical education curriculum in higher vocational colleges--Zhangzhou Health Career Academy as an example%高职院校体育课程“职业能力”教学实践研究--以漳州卫生职业学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹航

    2016-01-01

    Higher vocational colege physical education curriculum, in addition to play their own functions of school physical education must also be with professional characteristics, and actively fastened to the target of cultivating talents of professional ability. This study selects Zhangzhou Health Career Academy 422 students of nursing, medicine, optometry, clinical medicine major as the experimental object, studies practical PE curriculum teaching, mainly uses the techniques of experimental research and data analysis, before and after contrast special professional fitness training to reflect on whether there are positive effects, in order to develop professional ability oriented physical education career development path.%高职高专的体育课程,除了发挥学校体育的本职功能以外,还必须具备职业化特色,积极扣紧以培养“职业能力”的人才目标。本研究整群抽取漳州卫生职业学院护理、药学、眼视光、临床医学四个专业共422名学生为实验对象,研究职业实用性体育课程教学的情况,主要运用实验研究和数据分析等,对比专项职业体适能的训练教学前后,思考其对学生职业技能操作水平和效果是否有积极影响,以期开拓以“职业能力”为导向的体育教育职业化发展道路。

  18. 佛山地区50岁及以上人群白内障患病情况的流行病学调查%Epidemiologic investigation of cataract among adults aged 50 or older in Foshan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鹏; 李燕如; 刘东玲; 罗书科

    2016-01-01

    •AIM:To investigate the prevalence and distribution of cataract among adults aged 50 or older in Foshan area.•METHODS:Cluster sampling method was used in 4 539 inhabitants aged 50 or older in urban and rural of Foshan city from January 2014 to June 2015.All individuals were received visual acuity and eye examination, including slit lamp examination, fundus examination, automatic optometry and intraocular pressure examination.•RESULTS:There were 641 patients with cataract among the 4 539 adults and the prevalence of cataract was 14.12%.The prevalence of cataract grew as the adults became older ( P0.05).• CONCLUSION: Cataract is the most common eye disease that leads to blindness and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 or older in the area.%目的:调查佛山50岁及以上人群的白内障患病情况。方法:对目标人群进行整群抽样。2014-01/2015-06对4539名调查对象进行视力、眼压、验光、裂隙灯、眼底照相等检查。结果:在4539名受检者中,发现白内障患者641例,患病率14.12%。白内障患病率随年龄的增加而上升( P<0.05),城乡之间的白内障患病率差异显著(P<0.05),但性别差异不明显( P>0.05)。结论:白内障是佛山城乡地区50岁及以上人群的主要致盲性眼病。

  19. An economic comparison of hospital-based and community-based glaucoma clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Jofre-Bonet, M; Panca, M; Lawrenson, J G; Murdoch, I

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We have established one model for community care of glaucoma clinic patients. Community optometrists received training and accreditation in glaucoma care. Once qualified they alternated between running half day glaucoma clinics in their own High Street practices and assisting in a hospital-based glaucoma clinic session. This paper reports the cost of this model. Methods Micro-costing was undertaken for the hospital clinic. A consensus meeting was held to agree costs for community clinics involving all optometrists in the project along with representatives of the multiple chain optometry practices who had participated. Costs to patients both indirect and direct were calculated following structured interviews of 197 patients attending hospital clinics and 194 attending community clinics. Results The estimated cost per patient attendance to the hospital clinic was £63.91 and the estimated cost per attendance to the community clinic was £145.62. For patients the combined direct and indirect cost to attend the hospital clinic was £6.15 and the cost to attend the community clinic £5.91. Discussion The principal reason for the higher cost in the community clinic was higher overhead costs in the community. Re-referral to the hospital system only occurred for 9% of patients and was not a large contribution to the increased cost. Time requested to next appointment was similar for the two clinics. Sensitivity analysis shows a strong effect of increasing patients seen per clinic. It would, however, require 25 patients to be seen per clinician per day in the community in order to make the costs comparable. PMID:22562188

  20. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic patients using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. METHODS Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. RESULTS The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical response with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. PMID:26049831

  1. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic subjects using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used to predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Observational cross-sectional study. Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical responses with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark DP WillcoxSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms "Pseudomonas" + "Keratitis" limit to "2007–2012", and ["Ulcerative" or "Microbial"] + "Keratitis" + "Contact lenses" limit to "2007–2012". These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin. In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (≥95% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%.Keywords: Pseudomonas, keratitis, contact lens

  3. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    2017-06-06

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Tear Ferning Patterns and Non-invasive Tear Break-up Time in Normal Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanjeet-Kaur; Ho, Chien Yee; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between tear ferning patterns (TFP) and non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) in normal Asian subjects. One hundred and forty-five adults with no ocular surface disorders were recruited. TFP and NIBUT were determined. Tears were collected using a capillary tube and allowed to air dry at room temperature for 10min. TFP was later observed using a light microscope and classified according to Rolando's classification. Measurement for NIBUT was obtained using a Tearscope with the slit lamp magnification. It was found that there is no significant difference between gender in TFP (Z=-1.77, P>.05) and NIBUT (Z=-1.475, P>.05). There is also no significant difference between Malay, Chinese, Indian, and other races in TFP, (H(3)=4.85, P>.05) and NIBUT (H(3)=2.18, P>.05). However, there is a significant difference between age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49,and 50-60 years old in both TFP (H(3)=28.25, P<.01) and NIBUT (H(3)=36.50, P<.001). Spearman's correlation showed there was a significant relationship between TFP and NIBUT (r=-0.55, P<.001), age and NIBUT (r=-0.50, P<.001), age and TFP (r=0.41, P<.001), McMonnies score and NIBUT (r=-0.40, P<.001), McMonnies score and TFP (r=0.31, P<.001), as well as age and McMonnies score (r=0.52, P<.001). TFP and NIBUT was age dependent but not gender and race dependent. Older subjects had higher grade of TFP and McMonnies questionnaire score but lower NIBUT value. TFP and NIBUT can be used to assess the tear film quality. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A situational analysis of ocular health promotion in the South African primary health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithole, Hlupheka Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    South Africa has a serious burden of avoidable blindness and visual impairment, which may be due to poor ocular health promotional policies and programs or implementation. Therefore, this paper sought to critically analyse the South African primary health-care policies and programs, to identify the components of ocular health promotional policies and programs as well as how they are currently being implemented and to suggest areas that can be improved in order to minimise the burden of blindness and visual impairment. Triangulated quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in the study. Questionnaire and interviews were used to solicit data from national and provincial managers of different health directorates. Eye-care managers from each province also completed the questionnaire. Furthermore, relevant health policy and program documents from national and provincial departments of health were studied to identify areas relating to ocular health promotion. The study found varying degrees of implementation of various ocular health promotional activities in the provinces with the majority of respondents (62 per cent) indicating that ocular health promotion was not part of their responsibility and another 81 per cent revealing that vision screening does not form part of their health promotional programs. It further revealed a lack of a dedicated directorate for ocular health-care issues and the absence of an integrated ocular health promotional policy. Ocular health promotional activities were absent in other provinces. This may be a major contributing factor to poor ocular health promotion in South Africa and hence, the high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that an integrated ocular health promotional model (directorate and policies) be developed and be part of the South African primary health-care system. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  6. Anti-VEGF treatment for myopic choroid neovascularization: from molecular characterization to update on clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhang,1 Qian Han,2 Yusha Ru,1 Qiyu Bo,1 Rui Hua Wei1 1Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University Eye Institute, College of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 2Tangshan Eye Hospital, Tangshan, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV secondary to pathologic myopia has a very high incidence in global, especially in Asian, populations. It is a common cause of irreversible central vision loss, and severely affects the quality of life in the patients with pathologic myopia. The traditional therapeutic modalities for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia include thermal laser photocoagulation, surgical management, transpupillary thermotherapy, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. However, the long-term outcomes of these modalities are disappointing. Recently, intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF biological agents, including bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib, aflibercept, and conbercept, has demonstrated promising outcomes for this ocular disease. The anti-VEGF regimens are more effective on improving visual acuity, reducing central fundus thickness and central retina thickness than the traditional modalities. These anti-VEGF agents thus hold the potential to become the first-line medicine for treatment of CNV secondary to pathologic myopia. This review follows the trend of “from bench to bedside”, initially discussing the pathogenesis of myopic CNV, delineating the molecular structures and mechanisms of action of the currently available anti-VEGF drugs, and then systematically comparing the up to date clinical applications as well as the efficacy and safety of the anti-VEGF drugs to the CNV secondary to pathologic myopia. Keywords: formation of new vessels, choroid membrane, pathologic myopia, vascular endothelial growth factor, molecular mechanisms, clinical trials

  7. Developing the clinical components of a complex intervention for a glaucoma screening trial: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Open angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma. No randomised controlled trials have been conducted evaluating the effectiveness of glaucoma screening for reducing sight loss. It is unclear what the most appropriate intervention to be evaluated in any glaucoma screening trial would be. The purpose of this study was to develop the clinical components of an intervention for evaluation in a glaucoma (open angle screening trial that would be feasible and acceptable in a UK eye-care service. Methods A mixed-methods study, based on the Medical Research Council (MRC framework for complex interventions, integrating qualitative (semi-structured interviews with 46 UK eye-care providers, policy makers and health service commissioners, and quantitative (economic modelling methods. Interview data were synthesised and used to revise the screening interventions compared within an existing economic model. Results The qualitative data indicated broad based support for a glaucoma screening trial to take place in primary care, using ophthalmic trained technical assistants supported by optometry input. The precise location should be tailored to local circumstances. There was variability in opinion around the choice of screening test and target population. Integrating the interview findings with cost-effectiveness criteria reduced 189 potential components to a two test intervention including either optic nerve photography or screening mode perimetry (a measure of visual field sensitivity with or without tonometry (a measure of intraocular pressure. It would be more cost-effective, and thus acceptable in a policy context, to target screening for open angle glaucoma to those at highest risk but for both practicality and equity arguments the optimal strategy was screening a general population cohort beginning at age forty. Conclusions Interventions for screening for open angle

  8. [Influence of wearing long wavelength filter glasses on refractive development of children's hyperopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Yu, Z Q; Chu, R Y; Qian, Y S; Xu, Y; Wang, X Q

    2017-01-11

    Objective: To investigate the effect of wearing long wavelength filter glasses on refractive development of children's hyperopia. Methods: Case control study. Seventeen 5-7 years' old children with high hyperopia from optometry clinic of Eye and ENT Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University were enrolled in this research. The experiment design was self-control between right and left eye, 3 children were lost during two years' period of observation, all the children's hyperopic refraction were more than +6.00 D, cycloplegic by 1% atropine. All the children were required to wear long wavelength filter glasses for 6 hours after waking up, the rest of the time with the conventional glasses. Refraction, axis and red/green match point were tested before the intervention and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months, after the intervention. Results: After two years' intervention, hyperopia decreased, eye axis increased, the best corrected visual acuity increased both in experimental eyes and control eyes, but there were no statistically significant difference between the two groups at each time point. All children were with normal color vision, compared to the long-wavelength light, the hyperopic eyes were more sensitive to middle-wavelength light, no significant difference was found between two groups, red/green match points were 42.802±1.216 and 42.889±1.560 respectively. After wearing long wavelength filter, red/green match point were significant decreased in the experimental group in 6 months and 12 months time points (6 months: 0.995±0. 543 vs. 0.104±0.143, t=3.04, P=0.005, 12 months: 1.096±0.392 vs. 0.17±0.248, t=2.725, P=0.008). The experiment eyes were more sensitive to long-wavelength light than the control eyes. But in later time, there was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Wearing long wavelength filter glasses two years has no effect on refractive development on children with high hyperopia, but it can cause short-term chromatic adaptation, making

  9. Peripheral refraction and higher-order aberrations with cycloplegia and fogging lenses using the BHVI-EyeMapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi Chandra; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Thomas, Varghese; Holden, Brien Anthony

    2016-01-01

    pronounced for peripheral field angles than central measures, for both M and J180 components. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of objective refraction in darkness to cycloplegic refraction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Meehan, Kelly; Grk, Dejana; Cox, Misty

    2016-03-01

    significantly different and furthermore, they were highly correlated in both the children and adults in this pilot study. Non-cycloplegic refraction in the dark may provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to conventional cycloplegic refraction in both children and young adults. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  11. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  12. Visual outcomes after spectacles treatment in children with bilateral high refractive amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Wen; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lai, Ing-Chou; Teng, Mei-Ching

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the visual outcomes of treatment with spectacles for bilateral high refractive amblyopia in children three to eight years of age. Children with previously untreated bilateral refractive amblyopia were enrolled. Bilateral high refractive amblyopia was defined as visual acuity (VA) being worse than 6/9 in both eyes in the presence of 5.00 D or more of hyperopia, 5.00 D or more of myopia and 2.00 D or more of astigmatism. Full myopic and astigmatic refractive errors were corrected, and the hyperopic refractive errors were corrected within 1.00 D of the full correction. All children received visual assessments at four-weekly intervals. VA, Worth four-dot test and Randot preschool stereotest were assessed at baseline and every four weeks for two years. Twenty-eight children with previously untreated bilateral high refractive amblyopia were enrolled. The mean VA at baseline was 0.39 ± 0.24 logMAR and it significantly improved to 0.21, 0.14, 0.11, 0.05 and 0.0 logMAR at four, eight, 12, 24 weeks and 18 months, respectively (all p = 0.001). The mean stereoacuity (SA) was 1,143 ± 617 arcsec at baseline and it significantly improved to 701, 532, 429, 211 and 98 arcsec at four, eight, 12, 24 weeks and 18 months, respectively (all p = 0.001). The time interval for VA achieving 6/6 was significantly shorter in the eyes of low spherical equivalent (SE) (-2.00 D +2.00 D) (3.33 ± 2.75 months versus 8.11 ± 4.56 months, p = 0.0005). All subjects had normal fusion on Worth four-dot test at baseline and all follow-up visits. Refractive correction with good spectacles compliance improves VA and SA in young children with bilateral high refractive amblyopia. Patients with greater amounts of refractive error will achieve resolution of amblyopia with a longer time. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ho, Allen C.; Tasman, William S.

    2014-01-01

    depression will increase. Promoting interactions between ophthalmology, optometry, rehabilitation, psychiatry, and behavioral psychology may prevent depression in this population. PMID:25016366

  14. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  15. Ray pencils of general divergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available That a thin refracting element can have a dioptric power which is asymmetric immediately raises questions at the fundamentals of linear optics.  In optometry the important concept of vergence, in particular, depends on the concept of a pencil of rays which in turn depends on the existence of a focus.  But systems that contain refracting elements of asymmetric power may have no focus at all.  Thus the existence of thin systems with asym-metric power forces one to go back to basics and redevelop a linear optics from scratch that is sufficiently general to be able to accommodate suchsystems.  This paper offers an axiomatic approach to such a generalized linear optics.  The paper makes use of two axioms: (i a ray in a homogeneous medium is a segment of a straight line, and (ii at an interface between two homogeneous media a ray refracts according to Snell’s equation.  The familiar paraxial assumption of linear optics is also made.  From the axioms a pencil of rays at a transverse plane T in a homogeneous medium is defined formally (Definition 1 as an equivalence relation with no necessary association with a focus.  At T the reduced inclination of a ray in a pencil is an af-fine function of its transverse position.  If the pencilis centred the function is linear.  The multiplying factor M, called the divergency of the pencil at T, is a real  2 2×  matrix.  Equations are derived for the change of divergency across thin systems and homogeneous gaps.  Although divergency is un-defined at refracting surfaces and focal planes the pencil of rays is defined at every transverse plane ina system (Definition 2.  The eigenstructure gives aprincipal meridional representation of divergency;and divergency can be decomposed into four natural components.  Depending on its divergency a pencil in a homogeneous gap may have exactly one point focus, one line focus, two line foci or no foci.Equations are presented for the position of a focusand of its

  16. A Comparison of Two Tests of Visual-Motor Integration

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    Jennifer Idoni, OD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual-motor integration is the degree to which visual perception and body movement are coordinated. This study investigated the relationship between two tests used to evaluate visual-motor integration, the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-2 and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI. Methods: Fifty-three children (ages 7 years, 0 months to 11 years, 11 months were evaluated using the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 and the VMI. They were patients in either the Pediatrics or Vision Therapy departments at The Eye Center at Southern College of Optometry. Thirty-two of the 53 were currently enrolled in, or had completed, a vision therapy program. Further correlations were studied between subsamples of patients who were currently enrolled in, or had completed, a vision therapy program and those who had not. Results: There was no significant correlation between the VMI and age (r=-0.005, p=0.9686 or the DTVP-2 and age (r=-0.2699, p=0.0506 in the main group. A significant positive correlation was found between the two tests (r=0.2744, p=0.0467. In the subsample of those subjects who had never been enrolled in a vision therapy program, there was no significant correlation between the VMI and age (r=0.1108, p=0.5459 or between the DTVP-2 and age (r=-0.3306, p=0.0646. A statistically significant positive correlation between the two tests was found (r=0.4513, p=0.0095. Likewise, in the subsample who were currently either enrolled in or had completed a vision therapy program, there was no significant correlation between the VMI and age (r=-0.0236, p=0.3029 or DTVP-2 and age (r=-0.1654, p=0.4736. However, contrary to the subsample of those not in a vision therapy program, the two tests were not correlated (r=- 0.0437, p=0.8510. Conclusion: Performance on the VMI and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 correlated with one another, but cannot be used interchangeably. The two tests assess

  17. Low vision depression prevention trial in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Massof, Robert W; Leiby, Benjamin E; Ho, Allen C; Tasman, William S

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of behavior activation (BA) + low vision rehabilitation (LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) + LVR to prevent depressive disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized, clinical trial with outcome assessment at 4 months. Patients with AMD and subsyndromal depressive symptoms attending retina practices (n = 188). Before randomization, all subjects had 2 outpatient LVR visits, and were then randomized to in-home BA+LVR or ST+LVR. Behavior activation is a structured behavioral treatment that aims to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV defined depressive disorder based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (primary outcome), Activities Inventory, National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire-25 plus Supplement (NEI-VFQ), and NEI-VFQ quality of life (secondary outcomes). At 4 months, 11 BA+LVR subjects (12.6%) and 18 ST+LVR subjects (23.4%) developed a depressive disorder (relative risk [RR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-1.06; P = 0.067). In planned adjusted analyses the RR was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.27-0.98; P = 0.04). A mediational analysis suggested that BA+LVR prevented depression to the extent that it enabled subjects to remain socially engaged. In addition, BA+LVR was associated with greater improvements in functional vision than ST+LVR, although there was no significant between-group difference. There was no significant change or between-group difference in quality of life. An integrated mental health and low vision intervention halved the incidence of depressive disorders relative to standard outpatient LVR in patients with AMD. As the population ages, the number of persons with AMD and the adverse effects of comorbid depression will increase. Promoting interactions between ophthalmology, optometry

  18. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing

  19. 三硝基甲苯作业工人白内障患病调查%Prevalence of cataract among workers exposed to trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈于; 张华东; 付婷婷; 秦启忠; 韩令力; 张晓丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the harmful effect of trinitrotoluene (TNT) on workers'eyes. Methods Ocular examinations including optometry, type-B ultrasonic, astigmatism, and turbidity were carried out among 542 workers exposed to TNT and the results were analyzed. Results There were 90 patients diagnosed as cataract ( 1 patient of 3rd stage,17 of 2nd,and 72 of 1st stage) with a total prevalence rate of 16. 6% and a higher prevalence of 23.46% in the male than that of in the female (3.26% ,P < 0. 05 ). Totally 343 workers were classified as the subjects to be followed-up for occupational hazards with a total detection rate of 63.28% and a higher rate for the male ( 75.70% ) than the female ( 39. 13% ) ( P < 0. 05). The prevalence rate of cataract increased with age,TNT exposure. and working years ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence rate of cataract among the workers exposed to TNT was relatively high and closely related to gender, type of work,age,and working years.%目的 了解三硝基甲苯(TNT)作业人员眼部的损害情况.方法 对某炸药厂作业人员542人进行体检,重点检查眼部白内障患病情况,对结果进行统计学分析.结果 检出TNT白内障患者90例,其中Ⅲ期患者1例,Ⅱ期17例,Ⅰ期72例,总患病率为16.6%,其中男性23.46%,女性3.26%;检出观察对象343人,总检出率63.28%,其中男性75.70%,女性39.13%,患病率及检出率男性均高于女性(P<0.05);患病率随年龄、TNT暴露程度以及工龄增加而上升(P<0.05).结论 所调查炸药厂三硝基甲苯作业人员白内障患病率较高,性别、工种、年龄、工龄与TNT白内障发生密切相关.

  20. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

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    Turki Almubrad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal thickness using SOCT Copernicus HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Silvia; Viqueira, Valentín; Mas, David; Domenech, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    cornea for anterior segment scanning required that patients were positioned slightly farther away from the machine head-rest than in the setup for retinal imaging. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. Thirty years of optometric education at Turfloop (1975-2005: A historical and educational overview

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    A.O. Oduntan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It  is  always  necessary  to  document  his-torical  events  for  the  purpose  of  future  gen-erations.    The  Department  of  Optometry  at Turfloop  had  a  complex  development  which needs  to  be  documented;  hence,  the  purpose of  this  article  is  to  present  a  historical  and educational overview of the optometric educa-tion at Turfloop, thirty years after its inception. This article is timely not only because of the milestone  that  the  department  has  reached,  but also because the institution (University of the North where it was established 30 years ago has merged with the Medical University of  Southern Africa  (MEDUNSA,  to  form  a new institution called University of Limpopo (UL  in  January  2005. This  article  discusses the  historical  background  of  the  department, staffing,  facilities,  academic  developments, student enrolment, graduation and curriculum development. Academic, research and commu-nity outreach programmes are also discussed.  Also, the future activities which may further enhance  the  development  of  the  department are described. This article will serve as one of the reference sources for the present and future generations who may be interested in the his-torical development of optometric education at Turfloop.

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye in Keratoconus Patients Before and After Intrastromal Corneal Rings Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Gonzalo; Recchioni, Alberto; Alejandre-Alba, Nicolás; Martin-Gil, Alba; Batres, Laura; Morote, Ignacio Jimenez-Alfaro; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Based on the relationship between keratoconus and dry eye, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in signs and symptoms of dry eye in keratoconus patients before and after intrastromal corneal ring surgery. Fifteen keratoconus patients were enrolled in Fundación Jiménez-Díaz of Madrid and University Clinic of Optometry of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Madrid, Spain). Tear break up time (TBUT), Schirmer test without anesthesia, corneal staining, diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were evaluated. Impression cytology combined with laser confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate goblet cell density, mucin cloud height (MCH), and cell layer thickness (CLT). All measurements were performed before (pre) surgery, 1 month (post) and 6 months after surgery (post6m). We found no statistical differences in time in Schirmer test, TBUT, and corneal staining. OSDI scores were 44.96  ±  8.65, 26.30 ± 6.79, and 19.31 ± 4.28 for (pre), (post), and (post6m) surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). Impression cytology showed a decrease in cell density at (post6m) compared with presurgery (47.36 ± 35.15 cells/mm(2) and 84.88 ± 32.08 cells/mm(2), respectively, p = 0.04). At post6m, the MCH increased compared with presurgery values (13.97 ± 4.26 µm and 6.77 ± 2.51 µm, respectively, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in CLT in time. Ap4A tear concentrations were lower post6m than presurgery (1.02  ±  0.65 and 2.56   ± 1.10  µM, respectively, p < 0.001). Intrastromal corneal ring surgery induces changes improving dry eye symptoms but no changes were found in signs of dry eye after surgery in keratoconus patients except for the MCH that increases drastically. More studies are needed to clarify the reason of its improvement.

  4. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

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    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  5. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth in healthy Saudi females

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    El-Agamy A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amira El-Agamy,1,2,* Fayrouz Oteaf,1,* Mohamed Berika3,4 1Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 3Rehabilitation Science Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: This study was conducted to determine normative profile of anterior lamina ­cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD in healthy Saudi females using Topcon Three-Dimensional (3D Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT 2000 – Spectral Domain (SD-OCT. In addition, the correlation between ALCSD and other clinical factors such as age, refractive error, intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and disk area was also assessed.Design: This study was a prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional, observational, and quantitative study.Methods: This study included 191 eyes of 191 healthy Saudi females from the College of Applied Medical Sciences of King Saud University. Stereoscopic disk photographs were reconstructed using Topcon 3D OCT-2000 for all subjects. ALCSD was measured at three planes (superior, middle, and inferior and defined as the distance from Bruch’s membrane opening level (reference line to anterior lamina cribrosa surface. Average of ALCSD at all planes was defined as mean ALCSD of the eye. Correlation between ALCSD and all the clinical factors was performed by linear regression analysis. Paired t-test was performed in order to compare ALCSD at all planes.Results: In this study, the average ALCSD was 371.88±114.62 µm (range, 155–647.6 µm. Paired t-test showed a significant difference between superior and middle planes (P=0.004 and middle and

  6. Population-based study of presbyopia in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookway, Larry A; Frazier, Marcela; Rivera, Nelson; Ramson, Prasidh; Carballo, Luis; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-11-01

    . © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  7. Choroidal thickness predicts ocular growth in normal chicks but not in eyes with experimentally altered growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickla, Debora L; Totonelly, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    quinpirole suggests potential therapeutic benefits to thicker choroids. © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  8. Analysis of possible causes of anisometropia%屈光参差的可能原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄再红; 唐知进

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究不同类型屈光参差的流行病学特点及相关因素。方法:收治屈光参差患者316例,运用睫状肌麻痹剂散瞳检影验光,按照屈光参差的性质,分成远视组、近视组和异种组3组,调查表收集流行病学资料。结果:远视组73例(24.05%),发现视力异常的平均年龄6.15岁,每日近距离用眼时间>2 h(26.31%)。近视组197例(62.34%),发现视力异常的平均年龄8.07岁,每日近距离用眼时间>2 h(51.02%)。异种组46例(14.57%),发现视力异常的平均年龄6.03岁,每日近距离用眼时间>2 h者39.13%。结论:屈光参差主要与不良用眼习惯和阅读姿势有关。%Objective:To research the epidemiological characteristics and related factors of different types of anisometropia. Methods:316 patients with anisometropia were selected.Cycloplegic mydriasis retinoscopy optometry was applicated.According to the nature of anisometropia,they were divided into the hyperopic group,myopia group and heterogeneous group.Questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological data.Results:73 cases(24.05%) of hypermetropia group were found vision disorders,the average age of 6.15 years,and daily close eye time >2 h were 26.31%. 197 cases(62.34%) of myopia group were found that the average age of 8.07 years of age,the average age of 51.02% years,2 h per day.Heterogeneous group of 46 cases(14.57%) were found that the average age of visual acuity was 6.03 years old,and the daily close distance with eye time >2 h was 39.13%.Conclusion:The main anisometropia is related with bad habits with the eyes and reading posture.

  9. Visual performance and aberration associated with contact lens wear in patients with keratoconus: a pilot study

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    Abdu M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Abdu, Norhani Mohidin, Bariah Mohd-Ali Optometry and Vision Science Program, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Rigid gas permeable (RGP and silicone hydrogel (SH contact lenses with specific designs are currently being used to improve visual function in patients with keratoconus. However, there are minimal data available comparing the effects of these lenses on visual function in patients with keratoconus. The objectives of this study were to compare visual acuity and contrast sensitivity using spectacles, RGP lenses, and SH lenses, and to evaluate the effects of RGP and SH lenses on higher-order aberrations and visual quality in eyes with keratoconus. The relationship between visual outcomes, aberration, and visual quality were also examined. Methods: This was a pilot study involving 13 eyes from nine subjects with keratoconus. Subjects were fitted with RGP and SH contact lenses. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured using Snellen and Pelli-Robson charts, respectively. Ocular aberrations and visual quality were measured using an OPD-Scan II device. All measurements were conducted before and after contact lens wear. Results: Significantly better visual acuity was obtained with RGP lenses than with spectacles or SH lenses (P<0.001. No significant difference in contrast sensitivity values was detected between RGP and SH lenses (P=0.06. Both SH and RGP lenses significantly reduced total ocular and higher-order aberrations (P<0.001 when compared with spectacles, but RGP lenses reduced trefoil, coma, and spherical aberrations more than SH lenses. No significant difference in astigmatic aberrations was found between RGP and SH lenses (P=0.12. Negative correlations were found between visual acuity and coma aberration and contrast sensitivity with higher-order aberrations and coma, trefoil, and astigmatic

  10. Clinical study of using rigid gas permeable contact lens on adult amblyopia%硬性透气性角膜接触镜矫治成人弱视有效性及安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨吟; 林伟; 吴峥峥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGP) on eyes with adult amblyopia.Methods Collected 23 eyes with adult amblyopia.Performed optometry and recorded the corrected visual acuity.Then performed RGP fitting on each eye, recording the corrected visual acuity as well.After that we let all the eyes wore RGP and observed them regularly for 3 months.Results The corrected visual acuity had been statistically significant improved when wearing RGP (t =6.103, P =0.00).There was no serious ocular complications.Conclusions Wearing RGP could obviously improve the corrected visual acuity eyes with adult amblyopia.%目的 观察硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGP)应用于成人弱视眼的安全性及有效性.方法 选取在四川省人民医院眼科于2013年8月至2014年8月就诊的16~24岁弱视者16例共23只眼,予以验配框架眼镜并进行弱视治疗2个月后,再分别对弱视眼进行RGP的验配,每日配戴RGP 10~12 h,于配戴后1d、1周、1、2、3个月复查镜片配适、裂隙灯、矫正视力,并与配戴框架眼镜时的矫正视力进行比较.结果 对比配戴框架眼镜,23只眼在配戴RGP后的矫正视力明显提高,差异具有统计学意义(t =6.103,P=0.00),并且未发现严重眼部并发症.结论 配戴RGP能提高成人弱视眼的矫正视力,安全有效,值得推广.

  11. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye disease using lubricant eye drops containing polyethylene glycol or carboxymethylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Cohen,1 Anna Martin,2 Kenneth Sall31Cohen Optometry, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 2Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 3Sall Research Medical Center Inc, Artesia, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in corneal staining in patients with dry eye after 6 weeks of treatment with Systane® Gel Drops or Refresh Liquigel® lubricant eye drops.Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with a sodium fluorescein corneal staining sum score of ≥3 in either eye and best-corrected visual acuity of 0.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution or better in each eye who were using a lubricant eye gel or ointment for dry eye were included in this randomized, parallel-group, multicenter, double-blind trial. Patients were randomized to four times daily Systane® Gel Drops (polyethylene glycol 400 0.4% and propylene glycol 0.3% or Refresh LiquiGel® Drops (carboxymethylcellulose sodium 1% for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change from baseline to week 6 in sodium fluorescein corneal staining. Supportive efficacy outcomes included conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, Patient Global Assessment of Improvement, Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL Treatment Satisfaction/Treatment Bother Questionnaire, Single Symptom Comfort Scale, and Ocular Symptoms Questionnaire. The safety analysis comprised recording of adverse events.Results: In total, 147 patients (Systane group, n=73; Refresh group, n=74; mean ± standard deviation age, 57±16 years were enrolled and included in the safety and efficacy analyses. Corneal staining was significantly reduced from baseline to week 6 for Systane and Refresh (−3.4±2.5 and −2.5±2.6 units, respectively; P<0.0001, t-test, with a significantly greater improvement with Systane versus Refresh (P=0.0294. Results for conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, and patient-reported outcome questionnaires were not statistically different between groups. No safety

  12. Corneal biomechanical parameters and intraocular pressure: the effect of topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuehi KC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi C OgbuehiCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: The intraocular pressures and biomechanical parameters measured by the ocular response analyzer make the analyzer a useful tool for the diagnosis and management of anterior segment disease. This observational study was designed to investigate the effect of topical anesthesia on the parameters measured by the ocular response analyzer: corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc.Methods: Two sets of measurements were made for 78 eyes of 39 subjects, approximately 1 week apart. In session 1, each eye of each subject was randomized into one of three groups: polyvinyl alcohol (0.5%, tetracaine hydrochloride (0.5%, or oxybuprocaine hydrochloride (0.4%. In session 2, eyes that were in the polyvinyl alcohol group in session 1 were assigned to the tetracaine group, those in the tetracaine group in session 1 were assigned to oxybuprocaine group, and those in the oxybuprocaine group in session 1 were assigned to the polyvinyl alcohol group. For both sessions, each subject first had his or her central corneal thickness assessed with a specular microscope, followed by measurements of intraocular pressure and corneal biomechanical parameters with the Ocular Response Analyzer. All measurements were repeated for 2 minutes and 5 minutes following the instillation of either polyvinyl alcohol, tetracaine, or oxybuprocaine. The level of statistical significance was 0.05.Results: Polyvinyl alcohol, tetracaine hydrochloride, and oxybuprocaine hydrochloride had no statistically significant (P > 0.05 effect on any of the biomechanical parameters of the cornea. There was no statistically significant effect on either IOPg (P > 0.05 or IOPcc (P > 0.05 2 minutes after the eye drops were instilled in

  13. 助视器配戴对低视力儿童康复作用%Rehabilitative functions of visual aids to low vision children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文珲; 廖瑞端; 周建华; 林先轩; 方意昀; 陈咏冲

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究6~14岁低视力儿童行屈光矫正和助视器配戴的视力康复情况. [方法]对6~14岁低视力儿童86例(172眼)检影验光后行屈光矫正和助视器验配. [结果]6~14岁低视力学龄儿童屈光不正以高度近视为主.经单纯屈光矫正后27.4%视力得到提高;在助视器配戴下81.4%视力有提高,其中脱残率58.3%.在助视器配戴下Ⅱ级低视力儿童比Ⅰ级低视力儿童脱残率高(P<0.01). [结论]屈光矫正和助视器配戴对低视力儿童均有积极的康复作用,助视器的视力康复效果更好.残余视力越好,视力康复越理想.%[Objective] To investigate the visual rehabilitation of 6~14-years old low vision children after refraction correction and using visual aids.[Methods] 86 cases (172 eyes) of low vision patients aged 6~14 years old were recruited.All of them received refraction correction and visual aids after optometry combining retinoscopy.[Results] The refractive error of 6~ 14 years old low vision children was mainly high-degree myopia.After refraction correction,27.4 % had enhanced visual acuity.After using visual aids,81.4% had visual acuity improvement,and 58.3% became non-disabled.Comparing grade Ⅰ and grade Ⅱ low vision children,the latter had higher ratio of becoming non-disabled(P<0.01).[Conclusions] Refraction correction and using visual aids are both positively helpful in rehabilitation and using visual aids has a better rehabilitative effect.Low vision children with better the residual visual acuity have more ideal visual rehabilitation.

  14. Efficacy of hand held, inexpensive UV light sources on Acanthamoeba, causative organism in amoebic keratitis

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    Ivan Cometa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Cometa1, Andrew Rogerson1, Scott Schatz21Department of Biology, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA; 2Arizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Multipurpose lens cleaning solutions (MPS fail to consistently kill or inactivate Acanthamoeba cysts and UV irradiation, while effective at high doses, can damage contact lenses. The present study considered synergy of action between MPS and hand-held inexpensive (ie, relatively weak UV irradiation units. Regardless of disinfection method recently formed cysts (<10 days were far more susceptible to treatment than mature cysts (>14 days. This has important implications for future protocols on testing methods for killing amoebae. The study also showed that cysts of different strains (two tested, FLA2 and P120 are variable in their response to MPS, presumably reflecting differences in cyst wall structure and thus permeability to the disinfectant. On the other hand, the effect of UV irradiation was not wall structure dependent. A 6-hour treatment with MPS alone killed trophic amoebae but failed to kill any mature cysts. Cysts of strain FLA2 were killed after 24 hours with MPS but cysts of strain P120 survived. UV irradiation with the larger 4 W unit killed all cysts after 7 minutes and was more effective than the smaller battery-powered unit (after 10 minutes about 50% of cysts were killed. When the larger unit was used with the MPS disinfection, all trophozoites were killed using UV for 3 minutes and MPS for 1 hour. The resistant P120 cysts remained a challenge but a 2- to 4-minute UV treatment followed by MPS for 3 or 6 hours reduced mature cyst survival by about 50%. The small unit in combination with MPS was less effective but did reduce the time required to kill trophic amoebae in MPS (6 hours MPS alone versus 3 hours MPS with a 1-minute UV treatment. In short, inexpensive UV units do enhance MPS disinfection and future lens cleaning systems

  15. Distance associated heterophoria measured with polarized Cross test of MKH method and its relationship to refractive error and age

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    Kříž P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pavel Kříž,1 Šárka Skorkovská1,2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Masaryk University, 2Eye Clinic NeoVize Brno, Brno, Czech Republic Purpose: Due to the expansion of modern optotype liquid crystal display with the help of positive polarization, measurement of heterophorias (HTFs by means of polarization, and thus partial dissociation of perceptions, has become more and more accessible. Our aims were to establish the prevalence of distance associated HTF by measuring with polarized Cross test of MKH [measuring and correcting methodology after H-J Haase] method and its association with age and refractive error in clinical population of wide age range. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 170 clinical subjects aged 15–78 years with an average age of 40.7±16.62 years. All the participants had best-corrected visual acuity better than 20/25, stereopsis ≤60 second of arc, no heterotropia, not undergone vision therapy, and had no eye disease. The distance associated HTF was measured with the Cross test of the MKH methodology. The quantification of associated HTF was acquired by means of Risley rotary prism. Results: The occurrence of distance associated HTF was found in 71.2% of participants. Of the total, 36.5% of the cases had esophoria (EP, 9.4% EP and hyperphoria, 10.6% exophoria (XP, 7.1% XP and hyperphoria, 7.6% hyperphoria, and 28.8% orthophoria. The mean distance horizontal associated HTF was +0.76±2.38 ∆. With EP, the mean value was +2.47±2.18 ∆, and with XP, −2.1±1.72 ∆. There was no correlation observed between the amount of distance associated HTF and age. There was no effect of the type and amount of a refractive error on the amount of distance associated HTF. Conclusion: A high occurrence of distance associated HTF was revealed while performing the polarized Cross test of MKH method. The relationship between the degree of associated HTF and refractive error and age

  16. The potential of light therapy in Parkinson's disease

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    Johnstone DM

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Johnstone,1 Kristina Coleman,2 Cécile Moro,3 Napoleon Torres,3 Janis T Eells,4 Gary E Baker,5,† Keyoumars Ashkan,6 Jonathan Stone,1 Alim-Louis Benabid,3 John Mitrofanis21Department of Physiology and Bosch Institute, 2Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Clinatec LETI-DTBS, CEA Grenoble, France; 4Department of Biomedical Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 5Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, 6Department of Neurosurgery, King’s College Hospital, London, UK †Gary E Baker passed away on 15 November 2011. Abstract: Parkinson’s disease is a movement disorder with cardinal signs of resting tremor, akinesia, and rigidity. These manifest after a progressive death of many dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain. Unfortunately, the progression of this neuronal death has proved difficult to slow and impossible to reverse despite an intense search for the specific causes and for treatments that address the causes. There is a corresponding need to develop approaches that regulate the self-repair mechanisms of neurons, independent of the specific causes of the damage that leads to their death. Red to infrared light therapy (λ=600–1,070 nm is emerging as an effective, repair-oriented therapy that is capable of stabilizing dying neurons. Initially a space-age anecdote, light therapy has become a treatment for tissue stressed by the known causes of age-related diseases: hypoxia, toxic environments, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we focus on several issues relating to the use of light therapy for Parkinson's disease: 1 What is the evidence that it is neuroprotective? We consider the basic science and clinical evidence; 2 What are the mechanisms of neuroprotection? We suggest a primary mechanism acting directly on the neuron’s mitochondria (direct effect as well as a secondary, supportive mechanism acting indirectly through systemic systems (indirect

  17. Improving patient outcomes: role of the primary care optometrist in the early diagnosis and management of age-related macular degeneration

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    Liu L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lei Liu, Mark SwansonSchool of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Not long ago, the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD was confined to rehabilitating whatever vision had not been damaged by the disease. The recent successes of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents and the antioxidant clinical trials have revolutionized AMD treatment. For the first time, there is realistic hope that the progression of AMD can be slowed down or stopped and near normal vision can be preserved. Developments in new vision tests, imaging modalities, and genetic testing have greatly improved the chance of detecting the onset of AMD and choroidal neovascularization. However, because the current treatments still cannot revive degenerated retinal cells, the best patient outcome that can be achieved is early detection of the disease and application of the appropriate treatment before too much retinal damage has occurred. The opportunities and challenges offered by the new treatment options and disease detection methods have redefined the role of primary care optometrists in AMD management. This review of literature and practice guidelines demonstrates that, in addition to the traditional roles of refraction and visual rehabilitation, the unique position of optometrists as the first-line eye-care providers has allowed them to play an important role in the early detection of AMD, patient education, lifestyle-change counseling, disease monitoring and referral, and nutrition supplement counseling. The active participation of primary care optometrists in the shared care of AMD management is likely to result in great improvement in patient outcomes. Optometrists also need to improve their competence in these areas to meet the new challenges. Although primary care optometrists have always managed patients with AMD, their role in managing this sight-threatening disease has not been adequately documented. In

  18. Fatigue as a long-term risk factor for limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years

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    Mueller-Schotte S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sigrid Mueller-Schotte,1–3 Nienke Bleijenberg,1,2,4 Yvonne T van der Schouw,1 Marieke J Schuurmans2,4 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Department for the Chronically Ill, University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Department of Optometry and Orthoptics, University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Nursing Science and Sports, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands Objectives: Decline in the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL and mobility may be preceded by symptoms the patient experiences, such as fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate whether self-reported non-task-specific fatigue is a long-term risk factor for IADL-limitations and/or mobility performance in older adults after 10 years. Methods: A prospective study from two previously conducted cross-sectional studies with 10-year follow-up was conducted among 285 males and 249 females aged 40–79 years at baseline. Fatigue was measured by asking “Did you feel tired within the past 4 weeks?” (males and “Do you feel tired?” (females. Self-reported IADLs were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Mobility was assessed by the 6-minute walk test. Gender-specific associations between fatigue and IADL-limitations and mobility were estimated by multivariable logistic and linear regression models. Results: A total of 18.6% of males and 28.1% of females were fatigued. After adjustment, the odds ratio for fatigued versus non-fatigued males affected by IADL-limitations was 3.3 (P=0.023. In females, the association was weaker and not statistically significant, with odds ratio being 1.7 (P=0.154. Fatigued males walked 39.1 m shorter distance than those non-fatigued (P=0.048. For fatigued females, the distance was 17.5 m shorter compared to those non-fatigued (P=0.479. Conclusion: Our data suggest that self-reported fatigue

  19. Ophthalmic manifestations of children with Down syndrome in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Adio AO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adedayo Omobolanle Adio,1 Samuel Otabor Wajuihian21University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 2Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAim: The aim of this study was to provide a profile of oculo-visual anomalies in children with Down syndrome (DS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Methods: This comparative study assessed the visual functions of 120 children (42 DS and 78 developmentally normal children. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used were: visual acuity (Snellen illiterate chart and Lea picture charts, refraction (static retinoscopy with cyclopegia, ocular alignment (cover test, near point of convergence (pen and rule, and external examinations and fundoscopy.Results: A total of 42 children with DS (22 males, 20 females, mean age 11.43 ± 6.041 years and control group of 78 normal children (36 females, 42 males with mean age 6.63 ± 1.98 years were examined. Of the 42 DS children, visual acuity was less than 6/18 in eight and one of the DS and control groups, respectively. Visual acuity could not be checked conventionally in eleven participants from the DS group due to poor response. The main findings were: DS compared to control group showed refractive errors of 76.2% (half of which was from myopia vs 14.1% (only 10% due to myopia. There was a statistically significant difference in total refractive errors between the Down syndrome group and the control group (P = 0.001, Χ2 = 18.29. Strabismus was 9.5% (75% esotropia vs 0%, and there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001, Χ2 = 5.01, nystagmus was 4.8% v 0%, conjunctivitis 19.05% vs 8.97%, and keratitis 7.14% vs 0%, which was statistically significant (P = 0.05, Χ2 = 2.90.Conclusion: Refractive errors were prevalent in a sample of children with DS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, whereas the prevalence of ocular diseases was low when compared to age-matched control participants. This study highlights the

  20. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and implications for conjunctival inflammation and mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine KR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Keith Raymond Pine,1 Brian Sloan,2 Robert John Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate deposit buildup on prosthetic eyes and the implications for conjunctival inflammation and discharge.Methods: Forty-three prosthetic eye wearers participated in the study. Twenty-three had their prostheses polished normally before being worn continuously for 2 weeks. After this time, surface deposits were stained, photographed, and graded. The prostheses were then repolished to optical quality contact lens standard and worn for a further 2 weeks, when the deposits were again stained, photographed, and graded. Two participants had deposits on their prostheses stained, photographed, and graded on nine occasions at decreasing intervals ranging from 1 year to 1 day. Eighteen participants had the wetting angles on their prostheses measured with a goniometer before and after cleaning, after polishing normally, after polishing to optical quality contact lens standard, and after 10 minutes of wearing their optical quality contact lens polished prostheses. Concordance correlation, multiple regression, and paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis.Results: More surface deposits accumulated on prostheses polished normally than on those polished to an optical quality contact lens standard after 2 weeks of wear. The interpalpebral zone of most prostheses (observed without magnification appeared to be clear of deposits. Removal of deposits significantly decreased surface wettability, but wettability returned after 10 minutes of wear. Optical quality contact lens polishing produced more wettable surfaces and a slower rate of deposit accumulation than normal polishing.Conclusion: We recommend that an optical quality contact lens standard be the minimum standard of finish for prosthetic eyes. This standard may assist the

  1. Deposit buildup on prosthetic eye material (in vitro and its effect on surface wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine KR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Keith Raymond Pine,1 Brian Sloan,2 KyuYeon Ivy Han,1 Simon Swift,3 Robert John Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: The aim of this in-vitro study was to investigate the effect of different polishing standards on prosthetic eye material (poly(methyl methacrylate [PMMA] on surface wettability and the rate of protein and lipid buildup.Methods: Sample disks (12 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness of PMMA were polished to three different standards of surface finish: low, normal, and optical quality contact lens standard. The sample disks were incubated in a protein-rich artificial tear solution (ATS for the following periods of time: 1 second, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days. Surface wettability was measured with a goniometer before and after protein deposits were removed. One-way analysis of variance and paired-samples t-test were used for the statistical analysis.Results: Between 13.64 and 62.88 µg of protein adhered to the sample disks immediately upon immersion in ATS. Sample disks with the highest polish attracted less protein deposits. The sample disks polished to optical quality contact lens standard were more wettable than those less highly polished, and wettability significantly decreased following removal of protein deposits. The addition of lipids to protein-only ATS made no difference to the amount of protein deposited on the sample disks for any of the standards of surface polish tested.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with the results of the in-vivo investigation reported previously by the authors. Our view that the minimum standard of polish for prosthetic eyes should be optical quality contact

  2. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

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    Pinto-Bonilla JC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Pinto-Bonilla,1 Alberto del Olmo-Jimeno,2 Fernando Llovet-Osuna,3 Emiliano Hernández-Galilea4 1Department of Corneal, Refractive, and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 2Optometry Department, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 3Department of Refractive and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 4Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Abstract: Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo® is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo® (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid or Systane®. Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0–100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green, ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo® treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane® treatment (P=0.043, mixed

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia, 2016

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    Belete GT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI

  4. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, p<0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Anterior segment biometry using ultrasound biomicroscopy and the Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner

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    Al-Farhan HM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Haya M Al-Farhan, Reem N AlMutairiKing Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: To compare the precision of anterior chamber angle (ACA and anterior chamber depth (ACD measurements taken with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and the Artemis-2 Very High Frequency Ultrasound Scanner (VHFUS in normal subjects.Design: Prospective study.Methods: We randomly selected one eye from each of 59 normal subjects in this study. Two subjects dropped out of the study; the associated data were excluded from analysis. ACA and ACD measurements were obtained using the VHFUS and the UBM. The results were compared statistically using repeated-measures analysis of variance for the intraobserver repeatability, unpaired t-test, and limits of agreement.Results: The average ACA values for the UBM and the VHFUS (±standard deviation were 41.83° ± 5.03° and 33.36° ± 6.03°, respectively. The average ACD values were 2.96 ± 0.34 mm and 2.87 ± 0.31 mm. The intraobserver repeatability analysis of variance P-values for ACA and ACD measurements using UBM were 0.10 and 0.68, respectively; for the Artemis-2 VHFUS, the respective values were 0.68 and 0.09. The difference in ACA measurements was statistically significant (t = 8.41; P < 0.0001, while the difference in ACD values was not (t = 1.51; P < 0.13. The mean ACA difference was 8.50° ± 2.50°, and the limits of agreement were +13.30° to −3.60°. The mean ACD difference was 0.09 ± 0.27 mm, and the limits of agreement ranged from 0.61 mm to −0.43 mm. The mean difference percentage of ACD was 3.1% for both instruments.Conclusion: In case of the ACD, both instruments can be used interchangeably; however, with the ACA instruments, they cannot be used interchangeably.Keywords: anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, Artemis-2 VHF scanner, ultrasound biomicroscope, normal eyes

  6. Investigation and Analysis of Nanning Urban Pupils Vision%南宁市区小学生视力状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丽娇; 谢祥勇; 何碧华; 程子昂

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Nanning City 6~12 years old students with low vision and myopia. Methods Naked visual acuity examination of urban primary school students, for any eye or eyes naked vision < 0.8 students subjective optometry and vision correction. Results The naked visual acuity examination of 6315 students, one to the sixth grade bad eyesight proportion increases gradual y, the total number of myopia accounted for 93.4% of the total number of poor vision, compared to the low grade and the first grade, there is significant dif erence of positive rate of poor eyesight and number of myopia population (P< 0.05). Conclusion Students with grade increasing, poor eyesight and the incidence of myopia increased significantly, the total incidence rate of poor eyesight is increased with increasing incidence of myopia.%目的:了解南宁市城区6~12岁小学生视力低常及近视状况。方法对市区小学学生进行裸眼远视力检查,对任意一眼或双眼裸视力<0.8的学生进行主觉验光并矫正视力。结果裸眼远视力检查6315名学生,1~6年级视力不良所占比例逐渐增大,其中近视总人数占视力不良总人数的93.4%,各年级与其低一年级相比,视力不良人数及近视人数阳性率有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论学生随着年级增加,视力不良及近视发生率均有显著增加,总视力不良发病率的升高实为近视发病率的增加。

  7. Development and validation of the Greek version of the MNREAD acuity chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataftsi, Asimina; Bourtoulamaiou, Areti; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Antoniadis, Antonis; Kilintzis, Vassilis; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T; Dimitrakos, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  8. 单纯屈光矫正治疗儿童青少年屈光不正性弱视的疗效观察%Observation on the therapeutic effect of simple correction of refractive error for treatment of children and adolescents with ametropic amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄丽萍; 王平

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究双眼屈光不正性弱视患者单纯屈光矫正后的治疗效果.方法:根据国内最新弱视诊断标准,对确诊为双眼屈光不正性弱视患者58例(116 只眼)使用1%硫酸阿托品眼用凝胶点双眼,睫状肌麻痹后验光,按MPMVA原则根据患者年龄并结合患者限位(隐斜)给予全矫或保留生理性的远视度数,散光足矫,然后随访追踪患者戴镜后3、6个月及1年时的视力.结果:屈光矫正3个月时视力达到同龄儿童视力参考值下限的有57只眼(49.1%),6个月时有84只眼(72.4%),1年时有102只眼(87.9%).随访1年时视力平均提高(3.59±2.04)行,其中视力提高≥2行的弱视眼占90.5%(105只眼);100.0%(38只眼)中度远视患者、82.4%(28只眼)高度远视患者、83.3%(30只眼)远视散光患者以及75.0%(6只眼)混合散光患者达到同龄儿童视力参考值下限,50.0%(9只眼)≥8岁患者视力达1.0.结论:多数屈光不正性弱视患者仪通过单纯屈光矫正治疗可取得良好的治疗效果,准确的验光和正确的屈光矫正方法是提高这类弱视患者视力的关键.%Objective; To research the therapeutic effect of simple correction of refractive error for treatment of children and adolescents with ametropic amblyopia. Methods: According to the newest diagnostic criteria of amblyopia in China, 58 patients (116 eyes) who were diagnosed as bilateral ametropic amblyopia definitely were treated with eye dropping with 1% atropine sulphate gel, optometry was performed after cycloplegia; according to MPMVA principle, age, and eye position (heterophoria) , simple correction of refractive error was conducted or physiological hyperopia degree was conserved; at three months, six months, and one year after wearing glasses, eyesights of the patients were followed up. Results; At three months after simple correction of refractive error, 57 eyes reached the low limit of the normal reference of healthy children vision

  9. 海口市3~6岁儿童斜视与立体视锐度调查%Investigation of strabismus and stereoacuity in 3 to 6 year-old children in Haikou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 张漫萍; 吴清静; 郑云燕; 麦伟虎; 陈毓芬

    2005-01-01

    论:①调查结果中近90%的斜视患儿在本次调查中被首次发现,引起立体视异常的原因有屈光不正、斜视、弱视等.②共同性内斜视与调节的关系较密切,而外斜视、垂直斜视与屈光状态关系不大,立体视锐度随视力下降而降低.③调查结果支持立体视发育的成熟年龄在4岁以前,但存在个体差异.%BACKGROUND: The evaluation of stereoacuity can provide an unambiguous assessment of haplopia. It is valuable in assessing the diagnostic accuracy and the therapeutic effect in strabismus, amblyopia and ametropia. OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to evaluate the stereoptic development and the occurrence rate of strabismus in 3-6 years old children, and so that to provide objective data for prevention and treatment of strabismus and steropsis. DESIGN: It was a randomized sampling investigation. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology,Haikou People's Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Totally 8326 children in 25 urban and suburban kindergartens, with an age of 3-6 years old, were selected randomly in Haikou city from June 2000 to April 2002. METHODS: 8 326 3-6 years old children in Haikou city underwent vision examinations on hyperopia, eye position and the myopia. Those having eyesight lower than 1.0D or abnormal eye position received atropine drops to dilate the pupil of the eye for optometry. ① 4-6 years old children were examined using standard visual chart and logMAR chart (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution chart), 3 years old children were examined using hroken wheel acuity cards or symbols chart. The results of the exminations were conversed and recorded in form of decimal fraction uniformly. ②The corneal reflection and the cover test procedure were used for the position of gaze. ③ Stereoacuity were examined using the stereoptic visual testing cards (made by the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). Stereoacuity were defined as normal when the test value was ≤ 60 s and were defined as

  10. Comparing the relative peripheral refraction effect of single vision and multifocal contact lenses measured using an autorefractor and an aberrometer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    conditions, distinct differences were observed between the RPR measures obtained with the two modified instruments. The differences varied with CL design and centration. Although the pilot study supports the interchangeable use of the two instruments for on- and off-axis refraction in unaided eyes or eyes corrected with low/no spherical aberration; we advocate the use of the COAS-HD over the SN for special purposes like refracting through multifocal CLs. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between multifocal soft contact lens decentration and visual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedtke C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cathleen Fedtke,1 Klaus Ehrmann,1,2 Varghese Thomas,1 Ravi C Bakaraju1,2 1The Brien Holden Vision Institute, Clinical Trial Research Centre, 2School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the association between decentration of several commercial multifocal soft contact lenses (MFCLs and various objective and subjective visual performance variables in presbyopic and non-presbyopic participants. Materials and methods: All presbyopic (age >40 years, near add ≥+1.25 D and non-presbyopic (age ≥18 years, no near add requirements, spherical equivalent ≤-0.50 D participants were each fitted bilaterally with six and two MFCLs (test lens, respectively, and with one single vision lens (control lens. Lens decentration, ie, the x- and y-differences between the contact lens and pupil centers, was objectively determined. Third-order aberrations were measured and compared. Visual performance (high- and low-contrast acuities and several subjective variables was analyzed for any associations (Pearson’s correlation, r with MFCL decentration. Results: A total of 17 presbyopic (55.1±6.9 years and eight non-presbyopic (31.0±3.3 years participants completed the study. All lenses displayed a temporal–inferior decentration (x=-0.36±0.29 mm, y=-0.28±0.28 mm, mean ± SD. Compared to the control, a significant inferior decentration was found for the Proclear® MFCL Near lens in both groups (ypresbyopic =-0.26 mm, ynon-presbyopic =-0.70 mm and for the Proclear® MFCL Distance lens in the non-presbyopic group (ynon-presbyopic =-0.69 mm. In both groups, lens-induced vertical coma (C(3, -1 was, by at least tenfold, significantly more positive for the Proclear® MFCL Distance lens and significantly more negative for the Proclear® MFCL Near lens. In the presbyopic group, the correlation of total MFCL decentration with vision variables was weak (r<|0

  12. ¿Quiénes y qué pueden hacer en salud pública?: Las competencias profesionales como base para la elaboración de programas en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior What can be done and by who in Public Health?: Professional competencies as a base for the design of University degrees curricula in the European Space for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Davó

    2009-02-01

    . Methods Specific professional competencies in public health have been extracted from the Libros blancos published by the ANECA (National Agency of Quality Evaluation for the degrees on medicine, pharmacy, nursing, human nutrition and dietetics, optics and optometry, veterinary, social work, occupational relations, teacher training, and environmental sciences. Following the framework proposed by the Working Group on professional competencies in public health in Spain, we have selected those competences that enable future professionals to participate in the development of the public health from their field of activity. We have also identified and correlated the specific competences of each degree with the corresponding activities and functions. Results All the studied degrees have competences in public health functions. The majority has also defined activities in community health analysis, design and implementation of health interventions and programmes, promotion of social participation and citizen's control of their own health. Conclusions There is academic space for the multidisciplinary development of the public health in Spain beyond the health professions. The identification of the specific competencies of each degree related with activities on public health reveal what are the contents to be in included in each syllabus.

  13. World Sight Day 2013 Memorandum - Farabi Statement on the Prevention of Blindness and Eye Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-Farzad Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Tested’.1 This call will encourage the public to seek care and challenge the local eye healthcare facilities for eye care and services. WSD at Farabi Eye Hospital During the past years, WSD has been held in Iran through a variety of events. Farabi Eye Hospital organized a celebration of the WSD 2013 in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the National Institute for Health Research. The municipality socio-cultural department of the Hospital locality also organized the social aspects of the event. The scientific program titled ‘Ophthalmic Epidemiology & Eye Health Seminar’ was held for the 1st time in Iran. The scientific program comprised three symposia: evidence on eye health and diseases in Iran; policy making for eye health; and low vision and disability. We had 2 keynote lectures on ‘social determinants of eye health’ and ‘universal access to eye health’. The morning sessions were concluded by articulating the Farabi Statement on the Prevention of Blindness and Eye Health 2013 by the event presidents (see Appendix, pages 322-323. In the afternoon, 2 workshops on diabetic retinopathy screening and artificial intelligence were held. Participants included ophthalmologists, optometrists, and community medicine, public health, and epidemiology experts, and young scholars. The social program offered free of charge optometry services for local senior citizens referred by the district Community Houses (i.e. Get Your Eyes Tested!. We also held a painting competition on the theme of sight for children younger than 10, and a best text message competition. The event received massive media coverage. Farabi Eye Hospital is now more than ever committed to public eye health.

  14. A retrospective analysis of heterophoria values in a clinical population aged 18 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Makgaba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on heterophoria values in South Africans  is  scanty. The  purpose  of  this  paper therefore, is to present information on the distribution of heterophoria in a clinical popula-tion aged 18 to 30 years, which hitherto is not available. The data presented here was obtained from  the  record  cards  of  475  black  South African  patients  examined  at  the  Optometry clinic, University of Limpopo (Turfloop cam-pus between 2000 and 2005. The patients were examined by final year students under the supervision  of  qualified  optometrists.  Heterophoria was  measured  for  each  patient  using  the  von Graefe  method.  The  horizontal  heterophoria for distance vision (6 m ranged from 16 prism diopters (pd esophoria to 12 pd exophoria with a mean of 0.74 pd exophoria (SD = ± 2.84 pd. For  distance  vision,  esophoria  ranged  from 0.5 to 16 pd with a mean of 3.08 pd (SD = ± 3.09, while exophoria ranged from 0.5 pd to 12 pd with a mean of 2.21 pd (SD = 1.82 pd. For near vision (0.4 m, the horizontal phorias ranged from 17 pd esophoria to 15 pd exopho-ria with a mean of 3.84 pd exophoria (SD = ± 4.80 pd. The near esophorias ranged from 0.5 to 17 pd with a mean 4.88 pd (SD = ± 3.41, while the exophorias ranged from 1.0 to 15 pd with a mean of 6.30 pd (SD = ± 2.58. Vertical heterophoria for distance vision ranged from 5 to 3 pd right hyperphoria with a mean of 0.05 pd right hyperphoria (SD = ± 0.76 whereas at near it ranged from 4 to 6 pd right hyperphoria with a mean of 0.08 pd right hypophoria (SD =  ±  0.96.  The  distributions  of  heterophoria at distance and near were non-normal.  There was  no  significant  gender  variation  in  the horizontal  values  for  distance  vision  and  the vertical  (distance  and  near  ones.  However, there was a statistically significant gender varia-tion  in  the  near  horizontal  values  (p

  15. Rigid gas-permeable contact lens fitting after corneal refractive surgery%透气硬性角膜接触镜在角膜屈光手术后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 栗莉; 马莹; 亢晓丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察透气硬性角膜接触镜(Rigid Gas-permeableContactlenses,RGP)在角膜屈光手术后矫正视力、改善视觉症状的效果.方法 眼科视光门诊中做过近视性角膜屈光手术的患者7例1 1只眼,经常规检查后,予验配多种设计的RGP,记录戴镜前的裸眼视力、框架镜最佳矫正视力和戴RGP的最佳矫正视力.记录部分患者戴RGP前后的波前像差.随访过程中记录配戴情况及并发症.结果 该组患者需要三种设计的RGP镜片:圆锥角膜RGP、逆几何RGP和大直径非球面RGP.戴RGP前裸眼视力在0.03~0.4者7只眼,0.8~1.0者4只眼.戴RGP前的框架镜最佳矫正视力在0.2~0.5者5只眼,0.7~1.0者6只眼.戴RGP的最佳矫正视力在0.7~0.9者4只眼,1.0者7只眼.配戴RGP后的球差、彗差和三叶草差分别较配戴前降低88.7%、92.9%和18.9%.全部患者的视觉症状在配戴RGP后均改善.角膜上皮染色是最常见的并发症,主要是圆锥角膜的锥顶部上皮磨损染色.平均随访21.5月,全部患者能够坚持日间配戴.结论 角膜屈光手术后配戴特殊设计的RGP可以提高视力,改善视觉质量.未见严重地角膜接触镜相关的并发症.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of specially designed rigid gas-permeable contact lenses (RGP) in visual correction and visual symptom control after corneal refractive surgery. Methods Eleven eyes of 7 cases after myopic corneal refractive surgery from optometry clinic were fitted with RGP in different designs after routine eye checks. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) before RGP fitting and best contact lens corrected visual acuity (BCLCVA) after RGP fitting were recorded. Wave front aberrations of some patients before and after RGP fitting were measured. Fitting state and complications were recorded at follow-ups. Results Three kinds of lens design were applied: keratoconic design, reverse geometry design and aspheric design

  16. 儿童周期性内斜视的屈光状态与治疗%Refractive status and treatment of children of periodic esotropia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过临床病例资料回顾性分析探讨儿童周期性内斜视的屈光状态,并探讨相应的临床治疗方法。方法:以2013年1月至2014年12月期间在我院我院门诊筛查的1321例3到7岁学龄前儿童作为本组研究的观察对象,用复方托品卡胺眼水点眼散瞳验光,检验患儿的屈光度;斜视日与正位日用三棱镜测量斜视度;用同视机检验双眼立体视觉;手术量根据斜视日最大斜视角设计。结果:本组1321例3到7岁学龄前儿童中共筛查出17例周期性内斜视,检测出现轻度远视11例(11眼)、中度远视5例(5眼)、无屈光不正1例(1眼),发生率为1.28%;经手术矫正治疗后斜视日均有复视,正位日有双眼立体视觉,在斜视日与非斜视日眼位均得到矫正并有正常的立体视觉。结论:周期性内斜视与远视屈光状态密切相关,通过早期屈光状态检测,给予戴镜矫正并及时手术治疗效果较为确切。%Objective:through the clinical data of retrospective analysis of refractive status of children of periodic esotropia,and discuss the corresponding methods of clinical treatment.Methods:during the December January 2013 to 2014 in our hospital outpatient screening of 1321 cases of 3 to 7 years old pre-school children as the research object of observation,compound tropine card amine water eye drops mydriasis optometry,test with diopter;strabismus,and is a daily three prism measurement strabismus degree;with the same visual machine test binocular stereo vision;strabismus,the largest angle according to the amount of the operation.Results:in this group of 1321 cases of 3 to 7 years old preschool children CPC screening out of 17 cases of periodic esotropia,detecting the presence of a mild hyperopia in 11 cases (11 eyes),moderate hyperopia in 5 cases (5 eyes),refractive error in 1 case (1 eye),incidence rate of 1.28%;sur-gically corrected treatment of strabismus after daily

  17. 视疲劳患者症状调查及证型分布分析%Analysis of Visual Fatigue in Patients with Symptoms and Syndrome Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾洁萍; 王满华; 黄映红; 颜家渝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the law of TCM syndrome dif erentiation of asthenopia and its related factors in modern life through surveys of symptoms and signs of asthenopia . Methods We designed clinical questionnaires to col ect the general information and four diagnostic methods information, and gave them some related examinations such as visual acuity, optometry, intraocular pressure measurment, recessive strabismus measurement, convergence, corneal epithelium fluorescein staining and etc. We put the data of quantified TCM symptom-sign (including the symptoms of tongue and pulse) into computer to establish the database. SPSS17.0 statistics software was adopted to analyse thefrequencies of syndromesand TCM syndromes . Results ①The most common symptoms in descending order were dry eyes, eye fatigue, orbit acid bilges, eye pain, hypopsia, blur ed vision, sourness of eye, neck shoulder ache, lassitude (frequency>50%). ②The cumulative frequence of TCM syndromes including yin deficiency of liver and kidney, liver-kidney yin deficiency with qi stagnation, liver-kidney yin deficiency with dampness.was 81.08%. The frequence of syndrome of yin deficiency of liver and kidney was 43.24%. Conclusion ①Local eye symptoms were the main manifestations of asthenopia, accompanied with whole body symptomsand cor elated with psychogenic factors.②TCM syndrome types of asthenopia were categorized .③which were liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-kidney yin deficiency with qi stagnation, and liver-kidney yin deficiency with dampness. Among them, liver-kidney yin deficiency was the most common type, some syndrome types were compounded with each other.%目的:通过对视疲劳患者的调查,探讨视疲劳患者的症状发生频率及证型分布。方法设计视疲劳调查表,采集视疲劳患者一般资料及中医四诊信息,进行视力、验光、隐斜、眼压、角膜上皮荧光素染色等检查,将患者各症状、体征、舌脉录入计算机

  18. 温州医学院4种期刊统计学应用现状和分析%The Statistics Application Status and Analysis of the Four Journals of Wenzhou Medical College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文明; 鲁翠涛; 郑俊海

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解温州医学院4种期刊论文中统计学应用的状况,并针对存在的问题提出意见和建议.方法 选择《温州医学院学报》、《中华眼视光学与视觉科学杂志》、《肝胆胰外科杂志》、《浙江创伤外科》2008-2009年发表的论文进行系统分析,了解其统计学方法的应用情况.结果 4种期刊2008-2009年期间共发表论文2010篇,其中885篇(44.0%)使用了统计学方法.应用的统计学方法包含方差分析443篇(33.2%)、x2检验387篇(29.0%)、t检验371篇(27.8%)和相关分析84篇(6.3%)等.分析发现应用上的主要问题是统计方法不正确使用、不注明所用的统计学方法和不具体写统计值等.结论 作者和编辑人员要充分认识统计学的重要性,学习统计学知识,并加强统计审查.%Objective To understand the statistics application status on the four journals of Wenzhou Medical College, and propose the suggestions according to the existing problems. Methods The papers published in Journal of Wenzhou Medical College, Chinese Journal of Optometry Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Journal of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Zhejiang Journal of Traumatic Surgery in 2008-2009 were analyzed systematically to understand the statistics application status. Results 2010 papers were published in four journals during 2008-2009, in which 885 (44.0%) papers used statistical methods. Application of statistical methods included analysis of variance (443 papers, 33.2%), x2 test (387 papers, 29.0%), t test (371 paper, 27.8%) and correlation analysis (84 papers, 6.3%). The problems of statistics application were statistical methods used improperly, and specific statistical data not written. Conclusions The authors and editors should know fully the importance about the application of statistics, and should strengthen learning statistical knowledge and the statistical review.

  19. Medication-related issues associated with adherence to long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitors for controlling chronic myeloid leukemia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan BK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bee Kim Tan,1,2 Seng Beng Tan,3 Li-Chia Chen,4 Kian Meng Chang,5 Siew Siang Chua,1,6 Sharmini Balashanker,7 Habiba Nazeera Begum Kamarul Jaman,5 Syed Carlo Edmund,8 Ping Chong Bee3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Division of Pharmacy and Optometry, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 5Department of Hematology, Ampang Hospital, Ampang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Taylor’s University, Lakeside Campus, Subang, Selangor, Malaysia; 7School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia; 8Clinical Research Center, Ampang Hospital, Ampang, Selangor, Malaysia Purpose: Poor adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs could compromise the control of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML and contributes to poorer survival. Little is known about how medication-related issues affect CML patients’ adherence to TKI therapy in Malaysia. This qualitative study aimed to explore these issues.Patients and methods: Individual face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted at the hematology outpatient clinics of two medical centers in Malaysia from August 2015 to January 2016. CML patients aged ≥18 years who were prescribed a TKI were invited to participate in the study. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed.Results: Four themes were identified from 18 interviews: 1 concerns about adverse reactions to TKIs, 2 personal beliefs regarding the use of TKIs, 3 mismanagement of TKIs in daily lives, and 4 financial burden in accessing treatment. Participants skipped their TKIs due to ineffective emesis control measures and perceived wastage of

  20. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  1. A study of the suitability of disposable coloured contact lenses for a South African clinic based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Moodley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Optometrists have always considered the fitting of all types of contact lenses to be an integral part of the scope of practice of their profession.  However, since the introduction of disposable cosmetic coloured contact lenses into the market, the frequency of over the counter sales of contact lenses has significantly increased.  Patients often present with contact lens complications at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal clinic and local practices.  It is sometimes reported that the lenses were purchased over the counter, from an optometry practice or another non-registered vendor.  A common observation in these instances has been that the lenses do not fit optimally and that the incidence of complications associated with tight fitting lenses was much higher amongst the African patients as opposed to those of other race groups.  A clinical observational study utilizing convenience sampling of 240 subjects was undertaken to evaluate the fitting criteria of disposable cosmetic coloured contact lenses on a South African clinic based population.  All patients requesting the lenses chose their preferred colour and were fitted with Freshlook ColorBlends, Images or Expressions Colors lenses.  Lenses were evaluated after 20-25 minutes and then classified into tight, ideal or loose fits according to the lower lid push-up test, lenscentration, post blink movement and version lag and upgaze lens movements.  The ages of the subjects ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean of 24.13 ± 5.66 years.  Seventy (29.2% were males and 170 (70.8% were females. The majority (62.9% of the lenses fitted on the subjects were rejected according to the fit criteria. The African subjects had the highest percentage of rejected fits (82.8% whilst 75% of the White subjects had acceptable fits.  The main reason for lens fits being rejected was that they displayed charac teristics of a tight fit (96% with only 4% of the fits being rejected due to being too loose. These

  2. Effectiveness and safety of 0.15% ganciclovir in situ ophthalmic gel for herpes simplex keratitis – a multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel group study in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tong Lin,1 Lan Gong,1 Xing-huai Sun,1 Nai-qing Zhao,2 Wei Chen,3 Hui-ping Yuan,4 Yan Shao,5 Ming-hong Gao,6 Hai Tang71Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3The School of Ophthalmology and Optometry Affiliated with Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China; 4The Second Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University, Haerbin, People’s Republic of China; 5The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China; 6General hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 7Shenyang SINQI Pharmaceutical Co Ltd, Shenyang, People’s Republic of ChinaObjectives: Parallel comparison with 0.15% ganciclovir (GCV ophthalmic gel to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 0.15% GCV in situ ophthalmic gel for the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK.Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel group study. HSK patients were randomly divided into two groups, with the corresponding treatment of 0.15% GCV ophthalmic gel or 0.15% GCV in situ ophthalmic gel. Symptoms and signs were observed before administration, and 3 (±1, 7 (±1, 14 (±2, and 21 (±3 days after the administration. The clinical effective rate was considered as the primary outcome. The safety profile was evaluated by AEs, visual acuity, and ocular tolerance.Results: The clinical effective rate in the per-protocol (PP dataset for the treatment group and the control group were 95.10% and 93.00%, respectively (P = 0.5282. The noninferiority test showed significant differences (P = 0.000305, P < 0.025, indicating that the tested drug was noninferior to the control. Patients in the PP dataset of both groups experienced decreases in the total scores of clinical

  3. 早产儿视网膜病变激光术后视力康复的观察分析%Study the vision rehabilitation on retinopathy of premature after laser treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑敏科; 李汉珍; 袁海琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察和分析早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)激光治疗术后的视力改变和视力发育情况.方法 对ROP激光治疗术后3~5岁的儿童,共48例(96只眼)在门诊进行普通视力检查及阿托品散瞳验光,并对屈光结果进行统计分析.结果 ROP激光治疗后3~5岁儿童48例(96只眼)中,远视68只眼(70.8%),近视12只限(12.5%),散光6只眼(6.3%),正视眼10只眼(10.4%),该组儿童中远视所占的比例最大,各年龄中远视所占比例有一定差异,但都随着年龄的增长远视比例有所下降,正视和近视比例逐渐增加,视力正常率明显提高,同时ROP激光治疗后的儿童弱视比例为10.4%,明显高于足月产儿童的平均发生率,且随着年龄的增加呈下降趋势.结论 ROP激光治疗术后的屈光状态和视力发育变化趋势与正常儿童大致相同,随着年龄的增长,屈光状态有由远视向正视和近视发展的趋势,ROP激光术后儿童弱视发病率高于足月产儿童的平均发生率,ROP激光术后的屈光情况应尽早进行视觉追踪和屈光筛查.%Objective To observe and analyze the vision changes and visual development on Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment.Methods To statistically analyzed the refractive results of atropine mydriasis optometry and common vision,3 to 5-year-old children who with Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment,total of 48 cases,96 eyes in outpatient.Results The clinical data of 48 Retinopathy of premature after laser treatment (96 eyes)were observed,70.8% is hypermetropia(68 eyes),12.5% is myopia(12 eyes),6.3% is astigmatism(6 eyes),10.4% is emmetropia(10eyes),physiological hypermetropiais the largest type.With the increasing of age,the percentage of hypermetropia goes down,the percentageof emmetropia and myopia goes up,and the percentage of emmetropia increases obviously.Higher incidence of amblyopia was found on preterm infants.Conclusion The refraction state and visual acuity

  4. Visual performance with multifocal soft contact lenses in non-presbyopic myopic eyes during an adaptation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedtke C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cathleen Fedtke,1 Klaus Ehrmann,1,2 Varghese Thomas,1 Ravi C Bakaraju,1,2 1The Brien Holden Vision Institute, Clinical Trial Research Centre, 2School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Multifocal soft contact lenses (MFCLs have been proposed and used for controlling the rate of myopia progression; however, little is known on the performance and adaptation with MFCLs in non-presbyopes. This study aims to evaluate the visual performance of four commercially available MFCLs in non-presbyopic myopic eyes during an adaptation period. Methods: Fifty-two experienced myopic contact lens wearers (67% female; mean age 21.4±2.0 years were enrolled in this trial and 40 completed the trial. Twenty-six participants (Group 1 wore Lotrafilcon B single vision (SV, control, Omafilcon A MFCL center-distance (D and center-near (N and the other 26 participants (Group 2 wore Lotrafilcon B SV, Lotrafilcon B MFCL N, and Balafilcon A MFCL N. Lens order was randomized. Participants wore each allocated lens for a minimum of 8 days over four scheduled visits (dispensing and three follow-up visits with a 1-week washout period between the lens types. At each visit, high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA (in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and seven subjective performance variables (via questionnaire were obtained. Power profiles of each lens type, pupil size, and contact lens centration, with lens placed on the eye, were measured. Results: The SV control outperformed the MFCLs in all variables (P<0.05. There were no significant differences in HCVA over time, with the exception of monocular HCVA with Omafilcon A MFCL N, which at the end of the adaptation period had significantly (P<0.05 improved by 0.10 logMAR. No differences were found between visits for any subjective variables. Subjectively, Lotrafilcon B MFCL N performed best and was the only lens that did not decenter significantly

  5. 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视立体视觉疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢祥勇; 詹勇华; 何碧华; 韦丽娇; 程子昂

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视的疗效及对立体视觉的影响.方法 将符合纳入标准的弱视儿童80例142只眼,随机分为对照组(40例70只眼)和中药导入治疗组(40例72只眼).对照组用1%阿托品滴眼液点眼后验光配镜,同时采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗;中药导入治疗组在戴镜、遮盖及精细作业的基础上,采用自拟中药方离子导入,并按摩眼部穴位,以3个月为1个疗程,连续治疗2个疗程.观察两组视力和立体视的变化.结果 中药导入治疗组总有效率97.27%,对照组总有效率为85.71%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),中药导入治疗组的立体视改善情况也好于对照组.结论 中药离子导入配合按摩眼部穴位治疗儿童弱视,不仅能提高治疗弱视的有效率,还可使治疗后弱视儿童的立体视觉得到有效建立,是一种较理想的治疗方式,值得临床推广应用.%OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on stereoscopic vision of children amblyopia. METHODS Eighty amblyopia patients ( 142 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 40 patients (70 eyes)and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 40 patients (72 eyes). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise; the treatment group, besides the above mentioned methods, was given Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage. Both groups were treated continually for 2 courses of 6 months. The eyesight and stereoscopic vision were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The effective rate of treatment group was 97.27% while the control group was 85.71%. The difference between the two groups was significant (P<0.05).The improvement of stereoscopic vision of treatment group was better than that of control group. CONCLUSIONS The therapy of Chinese herbs

  6. 上海市松江区新桥镇小学生视力影响因素分析%Analysis of the inlfuence factors on the vision of the pupils in Xinqiao Community of Songjiang District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨银燕; 云郅智; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship of the poor vision with the inlfuence factors in the pupils in the third grade of Xinqiao Community Primary School to provide a basis for the intervention to reduce the malvision rate.Methods:In December 2012, the naked eye visual acuity examination and computer optometry were conducted in 302 pupils in the six classes at the third grade in Xinqiao Primary School. The questionnaire of four aspects including the vision environment, study pressure, learning behavior, and extracurricular activity was made to investigate the related factors which affected the vision, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: In 302 third grade pupils, there were 77 in the poor vision and the poor vision rate was 25.50%. Three related inlfuence factors of the examination fearing, good grades being successful, and using a pencil to write had the statistical signiifcance (χ2=4.149, 5.378, 4.430,P=0.042, 0.020, 0.035).Conclusion:If the four aspects of the vision environment, studying pressure, vision behavior, and extracurricular activity are not intervened, the poor eyesight rate unstops continuing growth.%目的:分析新桥镇小学三年级学生视力不良与影响因素的关系,为降低视力不良率提供干预依据。方法:2012年12月对新桥小学三年级6个班级的302名学生进行裸眼视力检查和电脑验光,并制作调查表从用眼光坏境、学习压力、学习中的用眼行为、课外活动情况4个方面调查影响视力的相关因素,进行统计学分析。结果:三年级302名学生中有77名学生视力不良,视力不良率为25.50%;害怕考试、成绩好才会有出息、用铅笔写作业这3个近视相关因素有统计学意义(χ2=4.149、5.378、4.430,P=0.042、0.020、0.035)。结论:如果不从用眼光环境、学习压力、用眼行为、课外活动4个方面进行干预,视力不良率将不可阻挡的继续增长。

  7. Repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of Artemis-2 high-frequency ultrasound in determination of human corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuehi KC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi C Ogbuehi, Uchechukwu L OsuagwuOutpatient Clinic, Department of Optometry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and limits of agreement of corneal thickness values measured by a high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis-2, hand-held ultrasound pachymeter (DGH-500 and a specular microscope (SP-3000P.Methods: Central corneal thickness (CCT was analyzed in this prospective randomized study that included 32 patients (18 men and 14 women aged 21–24 years. Measurements were obtained in two sessions, one week apart, by two examiners with three devices in a randomized order. Nine measurements were taken (three with each device on one randomly selected eye of each patient in each measurement session. The coefficient of repeatability and interobserver reproducibility for the values of each method were calculated. The limits of agreement between techniques were also evaluated.Results: There were no significant differences in CCT values between sessions for each of the three devices (P > 0.05. The repeatability coefficients for the Artemis-2 (±8 µm/±9 µm were superior to those of the SP-3000P (±9 µm/±11 µm and DGH 500 (±12 µm/±12 µm in session 1/session 2 respectively, while the interobserver reproducibility index (differences between session 1 and session 2 was superior for the SP-3000P (±17 µm with respect to DHG-500 (±29 µm and the Artemis-2 (±31 µm. In session 1 and session 2, the limits of agreement between the techniques were 35 µm to -31 µm and 34 to -20 µm, respectively, for DGH-500 versus Artemis-2, 73 µm to 3 µm and 60 µm to 9 µm for Artemis-2 versus SP-3000P, and 58 µm to 22 µm and 72 µm to 10 µm for DGH-500 versus SP-3000P comparisons. The DGH-500 and Artemis-2 gave similar values (P > 0.05 in both sessions, but both (Artemis-2 and DGH-500 values were significantly greater than that of the SP-3000P (P < 0.05 in both sessions

  8. The evolution trends of ocular biological parameters related with high myopic fundus in Chinese people over 61 years old%国人61岁以上高度近视眼眼底改变及相关生物参数演变趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石一宁; 方严; 杨乐; 石蕊; 李静; 孙烨; 胡笳; 陈研明; 于燕

    2011-01-01

    refraction error were over - 6D, and the eyeball axis were over 25 mm. They were divided 4 subgroups : ~65 year-old, ~70 year-old, , and over 71 ~ year-old. The fundus appearances were divided into 4 groups among 89 patie.nts by clinical sequence, negative, focal lesions, tessellation, and pathologic changes, according to the KOWA fundus camera and Heidelberg HRA2 fluorecein /indocraine angiophotography. At the meantime, myopic severity was checked with cycloplegic objective refraction by NIKON SPEEDY-K automatic optometry and retinoscopy. Ocular axis and shape of eyeball were measured and recorded by BVI A/B-scan. The intraocular pressures were measured hy auto-applanation tonometry of Topcon CT60. The collected data were analyzed statistically by SPSS10. 0. Results ( 1 )There were 35. 9% cases with the non-pathologic appearances in 89 cases of high myopia, including 34. 8% with tessellation changes and 1. 1% with normal appearance ( which was lower than 36. 8% of - 20 year group, 25% of~ 40 year group, and 11. 7% of ~ 60 year group as our previous reports ). The diffused pathologic myopias were in 64%, even 81% of over70 years old group,higher than the teenagers ' 15. 8% the -40 year group' 28.5% . and~60 year group' 46. 8%.( 2 )The average refraction error was - 10. 0 D,the axis 27. 65 mm. There may appear tessellation change with -6. 9 D/26. 54 mm. The pathologic change appeared mainlv in the eves with - 12. 6 D/28. 5 mm. Conclusion There existed relationships among thefundus appearances of the high myopia with the ages, eyeball axis, and refraction errors in young people over 61 years old : There may keep worsen in high myopic fundus even after 61 years old, coincided with aging and myopic choroidoretinal degeneration; so we should take the aging into consideration, besides the myopic degeneration.

  9. A retrospective research on demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision in Zaozhuang of Shandong Province%山东枣庄地区低视力人群眼病筛查的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    博文; 孙光华; 张美玲; 彭志理; 姜丽; 刘艳珣

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and demographic characteristics of blindness and low vision, and to set out a specific eye health education in Zaozhuang, Shandong Province. METHODS:The medical records of admission screening in preschoolers, cataract extraction project and medical outreach program in Zaozhuang were retrospective studied.A total of 12 685 people participated in the study, among those 7 962 were males, and 4 723 were females. 2 262 cases were in low age group ( aged 2 .5-15 ) , 4 684 cases were in young age group ( aged 15-50 ) , and 5 739 cases were in elder age group ( aged >50 ) . The examination protocol included visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure, computer optometry, anterior segment examination using slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination.The family history, ocular trauma, surgery and drug treatment were also recorded. RESULTS:The incidence of blindness and low vision in low age group (423 patients) was 3.33%.The leading causes were amblyopia, ametropia, ocular trauma, and retinopathy of the premature, etc. The incidence of blindness and low vision in young age group ( 239 patients) was 1.88%. The main causes were ocular trauma, high myopia, and retinal detachment, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision in old age group (597 patients ) was 4.71%. The primary causes were cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, etc.The incidence of blindness and low vision increased with the age, and it was higher in females. CONCLUSION: The incidence of blindness and low vision in all groups, of which the leading causes are different, is higher than that of China.Early detection and treatment are important for low age patients, which can significantly increase the visual outcome.It's necessary for young patients to receive health education on common ocular diseases and labor protection.For elder patients, early cataract extraction surgery and treatment for ocular fundus disease are critical.%目的:通

  10. 重点学校和民工子弟学校9~10岁学生近视状态及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬娜; 贾松

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究重点学校和民工子弟学校9~10岁学生近视状态和近视相关因素。方法选取苏州市重点小学(n=156)和民工子弟小学(n=178)部分4年级学生,给予1%环戊通药水,5 min滴1次,共3次后等待45 min,进行检影验光,确定验光结果。针对父母双方是否有近视、有无不良的用眼习惯、每天和每周户外活动时间、多媒体教学使用情况、电脑及电子产品使用情况、家长的认知和重视程度六方面设计调查问卷,由受试者和家长共同填写。结果(1)重点学校156例(312眼)近视者比例为25.6%,近视眼比例为22.4%,近视平均屈光度为(-2.07±1.04)D;民工子弟学校178例(356眼)近视者比例为16.3%,近视眼比例为15.7%,近视平均屈光度(-1.71±1.29)D。(2)重点学校和民工子弟学校近视发生人群比例相比,χ2=4.433,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),近视眼只数发生比例,χ2=4.885,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。2所学校近视眼屈光度对比差异,无统计学意义。(3)78.2%近视学生有父母一方或双方近视、较多的多媒体课程和电子产品使用、不良的用眼习惯、课外活动时间较少等。结论减少多媒体教学时间和电子产品使用、增加课外活动时间、家长和学校重视学生的用眼习惯和近视情况,可以减少近视眼的发生。%Objective To study the differences of the myopia and related factors in 9-10 years old children between key school and migrants’school.Methods The fourth-grade students of key school (156 cases) and migrants’school (178 cases) in Suzhou city.1%cyclopentolate eye drops were topically administered once per 5 minutes for 3 times and optometry was performed 45 minutes after eye dropping. Questionnaire was designed about six aspects: if both parents were myope, if there were bad habits with eyes, the time of multimedia teaching weekly, the time of outdoor

  11. Clinical evaluation of rigid gas permeable over night orthokeratology lens effect on mild and middle myopia for teenager%夜戴型角膜塑形镜治疗青少年轻中度近视的临床疗效评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春明; 钟红; 程立波; 吴平波; 王晓; 周燕; 黄田华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects of rigid gas permeable contact lens , evaluate the safety and effect of orthokeratology , and analyze relevant factors for teenagers .Methods Thirty-five patients (70 eyes, aging from 7 to 15 years old) were followed up for three months .All patients wore night orthokeratology lens after standard optometry for spectacles .The therapeutic effect complications , subjective feeling were observed . Results There was statistical difference between before treatment and 7d, 1mo, 3mo in UCVA group ( P <0.05).There was statistical difference between before treatment and 7d, 1mo, 3mo in SE group(P<0.05). There was not statistical difference in the corneal thickness group and intraocular pressure group .The proportion of mild injury was the largest in corneal damage .There was statistical difference between 7d and 1mo,3mo in OV100%group(P<0.05).There was statistical difference between before treatment and 1mo, 3mo, 1mo and 3mo, 7d and 1mo, 3mo in OV20% group(P<0.05).There was statistical difference between 7d and 1mo, 3mo, before treatment and 1mo, 3mo in OV9% group(P<0.05).Conclusions Orthokeratology lens are safe and effective for treating mild and middle myopia of teenagers , but it can impact visual quality .%目的:通过观察高透氧性夜戴型硬性角膜塑形镜片的临床应用情况,评价角膜塑形镜矫治青少年轻中度近视临床使用的安全性、有效性及其疗效,同时分析其相关因素。方法选择我院眼科门诊的7~15岁轻中度近视眼患者35例(70眼),按照我院角膜塑形验配流程规范验配,均以夜戴镜片为主,随访3个月,观察其疗效、并发症及配戴者主观症状。结果裸眼视力:配戴前与配戴后7 d、1 mo及3 mo差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。等效球镜:配戴前与配戴后7 d、1 mo及3 mo差异具有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。角膜厚度与眼压各时间段两两比较均无统计学差异。

  12. The optical correction of microphthalmos with rigid gas-permeable contact lenses%透气硬性角膜接触镜矫治先天性小眼球屈光不正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 亢晓丽; 李海燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析先天性小眼球的屈光参数特点,观察透气硬性角膜接触镜(rigid gas-permeable contactlens,RGP)矫治先天性小眼球的屈光不正的效果,并探讨验配注意事项.方法 对视光门诊确诊先天性小眼球的患者7例14只眼,测量眼轴长度、前房深度和角膜曲率,检影验光和主觉验光,并记录裸眼视力(uncorrected visual acuity,UCVA)和框架眼镜的最佳矫正视力(best spectacle corrected visual acuity,SP-VA),配戴特殊设计的试戴镜,荧光素染色评价配适状态,片上验光追加度数,订制RGP,检查戴RGP的最佳矫正视力(best RGP-corrected visual acuity,RGP-VA)、配适情况,并随访观察.结果 14只先天性小眼球的平均角膜曲率半径(6.93±0.27)mm,前房深度(2.46±0.23)mm,眼轴长度(15.67±0.59)mm,验光度数(+17.29±3.52)D,RGP的平均基弧(6.92±0.19)mm,屈光度(+21.91±4.66)D.全部患者的RGP-VA比UCVA都有显著提高.RGP-VA与SP-VA相当.平均随访时间为20个月(7~29月),镜片配适良好,患者均能坚持全天配戴,未发生与角膜接触镜相关的并发症.结论 先天性小眼球的屈光参数显著不同于正常眼球,角膜异常弯曲、前房浅、眼轴短.屈光呈超高度远视,均伴有弱视.RGP是有效的光学矫正手段.为确保订制的RGP参数准确,需要专用的RGP试戴镜.%Objective To analyze the optical parameters of microphthalmos,to observe the effect of optical correction of microphthalmos with rigid gas-permeable contact lenses(RGP),and to discuss the fitting method and cautions.Methods Fourteen eyes of 7 patients with microphthalmos from optometry clinic were fitted with RGP after ocular axis,anterior chamber depth (ACD),corneal curvature,retinoscopy and subjective refraction examined.Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SP-VA) was recorded.Specially designed trial lenses were used,followed by fluorescein pattern evaluation and over-refraction.Best RGP

  13. Clinical study on rigid gas permeable lenses decreasing the children's anisometropia caused by hyperopia%高透氧硬性角膜接触镜减少儿童远视屈光不等差异的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐云户; 赵媛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨在非弱视性远视屈光不等儿童中,使用高透氧硬性角膜接触镜( rigid gas permeable lens,RGP)矫正高屈光度眼视力,对双眼屈光度等效球镜差值(△SE )、眼轴差值(△AL )的影响。方法:选择我院视光门诊远视性屈光不正的6~12岁儿童95例190眼,且双眼屈光度差值(△SE)1D≤△SE<2.0D和矫正视力不等,但每一眼的矫正视力均在同龄儿童正常范围内,即均非弱视。随机分为两组:A组48例,给屈光度较高眼(视力较差眼)配戴RGP,另一眼不戴镜处理;B组47例,不配镜作为对照组。用1%环戊酮散瞳验光计算等效球镜(SE),测量眼轴(AL),并随访1.5a。分别计算A组和B组等效球镜差值(△SE )、眼轴差值(△AL ),进行统计学分析。结果:A组双眼之间等效球镜度差值(△SE )小于B组,差异有统计学意义(F=18.508,P=0.002<0.05);A组双眼之间眼轴差值(△AL )小于B组,差异有统计学意义( F=1116.765,P=0.000<0.05)。结论:在非弱视性远视屈光不等儿童中,用RGP矫正高屈光度眼视力是有必要的,可以明显减少双眼屈光度、矫正视力差异,避免屈光参差所带来的视觉功能异常等一系列问题。%Abstract•AIM:To investigate the effect of rigid gas permeable lenses ( RGP ) for the difference of spherical equivalent (△SE ) and the difference of axial length (△AL ) in children with non-amblyopia anisometropia.•METHODS:In department of optometry in our hospital, 95 children 190 eyes aged from 6 ~12 year-old with hyperopic refractive error, of whom the difference of spherical equivalent between two eyes was 1D≤△SE <2.0D and whose corrected vision was different, but the corrected visual acuity of either right eye or left eye was within the normal range of children with the same age, which meant the difference was non

  14. 短眼轴眼不同人工晶状体计算公式准确性比较%The accuracies of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulas in short-length eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 李筱荣; 张琰; 刘巨平; 刘冕

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较A型超声测量下6种现代人工晶状体公式(SKT、HAIGIS、HOFFER-Q、SRK-Ⅱ、HOLLADAY、BKINK-Ⅱ)在短眼轴眼(<22 mm)的准确性应用.方法 前瞻性研究短眼轴白内障眼超声生物参数,人工晶状体植入术前使用A型超声仪、角膜曲率计测量术眼的眼轴长及角膜屈光度,术后1个月电脑验光与检影验光相结合的方法测量术眼获得最佳矫正远视力时的实际屈光度数,回输超声测量的眼轴、角膜屈光度及实际使用的人工晶状体度数,并分别计算术眼用这6种公式的预期屈光度数,预期屈光度与实际屈光度之差绝对值,即绝对屈光误差值.结果 HAIGIS绝对屈光误差最大( 0.9181 ±0.10691)D(P <0.01);其他5种公式比较无统计学意义,但SRK-Ⅱ的绝对屈光误差值最小(0.5088±0.07012)D,但在绝对屈光误差值0~0.5 D范围内,SKT公式所占比例最高(34.37%).结论 在目前短眼轴样本量,除HAIGIS外,其他5种公式比较,SRK-Ⅱ的绝对屈光误差值最小,SKT其次;但在绝对屈光误差0~0.5D范围内,SKT公式所占比例最高(34.37%),可见,SKT公式在短眼轴眼提供最准确的预测屈光度;HAIGIS对术后屈光度影响较大,不适合国人短眼轴眼.%Objective To explore the accuracies of intraocular lens(IOL) power calculations by using 6 formulas ( SKT,HAIGIS,HOFFER-Q,SRK-Ⅱ,HOLLADAY,BKINK-Ⅱ) in Chinese short eyes.Methods Data were prospectively collected by identifying eyes of axial length below 22 mm.The axial lengths and keratometry of the 32 short eyes were measured with ultrasonic scanning before operation,and the actual postoperative refraction was measured with the methods of computer and retinoscopy optometry when patients could gain best corrected visual acuity one month after surgery or later.Inputting the axial lengths,keratometry and IOL powers into ultrasonic scanning,the predicted postoperative refraction was calculated with 6 formulas,and differences of

  15. 硬性透气性角膜接触镜矫正圆锥角膜疗效分析%Clinical analysis of rigid gas permeable contact lens for keratoconus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福生; 田晓丹; 徐艳春; 范春雷; 秦洁; 李艳; 巴秀凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of RGP for keratoconus.Methods RGP corrected 63 cases of keratoconus in outpatient clinic from 2004 to 2010 were included in this study.Among them 41 males and 22 females,16-35 years old with mean aged (24.6± 7.81),Binoculus in 57 cases,ocellus in 6 cases.The patients who had significantly increased astigmatism and decreased visual acuity with glasses were detected with computer refractometer,corneal topographer and corneal endothelial microscopy for screening keratoconus.For the diagnosed or suspected keratoconus,based on the degree of corneal curvature,use a specially designed or seneral RGP to correct.The corrected visual acuity was measure with RGP and optometry with RGP.All the measured results were analyzed with correlation analysis with SPSS13.0 software,P <0.05 was significant differences.Results (1)The mean visual acuity with glasses:0.56+ 0.29,the mean visual acuity with RGP:0.93± 0.20,(t =-14.627,P =0.000).The corrected visual acuity with RGP was significantly better than with glasses.(2)The mean astigmatism before wearing RGP:(-4.16± 2.19)DC,the mean astigmatism with RGP:(-0.77+ 1.2)DC (t =-14.585,P =0.000).There was an obvious decrease of astigmatism with RGP.(3)In average 3.5 years' observation in 22 eyes,only 1 eye appeared corneal increased turbid,implemented lamellar corneal transplantation.There was a significant decreased astigmatism in the other 21 patients.Corneal thickness and corneal curvature were no significant difference.Conclusions RGP for irregular astigmatism of keratoconus can significantly improve the visual acuity to a certain extent and slow down the progress of keratoconus disease.%目的 探讨硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGP)矫正圆锥角膜的临床疗效及安全性.方法 对2004~2010年视光门诊应用RGP矫正的63例圆锥角膜患者,男41例,女22例.年龄16-35岁,平均年龄(24.6±7.81)岁.双眼57例,单眼6例.对散光度明显增大,框架眼镜

  16. RGPCL矫治圆锥角膜长期临床观察%Effect of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses on keratoconus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨积文; 卜立敏; 谢姝; 杨小飞; 纪惠芳

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察RGPCL矫治圆锥角膜的长期临床应用效果.方法 回顾性研究.以2005-2009年间在沈阳爱尔眼科医院视光中心因圆锥角膜验配RGPCL患者为研究对象,共260例(496眼).男212例,女48例.所有患者随访观察时间至少4年.评估RGPCL镜片配适状态,对配戴框架眼镜和RGPCL的矫正视力,配戴RGPCL前后圆锥锥顶K值及角膜厚度进行比较,观察角膜曲率的变化及并发症的发生情况.数据采用配对t检验进行分析.结果 所有病例配戴RGPCL初期获得满意的矫正视力,框架眼镜矫正视力与RGPCL比较差异有统计学意义(t=-25.55,P<0.05).4年后,框架眼镜矫正视力与RGPCL矫正视力差异有统计学意义(t=-30.02,P<0.05).配戴RGPCL前及4年后圆锥锥顶K值比较差异有统计学意义(t=3.02,P<0.05),圆锥锥顶厚度比较差异无统计学意义(t=1.46,P>0.05).432眼(87.1%)的配适状态为三点接触,46眼(9.3%)为顶点充盈,18眼(3.6%)为可接受的顶点接触.角膜曲率变化情况为,仅3眼(0.6%)陡峭角膜曲率值增加,64眼(12.9%)扁平角膜曲率值增加.随访期间,所有病例均未弃戴,33眼(6.6%)出现角膜上皮点状着染,未发现角膜缘新生血管,无角膜溃疡等严重并发症.结论 圆锥角膜患者配戴RGPCL能获得满意的矫正视力,能延缓圆锥角膜发展,且无严重并发症发生.%Objective To investigate the effect of the rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGPCL) on keratoconus in clinical practice.Methods In this retrospective study,496 eyes of 260 patients with keratoconus were fitted with RGPCLs at the optometry center of Shenyang Aier Eye Hospital between 2005 and 2009.The patients included 212 males and 48 females.Evaluations were performed on all patients.The follow-up period lasted at least 4 years to assess visual acuity,pattern matching,changes in keratometry,the apex K value,the apex thickness of the cornea and complications.Data were analyzed using a paired t

  17. 黄斑部脉络膜新生血管的OCT图像特征及与视力的相关性%Correlation between optical coherence tomography image characteristics of macular choroidal neovascularization and visual acuity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏芳; 孟晓红; 陈军; 冉黎

    2011-01-01

    green angiography,were examined by OCT. The best corrected visual acuity was checked by optometry. The image characteristics of CNV were analyzed and its width,height,the distance to macular foveola and the thickness of retinal neurosensory layer in foveola were measured. The correlation between each of them and BCVA was e-valuated as well. Results OCT image showed some limited and enhanced refractive band with inequality of size appeared under RPE/ choriocapillary layer, no refractive area was observed in retinal ganglion layer around the focus, or limited refractive area was observed under that. All index values of CNV caused by AMD including the average width,height and the thickness of retinal neurosensory layer in foveola were the largest. Linear correlation analysis results showed the width and the thickness of retinal neurosensory layer in foveola of CNV were negatively correlated with BCVA respectively in AMD and center exudation chorioretinopathy(All P < 0. 05). However, the results only showed the thickness of retinal neurosensory layer m foveola of CNV was negatively correlated with BCVA in high myopia (P < 0.05). Conclusion OCT is useful to measure the size of CNV and macular edema, which play an important role in e-valuating its correlation with BCVA.

  18. 青少年配戴硬性角膜接触镜与框架镜1a后的调节滞后比较%Comparison of accommodative lag between rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in adolescents after 1 year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 闫斌娴

    2015-01-01

    •AlM: To discuss the differences in accommodative lag of different stimulation between the adolescent myopes who wore rigid gas permeable contact lens ( RGPCL ) and spectacles for one year. •METHODS: Totally 85 myopes between 10-16y were enrolled in the study. Every subject was examined with the visual function test, medical optometry, corneal topography and ocular health check etc. of eyes. According to the above measurements and the compliance of children and their parents, 41 subjects were selected to wear RGPCL, 44 subjects were chosen to wear spectacles. Based on maximum plus to maximum visual acuity ( MPMVA) , accommodative lag was determined by dynamic retinoscopy method in two groups. The subjects were examined once every 3mo, accommodative lag was measured again using the same method for comparative analysis after one year. Wearing a year later, myopia progression of the two groups was measured and compared. •RESULTS: There was no significant difference between two groups of initial accommodative lag (P>0. 05). After wearing one year, there was also no significant difference between the accommodative lag examined and the initial lag in RGPCL group (P>0. 05), the results demonstrate significant difference between the accommodative lag examined after wearing one year and the initial lag in spectacles group ( P •CONCLUSlON:After wearing RGPCL and spectacles one year in high accommodative stimulus, there is an obviously decreased in accommodative lag in RGPCL group, which suggests that RGPCL can control the progression of myopia in adolescents. The accommodative lag of the two groups increase obviously with increasing stimulation, which suggest that the adolescents need keeping good habits of reading.%目的:探讨青少年近视眼配戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜( rigid gas permeable contact lens,RGPCL)与框架眼镜1a后在不同调节刺激下的调节滞后量的差异性。  方法:选取年龄10~16岁的85例近视眼患者,经过

  19. Clinical analysis and treatment of 5 cases of nonstrabmistic binocular vision abnormalities%非斜视性双眼视觉异常临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾丽珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the test results of abnormal visual function of 5 cases of nonstrabmistic binocular vision.Methods Based on the general optometry,using Von Graefe method the phoria of direction and scope in the distance,convergence magnitude,AC/A ratio,Risley prism measurement of distance with variable levels of positive and negative fusional vergence,positive and negative fusional vergence,amplitude of convergence and state of feeling with Worth4 lighting and RDS stereo vision chart were measured.Refer Morgan analysis method to analyze and take appropriate visual training.Results (1) The feature of convergence insufficiency was distance phoria normal,and closed high exophoria and low positive relative convergence (PRC) in near distance,AC/A low.(2) Esophoria for near,far from normal and low negative relative convergence (NRC) in convergence excess.high AC/A.(3) Divergence excess that was distance high exophoria,near phoria normal and high AC/A.(4) The feature of fusional vergence diminution was far and near distance phoria normal,AC/A normal,near point of convergence (NPC) of distal movement.(5) Simple esophoria was distance esophoria near phoria beyond the normal range,AC/A normal.Conclusions The 5 cases belong to the nonstrabmistic binocular vision anomalies and their clinical symptoms are similar,however,inspection results are different,the diagnosis and treatment are also different.%目的 对5例不同的非斜视性双眼视觉异常的视功能检测结果进行综合分析.方法 对2012年4月至2013年4月在南昌大学附属眼科医院在验光基础上,应用综合验光仪测量集合幅度、调节幅度以及正负相对调节,用Von Graefe法测量在远近距离的隐斜方向和隐斜度、调节集合/调节值(AC/A)比率(调节性集合与调节量之比),用Risley可变棱镜测量远近水平正负融像聚散,用Worth4点灯和R.D.S立体视觉图测量立体视觉.参照Morgan分析法加以分析并

  20. 可植入接触镜屈光手术后调节与拱高的关系%Relationship between accommodation and lens vault following implantable contact lens surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖晓娟; 李志敏; 谷浩

    2014-01-01

    Background Implantable contact lens (ICL) surgery is a primary intraocular refractive corrective surgery for high myopia.However,whether there will be enough distance between ICL and anterior face of lens to avoid the occurrence of anterior capsular cataract in non-accommodated and the largest physiological accommodated state after ICL implantation is worthy of investigation.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of lens vault after ICL implantation and explore the relationship between accommodation and change of lens vault.Methods A observational study was carried out.Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients with high myopia who received ICL implantation were enrolled in Affiliated First Hospital of Guiyang Medical College from May to November,2012.Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),refractive diopter were regularly examined using synthetical optometry,and crystalline lens rise (CLR) and lens vault in non-accommodative or accommodative condition were observed by the anterior segment OCT (Visante OCT) and ultrasound biomicoscopy (UBM) before operation and 1 day,1 week,l month and 3 months after operation.Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0.Repeated measurement one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the differences of vision and refractive diopter among various time points.The relationship between accommodation and CLR was assessed using Pearson linear correlation.The alteration of CLR with accommodation change was analyzed by linear regression equation.Lens vault was measured and compared between non-accommodation and maximal physical accommodation status by paired t test.Results The postoperative UCVA was improved in comparison with preoperative BCVA,and the postoperative diopter was significantly lower than that of preoperation,with significant differences among various time points (F =16.904,P =0.000 ; F =1.498,P =0.000),and the diopter was stable after operation.A positive correlation was

  1. 中药离子导入配合穴位按摩对儿童弱视的图形视觉诱发电位的影响%The Chinese Herbs Iontophoresis plus Eye Point Massage for Change of Pattern Visual Evoked Potential in Amblyopia Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何碧华; 谢祥勇; 韦丽娇; 唐勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage on the change of pattern visual evoked potential P-VEP ) in amblyopia children. Methods One hundred and seventeen amblyopia patients( 198 eyes ) were randomly divided into control group with 58 patients( 97 eyes:79 eyes with ametropic amblyopia ,4 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 14 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ) and Chinese herbs iontophoresis treatment group with 59 patients( 101 eyes:84 eyes with ametropic amblyopia,5 eyes with strabismic amblyopia, 12 eyes with anisometropic amblyopia ). The control group was given eyeglasses after mydriatic optometry with 1% atropine and treated with occlusion therapy and eyesight exercise. The treatment group was given self-made Chinese herbs( pericarpium citri reticulatae viride, Semen Cassiae, chrysanthemum, borneol, Olibanum, Spearmint, the fruit of Chinese wolfberry, flowers carthami, Angelica sinensis,butterflybush flower,the root of red-rooted salvia,the seed of Chinese dodder,prepared rehmannia root ) iontophoresis plus eye point massage besides the methods mentioned above. Both groups were treated continually for 6 months. Results Before treatment, three types of amblyopia showed no significant difference in the PI 00 wave amplitude ( P100-A ) and latencyv P100-L ) of P-VEP between two groups( P >0. 05 ). After treatment, the increase of P100-A in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P <0.05 ),but P100-L shortened significantly compared with the controls( P <0.05 ). Conclusion Chinese herbs iontophoresis plus eye point massage for amblyopia children can make P-VEP-P100 wave latency shortened and amplitude increased, and it is an effective method for the treatment of amblyopia.%目的 观察中药离子导入配合眼周穴位按摩对儿童的图形视觉诱发电位(P-VEP)的影响.方法 弱视儿童117例(198只眼)按随机数字表法分为对照组58例(97只

  2. Leber先天黑矇的临床研究%Clinical study on Leber congenital amaurosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    睢瑞芳; 赵潺; 姜茹欣; 周崎; 于伟泓; 董方田

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To observe the clinical characteristics of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA)and analyze the features to differentiate LCA from other similar disorders.Methods Prospective study of 15LCA patients which include 10 males and 5 females,aged from 2 to 31 years with the mean age 13.6 years.Medical history,family history,perinatal conditions,as well as complete ocular evaluations were well documented.Among the subjects,12 patients underwent optometry check,10 patients underwent ERG and 8 patients had OCT testing.Results All of the patients had nystagmus and sluggish pupillary reflex.The visual acuity distributed from light perception to 0.1.Fivepatients (33.3%) were presented with photophobia,while 7 patients (46.7%) had nyctalopia.Among 12 cases underwent refraction examination,6 patients (50% ) had spherical equivalent of≥ + 5D;1 patient(8.3 % )had spherical equivalent of≥+5D;2patients (16.7%) had bilateral mild to moderate hyperopia;1 patient (8.3%) had one emmertropic eye and one mild myopic eye;2 patients (16.7%) had moderate to high myopia.Eight patients (53.3%) had enophthalmus,4 patients (26.7%) had oculo-digital sign.All of the 10 patients underwent ERG showed extinguished waveform.Under OCT assesement,7 patients had decreased fovea thickness;1 patient had increased fovea thickness,complicated by epiretinal membrane;mild abnormality of microstrueture of the retina with diminished and disrupted IS/OS hyperreflectivity were found in 2 cases;while more pronounced disarrangement of the retinal layers were found in 6 cases,inner layers were better reserved in all patients.Conclusions Severe visual impairment or blindness,nystagmus,pupillary reflex,extinguished ERG and hyperopia are main clinical characteristics of LCA.%目的 观察中国Leber先天黑嚎(LCA)患者的临床特征.方法 前瞻性临床研究,分析15例LCA患者的临床资料.其中,男性10例,女性5例,年龄2~31岁,平均13.6岁.所有患者就诊时详细记录病史、家族

  3. Influence of wearing long wavelength filter glasses on refractive development of children's hyperopia%滤除中短波长色光的红色镜片对儿童远视眼屈光发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳; 于志强; 褚仁远; 钱宜珊; 许烨; 汪晓倩

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of wearing long wavelength filter glasses on refractive development of children's hyperopia. Methods Case control study. Seventeen 5-7 years' old children with high hyperopia from optometry clinic of Eye and ENT Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University were enrolled in this research. The experiment design was self-control between right and left eye, 3 children were lost during two years' period of observation, all the children's hyperopic refraction were more than+6.00 D, cycloplegic by 1%atropine. All the children were required to wear long wavelength filter glasses for 6 hours after waking up, the rest of the time with the conventional glasses. Refraction, axis and red/green match point were tested before the intervention and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months, after the intervention. Results After two years' intervention, hyperopia decreased, eye axis increased, the best corrected visual acuity increased both in experimental eyes and control eyes, but there were no statistically significant difference between the two groups at each time point. All children were with normal color vision, compared to the long-wavelength light, the hyperopic eyes were more sensitive to middle-wavelength light, no significant difference was found between two groups, red/green match points were 42.802 ± 1.216 and 42.889 ± 1.560 respectively. After wearing long wavelength filter, red/green match point were significant decreased in the experimental group in 6 months and 12 months time points (6 months: 0.995 ± 0. 543 vs. 0.104 ± 0.143, t=3.04, P=0.005, 12 months:1.096±0.392 vs. 0.17±0.248, t=2.725, P=0.008). The experiment eyes were more sensitive to long-wavelength light than the control eyes. But in later time, there was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion Wearing long wavelength filter glasses two years has no effect on refractive development on children with high hyperopia, but it can cause short-term chromatic adaptation, making

  4. Weight analysis of influencing factors of human angle Kappa%人眼Kappa角的影响因素权重分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丹; 徐菁菁; 保金华; 潘建东; 吕帆

    2014-01-01

    Background Angle Kappa is the angle between the pupillary axis and visual axis,and it is a major consideration in corneal refractive surgery and strabismic surgery.Researches showed that age and refractive status affect angle Kappa value,and additionally,the measuring results of angle Kappa are associated with instruments.Objective This study was to investigate and weight the influences of axial length,anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature to angle Kappa.Methods A cross-sectional study was designed.Fifty health volunteers were included from Dec 2009 to Aug 2010,with the age of 18-38 years and average diopter of-1.0 D and best corrected visual acuity of 1.0.The horizontal and vertical angle Kappa was binocular measured with a testing machine designed by laboratory of School of Optometry & Ophthalmology Wenzhou Medical University.IOLMaster was employed to measure the ocular axial length,anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature radius.A multiple linear regression model was established to analyze the influences of axial length,anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature radius to angle Kappa.Results An efficacious regression equation was established as Y =15.554-0.587X1+0.724X2+ 0.232X3 with the independent variables as axial length(X1),anterior chamber depth (X2),corneal curvature (X3) and dependent variable as horizontal angle Kappa (Y) (R =0.788,R2 =0.621,P =0.000).Horizontal angle Kappa showed a negative correlation with axial length (b1 =-0.587,β1 =-1.002,P =0.000) and a positive correlation with anterior chamber depth (b2 =0.724,β32 =0.296,P =0.030).No significant correlation was found between corneal curvature radius and horizontal angle Kappa (b3 =-0.232,β3 =-0.068,P=0.338).A new regression equation was Y =14.235-0.622X1 + 0.824X2 after removed the corneal curvature variable (R =0.786,R2=0.618,P =0.000),with a negative correlation between horizontal angle Kappa and axial length (b1 =-0.622,β1 =-1.062,P<0.05) or positive correlation between

  5. 青少年黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度与屈光度的关联性分析%Analysis of relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and refraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洋涛; 刘泉; 杜嗣河; 秦嘉敏; 刘杏; 王丹阳; 刘曼丽

    2014-01-01

    understanding the mechanism of refractive error more clearly.Objective This study was to investigate the relationship between SFCT and refraction.Methods A retrospective serial cases analysis was performed.Forty anisometrope patients were recruited in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center from June 2012 to August 2012.The subjects were divided into 6-13 years group and 14-21 years group.Vision acuity was tested by the EDTRS visual acuity chart and ocular anterior segment was examined under the slit lamp microscope,and the fundus examination was performed by direct ophthalmoscope.Subjective and objective optometry was performed after pupils were dilated.EDI OCT was used to illuminate choroidal image.Ocular axial length (AL) was obtained by Lenstar 900.The difference in SFCT between myopic eyes and hyperopic eyes was compared using Student t test,and the correlations between SFCT and refraction were analyzed by Pearson linear analysis and linear regression analysis.Results The average SFCT was (307.82±88.47) μm in all the tested eyes,and the SFCT of myopic eyes and hyperopic eyes was (270.60±70.57) μm and (376.95±76.59) μm,respectively,with a significant difference between them (P =0.000).In the 6-13 years group,positive correlations were found between SFCT and diopters with the regression coefficient 18.60 and regression equation Y =18.60X +310.79 (r=0.345,F=21.110,P=0.000) as well as between SFCT and AL with the regression coefficient -31.76 and regression equation Y =-31.76X+1 039.97 (r=0.262,F=17.320,P=0.000).In the 14-21 years group,SFCT showed positive correlation with diopters,with the regression coefficient 23.38 and regression equation Y=23.38X+353.17 (r =0.430,F =27.210,P =0.000) and negative correlation with AL,with the regression coefficient-35.82 and regression equation Y =-35.82X+1 132.75 (r=0.237,F=15.650,P=0.000).Conclusions SFCT seems to be positive correlated with diopter.When the diopter shifts toward positive value,SFCT value increases,and whenever diopter

  6. The evolution trends of ocular biological parameters related with high myopic fundus in Chinese of 41 to 60 years old%国人41~60岁中老年高度近视眼眼底改变及相关生物参数演变趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石一宁; 方严; 杨乐; 石蕊; 李静; 孙烨; 胡笳; 陈研明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the fundus appearances and their evolution trends with their biological parameters in the high myopia eye in Chinese of 41 to 60 years old. Methods People aged among 41 to 60 years old with refrac-tion error over -6 D and the eyeball axis measured over 25 mm were included. They were divided into 4 subgroups: ~ 45year-old, ~50 year-old, ~55 year-old, and ~ 60 year-old. Based on the fundus appearances taken by the KOWA fundus camera and Heidelherg HRA2 fluorecein /indocraine angiophotography, 154 patients were divided into 4 groups : the negative group, the groups with focal lesions, tessellation, and pathologic myopia. At the meantime, myopia was examed with cycloplegic objective refraction by NIKON SPEEDY-K automatic optometry. Retinoscopy, ocular axis and shape of eye ball were measured and recorded hy BVI A/B-scan, and intraocular pressures were measured by auto-applanation tonometry of Topcon CT60. The data were analyzed statistically by SPSS10. 0. Results ( 1 )There were 45. 5% cases with the non-path-ologic appearances in 154 cases with high myopia, including 33. 8% with tessellation changes and 11. 7% with normal appearance ( which was lower than 36. 8% of ~ 20 years group, and 25% of ~ 40 years group as in our previous reports ). The diffused pathologic myopias were in 46. 8% , which were higher than the teenagers, 15. 8% and the ~ 40 year group' 28. 5% . The focal lesions were 7. 8% .( 2 )The average refraction error was - 10. 0 D and the axis was 27 mm in group under 45 -year-old, while in the other 3 older subgroups, The average refraction error was -11. 5 D and the axis was 28 mm ,respectively. 3、1 )Among 4 subgroups, the eyes may appear no change with -7 D and 27 mm axis as the same as the in ~20 year group and ~40 year group in previous reports. 2 )Changes of fundus appearance were various. The eyes with ~14. 0 D/28 mm may show tessellation change only but may appear pathologic changes when

  7. 新型三维眼前节分析仪Sirius和Pentacam测量准分子激光角膜原位磨镶术后眼前节参数的对比研究%Comparison of anterior segment measuring parameters in myopia after laser in situ keratomileusis between Sirius and Pentacam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐真; 黄锦海; 成拾明; 冯一帆; 王勤美

    2013-01-01

    者的结果一致性欠佳,95%CI为-27.70~6.20 mm3. 结论 Sirius和Pentacam测量LASIK术后眼前房参数结果的重复性和稳定性好,此外两种方法测量的角膜曲率、角膜厚度和ACD具有很好的一致性,两种测量结果的差异在临床上可以接受,二者可以互相替代使用,但在测量角膜最薄点位置及ACV时两种方法的测量结果差异较大,临床上相互替代使用时需谨慎.%Background Sirius system,a new Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido topography,improved the capability of imaging the anterior eye segment significantly.However,the study of assessing the repeatability and agreement between Sirius and Pentacam is still lack up to now.Objective This study was to evaluate the repeatability and agreement of the anterior ocular segment measuring parameters by Sirius and Pentacam in myopia received laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).Methods Thirty-five myopic eyes of 35 patients received LASIK were included in School of Optometry and Ophthalmology Eye Hospital from 2010 May through 2010 July.Corneal power flat keratometry (Kf),step keratometry (Ks),mean keratometry (Km),thinnest corneal thickness(TCT),the location of TCT,anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) were measured by Sirius and Pentacam in all the eyes,respectively.The repeatability of the measuring results were evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (CoA),and the agreement of measuring parameters between Sirius and Pentacam was analyzed using Bland-Altman plot.Results Both Sirius and Pentacam demonstrated high intraobserver repeatability,with all ICC and CoA more than 0.90.No significant differences were found in Kf values and Ks values between the two methods (t =-1.533,-1.750,P>0.05).Km value was (39.14 ± 1.95) D by Sirius measurement,which was sígnificantly higher than (39.05 ± 1.91) D by Pentacam measurement (t =3.572,P =0.001).The TCT was (457.6 ± 40.9) μm by Sirius method,showing a

  8. Purchase of Journal Portfolios by Research Libraries is not Cost-Effective and May Lead to Normalization of Collections. A Review of: Murphy, Sarah Ann. “The Effects of Portfolio Purchasing on Scientific Subject Collections.” College & Research Libraries July 2008: 332-40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Walker

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To determine whether the purchase of journal portfolios (i.e., packages of journals purchased as a group from publishers, such as Elsevier’s ScienceDirect from publishers is an effective means of meeting research needs for faculty in the life, medical, physical, and applied sciences, and to determine the effects of such purchases on research library collections.Design – Citation analysis.Setting – Ohio State University libraries in the life, medical, physical, and applied sciences.Subjects – A total of 253,604 citations from 6,815 articles published between the years 2003 and 2005 by Ohio State University faculty in the life, medical, physical, and applied sciences were analyzed using the Bradford distribution (an explanation of the Bradford Distribution is provided later in this review.Methods – Using ISI’s Science Citation Index,the author generated a list of articles published by Ohio State University (OSU faculty in the life, medical, physical, and applied sciences between the years 2003 and 2005. The author then assigned each article to a specific discipline, according to the OSU College of the first OSU author listed. For example, if an article was written by several co-authors, and the first OSU author listed was a faculty member in OSU’s College of Dentistry, the article would be designated a Dentistry article. Multi-disciplinary works were assigned to the college of the first OSU author listed. (The OSU Colleges considered to be part of the study were the College of Biological Sciences; the College of Dentistry; the College of Engineering; Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences; the College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; the College of Medicine; the College of Optometry; the College of Pharmacy; and the College of Veterinary Medicine. Books, conference proceedings, theses, and other non-journal materials were excluded from the set of citations considered. Next, the author pulled journal