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Sample records for optoacoustic cells

  1. Opto-acoustic cell permeation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S R; Heredia, N

    2000-03-09

    Optically generated acoustic waves have been used to temporarily permeate biological cells. This technique may be useful for enhancing transfection of DNA into cells or enhancing the absorption of locally delivered drugs. A diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at kHz repetition rates was used to produce a series of acoustic pulses. An acoustic wave was formed via thermoelastic expansion by depositing laser radiation into an absorbing dye. Generated pressures were measured with a PVDF hydrophone. The acoustic waves were transmitted to cultured and plated cells. The cell media contained a selection of normally- impermeable fluorescent-labeled dextran dyes. Following treatment with the opto-acoustic technique, cellular incorporation of dyes, up to 40,000 Molecular Weight, was noted. Control cells that did not receive opto-acoustic treatment had unremarkable dye incorporation. Uptake of dye was quantified via fluorescent microscopic analysis. Trypan Blue membrane exclusion assays and fluorescent labeling assays confirmed the vitality of cells following treatment. This method of enhanced drug delivery has the potential to dramatically reduce required drug dosages and associated side effects and enable revolutionary therapies.

  2. Non-invasive optoacoustic probing of the density and stiffness of single biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoux, T.; Audoin, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the coherent generation of GHz acoustic waves using ultrashort laser pulses has demonstrated the ability to probe the sound velocity in vegetal cells and in cell-mimicking soft micro-objects with micrometer resolution, opening tremendous potentialities for single-cell biology. However, manipulating biological media in physiological conditions is often a technical challenge when using a laser-based setup. In this article, we present a new opto-acoustic bio-transducer composed of a thin metal film sputtered on a transparent heat sink that allows reducing importantly the laser-induced cellular stresses, and offers a wide variety of optical configurations. In particular, by exploiting the acoustic reflection coefficient at the sample-transducer interface and the photoacoustic interaction inside the transparent sample, the density and compressibility of the sample can be probed simultaneously. Using an ad hoc signal analysis based on Hilbert and wavelet transforms, these quantities are measured accurately for a reference fluid. Similar analysis performed in a single vegetal cell also suggests high sensitivity to the state of the transducer-cell interface, and notably to the presence of the plasma membrane that encloses the cell vacuole.

  3. Optoacoustic angiography of peripheral vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Zamora, Mario; Hernandez, Travis; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new optoacoustic microangiography system (OmAS) intended for in-vivo vascular imaging of a human finger. The system employs an arc-shaped acoustic array that is rotated 360 degrees around the finger providing optoacoustic data necessary for tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional images of a finger. A near-infrared Q-switched laser is used to generate optoacoustic signals with increased contrast of blood vessels. The laser is coupled through two randomized fiberoptic bundles oriented in orthogonal optoacoustic mode. To demonstrate OmAS capabilities, we present a time-series of optoacoustic images of a human finger taken after the hypothermia stress test. The images show a detailed vascular anatomy of a finger down to the capillary level. A series of quick 30s scans allowed us to visualize the thermoregulatory response within the studied finger as it was manifested via vasomotor activity during the hypothermia recovery. We propose that the developed system can be used for diagnostics of various medical conditions that are manifested in change of the peripheral (finger) blood flow. Examples of the medical conditions that could be diagnosed and staged using the OmAS include the peripheral arterial disease (PAD), thrombosis, frostbite, and traumas.

  4. Echographic detectability of optoacoustic signals from low-concentration PEG-coated gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conversano F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Conversano,1 Giulia Soloperto,1 Antonio Greco,1 Andrea Ragusa,1,2 Ernesto Casciaro,1 Fernanda Chiriacò,1 Christian Demitri,3 Giuseppe Gigli,2–5 Alfonso Maffezzoli,3 Sergio Casciaro11National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce, Italy; 2National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO, Lecce, Italy; 3University of Salento, Department of Engineering for Innovation, Lecce, Italy; 4Italian Institute of Technology – Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnology (CBN-IIT, Arnesano, Italy; 5University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ‘Ennio De Giorgi’, Lecce, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of gold nanorod (GNR-enhanced optoacoustic imaging employing a conventional echographic device and to determine the most effective operative configuration in order to assure optoacoustic effectiveness, nanoparticle stability, and imaging procedure safety.Methods: The most suitable laser parameters were experimentally determined in order to assure nanoparticle stability during the optoacoustic imaging procedures. The selected configuration was then applied to a novel tissue-mimicking phantom, in which GNR solutions covering a wide range of low concentrations (25–200 pM and different sample volumes (50–200 µL were exposed to pulsed laser irradiation. GNR-emitted optoacoustic signals were acquired either by a couple of single-element ultrasound probes or by an echographic transducer. Off-line analysis included: (a quantitative evaluation of the relationships between GNR concentration, sample volume, phantom geometry, and amplitude of optoacoustic signals propagating along different directions; (b echographic detection of “optoacoustic spots,” analyzing their intensity, spatial distribution, and clinical exploitability. MTT measurements performed on two different cell lines were also used to quantify biocompatibility of the synthesized GNRs in the adopted doses.Results: Laser irradiation at

  5. Multimodal optoacoustic and multiphoton microscopy of human carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Seeger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a main cause of stroke. Understanding atherosclerosis biology is critical in the development of targeted prevention and treatment strategies. Consequently, there is demand for advanced tools investigating atheroma pathology. We consider hybrid optoacoustic and multiphoton microscopy for the integrated and complementary interrogation of plaque tissue constituents and their mutual interactions. Herein, we visualize human carotid plaque using a hybrid multimodal imaging system that combines optical resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic microscopy, second and third harmonic generation microscopy, and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Our data suggest more comprehensive insights in the pathophysiology of atheroma formation and destabilization, by enabling congruent visualization of structural and biological features critical for the atherosclerotic process and its acute complications, such as red blood cells and collagen.

  6. Optoacoustic inversion via Volterra kernel reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we address the numeric inversion of optoacoustic signals to initial stress profiles. Therefore we put under scrutiny the optoacoustic kernel reconstruction problem in the paraxial approximation of the underlying wave-equation. We apply a Fourier-series expansion of the optoacoustic Volterra kernel and obtain the respective expansion coefficients for a given "apparative" setup by performing a gauge procedure using synthetic input data. The resulting effective kernel is subsequently used to solve the optoacoustic source reconstruction problem for general signals. We verify the validity of the proposed inversion protocol for synthetic signals and explore the feasibility of our approach to also account for the diffraction transformation of signals beyond the paraxial approximation.

  7. Metamaterials for opto-acoustic interactions

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    Smith, Michael J. A.; Wolff, Christian; Lapine, Mikhail; de Sterke, C. Martijn; Poulton, Christopher G.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss the use of metamaterials for the creation and enhancement of opto-acoustic interactions. We show that both photo-elastic and the roto-optic components of the opto-acoustic response can be greatly enhanced as a result of artificial terms that arise directly from the interaction of the sub-elements of the structure. This work has important implications for the creation of new photonic devices that are able to efficiently harness Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.

  8. A compact analytic solution describing optoacoustic phenomenon in absorbing fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Cundin, Luisiana; Barsalou, Norman; Voss, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of an analytic, closed-form solution for Q-switched laser induced optoacoustic phenomenon in absorbing fluid media is presented. The solution assumes spherical symmetry as well for the forcing function, which represents heat deposition from Q-switched lasers. The Greens solution provided is a suitable kernel to generate more complex solutions arising in optoacoustics, optoacoustic spectroscopy, photoacoustic and photothermal problems.

  9. Gigahertz optoacoustic imaging for cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Min; Narashimhan, Sankar; Bost, Wolfgang; Stracke, Frank; Weiss, Eike; Lemor, Robert; Kolios, Michael C.

    2010-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging exploits contrast mechanisms that depend on optical and thermomechanical properties of optical absorbers. The photoacoustic signal bandwidth is dictated by the absorber size and the laser pulse width. In this work we demonstrate that photoacoustic signals can be detected from micron and sub-micron particles. We anticipate applications to include cellular imaging with nanometer sized contrast agents such as gold nanoshells, nanorods, and nanocages. An existing acoustic microscopy system was used (the SASAM 1000, kibero GmbH). This platform is developed on an Olympus IX81 optical microscope with a rotating column that has an optical condenser for transmission optical microscopy and an acoustic module for the acoustic microscopy. The adapted optoacoustic module consists of a Qswitched Nd:YAG solid-state-laser (Teem Photonics, France) generating sub-nanosecond pulses. Scans were acquired of microparticles (1 μm black Toner particles) and cells. The confocal arrangement allowed high signal to noise ratio photoacoustic signals (>30 dB) to be detected at approximately 400 MHz. The particles of various sizes produced signals of different frequency content. In imaging mode, the full width half maximum (FWHM) was measured to be 3.6 μm for the 400 MHz transducer which is in general agreement theory for a 0.3 NA objective (4.3μm). Moreover, images are generated from single melanoma cells, generated by the endogenous contrast from the intracellular melanin.

  10. Optical and opto-acoustic interventional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Beziere, Nicolas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-02-01

    Many clinical interventional procedures, such as surgery or endoscopy, are today still guided by human vision and perception. Human vision however is not sensitive or accurate in detecting a large range of disease biomarkers, for example cellular or molecular processes characteristic of disease. For this reason advanced optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) methods are considered for enabling a more versatile, sensitive and accurate detection of disease biomarkers and complement human vision in clinical decision making during interventions. Herein, we outline developments in emerging fluorescence and opto-acoustic sensing and imaging techniques that can lead to practical implementations toward improving interventional vision.

  11. Mesoscopic and Macroscopic Optoacoustic Imaging of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taruttis, Adrian; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging combines the rich contrast of optical methods with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can therefore deliver optical visualization of cancer far deeper in tissue than optical microscopy and other conventional optical imaging methods. Technological progress and novel contras

  12. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  13. Noninvasive in vivo multispectral optoacoustic imaging of apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer using indocyanine green conjugated phosphatidylserine monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Udumala, Sunil Kumar; Sidney, Yu Wing Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive and nonradioactive imaging modality to track and image apoptosis during chemotherapy of triple negative breast cancer is much needed for an effective treatment plan. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a biomarker transiently exposed on the outer surface of the cells during apoptosis. Its externalization occurs within a few hours of an apoptotic stimulus by a chemotherapy drug and leads to presentation of millions of phospholipid molecules per apoptotic cell on the cell surface. This makes PS an abundant and accessible target for apoptosis imaging. In the current work, we show that PS monoclonal antibody tagged with indocyanine green (ICG) can help to track and image apoptosis using multispectral optoacoustic tomography in vivo. When compared to saline control, the doxorubicin treated group showed a significant increase in uptake of ICG-PS monoclonal antibody in triple negative breast tumor xenografted in NCr nude female mice. Day 5 posttreatment had the highest optoacoustic signal in the tumor region, indicating maximum apoptosis and the tumor subsequently shrank. Since multispectral optoacoustic imaging does not involve the use of radioactivity, the longer the circulatory time of the PS antibody can be exploited to monitor apoptosis over a period of time without multiple injections of commonly used imaging probes such as Tc-99m Annexin V or F-18 ML10. The proposed apoptosis imaging technique involving multispectral optoacoustic tomography, monoclonal antibody, and near-infrared absorbing fluorescent marker can be an effective tool for imaging apoptosis and treatment planning.

  14. Noninvasive in vivo multispectral optoacoustic imaging of apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer using indocyanine green conjugated phosphatidylserine monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Udumala, Sunil Kumar; Sidney, Yu Wing Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive and nonradioactive imaging modality to track and image apoptosis during chemotherapy of triple negative breast cancer is much needed for an effective treatment plan. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a biomarker transiently exposed on the outer surface of the cells during apoptosis. Its externalization occurs within a few hours of an apoptotic stimulus by a chemotherapy drug and leads to presentation of millions of phospholipid molecules per apoptotic cell on the cell surface. This makes PS an abundant and accessible target for apoptosis imaging. In the current work, we show that PS monoclonal antibody tagged with indocyanine green (ICG) can help to track and image apoptosis using multispectral optoacoustic tomography triple negative breast tumor xenografted in NCr nude female mice. Day 5 posttreatment had the highest optoacoustic signal in the tumor region, indicating maximum apoptosis and the tumor subsequently shrank. Since multispectral optoacoustic imaging does not involve the use of radioactivity, the longer the circulatory time of the PS antibody can be exploited to monitor apoptosis over a period of time without multiple injections of commonly used imaging probes such as Tc-99m Annexin V or F-18 ML10. The proposed apoptosis imaging technique involving multispectral optoacoustic tomography, monoclonal antibody, and near-infrared absorbing fluorescent marker can be an effective tool for imaging apoptosis and treatment planning.

  15. Unmixing chromophores in human skin with a 3D multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Aguirre, Juan; Soliman, Dominik; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    The absorption of visible light by human skin is governed by a number of natural chromophores: Eumelanin, pheomelanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin are the major absorbers in the visible range in cutaneous tissue. Label-free quantification of these tissue chromophores is an important step of optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging towards clinical application, since it provides relevant information in diseases. In tumor cells, for instance, there are metabolic changes (Warburg effect) compared to healthy cells, leading to changes in oxygenation in the environment of tumors. In malignant melanoma changes in the absorption spectrum have been observed compared to the spectrum of nonmalignant nevi. So far, optoacoustic imaging has been applied to human skin mostly in single-wavelength mode, providing anatomical information but no functional information. In this work, we excited the tissue by a tunable laser source in the spectral range from 413-680 nm with a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The laser was operated in wavelengthsweep mode emitting consecutive pulses at various wavelengths that allowed for automatic co-registration of the multispectral datasets. The multispectral raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) system provides a lateral resolution of <60 μm independent of wavelength. Based on the known absorption spectra of melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, three-dimensional absorption maps of all three absorbers were calculated from the multispectral dataset.

  16. Dynamic particle enhancement in limited-view optoacoustic tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Dean-Ben, X L; Razansky, D

    2015-01-01

    Limited-view artefacts are commonly present in optoacoustic tomography images, mainly due to practical geometrical and physical constraints imposed by the imaging systems as well as limited light penetration into large optically opaque samples. Herein, a new approach termed dynamic particle-enhanced optoacoustic tomography (DPOT) is proposed for improving image contrast and visibility of optoacoustic images under limited-view scenarios. The method is based on the non- linear combination of a temporal sequence of tomographic reconstructions representing sparsely distributed moving particles. We demonstrate experimental performance by dynamically imaging the flow of suspended microspheres in three dimensions, which shows promise for DPOT applicability in angiographic imaging in living organisms.

  17. Effects of the murine skull in optoacoustic brain microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Shoham, Shy; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great promise behind the recent introduction of optoacoustic technology into the arsenal of small-animal neuroimaging methods, a variety of acoustic and light-related effects introduced by adult murine skull severely compromise the performance of optoacoustics in transcranial imaging. As a result, high-resolution noninvasive optoacoustic microscopy studies are still limited to a thin layer of pial microvasculature, which can be effectively resolved by tight focusing of the excitation light. We examined a range of distortions introduced by an adult murine skull in transcranial optoacoustic imaging under both acoustically- and optically-determined resolution scenarios. It is shown that strong low-pass filtering characteristics of the skull may significantly deteriorate the achievable spatial resolution in deep brain imaging where no light focusing is possible. While only brain vasculature with a diameter larger than 60 µm was effectively resolved via transcranial measurements with acoustic resolution, significant improvements are seen through cranial windows and thinned skull experiments.

  18. Optical and opto-acoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

     Since the inception of the microscope, optical imaging is serving the biological discovery for more than four centuries. With the recent emergence of methods appropriate for in vivo staining, such as bioluminescence, fluorescent molecular probes, and proteins, as well as nanoparticle-based targeted agents, significant attention has been shifted toward in vivo interrogations of different dynamic biological processes at the molecular level. This progress has been largely supported by the development of advanced optical tomographic imaging technologies suitable for obtaining volumetric visualization of biomarker distributions in small animals at a whole-body or whole-organ scale, an imaging frontier that is not accessible by the existing tissue-sectioning microscopic techniques due to intensive light scattering beyond the depth of a few hundred microns. Biomedical optoacoustics has also emerged in the recent decade as a powerful tool for high-resolution visualization of optical contrast, overcoming a variety of longstanding limitations imposed by light scattering in deep tissues. By detecting tiny sound vibrations, resulting from selective absorption of light at multiple wavelengths, multispectral optoacoustic tomography methods can now "hear color" in three dimensions, i.e., deliver volumetric spectrally enriched (color) images from deep living tissues at high spatial resolution and in real time. These new-found imaging abilities directly relate to preclinical screening applications in animal models and are foreseen to significantly impact clinical decision making as well.

  19. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  20. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  1. Optoacoustic mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive, transcranial mapping, monitoring, and imaging are highly important for detection and management of cerebral abnormalities and neuroscience research. Mapping, imaging, and monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation are necessary for diagnostics and management of patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and other neurological conditions. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for noninvasive, transcranial monitoring and imaging. In this work, we developed optoacoustic systems for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans and tested them in adults and neonates. The systems provide noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic measurements in the transmission (forward) and reflection (backward) modes in the near infrared spectral range. Novel, ultra-sensitive probes were built for detection of optoacoustic signals and measurement of blood oxygenation in neonates and adults. Cerebral oxygenation was measured at different lateral sites from the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, located immediately beneath the midline of the human skull. In neonates, cerebral oxygenation was measured through open anterior and posterior fontanelles. Optoacoustic signal detection at different locations allowed for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation. Our future studies will be focused on 3D mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation.

  2. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution and accuracy. We investigated a non-invasive optoacoustic method for accurate, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature during thermotherapy. In this study, we induced temperature gradients in tissue and tissue-like samples and monitored the temperature distribution using the optoacoustic technique. The fundamental harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm) was used for optoacoustic wave generation and probing of tissue temperature. The tissue temperature was also monitored with a multi-sensor temperature probe inserted in the samples. Good agreement between optoacoustically measured and actual tissue temperatures was obtained. The accuracy of temperature monitoring was better than 1{sup 0}C, while the spatial resolution was about 1 mm. These data suggest that the optoacoustic technique has the potential to be used for non-invasive, real-time temperature monitoring during thermotherapy.

  3. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography resolves smart probe activation in vulnerable plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark; van Dam, Goitzen; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) can deliver high resolution images of activatable molecular probe's distribution, sensitive to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), deep within optically scattering human carotid specimen. It is further demonstrated that this method can be used in order to provide accurate maps of vulnerable plaque formations in atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, optoacoustic images can simultaneously show the underlining plaque morphology for accurate localization of MMP activity in three dimensions. This performance directly relates to small animal screening applications and to clinical potential as well.

  4. Optoacoustic sensing for target detection inside cylindrical catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Guo, Xiaoyu; Taylor, Russell H.; Kang, Jin U.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-03-01

    Optoacoustic sensing is a hybrid technique that combines the advantages of high sensing depth of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this study a miniature optoacoustic probe that can characterize the target properties located at the distal end of a catheter is investigated. The probe includes an optical fiber to illuminate the target with the pulsed laser light and a hydrophone to detect the generated optoacoustic signal. The probe is designed for the forwardsensing and therefore the acoustic signal propagates along the tube before being detected. Due to the circular geometry, the waves inside the tube are highly complex. A three dimensional numerical simulation is performed to model the optoacoustic wave generation and propagation inside the water filled cylindrical tubes. The effect of the boundary condition, tube diameter and target size on the detected signal is systematically evaluated. A prototype of the probe is made and tested for detecting an absorbing target inside a 2mm diameter tube submerged in water. The preliminary experimental results corresponding to the simulation is acquired. Although many different medical applications for this miniature probe may exist, our main focus is on detecting the occlusion inside the ventricular shunts. These catheters are used to divert the excess cerebrospinal fluid to the absorption site and regulate inter cranial pressure of hydrocephalous patients. Unfortunately the malfunction rate of these catheters due to blockage is very high. This sensing tool could locate the occluding tissue non-invasively and can potentially characterize the occlusion composites by scanning at different wavelengths of the light.

  5. Transmission (forward) mode, transcranial, noninvasive optoacoustic measurements for brain monitoring, imaging, and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, C. Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2016-03-01

    We proposed to use transmission (forward) mode for cerebral, noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic monitoring, imaging, and sensing in humans. In the transmission mode, the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from opposite hemispheres, while in the reflection (backward) mode the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from the same hemisphere. Recently, we developed new, transmission-mode optoacoustic probes for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for neonatal patients. The transmission mode probes have two major parts: a fiber-optic delivery system and an acoustic transducer (sensor). To obtain optoacoustic signals in the transmission mode, in this study we placed the sensor on the forehead, while light was delivered to the opposite side of the head. Using a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPObased optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range (680-950 nm) and a novel, compact, fiber-coupled, multi-wavelength, pulsed laser diode-based system, we recorded optoacoustic signals generated in the posterior part of the head of adults with TBI and neonates. The optoacoustic signals had two distinct peaks: the first peak from the intracranial space and the second peak from the scalp. The first peak generated by cerebral blood was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation. Moreover, the transmission mode measurements provided detection of intracranial hematomas in the TBI patients. The obtained results suggest that the transmission mode can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  6. High contrast imaging of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins via temporally unmixed Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (tuMSOT)

    CERN Document Server

    Stiel, Andre C; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel; Westmeyer, Gil G

    2014-01-01

    Photocontrol of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) was used to program optoacoustic signal time courses that were temporally unmixed to increase the proteins contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) in optoacoustic imaging. In this way, two variants of the RSFP Dronpa with very similar optoacoustic spectra could be readily discriminated in the presence of highly absorbing blood. Addition of temporal unmixing to multispectral optoacoustic tomography (tuMSOT) in conjunction with synthetic or genetically controlled photochromic contrast agents and customized photoswitching schedules can increase the performance of multiplexed and high contrast molecular optoacoustic imaging.

  7. The Effect of Internal Relaxation on Optoacoustic Conversion in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-05

    optical energy the time dependance of the acoustic pressure is determined by the size and shape of the excitation zone. This research was concerned with the...excitation zone in determining the time dependance of the acoustic pressure, and to 20 DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY...considerations, which accurately predict the optoacoustic signal in such cases. The results show that for a short pulse of optical energy the time dependance of

  8. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  9. Wavefront shaping based on three-dimensional optoacoustic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Estrada, Héctor; Ozbek, Ali; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Wavefront shaping techniques have recently evolved as a promising tool to control the light distribution in optically-scattering media. These techniques are based on spatially-modulating the phase of an incident light beam to create positive interference (focusing) at specific locations in the speckle pattern of the scattered wavefield. The optimum phase distribution (mask) of the spatial light modulator that allows focusing at the target location(s) is determined iteratively by monitoring the light intensity at such target. In this regard, optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging may provide the convenient advantage of simultaneous feedback information on light distribution in an entire region of interest. Herein, we showcase that volumetric optoacoustic images can effectively be used as a feedback mechanism in an iterative optimization algorithm allowing controlling the light distribution after propagation through a scattering sample. Experiments performed with absorbing microparticles distributed in a three-dimensional region showcase the feasibility of enhancing the light intensity at specific points. The advantages provided by optoacoustic imaging in terms of spatial and temporal resolution anticipate new capabilities of wavefront shaping techniques in biomedical optics.

  10. First practical experiences with the optoacoustic/ultrasound system OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Karin; Vogel, Mika W.; Menzenbach, Peter; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2008-02-01

    The OPUS (OPtoacoustic UltraSound) system combines a conventional ultrasound (US) system with a specially designed OPO (Optical Parametrical Oscillator) laser system to generate and detect optoacoustical (OA) signals at multiple wavelengths. The intention of this combination was to demonstrate that a conventional ultrasound system can be transformed into an optoacoustic module without major modifications. To offer operational ease of use similar to those of the conventional US instrumentation, i.e. slow moving of the US transducer over the examined tissue area, a high repetition rate of the laser is required. A repetition rate of 100 Hz of the laser system enables a fast image frame rate. Different approaches for the presentation of the two types of images to the operator are compared. For an optimum applicability of the system we found it essential to provide both, the well-known US image and the OA image of the same tissue section to the user. The operator has now the possibility to overlay both images on one screen and thus to extract the desired information from each imaging mode.

  11. Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermotherapy using optoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    In this paper we have applied the laser optoacoustic technique for real time noninvasive monitoring of thermal damage in tissues. Changes in tissue optical properties during coagulation were detected by measuring and analysing amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic signals. Coagulation of liver, myocardium and prostate was induced by interstitial continuous wave Nd : YAG laser irradiation of the samples or by conductive heating. Real time detection of thermally-induced changes in optical properties was performed with sensitive wide-band acoustic transducers. Combination of optoacoustic and diffuse reflectance technique was applied for determination of tissue optical properties: effective attenuation, total diffuse reflectance, reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The optical properties did not change up to temperature of coagulation (about 53{sup 0}C) and sharply increased during heating up to 70{sup 0}C. Monitoring of the expansion of interstitial coagulation front within freshly excised canine tissues was performed in real time with spatial resolution of about 0.6 mm. The results of our study suggest that this technique can potentially be used for real time precise thermotherapy of malignant and benign lesions at depths of the order of the centimetre.

  12. Method and apparatus for background signal reduction in opto-acoustic absorption measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, L. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivity of an opto-acoustic absorption detector is increased to make it possible to measure trace amounts of constituent gases. A second beam radiation path is created through the sample cell identical to a first path except as to length, alternating the beam through the two paths and minimizing the detected pressure difference for the two paths while the beam wavelength is tuned away from the absorption lines of the sample. Then with the beam wavelength tuned to the absorption line of any constituent of interest, the pressure difference is a measure of trace amounts of the constituent. The same improved detector may also be used for measuring the absorption coefficient of known concentrations of absorbing gases.

  13. Quantitative imaging of tumor vasculature using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Michal R.; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Joseph, James; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to evaluate tumor oxygenation in the clinic could indicate prognosis and enable treatment monitoring, since oxygen deficient cancer cells are often more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a hybrid technique combining the high contrast of optical imaging with spatial resolution and penetration depth similar to ultrasound. We hypothesized that MSOT could reveal both tumor vascular density and function based on modulation of blood oxygenation. We performed MSOT on nude mice (n=8) bearing subcutaneous xenograft PC3 tumors using an inVision 256 (iThera Medical). The mice were maintained under inhalation anesthesia during imaging and respired oxygen content was modified from 21% to 100% and back. After imaging, Hoechst 33348 was injected to indicate vascular perfusion and permeability. Tumors were then extracted for histopathological analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The acquired data was analyzed to extract a bulk measurement of blood oxygenation (SO2MSOT) from the whole tumor using different approaches. The tumors were also automatically segmented into 5 regions to investigate the effect of depth on SO2MSOT. Baseline SO2MSOT values at 21% and 100% oxygen breathing showed no relationship with ex vivo measures of vascular density or function, while the change in SO2MSOT showed a strong negative correlation to Hoechst intensity (r=- 0.92, p=0.0016). Tumor voxels responding to oxygen challenge were spatially heterogeneous. We observed a significant drop in SO2 MSOT value with tumor depth following a switch of respiratory gas from air to oxygen (0.323+/-0.017 vs. 0.11+/-0.05, p=0.009 between 0 and 1.5mm depth), but no such effect for air breathing (0.265+/-0.013 vs. 0.19+/-0.04, p=0.14 between 0 and 1.5mm depth). Our results indicate that in subcutaneous prostate tumors, baseline SO2MSOT levels do not correlate to tumor vascular density or function while the magnitude of the response to oxygen

  14. Noninvasive optoacoustic temperature determination at the fundus of the eye during laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schule, Georg; Huttmann, Gereon; Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    In all fundus laser treatments of the eye, the temperature increase is not exactly known. In order to optimize treatments, an online temperature determination is preferable. We investigated a noninvasive optoacoustic method to monitor the fundus temperature during pulsed laser irradiation. When laser pulses are applied to the fundus, thermoelastic pressure waves are emitted, due to thermal expansion of the heated tissue. Using a constant pulse energy, the amplitude of the pressure wave increases linearly with an increase in the base temperature of between 30 and 80 degrees C. This method was evaluated in vitro on porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell samples and clinically during selective RPE treatment with repetitive microsecond laser pulses. During the irradiation of porcine RPE with a neodymium-doped yttrium (Nd:YLF) laser (527 nm, 1.7 micros, 500 Hz repetition rate, 160 mJ/cm(2)) an increase in the base temperature of 30+/-4 degrees C after 100 pulses was found. During patient treatments, a temperature increase of 60+/-11 degrees C after 100 pulses with a 500-Hz repetition rate and 7+/-1 degrees C after 30 pulses with 100 Hz at 520 mJ/cm(2) was found. All measured data were in good agreement with heat diffusion calculations. Optoacoustic methods can be used to noninvasively determine retinal temperatures during pulsed laser treatment of the eye. This technique can also be adapted to continuous-wave photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and transpupillary thermotherapy, or other fields of laser-heated tissue.

  15. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  16. Quantitative analysis with the optoacoustic/ultrasound system OPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Zell, Karin; Sperl, Jonathan; Vogel, Mika W.; Niessner, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    The OPUS (Optoacoustic plus Ultrasound) system is a combination of a medical ultrasound scanner with a highrepetition rate, wavelength-tunable laser system and a suitable triggering interface to synchronize the laser and the ultrasound system. The pulsed laser generates an optoacoustic (OA), or photoacoustic (PA), signal which is detected by the ultrasound system. Alternatively, imaging in conventional ultrasound mode can be performed. Both imaging modes can be superimposed. The laser light is coupled into the tissue laterally, parallel to the ultrasound transducer, which does not require for any major modification to the transducer or the ultrasound beam forming. This was a basic requirement on the instrument, as the intention of the project was to establish the optoacoustic imaging modality as add-on to a conventional standard ultrasound instrument. We believe that this approach may foster the introduction of OA imaging as routine tool in medical diagnosis. Another key aspect of the project was to exploit the capabilities of OA imaging for quantitative analysis. The intention of the presented work is to summarize all steps necessary to extract the significant information from the PA raw data, which are required for the quantification of local absorber distributions. We show results of spatially resolved absorption measurements in scattering samples and a comparison of four different image reconstruction algorithms, regarding their influence on lateral resolution as well as on the signal to noise ratio for different sample depths and absorption values. The reconstruction algorithms are based on Fourier transformation, on a generalized 2D Hough transformation, on circular back-projection and the classical delay-and-sum approach which is implemented in most ultrasound scanners. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of a newly developed laser source, combining diode and flash lamp pumping. Compared to all-flash-lamp pumped systems it features a significantly higher

  17. Model-based optoacoustic inversion with arbitrary-shape detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Amir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Optoacoustic imaging enables mapping the optical absorption of biological tissue using optical excitation and acoustic detection. Although most image-reconstruction algorithms are based on the assumption of a detector with an isotropic sensitivity, the geometry of the detector often leads to a response with spatially dependent magnitude and bandwidth. This effect may lead to attenuation or distortion in the recorded signal and, consequently, in the reconstructed image. Herein, an accurate numerical method for simulating the spatially dependent response of an arbitrary-shape acoustic transducer is presented. The method is based on an analytical solution obtained for a two-dimensional line detector. The calculated response is incorporated in the forward model matrix of an optoacoustic imaging setup using temporal convolution, and image reconstruction is performed by inverting the matrix relation. The method was numerically and experimentally demonstrated in two dimensions for both flat and focused transducers and compared to the spatial-convolution method. In forward simulations, the developed method did not suffer from the numerical errors exhibited by the spatial-convolution method. In reconstruction simulations and experiments, the use of both temporal-convolution and spatial-convolution methods lead to an enhancement in resolution compared to a reconstruction with a point detector model. However, because of its higher modeling accuracy, the temporal-convolution method achieved a noise figure approximated three times lower than the spatial-convolution method. The demonstrated performance of the spatial-convolution method shows it is a powerful tool for reducing reconstruction artifacts originating from the detector finite size and improving the quality of optoacoustic reconstructions. Furthermore, the method may be used for assessing new system designs. Specifically, detectors with nonstandard shapes may be investigated.

  18. Direct and inverse solver for the 3D optoacoustic Volterra equation

    CERN Document Server

    Stritzel, J; Wollweber, M; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    The direct problem of optoacoustic signal generation in biological media consists of solving the inhomogeneous optoacoustic wave equation for an initial acoustic stress profile. In contrast, the mathematically challenging inverse problem requires the reconstruction of the initial stress profile from a proper set of observed signals. In this article, we consider the particular case of a Gaussian transverse irradiation source profile in the paraxial approximation of the wave equation, for which the direct problem along the beam axis can be cast into a linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. This integral equation can be used in two ways: as a forward solver to predict optoacoustic signals in terms of the direct problem, and as an inverse solver for which we here devise highly efficient numerical schemes used for the reconstruction of initial pressure profiles from observed signals, constituting a methodical progress of computational aspects of optoacoustics. In this regard, we explore the validity...

  19. Non-contact optoacoustic imaging with focused air-coupled transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Pang, Genny A.; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); School of Medicine, Technische Universität München (TUM), Munich (Germany); Montero de Espinosa, Francisco [CSIC, Institute of Physics and Communication Technologies, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-03

    Non-contact optoacoustic imaging employing raster-scanning of a spherically focused air-coupled ultrasound transducer is showcased herein. Optoacoustic excitation with laser fluence within the maximal permissible human exposure limits in the visible and near-infrared spectra is applied to objects with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm and absorption properties representative of the whole blood at near-infrared wavelengths, and these signals are shown to be detectable without contact to the sample using an air-coupled transducer with reasonable signal averaging. Optoacoustic images of vessel-mimicking tubes embedded in an agar phantom captured with this non-contact sensing technique are also showcased. These initial results indicate that an air-coupled ultrasound detection approach can be suitable for non-contact biomedical imaging with optoacoustics.

  20. Microstructured polymer optical fibre sensors for opto-acoustic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Pospori, Andreas; Zubel, Michal; Webb, David J.; Sugden, Kate; Carpintero, Guillermo; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-04-01

    Opto-acoustic imaging is a growing field of research in recent years, providing functional imaging of physiological biomarkers, such as the oxygenation of haemoglobin. Piezo electric transducers are the industry standard detector for ultrasonics, but their limited bandwidth, susceptibility to electromagnetic interference and their inversely proportional sensitivity to size all affect the detector performance. Sensors based on polymer optical fibres (POF) are immune to electromagnetic interference, have lower acoustic impedance and a reduced Young's Modulus compared to silica fibres. Furthermore, POF enables the possibility of a wideband sensor and a size appropriate to endoscopy. Micro-structured POF (mPOF) used in an interferometric detector has been shown to be an order of magnitude more sensitive than silica fibre at 1 MHz and 3 times more sensitive at 10 MHz. We present the first opto-acoustic measurements obtained using a 4.7mm PMMA mPOF Bragg grating with a fibre diameter of 130 μm and present the lateral directivity pattern of a PMMA mPOF FBG ultrasound sensor over a frequency range of 1-50 MHz. We discuss the impact of the pattern with respect to the targeted application and draw conclusions on how to mitigate the problems encountered.

  1. Cerebral blood oxygenation measurements in neonates with optoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxia is a major contributor to neonatal/infant mortality and morbidity including severe neurological complications such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, motor impairment, and epilepsy. Currently, no technology is capable of accurate monitoring of neonatal cerebral oxygenation. We proposed to use optoacoustics for this application by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and laser diode optoacoustic systems for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation in the reflection mode through open anterior or posterior fontanelles and in the transmission mode through the skull in the occipital area. In this paper we present results of initial tests of the laser diode system for neonatal cerebral oxygenation measurements. First, the system was tested in phantoms simulating neonatal SSS. Then, using the data obtained in the phantoms, we optimized the system's hardware and software and tested it in neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The laser diode system was capable of detecting SSS signals in the reflection mode through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as in the transmission mode through the skull with high signal-to-noise ratio. Using the signals measured at different wavelengths and algorithms developed for oxygenation measurements, the laser diode system provided real-time, continuous oxygenation monitoring with high precision at all these locations.

  2. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  3. Integrated optical sensors for optoacoustic imaging of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, P.; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R.; Li, C.; Morgan, Stephen P.; Clark, Matt; Crowe, John A.; Somekh, Michael G.

    2004-07-01

    The design of a single integrated lock-in pixel with a logarithmic response for a modulated light camera is described. The sensor has been designed to detect low light levels and can detect modulated light with frequency well above 2 MHz. An n-well photodiode, amplifier, mixer and 150 Hz low-pass filter have been implemented to allow continuous processing of the incident light. The performance of the sensor is demonstrated using an optoacoustic imaging system and tissue phantoms. A 1 MHz ultrasound transducer is used to modulate light scattered through a tissue phantom. An absorbing sphere is scanned through the medium and the improvement in imaging performance provided by ultrasound modulation is demonstrated.

  4. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erwin; Douplik, Alexandre; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Successful laser surgery is characterized by a precise cut and effective hemostasis with minimal collateral thermal damage to the adjacent tissues. Consequently, the surgeon needs to control several parameters, such as power, pulse repetition rate, and velocity of movements. In this study we propose utilizing optoacoustics for providing the necessary real-time feedback of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage. Laser ablation was performed on a bovine meat slab using a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm, 4 kHz, 18 W). Due to the short pulse duration of 7.6 ns, the same laser has also been used for generation of optoacoustic signals. Both the shockwaves, generated due to tissue removal, as well as the normal optoacoustic responses from the surrounding tissue were detected using a single broadband piezoelectric transducer. It has been observed that the rapid reduction in the shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency, whereas gradual decrease in the optoacoustic signal likely corresponds to coagulation around the ablation crater. Further heating of the surrounding tissue leads to carbonization accompanied by a significant shift in the optoacoustic spectra. Our results hold promise for real-time monitoring of cutting efficiency and collateral thermal damage during laser surgery. In practice, this could eventually facilitate development of automatic cut-off mechanisms that will guarantee an optimal tradeoff between cutting and heating while avoiding severe thermal damage to the surrounding tissues.

  5. Optoacoustic 3D visualization of changes in physiological properties of mouse tissues from live to postmortem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Ermiliov, Sergey A.; Liopo, Anton V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2012-02-01

    Using the method of 3D optoacoustic tomography, we studied changes in tissues of the whole body of nude mice as the changes manifested themselves from live to postmortem. The studies provided the necessary baseline for optoacoustic imaging of necrotizing tissue, acute and chronic hypoxia, and reperfusion. They also establish a new optoacoustic model of early postmortem conditions of the whole mouse body. Animals were scanned in a 37°C water bath using a three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system previously shown to provide high contrast maps of vasculature and organs based on changes in the optical absorbance. The scans were performed right before, 5 minutes after, 2 hours and 1 day after a lethal injection of KCl. The near-infrared laser wavelength of 765 nm was used to evaluate physiological features of postmortem changes. Our data showed that optoacoustic imaging is well suited for visualization of both live and postmortem tissues. The images revealed changes of optical properties in mouse organs and tissues. Specifically, we observed improvements in contrast of the vascular network and organs after the death of the animal. We associated these with reduced optical scattering, loss of motion artifacts, and blood coagulation.

  6. High-Resolution Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography of the Vascularization and Constitutive Hypoxemia of Cancerous Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Chekkoury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the design and alignment of illumination and ultrasonic transducers empower the fine scalability and versatility of optoacoustic imaging. In this study, we implement an innovative high-resolution optoacoustic mesoscopy for imaging the vasculature and tissue oxygenation within subcutaneous and orthotopic cancerous implants of mice in vivo through acquisition of tomographic projections over 180° at a central frequency of 24 MHz. High-resolution volumetric imaging was combined with multispectral functional measurements to resolve the exquisite inner structure and vascularization of the entire tumor mass using endogenous and exogenous optoacoustic contrast. Evidence is presented for constitutive hypoxemia within the carcinogenic tissue through analysis of the hemoglobin absorption spectra and distribution. Morphometric readouts obtained with optoacoustic mesoscopy have been verified with high-resolution ultramicroscopic studies. The findings described herein greatly extend the applications of optoacoustic mesoscopy toward structural and multispectral functional measurements of the vascularization and hemodynamics within solid tumors in vivo and are of major relevance to basic and preclinical oncological studies in small animal models.

  7. Three-dimensional modeling of the transducer shape in acoustic resolution optoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Estrada, Hector; Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic resolution optoacoustic microscopy is a powerful modality allowing imaging morphology and function at depths up to a few centimeters in biological tissues. This optoacoustic configuration is based on a spherically-focused ultrasonic transducer raster scanned on an accessible side of the sample to be imaged. Volumetric images can then be formed by stacking up the recorded time-resolved signals at the measured locations. However, the focusing capacity of a spherically-focused transducer depends on its aperture and the acoustic spectrum of the collected signals, which may lead to image artifacts if a simplistic reconstruction approach is employed. In this work, we make use of a model-based reconstruction procedure developed in three dimensions in order to account for the shape of spherically focused transducers in acoustic resolution optoacoustic microscopy set-ups. By discretizing the transducer shape to a set of sub-sensors, the resulting model incorporates the frequency-dependent transducer sensitivity for acquisition of broadband optoacoustic signals. Inversion of the full model incorporating the effects of the transducer shape is then performed iteratively. The obtained results indicate good performance of the method for absorbers of different size emitting optoacoustic waves with different frequency spectra.

  8. In vivo testing of laser optoacoustic system for image-guided biopsy of prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraevsky, Alexander; Ermilov, Sergey; Mehta, Ketan; Miller, Tom; Bell, Brent; Orihuela, Eduardo; Motamedi, Massoud

    2006-02-01

    We have developed and used a laser optoacoustic imaging system with transrectal probe (LOIS-P) for detection of mechanical lesions in canine prostates in vivo. LOIS images have been acquired with a 128-channel transrectal probe and a 32-channel data acquisition system. Optoacoustic images showed a strong contrast enhancement for a blood containing lesion, when compared with ultrasound images. Our studies demonstrated that sufficient optoacoustic contrast exists between blood containing lesion and prostate tissue, although the lesion has been undetectable with ultrasound. The imaging results have been compared with visual examination of surgically excised prostates. Although axial resolution of the wide-band transducers employed in the transrectal probe provides good axial resolution of 0.5 mm, the convex arc geometry of the this array of transducers provides lateral resolution degrading with depth in tissue. A two step algorithm has been developed to improve the lateral resolution of deeply located objects. This algorithm employs optoacoustic image reconstruction based on radial back-projection to determine location and shape of the target object, then a procedure, we call Maximum Angular Amplitude Probability (MAAP), to determine true brightness of the object and simultaneously remove arc-shaped artifacts associated with radial back-projection. A laser optoacoustic imaging system (LOIS-P) with transrectal probe operating in backward detection mode empowered with the new image reconstruction algorithm seems promising as a modality for detection of prostate cancer and guiding prostate biopsy.

  9. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  10. Hybrid microscopy of human carotid atheroma by means of optical-resolution optoacoustic and non-linear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus; Karlas, Angelos; Soliman, Dominik; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    Carotid atheromatosis is causally related to stroke, a leading cause of disability and death. We present the analysis of a human carotid atheroma using a novel hybrid microscopy system that combines optical-resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy and several non-linear optical microscopy modalities (second and third harmonic generation, as well as, two-photon excitation fluorescence) to achieve a multimodal examination of the extracted tissue within the same imaging framework. Our system enables the label-free investigation of atheromatous human carotid tissue with a resolution of about 1 μm and allows for the congruent interrogation of plaque morphology and clinically relevant constituents such as red blood cells, collagen, and elastin. Our data reveal mutual interactions between blood embeddings and connective tissue within the atheroma, offering comprehensive insights into its stage of evolution and severity, and potentially facilitating the further development of diagnostic tools, as well as treatment strategies.

  11. Optoacoustic tomography in preclinical research: in vivo distribution of highly purified PEG-coated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Ermilov, Sergey; Larin, Kirill; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2011-07-01

    We report on the optoacoustic (OA) imaging of the whole mouse body using a biocompatible contrast agent - highly purified, pegylated gold nanorods (GNR) - which has strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region and low level of toxicity. In vitro toxicity studies showed no significant change in survival rates of the cultured normal epithelium IEC-6 cells when incubated for 24 hours with up to 1 nM of GNR. In vivo toxicity studies in nude mice showed no pathological changes in liver 1 month after the IV injection of GNR with intra-body concentration around 0.25-0.50 nM. In order to study the enhancement of the OA contrast and accumulation of GNR in different tissues, we performed 3D OA imaging of live nude mice with IV-injected GNR. The enhancement of the OA contrast in comparison with the images of the untreated mice was visible starting 1 hour after the GNR injection. The OA contrast of kidneys, liver, and spleen peaked at about 2-3 days after the administration of the GNR, and then was gradually reducing.

  12. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  13. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology. PMID:27358000

  14. Controlled bacteria-gold nanorod interactions for enhancement of optoacoustic contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liopo, Anton; Derry, Paul J.; Ermolinsky, Boris; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Ermilov, Sergey; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Gold-based contrast agents, gold nanorod (GNR), were designed for the enhancement of optoacoustic signal. After synthesis, the GNR-CTAB complexes were modified by pegylation (PEG), or replacement of CTAB (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide) with MTAB (16-mercaptohexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide) for coverage of gold nanorods with heparin (GNR-HP). Modified GNR are purified through centrifugation and filtration. GNRCTAB can be used as a model of positively charged gold surface for quantitative optoacoustic sensing in GNRbacteria interactions, whereas GNR-PEG and GNR-HP can be used as negatively charged gold surface models. We studied controlled agglomeration of contrast agents with the bacteria E.Coli and Vibrio Cholerae. For bacterial sensing, the localized plasmon resonance peak shifts as a function of electrostatic binding, which was detected with two different wavelengths through 3D optoacoustic imaging.

  15. Visual Quality Enhancement in Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography using Active Contour Segmentation Priors

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of biomedical images is essential for studying and characterizing anatomical structures, detection and evaluation of pathological tissues. Segmentation has been further shown to enhance the reconstruction performance in many tomographic imaging modalities by accounting for heterogeneities of the excitation field and tissue properties in the imaged region. This is particularly relevant in optoacoustic tomography, where discontinuities in the optical and acoustic tissue properties, if not properly accounted for, may result in deterioration of the imaging performance. Efficient segmentation of optoacoustic images is often hampered by the relatively low intrinsic contrast of large anatomical structures, which is further impaired by the limited angular coverage of some commonly employed tomographic imaging configurations. Herein, we analyze the performance of active contour models for boundary segmentation in cross-sectional optoacoustic tomography. The segmented mask is employed to construct a two co...

  16. In vivo cryoablation of prostate tissue with temperature monitoring by optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2016-03-01

    Cryoablation of prostate cancer is an FDA approved clinical procedure, which involves repetitive rapid cooling of a lesion to lethal temperatures of -40°C and below. The major drawback of the technique is the insufficient control over the fast thermal processes that may result in severe complications (impotence, incontinence, perforation of the rectal wall) and morbidity. The developed optoacoustic imaging technique provides non-invasive real-time temperature mapping of tissue adjacent to prostate and enables more efficient control over the procedure, which is necessary to reduce side effects and accelerate the physician's learning curve. In these studies we successfully demonstrated real-time transrectal optoacoustic imaging during prostate cryoablation in live canine model focused on optoacoustic thermography of the rectal wall within the depth of 1cm. Our method utilized previously discovered universal thermal dependence of the normalized optoacoustic response of blood. Nanosecond-pulse radiation of Ti-Sapphire laser tuned to the isosbestic point of hemoglobin (802+/-3 nm) was delivered via fiberoptic illuminators assembled on both sides of the linear array of the 128-channel transrectal ultrasound probe. Temperature readouts at discrete locations inside and nearby prostate were also performed using standard transperineal needle sensors. The effect of homeostasis on optoacoustic imaging in live tissue was examined during cooling and shown to be significant only within the range of +/-1.5°C in respect to the body temperature. Accuracy of in vivo optoacoustic temperature measurements was determined as +/-2°C for the range of temperature from +35 to -15°C, which is more than sufficient for tracking the essential isotherms in the course of clinical procedures.

  17. In vivo optoacoustic monitoring of calcium activity in the brain (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, Xose Luís.; Gottschalk, Sven; Sela, Gali; Lauri, Antonella; Kneipp, Moritz; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Westmeyer, Gil G.; Shoham, Shy; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive observation of spatio-temporal neural activity of large neural populations distributed over the entire brain of complex organisms is a longstanding goal of neuroscience [1,2]. Recently, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) have revolutionized neuroimaging by enabling mapping the activity of entire neuronal populations in vivo [3]. Visualization of these powerful sensors with fluorescence microscopy has however been limited to superficial regions while deep brain areas have so far remained unreachable [4]. We have developed a volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography platform for imaging neural activation deep in scattering brains [5]. The developed methodology can render 100 volumetric frames per second across scalable fields of view ranging between 50-1000 mm3 with respective spatial resolution of 35-150µm. Experiments performed in immobilized and freely swimming larvae and in adult zebrafish brains expressing the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5G demonstrated, for the first time, the fundamental ability to directly track neural dynamics using optoacoustics while overcoming the depth barrier of optical imaging in scattering brains [6]. It was further possible to monitor calcium transients in a scattering brain of a living adult transgenic zebrafish expressing GCaMP5G calcium indicator [7]. Fast changes in optoacoustic traces associated to GCaMP5G activity were detectable in the presence of other strongly absorbing endogenous chromophores, such as hemoglobin. The results indicate that the optoacoustic signal traces generally follow the GCaMP5G fluorescence dynamics and further enable overcoming the longstanding optical-diffusion penetration barrier associated to scattering in biological tissues [6]. The new functional optoacoustic neuroimaging method can visualize neural activity at penetration depths and spatio-temporal resolution scales not covered with the existing neuroimaging techniques. Thus, in addition to the well

  18. Influence of the absorber dimensions on wavefront shaping based on volumetric optoacoustic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Dean-Ben, X L; Ozbek, A; Razansky, D

    2015-01-01

    The recently demonstrated control over light distribution through turbid media based on real-time three-dimensional optoacoustic feedback has offered promising prospects to interferometrically focus light within scattering objects. Nevertheless, the focusing capacity of the feedback-based approach is strongly conditioned by the number of effectively resolvable optical modes (speckles). In this letter, we experimentally tested the light intensity enhancement achieved with optoacoustic feedback measurements from different sizes of absorbing microparticles. The importance of the obtained results is discussed in the context of potential signal enhancement at deep locations within a scattering medium where the effective speckle sizes approach the minimum values dictated by optical diffraction.

  19. A Novel Algorithm of Surface Eliminating in Undersurface Optoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulina Yulia V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the task of optoacoustic imaging of the objects located under the surface covering them. In this paper, we suggest the algorithm of the surface eliminating based on the fact that the intensity of the image as a function of the spatial point should change slowly inside the local objects, and will suffer a discontinuity of the spatial gradients on their boundaries. The algorithm forms the 2-dimensional curves along which the discontinuity of the signal derivatives is detected. Then, the algorithm divides the signal space into the areas along these curves. The signals inside the areas with the maximum level of the signal amplitudes and the maximal gradient absolute values on their edges are put equal to zero. The rest of the signals are used for the image restoration. This method permits to reconstruct the picture of the surface boundaries with a higher contrast than that of the surface detection technique based on the maximums of the received signals. This algorithm does not require any prior knowledge of the signals' statistics inside and outside the local objects. It may be used for reconstructing any images with the help of the signals representing the integral over the object's volume. Simulation and real data are also provided to validate the proposed method.

  20. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  1. [Spatial and temporal control of ultrasonic fields via optoacoustic holography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspan, Stefan; Meyer, Alex; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The present paper presents a new method for generating ultrasound, based on the interaction of laser-induced ultrasound generation and ultrasonic holography. An ultrasonic field generated in a water tank via the optoacoustic effect is spatially and temporally controlled: In order to produce defined ultrasonic frequencies in the MHz range, the laser pulses incident on a light-absorbing layer are modulated in time using an electro-optic modulator (EOM). Additionally, a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to imprint a pre-calculated phase front to the laser beam. A computer-generated binary hologram is also displayed at the SLM. The expanded laser beam projects the corresponding pattern to the plane absorptive layer in the water tank. The projection of specific patterns for the generation of ultrasonic beams resembles the use of, diffractive optical elements" in optics. Optical ultrasound generation with holographic steering is a flexible tool with promising numerous new applications in medical and technical ultrasound diagnostics.

  2. Optoacoustic detection and monitoring of blast-induced intracranial hematomas in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Prough, Donald S.; Dewitt, Douglas S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Patients with acute intracranial hematomas often require surgical drainage within the first four hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to avoid death or severe neurologic disability. CT and MRI permit rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of hematomas, but can be used only at a major health-care facility. At present, there is no device for noninvasive detection and characterization of hematomas in pre-hospital settings. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for rapid, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of hematomas, including intracranial hematomas. Unlike bulky CT and MR equipment, an optoacoustic system can be small and easily transported in an emergency vehicle. In this study we used a specially-designed blast device to inflict TBI in rats. A near-infrared OPO-based optoacoustic system developed for hematoma diagnosis and for blood oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in small animals was used in the study. Optoacoustic signals recorded simultaneously from the SSS and hematomas allowed for measurements of their oxygenations. The presence of hematomas was confirmed after the experiment in gross pictures of the exposed brains. After blast the hematoma signal and oxygenation increased, while SSS oxygenation decreased due to the blastinduced TBI. The increase of the oxygenation in fresh hematomas may be explained by the leakage of blood from arteries which have higher blood pressure compared to that of veins. These results indicate that the optoacoustic technique can be used for early diagnosis of hematomas and may provide important information for improving outcomes in patients with TBI or stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic).

  3. OPUS: optoacoustic imaging combined with conventional ultrasound for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, C.; Zell, K.; Sperl, J. I.; Ketzer, S.; Vogel, M. W.; Menzenbach, P.; Niessner, R.

    2007-07-01

    Besides x-ray imaging, sonography is the most common method for breast cancer screening. The intention of our work is to develop optoacoustical imaging as an add-on to a conventional system. While ultrasound imaging reveals acoustical properties of tissue, optoacoustics generates an image of the distribution of optical absorption. Hence, it can be a valuable addition to sonography, because acoustical properties of different tissues show only a slight variation whereas the optical properties may differ strongly. Additionally, optoacoustics gives access to physiological parameters, like oxygen saturation of blood. For the presented work, we combine a conventional ultrasound system to a 100 Hz laser. The laser system consists of a Nd:YAG-laser at a wavelength of 532 nm with 7 ns pulse duration, coupled to a tunable Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) with a tuning rage from 680 nm to 2500 nm. The tunable laser source allows the selection of wavelengths which compromising high spectral information content with high skin transmission. The laser pulse is delivered fiber-optically to the ultrasound transducer and coupled into the acoustical field of view. Homogeneous illumination is crucial in order to achieve unblurred images. Furthermore the maximum allowed pulse intensities in accordance with standards for medical equipment have to be met to achieve a high signal to noise ration. The ultrasound instrument generates the trigger signal which controls the laser pulsing in order to apply ultrasound instrument's imaging procedures without major modifications to generate an optoacoustic image. Detection of the optoacoustic signal as well as of the classical ultrasound signal is carried out by the standard medical ultrasound transducer. The characterization of the system, including quantitative measurements, performed on tissue phantoms, is presented. These phantoms have been specially designed regarding their acoustical as well as their optical properties.

  4. Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography (MSOT) of the brain and glioblastoma characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Neal C; Patel, Manishkumar; Morscher, Stefan; Driessen, Wouter H P; Claussen, Jing; Beziere, Nicolas; Jetzfellner, Thomas; Taruttis, Adrian; Razansky, Daniel; Bednar, Bohumil; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-01-15

    Brain research depends strongly on imaging for assessing function and disease in vivo. We examine herein multispectral opto-acoustic tomography (MSOT), a novel technology for high-resolution molecular imaging deep inside tissues. MSOT illuminates tissue with light pulses at multiple wavelengths and detects the acoustic waves generated by the thermoelastic expansion of the environment surrounding absorbing molecules. Using spectral unmixing analysis of the data collected, MSOT can then differentiate the spectral signatures of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and of photo-absorbing agents and quantify their concentration. By being able to detect absorbing molecules up to centimeters deep in the tissue it represents an ideal modality for small animal brain imaging, simultaneously providing anatomical, hemodynamic, functional, and molecular information. In this work we examine the capacity of MSOT in cross-sectional brain imaging of mice. We find unprecedented optical imaging performance in cross-sectional visualization of anatomical and physiological parameters of the mouse brain. For example, the potential of MSOT to characterize ischemic brain areas was demonstrated through the use of a carbon dioxide challenge. In addition, indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously, and the kinetics of uptake and clearance in the vasculature of the brain was visualized in real-time. We further found that multiparameter, multispectral imaging of the growth of U87 tumor cells injected into the brain could be visualized through the intact mouse head, for example through visualization of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the growing tumor. We also demonstrate how MSOT offers several compelling features for brain research and allows time-dependent detection and quantification of brain parameters that are not available using other imaging methods without invasive procedures. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (research applications, such as imaging vascularization and measuring hemoglobin / oxyhemoglobin distribution in the organs as well as imaging exogenous or endogenous optoacoustic contrast agents. As examples, we present in vivo experiments using phantoms and mice with and without tumor injected with contrast agents with indocyanine green (ICG). LOIS-3D was capable of detecting ~1-2 pmole of the ICG, in tissues with relatively low blood content. With its high sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution LOIS-3D is an advanced alternative to fluorescence and bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  6. Generation of planar blast waves using carbon nanotubes-poly-dimethylsiloxane optoacoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C.; Fan, X.; Ha, K.; Kim, D.

    2017-01-01

    We have generated planar blast waves over the large area using carbon nanotubes(CNT)-poly-dimethylsiloxane(PDMS) optoacoustic transducer. Pulse laser is absorbed by CNT and converted to heat, and the heat is transferred to PDMS inducing its thermal expansion and blast wave generation. To theoretically describe the planar blast wave generation, we build one-dimensional simulation model and find analytical solutions for temperature and pressure distributions. The analytical solution validated by the experimental data sheds light on how to improve the performance of the new transducer. Resonance of acoustic waves inside the transducer is also discussed. The new optoacoustic transducer optimized based on the fundamental understandings will be useful in generating high quality blast waves for research and industrial applications.

  7. Ionoacoustic tomography of the proton Bragg peak in combination with ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Assmann, Walter; Lehrack, Sebastian; Reinhardt, Sabine; Thirolf, Peter; Queirós, Daniel; Sergiadis, George; Dollinger, Günther; Parodi, Katia; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-07-01

    Ions provide a more advantageous dose distribution than photons for external beam radiotherapy, due to their so-called inverse depth dose deposition and, in particular a characteristic dose maximum at their end-of-range (Bragg peak). The favorable physical interaction properties enable selective treatment of tumors while sparing surrounding healthy tissue, but optimal clinical use requires accurate monitoring of Bragg peak positioning inside tissue. We introduce ionoacoustic tomography based on detection of ion induced ultrasound waves as a technique to provide feedback on the ion beam profile. We demonstrate for 20 MeV protons that ion range imaging is possible with submillimeter accuracy and can be combined with clinical ultrasound and optoacoustic tomography of similar precision. Our results indicate a simple and direct possibility to correlate, in-vivo and in real-time, the conventional ultrasound echo of the tumor region with ionoacoustic tomography. Combined with optoacoustic tomography it offers a well suited pre-clinical imaging system.

  8. Fabry-Perot micro-structured polymer optical fibre sensors for opto-acoustic endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet;

    2015-01-01

    Opto-Acoustic Endoscopy (OAE) requires sensors with a high sensitivity and small physical dimensions in order to facilitate integration into an endoscope of less than 1mm in diameter. We present fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and Fabry- Perot intrinsic fibre sensors for ultrasound detection. We presen...... and a simplification of the detection regime for an optimal interferometric OAE configuration. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  9. Novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive continuous monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury are a major cause of death for individuals under 50 years of age. In the USA alone, 150,000 patients per year suffer moderate or severe TBI. Moreover, TBI is a major cause of combatrelated death. Monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation is critically important for management of TBI patients because cerebral venous blood oxygenation below 50% results in death or severe neurologic complications. At present, there is no technique for noninvasive, accurate monitoring of this clinically important variable. We proposed to use optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation by probing cerebral veins such as the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and validated it in animal studies. In this work, we developed a novel, medical grade optoacoustic system for continuous, real-time cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring and tested it in human subjects at normal conditions and during hyperventilation to simulate changes that may occur in patients with TBI. We designed and built a highly-sensitive optoacoustic probe for SSS signal detection. Continuous measurements were performed in the near infrared spectral range and the SSS oxygenation absolute values were automatically calculated in real time using a special algorithm developed by our group. Continuous measurements performed at normal conditions and during hyperventilation demonstrated that hyperventilation resulted in approximately 12% decrease of cerebral venous blood oxygenation.

  10. Propagation characteristics of shock waves from a plane carbon-nanotube-coated optoacoustic transducer in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Baek, Yonggeun; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon; Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Duckjong; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-07-01

    An optoacoustic transducer made of light-absorbing and elastomeric materials can generate high-pressure wide-band ultrasound waves in water when it is illuminated by a pulse laser. To generate such waves with high efficiency, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are widely used as the light-absorbing and elastomeric materials, respectively. It was previously reported that an optoacoustic concave transducer made of these materials can produce strong shock waves, namely, blast waves, within its focal zone. In this study, we have shown that these waves can also be generated by a plane optoacoustic transducer fabricated by coating CNTs-PDMS on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate. Some propagation characteristics of the blast wave generated were measured and compared with the calculated results. It was found that the propagation speed and attenuation of the wave are different from those of usual sounds. From the comparison of the measured and the calculated acoustic fields, it is assumed that every point on the transducer surface produces almost the same blast wave.

  11. Development of a Double-Gauss Lens Based Setup for Optoacoustic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Ryu, Jae-Myung; Yeom, Jung-Yeol

    2017-03-03

    In optoacoustic (photoacoustic) systems, different echo signal intensities such as amplitudes, center frequencies, and bandwidths need to be compensated by utilizing variable gain or time-gain compensation amplifiers. However, such electronic components can increase system complexities and signal noise levels. In this paper, we introduce a double-Gauss lens to generate a large field of view with uniform light intensity due to the low chromatic aberrations of the lens, thus obtaining uniform echo signal intensities across the field of view of the optoacoustic system. In order to validate the uniformity of the echo signal intensities in the system, an in-house transducer was placed at various positions above a tissue sample and echo signals were measured and compared with each other. The custom designed double-Gauss lens demonstrated negligible light intensity variation (±1.5%) across the illumination field of view (~2 cm diameter). When the transducer was used to measure echo signal from an eye of a bigeye tuna within a range of ±1 cm, the peak-to-peak amplitude, center frequency, and their -6 dB bandwidth variations were less than 2 mV, 1 MHz, and 6%, respectively. The custom designed double-Gauss lens can provide uniform light beam across a wide area while generating insignificant echo signal variations, and thus can lower the burden of the receiving electronics or signal processing in the optoacoustic system.

  12. Opto-Acoustic Data Fusion for Supporting the Guidance of Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Ritacco, G.; Muzzupappa, M.; Guida, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remotely Operated underwater Vehicles (ROVs) play an important role in a number of operations conducted in shallow and deep water (e.g.: exploration, survey, intervention, etc.), in several application fields like marine science, offshore construction, and underwater archeology. ROVs are usually equipped with different imaging devices, both optical and acoustic. Optical sensors are able to generate better images in close range and clear water conditions, while acoustic systems are usually employed in long range acquisitions and do not suffer from the presence of turbidity, a well-known cause of coarser resolution and harder data extraction. In this work we describe the preliminary steps in the development of an opto-acoustic camera able to provide an on-line 3D reconstruction of the acquired scene. Taking full advantage of the benefits arising from the opto-acoustic data fusion techniques, the system was conceived as a support tool for ROV operators during the navigation in turbid waters, or in operations conducted by means of mechanical manipulators. The paper presents an overview of the device, an ad-hoc methodology for the extrinsic calibration of the system and a custom software developed to control the opto-acoustic camera and supply the operator with visual information.

  13. Simultaneous control of volumetric light distribution through turbid media using real-time three-dimensional optoacoustic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Focusing light through turbid media presents a highly fascinating challenge in modern biophotonics. The unique capability of optoacoustics for high resolution imaging of light absorption contrast in deep tissues can provide a natural and efficient feedback to control light delivery in scattering medium. While basic feasibility of using optoacoustic readings as a feedback mechanism for wavefront shaping has been recently reported, the suggested approaches may require long acquisition times making them challenging to be translated into realistic tissue environments. In an attempt to significantly accelerate dynamic wavefront shaping capabilities, we present here a feedback-based approach using real-time three-dimensional optoacoustic imaging assisted with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The new technique offers robust performance in the presence of noisy measurements and can simultaneously control the scattered wave field in an entire volumetric region.

  14. Towards multimodal detection of melanoma thickness based on optical coherence tomography and optoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlves, M.; Varkentin, A.; Stritzel, J.; Blumenröther, E.; Mazurenka, M.; Wollweber, M.; Roth, B.

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma skin cancer has one of the highest mortality rates of all types of cancer if not detected at an early stage. The survival rate is highly dependent on its penetration depth, which is commonly determined by histopathology. In this work, we aim at combining optical coherence tomography and optoacoustic as a non-invasive all-optical method to measure the penetration depth of melanoma. We present our recent achievements to setup a handheld multimodal device and also results from first in vivo measurements on healthy and cancerous skin tissue, which are compared to measurements obtained by ultrasound and histopathology.

  15. Optoacoustic imaging of tissue blanching during photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Viator, John A.; Paltauf, Guenther

    2000-05-01

    Esophageal cancer patients often present a highly inflamed esophagus at the time of treatment by photodynamic therapy. Immediately after treatment, the inflamed vessels have been shut down and the esophagus presents a white surface. Optoacoustic imaging via an optical fiber device can provide a depth profile of the blanching of inflammation. Such a profile may be an indicator of the depth of treatment achieved by the PDT. Our progress toward developing this diagnostic for use in our clinical PDT treatments of esophageal cancer patients is presented.

  16. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David

    2014-01-01

    We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. In this work we compare experimentally the intrinsic ultrasonic sensitivities of a PMMA mPOF with other three optical fibers: a singlemode silica optical fiber, a single-mode polymer optical fiber and a multimode graded...

  17. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmikko, Arto; Humphrey, Maris

    2014-07-10

    The goal of this grant was the development of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for nanometer resolution ultrasound imaging, based on ultrafast optoacoustics (>GHz). In the microscope, subpicosecond laser pulses was used to generate and detect very high frequency ultrasound with nanometer wavelengths. We report here on the outcome of the 3-year DOE/BES grant which involved the design, multifaceted construction, and proof-of-concept demonstration of an instrument that can be used for quantitative imaging of nanoscale material features – including features that may be buried so as to be inaccessible to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. The research program has produced a prototype scanning optoacoustic microscope which, in combination with advanced computational modeling, is a system-level new technology (two patents issues) which offer novel means for precision metrology of material nanostructures, particularly those that are of contemporary interest to the frontline micro- and optoelectronics device industry. For accomplishing the ambitious technical goals, the research roadmap was designed and implemented in two phases. In Phase I, we constructed a “non-focusing” optoacoustic microscope instrument (“POAM”), with nanometer vertical (z-) resolution, while limited to approximately 10 micrometer scale lateral recolution. The Phase I version of the instrument which was guided by extensive acoustic and optical numerical modeling of the basic underlying acoustic and optical physics, featured nanometer scale close loop positioning between the optoacoustic transducer element and a nanostructured material sample under investigation. In phase II, we implemented and demonstrated a scanning version of the instrument (“SOAM”) where incident acoustic energy is focused, and scanned on lateral (x-y) spatial scale in the 100 nm range as per the goals of the project. In so doing we developed advanced numerical simulations to provide

  18. Signal and response properties indicate an optoacoustic effect underlying the intra-cochlear laser-optical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, Nicole; Baumhoff, Peter; Krueger, Alexander; Tinne, Nadine; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Kral, Andrej; Maier, Hannes; Ripken, Tammo

    2016-02-01

    Optical cochlea stimulation is under investigation as a potential alternative to conventional electric cochlea implants in treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. If direct optical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) would be feasible, a smaller stimulation volume and, therefore, an improved frequency resolution could be achieved. However, it is unclear whether the mechanism of optical stimulation is based on direct neuronal stimulation or on optoacoustics. Animal studies on hearing vs. deafened guinea pigs already identified the optoacoustic effect as potential mechanism for intra-cochlear optical stimulation. In order to characterize the optoacoustic stimulus more thoroughly the acoustic signal along the beam path of a pulsed laser in water was quantified and compared to the neuronal response properties of hearing guinea pigs stimulated with the same laser parameters. Two pulsed laser systems were used for analyzing the influence of variable pulse duration, pulse energy, pulse peak power and absorption coefficient. Preliminary results of the experiments in water and in vivo suggesta similar dependency of response signals on the applied laser parameters: Both datasets show an onset and offset signal at the beginning and the end of the laser pulse. Further, the resulting signal amplitude depends on the pulse peak power as well as the temporal development of the applied laser pulse. The data indicates the maximum of the first derivative of power as the decisive factor. In conclusion our findings strengthen the hypothesis of optoacoustics as the underlying mechanism for optical stimulation of the cochlea.

  19. Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

  20. Evaluating Local Elastic Anisotropy of Rocks and Sediments by Means of Optoacoustics While Drilling Oil and Gas Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladilin, A. V.; Egerev, S. V.; Ovchinnikov, O. B.

    2014-12-01

    The optoacoustic method is used to evaluate local elastic anisotropy of rocks and sediments. The method is based on laser sound generation by irradiating a spot on the wall of the oil or gas borehole. The optoacoustic method offers an advantage of precise non-contact placing of a short-pulse point sound source. Pulses of a compression wave, shear waves, and a surface wave are induced in the formation as a result of optoacoustic conversion. The surface trace of the bulk compression wave propagating along the borehole surface has a velocity corresponding to that of a bulk wave. Hence, measurements of the trace propagation time along several predetermined paths on the surface of a borehole provide evaluation of local elastic anisotropy in situ. The pick-up is provided with a piezoelectric ceramic transducer positioned at a predetermined point on the surface of the borehole. The optoacoustic conversion regime parameters were chosen to provide separation of the trace pulse of another surface perturbance at the travel distance of about 0.1 m. The local measurements on the borehole wall are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting seismic data where they are present.

  1. Comparison of the optoacoustic signal generation efficiency of different nanoparticular contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Wolfgang; Lemor, Robert; Fournelle, Marc

    2012-11-20

    Optoacoustic imaging represents a new modality that allows noninvasive in vivo molecular imaging with optical contrast and acoustical resolution. Whereas structural or functional imaging applications such as imaging of vasculature do not require contrast enhancing agents, nanoprobes with defined biochemical binding behavior are needed for molecular imaging tasks. Since the contrast of this modality is based on the local optical absorption coefficient, all particle or molecule types that show significant absorption cross sections in the spectral range of the laser wavelength used for signal generation are suitable contrast agents. Currently, several particle types such as gold nanospheres, nanoshells, nanorods, or polymer particles are used as optoacoustic contrast agents. These particles have specific advantages with respect to their absorption properties, or in terms of biologically relevant features (biodegradability, binding to molecular markers). In the present study, a comparative analysis of the signal generation efficiency of gold nanorods, polymeric particles, and magnetite particles using a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for signal generation is described.

  2. Efficient non-negative constrained model-based inversion in optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lu; Luís Deán-Ben, X.; Lutzweiler, Christian; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    The inversion accuracy in optoacoustic tomography depends on a number of parameters, including the number of detectors employed, discrete sampling issues or imperfectness of the forward model. These parameters result in ambiguities on the reconstructed image. A common ambiguity is the appearance of negative values, which have no physical meaning since optical absorption can only be higher or equal than zero. We investigate herein algorithms that impose non-negative constraints in model-based optoacoustic inversion. Several state-of-the-art non-negative constrained algorithms are analyzed. Furthermore, an algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method is introduced in this work. We are particularly interested in investigating whether positive restrictions lead to accurate solutions or drive the appearance of errors and artifacts. It is shown that the computational performance of non-negative constrained inversion is higher for the introduced algorithm than for the other algorithms, while yielding equivalent results. The experimental performance of this inversion procedure is then tested in phantoms and small animals, showing an improvement in image quality and quantitativeness with respect to the unconstrained approach. The study performed validates the use of non-negative constraints for improving image accuracy compared to unconstrained methods, while maintaining computational efficiency.

  3. Functional real-time optoacoustic imaging of middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Kneipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Longitudinal functional imaging studies of stroke are key in identifying the disease progression and possible therapeutic interventions. Here we investigate the applicability of real-time functional optoacoustic imaging for monitoring of stroke progression in the whole brain of living animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was used to model stroke in mice, which were imaged preoperatively and the occlusion was kept in place for 60 minutes, after which optoacoustic scans were taken at several time points. RESULTS: Post ischemia an asymmetry of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the brain was observed as a region of hypoxia in the hemisphere affected by the ischemic event. Furthermore, we were able to visualize the penumbra in-vivo as a localized hemodynamically-compromised area adjacent to the region of stroke-induced perfusion deficit. CONCLUSION: The intrinsic sensitivity of the new imaging approach to functional blood parameters, in combination with real time operation and high spatial resolution in deep living tissues, may see it become a valuable and unique tool in the development and monitoring of treatments aimed at suspending the spread of an infarct area.

  4. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  5. Study of clutter origin in in-vivo epi-optoacoustic imaging of human forearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Stefan; Held, Gerrit; Akarçay, Hidayet G.; Jaeger, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Epi-optoacoustic (OA) imaging offers flexible clinical diagnostics of the human body when the irradiation optic is attached to or directly integrated into the acoustic probe. Epi-OA images, however, encounter clutter that deteriorates contrast and significantly limits imaging depth. This study elaborates clutter origin in clinical epi-optoacoustic imaging using a linear array probe for scanning the human forearm. We demonstrate that the clutter strength strongly varies with the imaging location but stays stable over time, indicating that clutter is caused by anatomical structures. OA transients which are generated by strong optical absorbers located at the irradiation spot were identified to be the main source of clutter. These transients obscure deep in-plane OA signals when detected by the transducer either directly or after being acoustically scattered in the imaging plane. In addition, OA transients generated in the skin below the probe result in acoustic reverberations, which cause problems in image interpretation and limit imaging depth. Understanding clutter origin allows a better interpretation of clinical OA imaging, helps to design clutter compensation techniques and raises the prospect of contrast optimization via the design of the irradiation geometry.

  6. Opto-acoustic image fusion technology for diagnostic breast imaging in a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Ulissey, Michael; Stavros, A. T.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Lavin, Philip; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Functional opto-acoustic (OA) imaging was fused with gray-scale ultrasound acquired using a specialized duplex handheld probe. Feasibility Study findings indicated the potential to more accurately characterize breast masses for cancer than conventional diagnostic ultrasound (CDU). The Feasibility Study included OA imagery of 74 breast masses that were collected using the investigational Imagio® breast imaging system. Superior specificity and equal sensitivity to CDU was demonstrated, suggesting that OA fusion imaging may potentially obviate the need for negative biopsies without missing cancers in a certain percentage of breast masses. Preliminary results from a 100 subject Pilot Study are also discussed. A larger Pivotal Study (n=2,097 subjects) is underway to confirm the Feasibility Study and Pilot Study findings.

  7. Multiscale edge detection and parametric shape modeling for boundary delineation in optoacoustic images

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Nagaraj, Yeshaswini; Ben, Xose Luis Dean; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a novel scheme for segmenting the image boundary (with the background) in optoacoustic small animal in vivo imaging systems. The method utilizes a multiscale edge detection algorithm to generate a binary edge map. A scale dependent morphological operation is employed to clean spurious edges. Thereafter, an ellipse is fitted to the edge map through constrained parametric transformations and iterative goodness of fit calculations. The method delimits the tissue edges through the curve fitting model, which has shown high levels of accuracy. Thus, this method enables segmentation of optoacoutic images with minimal human intervention, by eliminating need of scale selection for multiscale processing and seed point determination for contour mapping.

  8. Fabry-Perot micro-structured polymer optical fibre sensors for opto-acoustic endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet

    2015-01-01

    Opto-Acoustic Endoscopy (OAE) requires sensors with a high sensitivity and small physical dimensions in order to facilitate integration into an endoscope of less than 1mm in diameter. We present fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and Fabry- Perot intrinsic fibre sensors for ultrasound detection. We present...... a structure profile characterisation setup to analyse tune the fibre sensors in preparation for ultrasonic detection. We evaluate the suitability of the different structures and grating parameters for ultrasonic sensing. By analysing the prepared gratings, we enable the optimisation of the profile...... and a simplification of the detection regime for an optimal interferometric OAE configuration. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  9. Picosecond opto-acoustic interferometry and polarimetry in high-index GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbakov, A V; Bombeck, M; Jäger, J V; Salasyuk, A S; Linnik, T L; Gusev, V E; Yakovlev, D R; Akimov, A V; Bayer, M

    2013-07-15

    By means of a metal opto-acoustic transducer we generate quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse picosecond strain pulses in a (311)-GaAs substrate and monitor their propagation by picosecond acoustic interferometry. By probing at the sample side opposite to the transducer the signals related to the compressive and shear strain pulses can be separated in time. In addition to conventional monitoring of the reflected probe light intensity we monitor also the polarization rotation of the optical probe beam. This polarimetric technique results in improved sensitivity of detection and provides comprehensive information about the elasto-optical anisotropy. The experimental observations are in a good agreement with a theoretical analysis.

  10. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation by tissue optical properties, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Predictions of the spectral variations of light fluence in tissue are challenging since the spatial distribution of optical properties in tissue cannot be resolved in high resolution or with high accuracy by current methods. Spectral corruption has fundamentally limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic methods and impeded the long sought-after goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical but still unattainable target for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. We discover a new principle underlying light fluence in tissues, which describes the wavelength dependence of light fluence as an affine function of a few reference base spectra, independently of the specific distribution of tissue optical properties. This finding enables the introd...

  11. Multiscale edge detection and parametric shape modeling for boundary delineation in optoacoustic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Viswanath, P S; Yeshaswini, N; Dean-Ben, X L; Razansky, D

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we present a novel scheme for segmenting the image boundary (with the background) in optoacoustic small animal in vivo imaging systems. The method utilizes a multiscale edge detection algorithm to generate a binary edge map. A scale dependent morphological operation is employed to clean spurious edges. Thereafter, an ellipse is fitted to the edge map through constrained parametric transformations and iterative goodness of fit calculations. The method delimits the tissue edges through the curve fitting model, which has shown high levels of accuracy. Thus, this method enables segmentation of optoacoutic images with minimal human intervention, by eliminating need of scale selection for multiscale processing and seed point determination for contour mapping.

  12. Whole-body three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography system for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Fronheiser, Matthew; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2009-11-01

    We develop a system for three-dimensional whole-body optoacoustic tomography of small animals for applications in preclinical research. The tomographic images are obtained while the objects of study (phantoms or mice) are rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezocomposite transducers. Two pulsed lasers operating in the near-IR spectral range (755 and 1064 nm) with an average pulsed energy of about 100 mJ, a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and a pulse duration of 15 to 75 ns are used as optical illumination sources. During the scan, the mouse is illuminated orthogonally to the array with two wide beams of light from a bifurcated fiber bundle. The system is capable of generating images of individual organs and blood vessels through the entire body of a mouse with spatial resolution of ~0.5 mm.

  13. Impact of non-stationary optical illumination on image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Lou, Yang; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source. When performing three-dimensional imaging of large objects, such as a female human breast, it can be difficult to achieve a relatively uniform coverage of light fluence within the volume of interest when the position of the laser source is fixed. To circumvent this, researchers have proposed illumination schemes in which the relative position of the laser source and ultrasound probe is fixed, and bo...

  14. Blob-Based Discrete Imaging Models for Three-Dimensional Optoacoustic Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kun; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is an emerging computed biomedical imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms that are based on discrete imaging models are actively being developed for OAT due to their ability to improve image quality by incorporating accurate models of the imaging physics, instrument response, and measurement noise.In this work, we investigate the use of discrete imaging models based on Kaiser-Bessel window functions, or `blobs', for iterative image reconstruction in OAT.A closed-form expression for the pressure produced by a blob function is calculated, which facilitates accurate computation of the system matrix. Computer-simulation and experimental studies are employed to demonstrate the potential advantages of blob-based iterative image reconstruction in OAT.

  15. Investigation of iterative image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography

    CERN Document Server

    wang, Kun; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Iterative image reconstruction algorithms for optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, have the ability to improve image quality over analytic algorithms due to their ability to incorporate accurate models of the imaging physics, instrument response, and measurement noise. However, to date, there have been few reported attempts to employ advanced iterative image reconstruction algorithms for improving image quality in three-dimensional (3D) OAT. In this work, we implement and investigate two iterative image reconstruction methods for use with a 3D OAT small animal imager: namely, a penalized least-squares (PLS) method employing a quadratic smoothness penalty and a PLS method employing a total variation norm penalty. The reconstruction algorithms employ accurate models of the ultrasonic transducer impulse responses. Experimental data sets are employed to compare the performances of the iterative reconstruction algorithms to that of a 3D filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By ...

  16. Acousto-Optic Modulation and Optoacoustic Gating in Piezo-Optomechanical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Ilic, B. Robert; Kyhm, Ji-Hoon; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic-wave devices provide a promising chip-scale platform for efficiently coupling radio frequency (rf) and optical fields. Here, we use an integrated piezo-optomechanical circuit platform that exploits both the piezoelectric and photoelastic coupling mechanisms to link 2.4-GHz rf waves to 194-THz (1550 nm) optical waves, through coupling to propagating and localized 2.4-GHz acoustic waves. We demonstrate acousto-optic modulation, resonant in both the optical and mechanical domains, in which waveforms encoded on the rf carrier are mapped to the optical field. We also show optoacoustic gating, in which the application of modulated optical pulses interferometrically gates the transmission of propagating acoustic pulses. The time-domain characteristics of this system under both pulsed rf and pulsed optical excitation are considered in the context of the different physical pathways involved in driving the acoustic waves, and modeled through the coupled mode equations of cavity optomechanics.

  17. Investigation of limited-view image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography employing a priori structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-08-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is an emerging ultrasound-mediated biophotonic imaging modality that has exciting potential for many biomedical imaging applications. There is great interest in conducting B-mode ultrasound and OAT imaging studies for breast cancer detection using a common transducer. In this situation, the range of tomographic view angles is limited, which can result in distortions in the reconstructed OAT image if conventional reconstruction algorithms are applied to limited-view measurement data. In this work, we investigate an image reconstruction method that utilizes information regarding target boundaries to improve the quality of the reconstructed OAT images. This is accomplished by developing boundary-constrained image reconstruction algorithm for OAT based on Bayesian image reconstruction theory. The computer-simulation studies demonstrate that the Bayesian approach can effectively reduce the artifact and noise levels and preserve the edges in reconstructed limited-view OAT images as compared to those produced by a conventional OAT reconstruction algorithm.

  18. Acousto-optic and opto-acoustic modulation in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Balram, Krishna C; Ilic, B Robert; Kyhm, Ji-Hoon; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic wave devices provide a promising chip-scale platform for efficiently coupling radio frequency (RF) and optical fields. Here, we use an integrated piezo-optomechanical circuit platform that exploits both the piezoelectric and photoelastic coupling mechanisms to link 2.4 GHz RF waves to 194 THz (1550 nm) optical waves, through coupling to propagating and localized 2.4 GHz acoustic waves. We demonstrate acousto-optic modulation, resonant in both the optical and mechanical domains, in which waveforms encoded on the RF carrier are mapped to the optical field. We also show opto-acoustic modulation, in which the application of optical pulses gates the transmission of propagating acoustic waves. The time-domain characteristics of this system under both pulsed RF and pulsed optical excitation are considered in the context of the different physical pathways involved in driving the acoustic waves, and modeled through the coupled mode equations of cavity optomechanics.

  19. Accelerating Image Reconstruction in Three-Dimensional Optoacoustic Tomography on Graphics Processing Units

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kun; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A; 10.1118/1.4774361

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional (2D) imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Methods: Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphic processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer-simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical a...

  20. Hybrid multispectral optoacoustic and ultrasound tomography for morphological and physiological brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefir, Ivan; Merčep, Elena; Burton, Neal C.; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-08-01

    Expanding usage of small animal models in biomedical research necessitates development of technologies for structural, functional, or molecular imaging that can be readily integrated in the biological laboratory. Herein, we consider dual multispectral optoacoustic (OA) and ultrasound tomography based on curved ultrasound detector arrays and describe the performance achieved for hybrid morphological and physiological brain imaging of mice in vivo. We showcase coregistered hemodynamic parameters resolved by OA tomography under baseline conditions and during alterations of blood oxygen saturation. As an internal reference, we provide imaging of abdominal organs. We illustrate the performance advantages of hybrid curved detector ultrasound and OA tomography and discuss immediate and long-term implications of our findings in the context of animal and human studies.

  1. An optoacoustic guide with augmented reality system towards precision breast conserving surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lu; Liu, Kaiming; Xia, Yan; Wu, Jiayingzi; Li, Rui; Wang, Pu; Han, Linda K.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-02-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a well-accepted breast cancer treatment. However, it is still challenging for the surgeon to accurately localize the tumor during the surgery. Also, the guidance provided by current methods is 1 dimensional distance information, which is indirect and not intuitive. Therefore, it creates problems on a large re-excision rate, and a prolonged surgical time. To solve these problems, we have developed a fiber-delivered optoacoustic guide (OG), which mimics the traditional localization guide wire and is preoperatively placed into tumor mass, and an augmented reality (AR) system to provide real-time visualization on the location of the tumor with sub-millimeter variance. By a nano-composite light diffusion sphere and light absorbing layer formed on the tip of an optical fiber, the OG creates an omnidirectional acoustic source inside tumor mass under pulsed laser excitation. The optoacoustic signal generated has a high dynamic range ( 58dB) and spreads in a large apex angle of 320 degrees. Then, an acoustic radar with three ultrasound transducers is attached to the breast skin, and triangulates the location of the OG tip. With an AR system to sense the location of the acoustic radar, the relative position of the OG tip inside the tumor to the AR display is calculated and rendered. This provides direct visual feedback of the tumor location to surgeons, which will greatly ease the surgical planning during the operation and save surgical time. A proof-of-concept experiment using a tablet and a stereo-vision camera is demonstrated and 0.25 mm tracking variance is achieved.

  2. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  3. Non-invasive volumetric optoacoustic imaging of cardiac cycles in acute myocardial infarction model in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hasiao-Chun Amy; Déan-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Kimm, Melanie; Kosanke, Katja; Haas, Helena; Meier, Reinhard; Lohöfer, Fabian; Wildgruber, Moritz; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis remains challenging with the existing imaging modalities. Novel methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters at a high temporal resolution are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction. Acute myocardial infarction was surgically induced in murine models, and the method was modified to optimize for acquisition of artifact-free optoacoustic data. Infarcted hearts could be differentiated from healthy controls based on a significantly higher pulmonary transit time (PTT: infarct 2.07 s vs. healthy 1.34 s), while no statistically significant difference was observed in the heart rate (318 bpm vs. 309 bpm). In combination with the proven ability of optoacoustics to track targeted probes within the injured myocardium, our method is capable of depicting cardiac anatomy, function, and molecular signatures on a beat-by-beat basis, both with high spatial and temporal resolution, thus providing new insights into the study of myocardial ischemia.

  4. Two-channel opto-acoustic diode laser spectrometer and fine structure of methane absorption spectra in 6070-6180 cm-1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanov, V A; Ponomarev, Yu N; Tyryshkin, I S; Rostov, A P

    2007-04-01

    We describe the hardware and software of the high-sensitive two-channel opto-acoustic spectrometer with a near infrared diode laser. A semiconductor TEC-100 laser with outer resonator generates a continuous single-frequency radiation in the range of 6040-6300 cm-1 with spectral resolution better that 10 MHz. The newly designed model of photo-acoustic cells in the form of a ring type resonator was used in the spectrometer, and the system allows the measurement of a weak absorption coefficient equal to 1.4x10(-7) cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a laser radiation power of 0.003 W. The methane absorption spectra within a range of 6080-6180 cm-1 were measured with a spectral resolution of 10 MHz and the signal to noise ratio more than 10(3). Six hundred absorption lines were recorded, which is twice as many as in HITRAN-2004. The accurate measurements of the half-width and shift of methane unresolved triplet R3 of 2nu3 band permit us to determine values of the broadening and shift coefficients for CH4-air, CH4-N2, and CH4-SF6 mixtures.

  5. Clinical feasibility study of combined opto-acoustic and ultrasonic imaging modality providing coregistered functional and anatomical maps of breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Smith, Remie J.; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Ermilov, Sergey; Conjusteau, André; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2013-03-01

    We report on findings from the clinical feasibility study of the ImagioTM. Breast Imaging System, which acquires two-dimensional opto-acoustic (OA) images co-registered with conventional ultrasound using a specialized duplex hand-held probe. Dual-wavelength opto-acoustic technology is used to generate parametric maps based upon total hemoglobin and its oxygen saturation in breast tissues. This may provide functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism and microvasculature, which is complementary to morphological information obtained with conventional gray-scale ultrasound. We present co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical feasibility study. The clinical results illustrate that the technology may have the capability to improve the efficacy of breast tumor diagnosis. In doing so, it may have the potential to reduce biopsies and to characterize cancers that were not seen well with conventional gray-scale ultrasound alone.

  6. Analysis of the absorption spectra of gas emission of patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yurii V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgenii L.

    2013-02-01

    It is important to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer in the early stages of the disease. The method of laser opto-acoustic gas analysis, in this case, can act as a promising tool for diagnostics. The material for this study were the gas emission samples collected from patients and healthy volunteers - samples of exhaled air, swabs from teeth and cheeks. A set of material was formed three groups: healthy volunteers, patients with COPD, lung cancer patients. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of laser opto-acoustic gas analyzers: with intracavity location detector (ILPA-1), with extracavity location detector (LGA-2). Presentation of the results in an easy to visual form was performed using the method of elastic maps, based on the principal component analysis. The results of analysis show potentialities of usage of laser optoacoustic spectroscopy application to assess the status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  7. Optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions embedded in optical phantoms by using 905-nm high-power diode-laser assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Gawali, Sandeep Babu; Dadrasnia, Ehsan; Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González, Marta; Carpintero, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-03-01

    During the last two decades, optoacoustic imaging has been developed as a novel biomedical imaging technique based on the generation of ultrasound waves by means of laser light. In this work, we investigate the optoacoustic response from graphene-based solutions by using a compact and cost-effective system based on an assembly of several 905-nm pulsed high-power diode lasers coupled to a bundle of 200-μm diameter- core optical fibers. The coupled light is conveyed into a lens system and focused on an absorber consisting of graphene-based nanomaterials (graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and reduced graphene-oxide/gold-nanoparticle hybrid, respectively) diluted in ethanol and hosted in slightly scattering optical phantoms. The high absorption of these graphene-based solutions suggests their potential future use in optoacoustic applications as contrast agents.

  8. Hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy monitors’ laser-induced tissue modifications and magnetite nanoparticle impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Sobol, Emil; Baum, Olga; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Tissue modification under laser radiation is emerging as one of the advanced applications of lasers in medicine, with treatments ranging from reshaping and regeneration of cartilage to normalization of the intraocular pressure. Laser-induced structural alterations can be studied using conventional microscopic techniques applied to thin specimen. Yet, development of non-invasive imaging methods for deep tissue monitoring of structural alterations under laser radiation is of great importance, especially for attaining efficient feedback during the procedures. We developed a fast scanning biomicroscopy system that can simultaneously deliver both optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound contrast from intact tissues and show that both modalities allow manifesting the laser-induced changes in cartilage and sclera. Furthermore, images of the sclera samples reveal a crater developing around the center of the laser-irradiated spot as well as a certain degree of thickening within the treated zone, presumably due to pore formation. Finally, we were able to observe selective impregnation of magnetite nanoparticles into the cartilage, thus demonstrating a possible contrast enhancement approach for studying specific treatment effects. Overall, the new imaging approach holds promise for development of noninvasive feedback control systems that could guarantee efficacy and safety of laser-based medical procedures.

  9. Optical clearing of skin enhanced with hyaluronic acid for increased contrast of optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liopo, Anton; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced delivery of optical clearing agents (OCA) through skin may improve sensitivity of optical and optoacoustic (OA) methods of imaging, sensing, and monitoring. This report describes a two-step method for enhancement of light penetration through skin. Here, we demonstrate that topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) improves skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic OCA and thus enhances their performance. We examined the OC effect of 100% polyethylene and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and their mixture after pretreatment by HA, and demonstrated significant increase in efficiency of light penetration through skin. Increased light transmission resulted in a significant increase of OA image contrast in vitro. Topical pretreatment of skin for about 30 min with 0.5% HA in aqueous solution offers effective delivery of low molecular weight OCA such as a mixture of PPG-425 and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400. The developed approach of pretreatment by HA prior to application of clearing agents (PEG and PPG) resulted in a ˜47-fold increase in transmission of red and near-infrared light and significantly enhanced contrast of OA images.

  10. In vivo 3D visualization of peripheral circulatory system using linear optoacoustic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we modified light illumination of the laser optoacoustic (OA) imaging system to improve the 3D visualization of human forearm vasculature. The computer modeling demonstrated that the new illumination design that features laser beams converging on the surface of the skin in the imaging plane of the probe provides superior OA images in comparison to the images generated by the illumination with parallel laser beams. We also developed the procedure for vein/artery differentiation based on OA imaging with 690 nm and 1080 nm laser wavelengths. The procedure includes statistical analysis of the intensities of OA images of the neighboring blood vessels. Analysis of the OA images generated by computer simulation of a human forearm illuminated at 690 nm and 1080 nm resulted in successful differentiation of veins and arteries. In vivo scanning of a human forearm provided high contrast 3D OA image of a forearm skin and a superficial blood vessel. The blood vessel image contrast was further enhanced after it was automatically traced using the developed software. The software also allowed evaluation of the effective blood vessel diameter at each step of the scan. We propose that the developed 3D OA imaging system can be used during preoperative mapping of forearm vessels that is essential for hemodialysis treatment.

  11. Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Ermilov, Sergey A; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA/ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy.

  12. Investigation of iterative image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Su, Richard; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2012-09-01

    Iterative image reconstruction algorithms for optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, have the ability to improve image quality over analytic algorithms due to their ability to incorporate accurate models of the imaging physics, instrument response and measurement noise. However, to date, there have been few reported attempts to employ advanced iterative image reconstruction algorithms for improving image quality in three-dimensional (3D) OAT. In this work, we implement and investigate two iterative image reconstruction methods for use with a 3D OAT small animal imager: namely a penalized least-squares (PLS) method employing a quadratic smoothness penalty and a PLS method employing a total variation norm penalty. The reconstruction algorithms employ accurate models of the ultrasonic transducer impulse responses. Experimental data sets are employed to compare the performances of the iterative reconstruction algorithms to that of a 3D filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the use of quantitative measures of image quality, we demonstrate that the iterative reconstruction algorithms can mitigate image artifacts and preserve spatial resolution more effectively than FBP algorithms. These features suggest that the use of advanced image reconstruction algorithms can improve the effectiveness of 3D OAT while reducing the amount of data required for biomedical applications.

  13. Cost-effective optoacoustic system based on the combination of high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    One of the main issues of the advances in optoacoustic (OA) applications is to reduce the high costs and the big sizes of solid state lasers. High-power diode lasers (HPDLs) have been demonstrated to be a valid alternative reducing enormously the expenses, besides other advantages such as smaller sizes and higher modulation frequencies. However, in some cases it is possible to furtherly reduce their costs. We present a cost-effective OA system based on the combination of several 905-nm HPDLs with direct coupling into a fiber bundle. These HPDLs have an internal pulse driver, based on an n-channel Mosfet and two charging capacitors, which needs an external Mosfet driver circuit and a voltage supply in order to improve the optical pulse shape and energy. We compare the performances and the prices of this OA system with another similar HPDL-based OA system built with commercial elements. Results indicate good OA signal generation ( 15.6 mVpp) with pulse energy of 12.3 μJ and, especially, a cost reduction by a factor of 15 if compared to the other HPDL-based system.

  14. Improved contrast deep optoacoustic imaging using displacement-compensated averaging: breast tumour phantom studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, M; Preisser, S; Kitz, M; Frenz, M [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ferrara, D; Senegas, S; Schweizer, D, E-mail: frenz@iap.unibe.ch [Fukuda Denshi Switzerland AG, Reinacherstrasse 131, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-09-21

    For real-time optoacoustic (OA) imaging of the human body, a linear array transducer and reflection mode optical irradiation is usually preferred. Such a setup, however, results in significant image background, which prevents imaging structures at the ultimate depth determined by the light distribution and the signal noise level. Therefore, we previously proposed a method for image background reduction, based on displacement-compensated averaging (DCA) of image series obtained when the tissue sample under investigation is gradually deformed. OA signals and background signals are differently affected by the deformation and can thus be distinguished. The proposed method is now experimentally applied to image artificial tumours embedded inside breast phantoms. OA images are acquired alternately with pulse-echo images using a combined OA/echo-ultrasound device. Tissue deformation is accessed via speckle tracking in pulse echo images, and used to compensate in the OA images for the local tissue displacement. In that way, OA sources are highly correlated between subsequent images, while background is decorrelated and can therefore be reduced by averaging. We show that image contrast in breast phantoms is strongly improved and detectability of embedded tumours significantly increased, using the DCA method.

  15. Four dimensional optoacoustic imaging of perfusion in preclinical breast tumor model in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mandal, Subhamoy; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in clinical management and preclinical studies of cancer. Application of optical molecular imaging technologies, in combination with highly specific contrast agent approaches, eminently contributed to understanding of functional and histological properties of tumors and anticancer therapies. Yet, optical imaging exhibits deterioration in spatial resolution and other performance metrics due to light scattering in deep living tissues. High resolution molecular imaging at the whole-organ or whole-body scale may therefore bring additional understanding of vascular networks, blood perfusion and microenvironment gradients of malignancies. In this work, we constructed a volumetric multispectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT) scanner for cancer imaging in preclinical models and explored its capacity for real-time 3D intravital imaging of whole breast cancer allografts in mice. Intrinsic tissue properties, such as blood oxygenation gradients, along with the distribution of externally administered liposomes carrying clinically-approved indocyanine green dye (lipo-ICG) were visualized in order to study vascularization, probe penetration and extravasation kinetics in different regions of interest within solid tumors. The use of v-MSOT along with the application of volumetric image analysis and perfusion tracking tools for studies of pathophysiological processes within microenvironment gradients of solid tumors demonstrated superior volumetric imaging system performance with sustained competitive resolution and imaging depth suitable for investigations in preclinical cancer models.

  16. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  17. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy based on probe beam deflection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher M. Maswadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA microscopy using an all-optical system based on the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT for detection of laser-induced acoustic signals was investigated as an alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers. PBDT provides a number of advantages for OA microscopy including (i efficient coupling of laser excitation energy to the samples being imaged through the probing laser beam, (ii undistorted coupling of acoustic waves to the detector without the need for separation of the optical and acoustic paths, (iii high sensitivity and (iv ultrawide bandwidth. Because of the unimpeded optical path in PBDT, diffraction-limited lateral resolution can be readily achieved. The sensitivity of the current PBDT sensor of 22 μV/Pa and its noise equivalent pressure (NEP of 11.4 Pa are comparable with these parameters of the optical micro-ring resonator and commercial piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. Benefits of the present prototype OA microscope were demonstrated by successfully resolving micron-size details in histological sections of cardiac muscle.

  18. Hybrid ultrasound and dual-wavelength optoacoustic biomicroscopy for functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebling, Johannes; Estrada, Hector; Zwack, Michael; Sela, Gali; Gottschalk, Sven; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Many neurological disorders are linked to abnormal activation or pathological alterations of the vasculature in the affected brain region. Obtaining simultaneous morphological and physiological information of neurovasculature is very challenging due to the acoustic distortions and intense light scattering by the skull and brain. In addition, the size of cerebral vasculature in murine brains spans an extended range from just a few microns up to about a millimeter, all to be recorded in 3D and over an area of several dozens of mm2. Numerous imaging techniques exist that excel at characterizing certain aspects of this complex network but are only capable of providing information on a limited spatiotemporal scale. We present a hybrid ultrasound and dual-wavelength optoacoustic microscope, capable of rapid imaging of murine neurovasculature in-vivo, with high spatial resolution down to 12 μm over a large field of view exceeding 50mm2. The dual wavelength imaging capability allows for the visualization of functional blood parameters through an intact skull while pulse-echo ultrasound biomicroscopy images are captured simultaneously by the same scan head. The flexible hybrid design in combination with fast high-resolution imaging in 3D holds promise for generating better insights into the architecture and function of the neurovascular system.

  19. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G.; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation.

  20. Optoacoustic spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of strongly light-absorbing solutions in applications to analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Tatyana A; Volkov, Dmitry S; Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Pelivanov, Ivan M

    2013-12-01

    An optoacoustic technique for solutions of strongly light-absorbing analytes at 0.1-0.01 mol l(-1) is proposed. The technique is based on the wide-band forward mode detection of temporal profiles of laser-generated ultrasonic pulses (optoacoustic signals). The leading edge of the signal repeats the distribution of the laser fluence in the medium, which makes it possible to determine its optical absorption and investigate its dynamics during a reaction. The range of light-absorption coefficients starts from 1 to 5 and reaches 10(4) to 10(5) cm(-1). The determination of iron(II) as ferroin shows the possibility of probing 0.1 mol l(-1) of iron(II), which was not previously achieved for this reaction by optical spectroscopy. To further prove the concept, kinetic measurements for ferroin decomposition at the level of 0.1 mol l(-1) and at high pHs are performed. The results are compared with spectrophotometry at lower concentrations and show good reproducibility and accuracy of kinetic constants.

  1. Nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films for high-amplitude optoacoustic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baac, Hyoung Won; Ok, Jong G; Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L Jay

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate nano-structural characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite films that can be used as highly efficient and robust ultrasound transmitters for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An inherent architecture of the nano-composite provides unique thermal, optical, and mechanical properties that are accommodated not just for efficient energy conversion but also for extraordinary robustness against pulsed laser ablation. First, we explain a thermoacoustic transfer mechanism within the nano-composite. CNT morphologies are examined to determine a suitable arrangement for heat transfer to the surrounding PDMS. Next, we introduce an approach to enhance optical extinction of the composite films, which uses shadowed deposition of a thin Au layer through an as-grown CNT network. Finally, the transmitter robustness is quantified in terms of laser-induced damage threshold. This reveals that the CNT-PDMS films can withstand an order-of-magnitude higher optical fluence (and extinction) than a Cr film used as a reference. Such robustness is crucial to increase the maximum-available optical energy for optoacoustic excitation and pressure generation. All of these structure-originated characteristics manifest the CNT-PDMS composite films as excellent optoacoustic transmitters for high-amplitude and high-frequency ultrasound generation.

  2. Impact of nonstationary optical illumination on image reconstruction in optoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Wang, Kun; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source. When performing three-dimensional imaging of large objects, such as a female human breast, it can be difficult to achieve a relatively uniform coverage of light fluence within the volume of interest when the position of the laser source is fixed. To circumvent this, researchers have proposed illumination schemes in which the relative position of the laser source and ultrasound probe is fixed, and both are rotated together to acquire a tomographic dataset. A problem with this rotating-illumination scheme is that the tomographic data are inconsistent; namely, the acoustic data recorded at each tomographic view angle (i.e., probe position) are produced by a distinct object function. In this work, the impact of this data inconsistency on image reconstruction accuracy is investigated systematically. This is accomplished by use of computer-simulation studies and application of mathematical results from the theory of microlocal analysis. These studies specify the set of image discontinuities that can be stably reconstructed with a nonstationary optical illumination setup. The study also includes a comparison of the ability of iterative and analytic image reconstruction methods to mitigate artifacts attributable to the data inconsistency.

  3. All-optical optoacoustic microscopy system based on probe beam deflection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M.; Tsyboulskic, Dmitri; Roth, Caleb C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Beier, Hope T.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve sub-micron resolution in backward mode OA microscopy using conventional piezoelectric detectors, because of wavefront distortions caused by components placed in the optical path, between the sample and the objective lens, that are required to separate the acoustic wave from the optical beam. As an alternate approach, an optoacoustic microscope (OAM) was constructed using the probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) to detect laserinduced acoustic signals. The all-optical OAM detects laser-generated pressure waves using a probe beam passing through a coupling medium, such as water, filling the space between the microscope objective lens and sample. The acoustic waves generated in the sample propagate through the coupling medium, causing transient changes in the refractive index that deflect the probe beam. These deflections are measured with a high-speed, balanced photodiode position detector. The deflection amplitude is directly proportional to the magnitude of the acoustic pressure wave, and provides the data required for image reconstruction. The sensitivity of the PBDT detector expressed as noise equivalent pressure was 12 Pa, comparable to that of existing high-performance ultrasound detectors. Because of the unimpeded working distance, a high numerical aperture objective lens, i.e. NA = 1, was employed in the OAM to achieve near diffraction-limited lateral resolution of 0.5 μm at 532nm. The all-optical OAM provides several benefits over current piezoelectric detector-based systems, such as increased lateral and axial resolution, higher sensitivity, robustness, and potentially more compatibility with multimodal instruments.

  4. Beam Profile Improvement of a High-Power Diode Laser Stack for Optoacoustic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Leggio, Luca; Gawali, Sandeep; Gallego, Daniel; Lamela, Horacio

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in high-power diode lasers (HPDLs) technology allow their use as potential sources for optoacoustic (OA) applications, due to their high repetition rates (a few kHz), low costs and sizes. However, some OA applications require pulse energies in the order of mJ that cannot be provided by the only HPDLs (several μJ). The employment of diode laser bars (DLBs) and stacks (DLSs) significantly increases the energy per pulse up to several mJ, but they require more optical elements for collimation in fast and slow axes. In this work, we show an 808 nm DLS emitting optical nanosecond pulses with currents of ˜ 200 A and supplied by a customized current driver. We only collimate the beam in the fast axis by disposing the core of 200 μm optical fibers as collimating lenses along each bar of the stack, and we discuss the improvement of the beam profile. The results demonstrate that the beam profile is notably improved with the optical fiber lenses, and a 6.4 mm × 4.3 mm light spot is obtained by using a conventional focusing lens. Measurements report a total energy per pulse of 630 μJ in the spot, considering a pulse width of 850 ns and a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Finally, we focus the light spot into an absorbing inclusion (graphene oxide) hosted in a semi-transparent phantom to generate and detect high OA signals ({˜ }355 mV_{pp}). The results achieved demonstrate the capability of our DLS system to be applied in multispectral OA systems with final application in OA endoscopy and microscopy.

  5. Vaccinia virus-mediated melanin production allows MR and optoacoustic deep tissue imaging and laser-induced thermotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzker, Jochen; Kirscher, Lorenz; Scadeng, Miriam; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Morscher, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Schaefer, Karin; Zhang, Qian; Buckel, Lisa; Hess, Michael; Donat, Ulrike; Bradley, William G; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Szalay, Aladar A

    2013-02-26

    We reported earlier the delivery of antiangiogenic single chain antibodies by using oncolytic vaccinia virus strains to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we provide evidence that gene-evoked production of melanin can be used as a therapeutic and diagnostic mediator, as exemplified by insertion of only one or two genes into the genome of an oncolytic vaccinia virus strain. We found that produced melanin is an excellent reporter for optical imaging without addition of substrate. Melanin production also facilitated deep tissue optoacoustic imaging as well as MRI. In addition, melanin was shown to be a suitable target for laser-induced thermotherapy and enhanced oncolytic viral therapy. In conclusion, melanin as a mediator for thermotherapy and reporter for different imaging modalities may soon become a versatile alternative to replace fluorescent proteins also in other biological systems. After ongoing extensive preclinical studies, melanin overproducing oncolytic virus strains might be used in clinical trials in patients with cancer.

  6. Detection, numerical simulation and approximate inversion of optoacoustic signals generated in multi-layered PVA hydrogel based tissue phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenröther, E; Wollweber, M; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    In this article we characterize optoacoustic signals generated from layered tissue phantoms via short laser pulses by experimental and numerical means. In particular, we consider the case where scattering is effectively negligible and the absorbed energy density follows Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. is characterized by an exponential decay within the layers and discontinuities at interfaces. We complement experiments on samples with multiple layers, where the material properties are known a priori, with numerical calculations for a pointlike detector, tailored to suit our experimental setup. Experimentally, we characterize the acoustic signal observed by a piezoelectric detector in the acoustic far-field in backward mode and we discuss the implication of acoustic diffraction on our measurements. We further attempt an inversion of an OA signal in the far-field approximation.

  7. Detection, numerical simulation and approximate inversion of optoacoustic signals generated in multi-layered PVA hydrogel based tissue phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blumenröther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optoacoustic (OA measurements can not only be used for imaging purposes but as a more general tool to “sense” physical characteristics of biological tissue, such as geometric features and intrinsic optical properties. In order to pave the way for a systematic model-guided analysis of complex objects we devised numerical simulations in accordance with the experimental measurements. We validate our computational approach with experimental results observed for layered polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel samples, using melanin as the absorbing agent. Experimentally, we characterize the acoustic signal observed by a piezoelectric detector in the acoustic far-field in backward mode and we discuss the implication of acoustic diffraction on our measurements. We further attempt an inversion of an OA signal in the far-field approximation.

  8. Observation of skull-guided acoustic waves in a water-immersed murine skull using optoacoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    The skull bone, a curved solid multilayered plate protecting the brain, constitutes a big challenge for the use of ultrasound-mediated techniques in neuroscience. Ultrasound waves incident from water or soft biological tissue are mostly reflected when impinging on the skull. To this end, skull properties have been characterized for both high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating in the narrowband far-field regime and optoacoustic imaging applications. Yet, no study has been conducted to characterize the near-field of water immersed skulls. We used the thermoelastic effect with a 532 nm pulsed laser to trigger a wide range of broad-band ultrasound modes in a mouse skull. In order to capture the waves propagating in the near-field, a thin hydrophone was scanned in close proximity to the skull's surface. While Leaky pseudo-Lamb waves and grazing-angle bulk water waves are clearly visible in the spatio-temporal data, we were only able to identify skull-guided acoustic waves after dispersion analysis in the wavenumber-frequency space. The experimental data was found to be in a reasonable agreement with a flat multilayered plate model.

  9. Multifunctional Magnetic Gd(3+) -Based Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles: Combination of Magnetic Resonance and Multispectral Optoacoustic Detections for Tumor-Targeted Imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiao; Liu, Jing; Yu, Meng; Wan, Jiaxun; Li, Dian; Wang, Changchun; Chen, Chunying; Guo, Jia

    2015-11-11

    To overcome traditional barriers in optical imaging and microscopy, optoacoustic-imaging has been changed to combine the accuracy of spectroscopy with the depth resolution of ultrasound, achieving a novel modality with powerful in vivo imaging. However, magnetic resonance imaging provides better spatial and anatomical resolution. Thus, a single hybrid nanoprobe that allows for simultaneous multimodal imaging is significant not only for cutting edge research in imaging science, but also for accurate clinical diagnosis. A core-shell-structured coordination polymer composite microsphere has been designed for in vivo multimodality imaging. It consists of a Fe3 O4 nanocluster core, a carbon sandwiched layer, and a carbocyanine-Gd(III) (Cy-Gd(III) ) coordination polymer outer shell (Fe3 O4 @C@Cy-Gd(III) ). Folic acid-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) chains are embedded within the coordination polymer shell to achieve extended circulation and targeted delivery of probe particles in vivo. Control of Fe3 O4 core grain sizes results in optimal r2 relaxivity (224.5 × 10(-3) m(-1) s(-1) ) for T2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cy-Gd(III) coordination polymers are also regulated to obtain a maximum 25.1% of Cy ligands and 5.2% of Gd(III) ions for near-infrared fluorescence and T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The results demonstrate their impressive abilities for targeted, multimodal, and reliable imaging.

  10. New imaging probes to track cell fate: reporter genes in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgielewicz, Piotr; Harmsen, Stefan; Wei, Elizabeth; Bachmann, Michael H; Ting, Richard; Aras, Omer

    2017-07-03

    Cell fate is a concept used to describe the differentiation and development of a cell in its organismal context over time. It is important in the field of regenerative medicine, where stem cell therapy holds much promise but is limited by our ability to assess its efficacy, which is mainly due to the inability to monitor what happens to the cells upon engraftment to the damaged tissue. Currently, several imaging modalities can be used to track cells in the clinical setting; however, they do not satisfy many of the criteria necessary to accurately assess several aspects of cell fate. In recent years, reporter genes have become a popular option for tracking transplanted cells, via various imaging modalities in small mammalian animal models. This review article examines the reporter gene strategies used in imaging modalities such as MRI, SPECT/PET, Optoacoustic and Bioluminescence Imaging. Strengths and limitations of the use of reporter genes in each modality are discussed.

  11. Improvement of signal-to-noise ratio of optoacoustic signals from double-walled carbon nanotubes by using an array of dual-wavelength high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Luca; de Varona, Omar E.; Escudero, Pedro; Carpintero del Barrio, Guillermo; Osiński, Marek; Lamela Rivera, Horacio

    2015-07-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) imaging is a rising biomedical technique that has attracted much interest over the last 15 years. This technique permits to visualize the internal soft tissues in depth by using short laser pulses, able to generate ultrasonic signals in a large frequency range. It combines the high contrast of optical imaging with the high resolution of ultrasound systems. The OA signals detected from the whole surface of the body serve to reconstruct in detail the image of the internal tissues, where the absorbed optical energy distribution outlines the regions of interest. In fact, the use of contrast agents could improve the detection of growing anomalies in soft tissues, such as carcinomas. This work proposes the use of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as a potential nontoxic biodegradable contrast agent applicable in OA to reveal the presence of malignant in-depth tissues in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (0.75-1.4 μm), where the biological tissues are fairly transparent to optical radiation. A dual-wavelength (870 and 905 nm) OA system is presented, based on arrays of high power diode lasers (HPDLs) that generate ultrasound signals from a DWCNT solution embedded within a biological phantom. The OA signals generated by DWCNTs are compared with those obtained using black ink, considered to be a very good absorber at these wavelengths. The experiments prove that DWCNTs are a potential contrast agent for optoacoustic spectroscopy (OAS).

  12. Speed of sound and acoustic attenuation of compounds affected during optoacoustic monitoring of thermal therapies measured in the temperature range from 5°C to 60°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruganti, Tanmayi; Petrova, Elena; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging is being adopted for monitoring tissue temperature during hypothermic and hyperthermic cancer treatments. The technique's accuracy benefits from the knowledge of speed of sound (SoS) and acoustic coefficient of attenuation (AcA) as they change with temperature in biological tissues, blood, and acoustic lens of an ultrasound probe. In these studies we measured SoS and AcA of different ex vivo tissues and blood components (plasma and erythrocyte concentrates) in the temperature range from 5°C to 60°C. We used the technique based on measurements of time-delay and spectral amplitude of pressure pulses generated by wideband planar acoustic waves propagating through the interrogated medium. Water was used as a reference medium with known acoustic properties. In order to validate our experimental technique, we measured the temperature dependence of SoS and AcA for aqueous NaCl solution of known concentration and obtained the results in agreement with published data. Similar to NaCl solution and pure water, SoS in blood and plasma was monotonously increasing with temperature. However, SoS of erythrocyte concentrates displayed abnormalities at temperatures above 45°C, suggesting potential effects from hemoglobin denaturation and/or hemolysis of erythrocytes. On the contrary to aqueous solutions, the SoS in polyvinyl-chloride (plastisol) - a material frequently used for mimicking optical and acoustic properties of tissues - decreased with temperature. We also measured SoS and AcA in silicon material of an acoustic lens and did not observe temperature-related changes of SoS.

  13. Guided wave opto-acoustic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Camacho, Ryan; Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan Albert; Qiu, Wenjun; Wang, Zheng

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to various hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide structures that can exhibit nonlinear behavior associated with traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (forward-SBS). The various structures can simultaneously guide photons and phonons in a suspended membrane. By utilizing a suspended membrane, a substrate pathway can be eliminated for loss of phonons that suppresses SBS in conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Consequently, forward-SBS nonlinear susceptibilities are achievable at about 3000 times greater than achievable with a conventional waveguide system. Owing to the strong phonon-photon coupling achievable with the various embodiments, potential application for the various embodiments presented herein cover a range of radiofrequency (RF) and photonic signal processing applications. Further, the various embodiments presented herein are applicable to applications operating over a wide bandwidth, e.g. 100 MHz to 50 GHz or more.

  14. Optoacoustic Spectroscopy to Detect Hydrazine Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    difference between the total pressure P, and its average value, Po: p = p - p 01)0 Morse and Ingard (228) have shown there is an acoustic velocity u(r,t...sound. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948. 227. Morse, P. M., and K. V. Ingard . Encyclopedia of physics, vol XI, p. 1. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1961. 228...Morse, P. M., and K. V. Ingard . Theoretical acoustics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. 229. Motchenbacher, C. D., and F. C. Fitchen. Low noise electronic

  15. Opto-acoustic recanilization delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Benett, William (Livermore, CA); Broughton, Kathryn (Berkeley, CA); Esch, Victor (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber delivered laser pulses emulsify thrombus by mechanical stresses that include a combination of pressure, tension and shear stress. Laser radiation is delivered to the locality of a thrombus and the radiation is absorbed by blood, blood dot, or other present materials. The combination of a leading pressure wave and subsequent vapor bubble cause efficient, emulsification of thrombus. Operating the laser in a low average power mode alleviates potential thermal complications. The laser is operated in a high repetition rate mode to take advantage of ultrasound frequency effects of thrombus dissolution as well as to decrease the total procedure time. Specific parameter ranges for operation are described. The device includes optical fibers surrounding a lumen intended for flow of a cooling agent. The fibers may be arranged concentrically around the lumen to deliver radiation and heat over as large an area as possible. An alternative design approach incorporates the optical fibers into the wall of the guiding catheter and utilizes the catheter lumen as the cooling channel. An eccentric tip enables rotation of the device to address all parts of the vasculature. The eccentricity can be provided via a variety of means: spring dip, balloon, protrusion, etc.

  16. Opto-Acoustic Biosensing with Optomechanofluidic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Kaiyuan; Carmon, Tal; Fan, Xudong; Bahl, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Opto-mechano-fluidic resonators (OMFRs) are a unique optofluidics platform that can measure the acoustic properties of fluids and bioanalytes in a fully-contained microfluidic system. By confining light in ultra-high-Q whispering gallery modes of OMFRs, optical forces such as radiation pressure and electrostriction can be used to actuate and sense structural mechanical vibrations spanning MHz to GHz frequencies. These vibrations are hybrid fluid-shell modes that entrain any bioanalyte present inside. As a result, bioanalytes can now reflect their acoustic properties on the optomechanical vibrational spectrum of the device, in addition to optical property measurements with existing optofluidics techniques. In this work, we investigate acoustic sensing capabilities of OMFRs using computational eigenfrequency analysis. We analyze the OMFR eigenfrequency sensitivity to bulk fluid-phase materials as well as nanoparticles, and propose methods to extract multiple acoustic parameters from multiple vibrational modes. ...

  17. Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Hui Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs are postulated to play critical roles in cancer development, including metastasis and recurrence, CSC imaging would provide valuable information for cancer treatment and lead to CSC-targeted therapy. To assess the possibility of in vivo CSC targeting, we conducted basic studies on radioimmunotargeting of cancer cells positive for CD133, a CSC marker recognized in various cancers. Antibodies against CD133 were labeled with 125I, and their in vitro cell binding properties were tested. Using the same isotype IgG as a control, in vivo biodistribution of the labeled antibody retaining immunoreactivity was examined in mice bearing an HCT116 xenograft in which a population of the cancer cells expressed CD133. Intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody was examined and compared to the CD133 expression pattern. The 125I-labeled anti-CD133 antibody showed a modest but significantly higher accumulation in the HCT116 xenograft compared to the control IgG. The intratumoral distribution of the labeled antibody mostly overlapped with the CD133 expression, whereas the control IgG was found in the area close to the necrotic tumor center. Our results indicate that noninvasive in vivo targeting of CSCs could be possible with radiolabeled antibodies against cell membrane markers.

  18. Arctigenin protects against neuronal hearing loss by promoting neural stem cell survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinghua; Chen, Mo; Ding, Yan; Wang, Qin

    2016-12-27

    Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined. Mechanotransduction ability demonstrated by intact cochlea, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude in mice were measured to evaluate effects of ARC on GMC-induced neuronal hearing loss. ARC increased survival, neurosphere formation, neuron differentiation of NSCs in mouse cochlear in vitro. ARC also promoted the outgrowth of neurites, as well as neural excitability of the NSC-differentiated neuron culture. Additionally, ARC rescued mechanotransduction capacity, restored the threshold shifts of ABR and DPOAE in our GMC ototoxicity murine model. This study supports the potential therapeutic role of ARC in promoting both NSCs proliferation and differentiation in vitro to functional neurons, thus supporting its protective function in the therapeutic treatment of neuropathic hearing loss in vivo.

  19. Lysosomal pH Decrease in Inflammatory Cells Used To Enable Activatable Imaging of Inflammation with a Sialic Acid Conjugated Profluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhu; Wu, Xuanjun; Lin, Bijuan; Han, Jiahuai; Yang, Liu; Han, Shoufa

    2015-07-07

    Inflammation causes significant morbidity and mortality, necessitating effective in vivo imaging of inflammation. Prior approaches often rely on combination of optical agents with entities specific for proteinaceous biomarkers overexpressed in inflammatory tissues. We herein report a fundamentally new approach to image inflammation by targeting lysosomes undergoing acidification in inflammatory cells with a sialic acid (Sia) conjugated near-infrared profluorophore (pNIR). Sia-pNIR contains a sialic acid domain for in vivo targeting of inflamed tissues and a pNIR domain which isomerizes into fluorescent and optoacoustic species in acidic lysosomes. Sia-pNIR displays high inflammation-to-healthy tissue signal contrasts in mice treated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or lipopolysaccharide. In addition, inflammation-associated fluorescence is switched off upon antibiotics treatment in mice. This report shows the potentials of Sia-pNIR for activatable dual-modality inflammation imaging, and particularly the use of lysosomes of inflamed cells as a previously unappreciated biomarker for inflammation imaging.

  20. Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bangwen; Stammes, Marieke A; van Driel, Pieter B A A; Cruz, Luis J; Knol-Blankevoort, Vicky T; Löwik, Martijn A M; Mezzanotte, Laura; Que, Ivo; Chan, Alan; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Siebes, Maria; Gottschalk, Sven; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Keereweer, Stijn; Horobin, Richard W; Hoehn, Mathias; Kaijzel, Eric L; van Beek, Ermond R; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Löwik, Clemens W G M

    2015-11-17

    Quantification of tumor necrosis in cancer patients is of diagnostic value as the amount of necrosis is correlated with disease prognosis and it could also be used to predict early efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. In the present study, we identified two near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) carboxylated cyanines, HQ5 and IRDye 800CW (800CW), which possess strong necrosis avidity. In vitro studies showed that both dyes selectively bind to cytoplasmic proteins of dead cells that have lost membrane integrity. Affinity for cytoplasmic proteins was confirmed using quantitative structure activity relations modeling. In vivo results, using NIRF and optoacoustic imaging, confirmed the necrosis avid properties of HQ5 and 800CW in a mouse 4T1 breast cancer tumor model of spontaneous necrosis. Finally, in a mouse EL4 lymphoma tumor model, already 24 h post chemotherapy, a significant increase in 800CW fluorescence intensity was observed in treated compared to untreated tumors. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that the NIRF carboxylated cyanines HQ5 and 800CW possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro and in vivo. When translated to the clinic, these dyes may be used for diagnostic or prognostic purposes and for monitoring in vivo tumor response early after the start of treatment.

  1. Laser-Excited Opto-Acoustic Pulses in a Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Corporation Ŗ AFRPL (DYSC) AATTN: E.B. Fisher ATTN: D. George P.O. Box 400 J.N. Levine Buffalo, NY 14211 Edwards AFB, CA 93523 4 o u o n1 Foster Miller...Corporation 3 West Virginia University Badger Army Ammunition Plant Department of Chemistry ATTN: J. Ramnarace ATTN: G. Havrilla Baraboo, WI

  2. Polymer Optical Fibre Sensors for Endoscopic Opto-Acoustic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet

    2015-01-01

    is the physical size of the device, allowing compatibility with current technology, while governing flexibility of the distal end of the endoscope based on the needs of the sensor. Polymer optical fibre (POF) presents a novel approach for endoscopic applications and has been positively discussed and compared...... in existing publications. A great advantage can be obtained for endoscopy due to a small size and array potential to provide discrete imaging speed improvements. Optical fibre exhibits numerous advantages over conventional piezo-electric transducers, such as immunity from electromagnetic interference...... and a higher resolution at small sizes. Furthermore, micro structured polymer optical fibres offer over 12 times the sensitivity of silica fibre. We present a polymer fibre Bragg grating ultrasound detector with a core diameter of 125 microns. We discuss the ultrasonic signals received and draw conclusions...

  3. Development of combined Opto-Acoustical sensor Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzenhoefer, A., E-mail: alexander.enzenhoefer@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anton, G.; Graf, K.; Hoessl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Neff, M.; Richardt, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    The faint fluxes of cosmic neutrinos expected at very high energies require large instrumented detector volumes. The necessary volumes in combination with a sufficient shielding against background constitute forbidding and complex environments (e.g. the deep sea) as sites for neutrino telescopes. To withstand these environments and to assure the data quality, the sensors have to be reliable and their operation has to be as simple as possible. A compact sensor module design including all necessary components for data acquisition and module calibration would simplify the detector mechanics and ensures the long term operability of the detector. The compact design discussed here combines optical and acoustical sensors inside one module, therefore reducing electronics and additional external instruments for calibration purposes. In this design the acoustical sensor is primary used for acoustic positioning of the module. The module may also be used for acoustic particle detection and marine science if an appropriate acoustical sensor is chosen. First tests of this design are promising concerning the task of calibration. To expand the field of application also towards acoustic particle detection further improvements concerning electromagnetic shielding and adaptation of the single components are necessary.

  4. Generating arbitrary ultrasound fields with tailored optoacoustic surface profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. D.; Nikitichev, D. I.; Treeby, B. E.; Cox, B. T.

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic fields with multiple foci have many applications in physical acoustics ranging from particle manipulation to neural modulation. However, the generation of multiple foci at arbitrary locations in three-dimensional is challenging using conventional transducer technology. In this work, the optical generation of acoustic fields focused at multiple points using a single optical pulse is demonstrated. This is achieved using optically absorbing surface profiles designed to generate specific, user-defined, wavefields. An optimisation approach for the design of these tailored surface profiles is developed. This searches for a smoothly varying surface that will generate a high peak pressure at a set of target focal points. The designed surface profiles are then realised via a combination of additive manufacturing and absorber deposition techniques. Acoustic field measurements from a sample designed to generate the numeral "7" are used to demonstrate the design method.

  5. Polymer Optical Fibre Sensors for Endoscopic Opto-Acoustic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet;

    2015-01-01

    in existing publications. A great advantage can be obtained for endoscopy due to a small size and array potential to provide discrete imaging speed improvements. Optical fibre exhibits numerous advantages over conventional piezo-electric transducers, such as immunity from electromagnetic interference...

  6. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  7. Cells, cells, and more cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M Tariq; Gres, Katherine E; Petitto, Virginia B; Cross, Shelley Ann

    2007-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with bilateral optic nerve swelling, vitreous cells, and cerebrospinal fluid monocytic pleocytosis. A chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated a lesion in the left lung, which histologically was confirmed to be a small-cell lung carcinoma. The serum was positive for the anti-CV2 (anti-CRMP-5) antibody. Following treatment with chemoradiation the optic nerve swelling and vitritis resolved. The differential diagnosis of uveal-meningeal diseases is discussed and the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes reviewed.

  8. Dendritic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sevda Söker

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells, a member of family of antigen presenting cells, are most effective cells in the primary immune response. Dendritic cells originated from dendron, in mean of tree in the Greek, because of their long and elaborate cytoplasmic branching processes. Dendritic cells constitute approximately 0.1 to 1 percent of the blood’s mononuclear cell. Dendritic cells are widely distributed, and specialized for antigen capture and T cell stimulation. In this article, structures and functions of...

  9. Optical stimulation of the hearing and deaf cochlea under thermal and stress confinement condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.; Baumhoff, P.; Kallweit, N.; Sato, M.; Krüger, A.; Ripken, T.; Lenarz, T.; Kral, A.

    2014-03-01

    There is a controversy, to which extend cochlear stimulation with near infrared laser pulses at a wavelength of 1860 nm is based on optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells or -in contrast- is based on direct stimulation of the nerve cells in absence of functional hair cells. Thermal and stress confinement conditions apply, because of the pulse duration range (5 ns, 10 μs-20 ms) of the two lasers used. The dependency of the signal characteristics on pulse peak power and pulse duration was investigated in this study. The compound action potential (CAP) was measured during stimulation of the cochlea of four anaesthetized guinea pigs, which were hearing at first and afterwards acutely deafened using intracochlear neomycin-rinsing. For comparison hydrophone measurements in a water tank were performed to investigate the optoacoustic signals at different laser interaction regimes. With rising pulse peak power CAPs of the hearing animals showed first a threshold, then a positively correlated and finally a saturating dependency. CAPs also showed distinct responses at laser onset and offset separated with the pulse duration. At pulse durations shorter than physiological response times the signals merged. Basically the same signal characteristics were observed in the optoacoustic hydrophone measurements, scaled with the sensitivity and response time of the hydrophone. Taking together the qualitative correspondence in the signal response and the absence of any CAPs in deafened animals our results speak in favor of an optoacoustic stimulation of intact hair cells rather than a direct stimulation of nerve cells.

  10. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  11. Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  12. Thin metal film-polymer composite for efficient optoacoustic generation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) conversion of metal film absorbers is known to be inefficient because of their low thermal expansion and high light reflectance, as compared to polymeric materials containing light absorbing fillers. Specifically, the PA signal for metal films is typically an order of magnitude lower than those for PDMS-based composites consisting of carbon materials such as carbon blacks, carbon nanotubes, and carbon fibers. However, the carbon-PDMS composites have several disadvantages, e.g., difficulty in controlling film thickness, aggregation of the carbon fillers, and poor patternablility. To overcome these issues and achieve comparable PA amplitudes, a polymer-metal film composite was developed consisting of a thin metal absorber and adjacent transparent polymer layers. The proposed structure shows efficient PA conversion. The measured PA amplitude of the metal film composite is an order of magnitude higher than that of metal-only samples, and comparable to those of the carbon-PDMS composites. The enhanced PA conversion is accomplished by using metal film of a few tens of nanometers, which greatly facilitates heat transfer from the metal film to the surrounding polymers. Moreover, integrating the metal film composite with a photonic cavity can compensate light absorption loss of the thinner metal film. Theoretical and experimental analysis is conducted for understanding the mechanism behind such improvement. This strategy could be implemented for spatial PA signal patterns, especially for deep tissue PA imaging of implants or image-guiding tools. Furthermore, this approach also provides a guideline for designing photoacoustic transmitters and contrast agents.

  13. Feasibility of a Novel Optoacoustic Device to Precisely Localize Endotracheal Tube Positioning in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    Model Napoleon Roux, Chandler Sours, Jeffrey Lodermeier, Jason Pasley, Sarah Wade , Catriona Miller, Samuel Galvagno, Raymond Fang...Jeffrey Lodermeier, Jason Pasley, Sarah Wade , Catriona Miller, Samuel Galvagno, Raymond Fang 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  14. Laser-induced hydrodynamics in water-saturated tissue: III. Optoacoustic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Bulanov, V. V.; Chudnovskii, V. M.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    Studied in this work are specific features of acoustic vibrations generated at the hot blackened tip of an optical fiber (the so-called hot tip) delivering moderate-power (1-10 W) CW laser radiation in contact with water or a water-saturated biotissue. Generated upon such contact is a wideband acoustic signal whose characteristics largely depend on the object exposed and treatment scheme. Placing the hot tip in an acoustic resonator is demonstrated to cause distinct amplitude modulation of the acoustic noise. The formation of laser channels in an intervertebral disc or the intramedullary cavity of a bovine thighbone gives rise to the emission of a quasiperiodic train of pulses associated with the explosive growth and collapse of steam-gas bubbles in the hot-tip-to-biotissue contact region. The resultant pressure pulses, 20 ± 15 MPa in amplitude, cause damage to the adjacent tissue and facilitate the production of a laser channel at a rate of some 0.4-5 mm s-1. During the course of laser treatment the biotissue gradually gets saturated with steam-gas bubbles, which results in the development of low-frequency pressure oscillations in the range 0.1-10 Hz and a gradual pressure rise to around 200 kPa, leading to reduction of the natural frequencies of the resonance modes of the biotissue. The possible effect of these acoustic vibrations on the biotissue is discussed.

  15. Development and Translation of Hybrid Optoacoustic/Ultrasonic Tomography for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    continuous and discrete object representations, imaging operators, image statistics, imaging quality assessment, ideal observer, Hotelling observers...region as shown in Fig. 1. 5) Generation of noisy data: An additive Gaussian white noise model was employed to simulate electronic measurement noise as...g̃m = gm + ñ, (23) where g̃m and ñ are the noisy data vector and the Gaussian white noise vector, respectively. In this study, the maximum value of

  16. Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Vulnerable Human Carotid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razansky, Daniel; Harlaar, Niels J.; Hillebrands, Jan Luuk; Taruttis, Adrian; Herzog, Eva; Zeebregts, Clark J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    Elevated expression of cathepsins, integrins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is typically associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability. While fluorescent tagging of such molecules has been amply demonstrated, no imaging method was so far shown capable of resolving these

  17. Combined Opto-Acoustical Sensor Modules for KM3NeT

    CERN Document Server

    Enzenhöfer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope currently entering a first construction phase. It will be located in the Mediterranean Sea and comprise about 600 vertical structures called detection units. Each of these detection units has a length of several hundred metres and is anchored to the sea bed on one side and held taut by a buoy on the other side. The detection units are thus subject to permanent movement due to sea currents. Modules holding photosensors and additional equipment are equally distributed along the detection units. The relative positions of the photosensors has to be known with an uncertainty below $20\\,$cm in order to achieve the necessary precision for neutrino astronomy. These positions can be determined with an acoustic positioning system: dedicated acoustic emitters located at known positions and acoustic receivers along each detection unit. This article describes the approach to combine an acoustic receiver with the photosensors inside one detection m...

  18. Development and Translation of Hybrid Optoacoustic/Ultrasonic Tomography for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Willemink, F. van der Heijden, C. H. Slump, and T. G. van Leeuwen , “Concomitant speed-of-sound tomography in photoacoustic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol...C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen , and S. Manohar, “Speed-of-sound compensated pho- toacoustic tomography for accurate imaging,” Med. Phys., vol. 39...G. H. Willemink, W. Steenbergen, C. H. Slump, T. G. van Leeuwen , and S. Manohar, “Speed- of-sound compensated photoacoustic tomography for accurate

  19. System Design, Algorithm Development, and Verification for Optoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Protease Expression in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Green’s function in the acoustically inhomogeneous medium can be written as: G(r, r′, ω) = g0(r, r′) exp(iωτ(r, r′)), (6) where τ is known as the eikonal ...function. The GA approximation gives us the eikonal equation in the limit λ→ 0: [5rτ(r, r′)] = c−2(r), (7) The eikonal equation implies: τ(r, r′) = r...concludes that to first-order in perturbation, this trajectory can chosen to be the path along the reference ray that satisfies the eikonal equation

  20. Development and Translation of Hybrid Optoacoustic/Ultrasonic Tomography for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    acoustically absorbing media was modeled by three coupled first-order partial differential equations [47]: Fig. 1. Schematic of a USCT system with a...be developed to account for out-of-plane scattering, the transducer finite aperture size effect, acoustic absorption, as well as other physical fac...art. no. 692009. [47] B. E. Treeby, E. Z. Zhang, and B. T. Cox, “Photoacoustic tomogra- phy in absorbing acoustic media using time reversal

  1. Cell Biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioufle, B. Le; Picollet-D'Hahan, N.

    A cell biochip is a microsystem, equipped with electronic and microfluidic functions, designed to manipulate or analyse living cells. The first publications in this emerging area of research appeared toward the end of the 1980s. In 1989 Washizu described a biochip designed to fuse two cells by electropermeabilisation of the cytoplasmic membrane [1]. Research centers have devised a whole range of cell chip structures, for simultaneous or sequential analysis of single cells, cell groups, or cell tissues reconstituted on the chip. The cells are arranged in a square array on a parallel cell chip for parallel analysis, while they are examined and processed one by one in a microchannel in the case of a series cell chip. In contrast to these biochips for high-throughput analysis of a large number of cells, single-cell chips focus on the analysis of a single isolated cell. As in DNA microarrays, where a large number of oligonucleotides are ordered in a matrix array, parallel cell chips order living cells in a similar way. At each point of the array, the cells can be isolated, provided that the cell type allows this, e.g., blood cells, or cultivated in groups (most adhesion cells can only survive in groups). The aim is to allow massively parallel analysis or processing. Le Pioufle et al. describe a microdevice for the culture of single cells or small groups of cells in a micropit array [2]. Each pit is equipped to stimulate the cell or group of cells either electrically or fluidically. Among the applications envisaged are gene transfer, cell sorting, and screening in pharmacology. A complementary approach, combining the DNA microarray and cell biochip ideas, has been put forward by Bailey et al. [3]. Genes previously arrayed on the chip transfect the cultured cells on the substrate depending on their position in the array (see Fig. 19.1). This way of achieving differential lipofection on a chip was then taken up again by Yoshikawa et al. [4] with primary cells, more

  2. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  3. Stem cells in cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Agneta; English, Denis; Sanberg, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    This commentary documents the increased number of stem cell-related research reports recently published in the cell transplantation field in the journal Cell Transplantation. The journal covers a wide range of issues in cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine and is attracting clinical and preclinical articles from around the world. It thereby complements and extends the basic coverage of stem cell physiology reported in Stem Cells and Development. Sections in Cell Transplantation cover neuroscience, diabetes, hepatocytes, bone, muscle, cartilage, skin, vessels, and other tissues, as well as tissue engineering that employs novel methods with stem cells. Clearly, the continued use of biomedical engineering will depend heavily on stem cells, and these two journals are well positioned to provide comprehensive coverage of these developments.

  4. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2014-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling based on quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilizing synthetic cells, advanced ‘chassis’ and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues. PMID:23856592

  5. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  6. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S.; Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cel...

  8. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  9. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  10. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  11. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  12. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  13. Stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Carlo Alberto; Monti, Manuela; Merico, Valeria; Neri, Tui; Zanoni, Mario; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The application of stem cells to regenerative medicine is one of the actual hot topics in biomedicine. This research could help the cure of a number of diseases that are affecting a large share of the population. Some good results in cell replacement have already been obtained (infarcted heart, diabetes, Parkinson disease), apart from those of more traditional applications like severe burns and blood tumors. We are now facing crucial questions in stem cell biology. One of the key questions is how a cell begins to proliferate or differentiate. Genome reprogramming, both following nuclear transfer and cytoplast action, will likely highlight some of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. In turn, these clues should be useful to the production of populations of reprogrammed cells that could develop into tissues or, in the future, into proper organs. We will overview what stem cells are, what roles they play in normal developmental processes and how stem cells could have the potential to treat diseases.

  14. Host cells and cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy based on the use of viral vectors is entirely dependent on the use of animal cell lines, mainly of mammalian origin, but also of insect origin. As for any biotechnology product for clinical use, viral -vectors have to be produced with cells derived from an extensively characterized cell bank to maintain the appropriate standard for assuring the lowest risk for the patients to be treated. Although many different cell types and lines have been used for the production of viral vectors, HEK293 cells or their derivatives have been extensively used for production of different vector types: adenovirus, oncorectrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors, because of their easy handling and the possibility to grow them adherently in serum-containing medium as well as in suspension in serum-free culture medium. Despite this, these cells are not necessarily the best for the production of a given viral vector, and there are many other cell lines with significant advantages including superior growth and/or production characteristics, which have been tested and also used for the production of clinical vector batches. This chapter presents basic -considerations concerning the characterization of cell banks, in the first part, and, in the second part, practically all cell lines (at least when public information was available) established and developed for the production of the most important viral vectors (adenoviral, oncoretroviral, lentiviral, AAV, baculovirus).

  15. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease Images Red blood cells, sickle cell Red blood cells, normal Red blood ... multiple sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ... Heeney MM, Ware RE. Sickle cell disease. In: Orkin SH, Fisher DE, Ginsburg D, Look ...

  16. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  17. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  18. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  19. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  20. T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed d Corporate Support Corporate Partners National Teams Partnership Opportunities d Personal Stories Ambassadors & Familiar Faces Life ... d Our Healthcare Voice Home What Is MS? Definition of MS T Cells Share this page Facebook ...

  1. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  2. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  3. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  4. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  5. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptor

  6. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph

  7. Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like ... normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood ...

  8. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickle cell disease?Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary condition (which means it runs ... disease, hemoglobin SS disease, hemoglobin synthesis, hemoglobinopathies, ... cell anemia, sickle cell crisis, vaso-occlusive crisis Family Health, ...

  9. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  10. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  11. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0

  12. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  13. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  14. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  15. [Inflammatory dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Elodie; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells are a rare and heterogeneous population of professional antigen-presenting cells. Several murine dendritic cell subpopulations have been identified that differ in their phenotype and functional properties. In the steady state, committed dendritic cell precursors differentiate into lymphoid organ-resident dendritic cells and migratory tissue dendritic cells. During inflammation appears an additional dendritic cell subpopulation that has been termed « inflammatory dendritic cells ». Inflammatory dendritic cells differentiate in situ from monocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Here, we discuss how mouse inflammatory dendritic cells differ from macrophages and from other dendritic cell populations. Finally, we review recent work on human inflammatory dendritic cells.

  16. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  17. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  18. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    OpenAIRE

    Stachelscheid, H.; Seltmann, S.; Lekschas, F.; Fontaine, J.F.; Mah, N.; Neves, M.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Leser, U; Kurtz, A.

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue t...

  19. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as bi...

  20. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  2. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells ... has two abnormal hemoglobin S genes. A person with sickle cell trait has only one of these abnormal genes and ...

  3. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

  4. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  5. Optimizing cell viability in dropletbased cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Visser, C.W.; Henke, S.J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  6. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  7. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  8. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    Full Text Available Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann, Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  9. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-Huai

    2004-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  11. Photoelectrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  12. NKT Cell Responses to B Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxin Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma.

  13. nduced pluripotent stem cells and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo. They hold a huge promise for cell therapy with their self-renewing ability and pluripotency, which is known as the potential to differentiate into all cell types originating from three embryonic germ layers. However, their unique pluripotent feature could not be utilised for therapeutic purposes due to the ethical and legal problems during derivation. Recently, it was shown that the cells from adult tissues could be reverted into embryonic state, thereby restoring their pluripotent feature. This has strenghtened the possiblity of directed differentition of the reprogrammed somatic cells into the desired cell types in vitro and their use in regenerative medicine. Although these cells were termed as induced pluripotent cells, the mechanism of pluripotency has yet to be understood. Still, induced pluripotent stem cell technology is considered to be significant by proposing novel approaches in disease modelling, drug screening and cell therapy. Besides their self-renewing ability and their potential to differentiate into all cell types in a human body, they arouse a great interest in scientific world by being far from the ethical concerns regarding their embryonic counterparts and their unique feature of being patient-specific in prospective cell therapies. In this review, induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its role in cell-based therapies from past to present will be discussed. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 550-561

  14. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S.; Wang, Y; Wang, X-N.

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  15. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  16. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  17. Cell death pathways in directly irradiated cells and cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death and senescence after treatment with both direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit. For bystander experiments, the medium was harvested from donor HaCaT cells 1 hour after irradiation and transferred to recipient HaCaT cells. Clonogenic assay, apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death, senescence and cell cycle analysis were measured in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells A reduction in cell survival was observed for both directly irradiated cells and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM)-treated cells. Early apoptosis and necrosis was observed predominantly after direct irradiation. An increase in the number of cells in G2/M phase was observed at 6 and 12 h which led to mitotic cell death after 72 h following direct irradiation and ICCM treatment. No senescence was observed in the HaCaT cell line following either direct irradiation or treatment with ICCM. This study has shown that directly irradiated cells undergo apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic cell death whereas ICCM-treated cells predominantly undergo mitotic cell death.

  18. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  19. Electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuts, J.J.F.G.; Willems, J.J.G.S.A.

    1987-10-13

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a negative electrode. The electrochemically active material of which consists of an intermetallic compound forming a hydride with hydrogen, which compound has the CaCu/sub 5/-structure and the compositional formula AB/sub m/C/sub n/, where m+n is between 4.8 and 5.4, where n is between 0.05 and 0.6, in which A consists of Misch-metal or of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Y, Ti, Hf, Zr, Ca, Th, La and the remaining rare earth metals, in which the total atomic quantities of the elements Y, Ti, Hf and Zr may not be more than 40% of A. B consists of two or more elements selected from the group formed by Ni, Co, Cu, Fe and Mn, where the maximum atomic quantity per gram atom of A is for Ni: 3.5, for Co:3.5, for Cu:3.5, for Fe:2.0 and for Mn:1.0, and C consists of one or more elements selected from the group formed by Al, Cr and Si in the indicated atomic quantities: Al:0.05-0.6, Cr:0.05-0.5 and Si:0.05-0.5, characterized in that the electrochemically active material additionally comprises one or more metals selected from the group formed by Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh, the atomic quantity per gram atom of A being from 0.001 to 0.5.

  20. CELL RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    REVIEWSInducible resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cells…………………………………ROTHSTEIN Thomas L (245)Executionary pathway for apoptosis: lessons from mutant mice………………………………………WOO Minna, Razqallah Hakem, Tak W Mak (267)The SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase: Signaling mechanisms and biological functions…………………………………QU Cheng Kui (279)REGULAR ARTICLESTemperature dependent expression of cdc2 and cyclin B1 in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis…………………………KONG Wei Hua, Zheng GU, Jining LU, Jiake TSO (289)Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity…………………………………MA Ying Hua, Jia Hua HU, Xiao Gang ZHOU, Ruo Wang ZENG, Zhen Tong MEI, Jian FEI, Li He GUO (303)Genetic aberration in primary hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation between p53 gene mutation and loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23………………………………………WANG Gang, Chang Hui HUANG, Yan ZHAO, Ling CAI, Ying WANG, Shi Jin XIU, Zheng Wen JIANG, Shuang YANG, Xin Tai ZHAO, Wei HUANG, Jian Ren GU (311)Identification and genetic mapping of four novel genes that regulate leaf deve- lopment in Arabidopsis………………………………………………SUN Yue, Wei ZHANG, Feng Ling LI, Ying Li GUO, Tian Lei LIU, Hai HUANG (325)NOTICE FOR CONTRIBUTORS…………………………………(337)CONTENTS of Vol. 10, 2000…………………………………………………(338)

  1. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of α-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  2. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael D; Petit, Valérie; Alasdair Russell, I; Giraddi, Rajshekhar R; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A; Stingl, John

    2014-10-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using two independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage-tracing approach we follow the progeny of myoepithelial cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy.

  3. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  4. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  5. Cell sheet engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yamato

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed ‘cell sheet engineering’ in order to avoid the limitations of tissue reconstruction using biodegradable scaffolds or single cell suspension injection. Our concept is tissue reconstruction, not from single cells, but from cell sheets. Cell sheets are prepared using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Temperature-responsive polymers are covalently grafted onto the dishes, allowing various types of cells to adhere and proliferate at 37°C. The cells spontaneously detach when the temperature is reduced below 32°C without the need for proteolytic enzymes. The confluent cells are noninvasively harvested as single, contiguous cell sheets with intact cell-cell junctions and deposited extracellular matrix (ECM. We have used these harvested cell sheets for various tissue reconstructions, including ocular surfaces, periodontal ligaments, cardiac patches, and bladder augmentation.

  6. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  7. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  8. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  9. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  10. Natural Killer Cell Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death...

  11. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  12. CellFinder: a cell data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder's data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder's web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians.

  13. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  14. Cell aggregation and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R H

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation of cells into clumps or flocs has been exploited for decades in such applications as biological wastewater treatment, beer brewing, antibiotic fermentation, and enhanced sedimentation to aid in cell recovery or retention. More recent research has included the use of cell aggregation and sedimentation to selectively separate subpopulations of cells. Potential biotechnological applications include overcoming contamination, maintaining plasmid-bearing cells in continuous fermentors, and selectively removing nonviable hybridoma cells from perfusion cultures.

  15. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  16. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  17. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  18. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  19. Cell surface engineering of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Zhao, Weian; Gupta, Ashish; Loh, Wei Li; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging the capacity to promote regeneration, stem cell therapies offer enormous hope for solving some of the most tragic illnesses, diseases, and tissue defects world-wide. However, a significant barrier to the effective implementation of cell therapies is the inability to target a large quantity of viable cells with high efficiency to tissues of interest. Systemic infusion is desired as it minimizes the invasiveness of cell therapy, and maximizes practical aspects of repeated doses. However, cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a poor homing capability or lose their capacity to home following culture expansion (i.e. FASEB J 21:3197-3207, 2007; Circulation 108:863-868, 2003; Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 32:1005-1011; Blood 104:3581-3587, 2004). To address this challenge, we have developed a simple platform technology to chemically attach cell adhesion molecules to the cell surface to improve the homing efficiency to specific tissues. This chemical approach involves a stepwise process including (1) treatment of cells with sulfonated biotinyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide to introduce biotin groups on the cell surface, (2) addition of streptavidin that binds to the biotin on the cell surface and presents unoccupied binding sites, and (3) attachment of biotinylated targeting ligands that promote adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Specifically, in our model system, a biotinylated cell rolling ligand, sialyl Lewisx (SLeX), found on the surface of leukocytes (i.e., the active site of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1)), is conjugated on MSC surface. The SLeX engineered MSCs exhibit a rolling response on a P-selectin coated substrate under shear stress conditions. This indicates that this approach can be used to potentially target P-selectin expressing endothelium in the more marrow or at sites of inflammation. Importantly, the surface modification has no adverse impact on MSCs' native phenotype including their multilineage

  20. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  1. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  2. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  3. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  4. T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). T-cell lymphomas account for ...

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  6. Individual cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovel, R T; Sweet, R G

    1979-01-01

    Current cell sorting machines do not preserve the individual identity of processed cells; after analysis, the cells are assigned to a subpopulation where they are pooled with other similar cells. This paper reports progress on a system that sorts cells individually to precise locations on a microscope slide and preserves them for further observation with a light microscope while recording flow measurement data for each cell. Various electronic and mechanical modifications to an existing sorting machine are described that increase drop placement accuracy and permit individual cell sorting.

  7. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  9. Innate Memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  10. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ganglion cell like cells, diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Shankar Ammanagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous swelling found on the left anterior axillary fold of a 41-year-old man. Gross examination of specimen excised from the dermis showed a well-circumscribed nodule histologically composed of spindle cells with interspersed ganglion cell like cells. On hematoxylin and eosine (H and E staining it was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma. Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, fully differentiated tumors that contain mature schwann cells, ganglion cells, fibrous tissue, and nerve fibers. They are commonly found along the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia and sometimes in the adrenal medulla. However primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is an extremely rare tumor. Immunohistochemical workup revealed a fibroblastic origin and hence the case was diagnosed as fibromatosis with ganglion cell like fibroblasts. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of ganglioneuromas can occur in other cutaneous lesions and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be offered only on the basis of H and E.

  12. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  13. B cell helper assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  14. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  15. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  16. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  17. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  19. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  20. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  1. Stem cells in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cell research. Instead, scientists have explored other cell sources, including progenitor and stem cells derived from adult tissues and stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid and placenta. In addition, novel techniques for generating stem cells in the laboratory are being developed. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is placed into an oocyte, and reprogramming of adult cells to induce stem-cell-like behavior. Such techniques are now being used in tissue engineering applications, and some of the most successful experiments have been in the field of urology. Techniques to regenerate bladder tissue have reached the clinic, and exciting progress is being made in other areas, such as regeneration of the kidney and urethra. Cell therapy as a treatment for incontinence and infertility might soon become a reality. Physicians should be optimistic that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering will one day provide mainstream treatment options for urologic disorders.

  2. Apigenin inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuai; Zhu, Yi; Li, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Zhen; Li, Shi-Qi; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-03-21

    Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, has antitumor activity in several cancer types. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of apigenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that apigenin suppressed ACHN, 786-0, and Caki-1 RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A comet assay suggested that apigenin caused DNA damage in ACHN cells, especially at higher doses, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through ATM signal modulation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated p53 knockdown showed that apigenin-induced apoptosis was likely p53 dependent. Apigenin anti-proliferative effects were confirmed in an ACHN cell xenograft mouse model. Apigenin treatment reduced tumor growth and volume in vivo, and immunohistochemical staining revealed lower Ki-67 indices in tumors derived from apigenin-treated mice. These findings suggest that apigenin exposure induces DNA damage, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, p53 accumulation and apoptosis, which collectively suppress ACHN RCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Given its antitumor effects and low in vivo toxicity, apigenin is a highly promising agent for treatment of RCC.

  3. Cell shape recognition by colloidal cell imprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovička, Josef; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The results presented in this study are aimed at the theoretical estimate of the interactions between a spherical microbial cell and the colloidal cell imprints in terms of the Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey, and Overbeek (DLVO) surface forces. We adapted the Derjaguin approximation to take into accou

  4. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-cl

  5. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitu

  6. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  7. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venkat Maruthamuthu; Benedikt Sabass; Ulrich S. Schwarz; Margaret L. Gardel; Shu Chien

    2011-01-01

    .... A direct relationship between the total cellular traction force on the ECM and the endogenous cell-cell force exists, indicating that the cell-cell tension is a constant fraction of the cell-ECM traction...

  8. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pluripotent stem cells for Schwann cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by recapitulating the various stages of in vivo neural crest formation and SC differentiation. In this review, we survey the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo processes. We then focus on the current in vitro strategies for generating SCs from two sources of pluripotent stem cells, namely embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Different methods for SC engineering from ESCs and iPSCs are reviewed and suggestions are proposed for optimizing the existing protocols. Potential safety issues regarding the clinical application of iPSC-derived SCs are discussed as well. Lastly, we will address future aspects of SC engineering.

  10. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  11. Regulatory T cells and B cells: implication on autoimmune diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Zheng, Song Guo

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although most studies are focusing on the role of Treg cells in T cells and T cells-mediated diseases, these cells also directly affect B cells and other non-T cells. This manuscript updates the role of Treg cells on the B cells and B cell-mediated diseases. In addition, the mechanisms whereby Treg cells suppress B cell responses have been discussed.

  12. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  13. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  14. Sickle Cell Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Sickle Cell Anemia News -- ScienceDaily January 18, 1970 Read articles summarizing medical research on sickle-cell anemia. NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom ...

  15. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  16. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... why are they important? Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types ... of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016 [cited October 9, 2017 ] Available at < //stemcells. ...

  17. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  18. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  19. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    .... Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D...

  20. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  1. Odontogenic ghost cell tumour with clear cell components: clear cell odontogenic ghost cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Sang Gun; Kim, Su Gwan; Kim, Jin

    2004-07-01

    A case of odontogenic ghost cell tumour (OGCT) with clear cell components was encountered in the mandible of a 63-year-old man. The tumour revealed ameloblastomatous-type epithelial components accompanied by clusters of ghost cells and dentinoid juxtaposed to the odontogenic epithelium. In addition, some areas of the tumour tissue showed sheets and islands of clear, glycogen containing epithelial cells, which were separated by a thin fibrous connective tissue stroma. Both ameloblastic and clear cells exhibited positive immunoreactivities for cytokeratin 19 and AE1/3. It is not known whether this tumour represents a clear cell change of a pre-existing OGCT or a separate and distinct neoplasm derived de novo from the odontogenic epithelium. This tumour was given the term 'clear cell OGCT' because it captures the clear cell components, which is one of the most prominent distinguishing features of the tumour.

  2. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... 1. True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  3. Sickle cell anemia.

    OpenAIRE

    ŘÍHOVÁ, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called sickle cell anemia, or drepanocytosis. In this thesis is described the history of the disease, pathophysiology, laboratory features, various clinical features, diferencial diagnosis, quality of life in sickle cell anemia and therapy.

  4. Cell-SELEX Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aptamers are molecules identified from large combinatorial nucleic acid libraries by their high affinity to target molecules. Due to a variety of desired properties, aptamers are attractive alternatives to antibodies in molecular biology and medical applications. Aptamers are identified through an iterative selection–amplification process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Although SELEX is typically carried out using purified target molecules, whole live cells are also employable as selection targets. This technology, Cell-SELEX, has several advantages. For example, generated aptamers are functional with a native conformation of the target molecule on live cells, and thus, cell surface transmembrane proteins would be targets even when their purifications in native conformations are difficult. In addition, cell-specific aptamers can be obtained without any knowledge about cell surface molecules on the target cells. Here, I review the progress of Cell-SELEX technology and discuss advantages of the technology. PMID:23515081

  5. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  6. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    only IgE dependent allergic diseases but also play a ... Mast cells are tissue fixed effector cells of allergic ..... alleviated high intensity symptoms of MCAD.29 ... Osteoporosis, osteolysis, bone pain: biphosphonates (vitamin D plus calcium.

  7. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  8. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  9. Mast cell proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Elin; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Mast cells are versatile effector cells of the immune system, contributing to both innate and adaptive immunity toward pathogens but also having profound detrimental activities in the context of inflammatory disease. A hallmark morphological feature of mast cells is their large content of cytoplasmic secretory granules, filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type. These anionic proteoglycans provide the basis for the strong metachromatic staining properties of mast cells seen when applying various cationic dyes. Functionally, the mast cell proteoglycans have been shown to have an essential role in promoting the storage of other granule-contained compounds, including bioactive monoamines and different mast cell-specific proteases. Moreover, granule proteoglycans have been shown to regulate the enzymatic activities of mast cell proteases and to promote apoptosis. Here, the current knowledge of mast cell proteoglycans is reviewed.

  10. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  11. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  12. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  13. Storage of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katharine A

    2011-01-01

    The successful storage of cell lines depends upon many factors, including the condition of the cells to be frozen and the experience of the operator. Attempting to freeze down unhealthy, contaminated or poorly labelled cells can have huge implications for a research laboratory. This chapter outlines the importance of good record keeping, vigilant monitoring, aseptic technique, and high-quality reagents in the successful storage and downstream propagation of cell lines.

  14. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  15. STEM CELLS AND PROTEOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.

  16. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  17. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  18. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  19. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  20. SYNOVIAL CELL SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten cases of synovial cell sarcoma are reported. The youngest patient was a 2'A years old boy with synovial cell sarcoma of the knee and the oldest one was a man with synovial cell sarcoma of the elbow.

  1. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  2. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  3. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  5. Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, John T.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells reviews topics pertaining to solar energy conversion and demonstrates the ease with which a working PEC cell can be prepared with n-type silicon as the photoanode and a platinum counter electrode (both immersed in ethanolic ferrocene/ferricenium solutions). Experiments using the cell are…

  6. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  7. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  8. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  9. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human embryo

  10. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  12. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  13. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to real

  14. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  15. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  16. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1 polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2 cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  18. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Gardel, Margaret L

    2011-03-22

    Cells in tissues are mechanically coupled both to the ECM and neighboring cells, but the coordination and interdependency of forces sustained at cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions are unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that the endogenous force sustained at the cell-cell contact between a pair of epithelial cells is approximately 100 nN, directed perpendicular to the cell-cell interface and concentrated at the contact edges. This force is stably maintained over time despite significant fluctuations in cell-cell contact length and cell morphology. A direct relationship between the total cellular traction force on the ECM and the endogenous cell-cell force exists, indicating that the cell-cell tension is a constant fraction of the cell-ECM traction. Thus, modulation of ECM properties that impact cell-ECM traction alters cell-cell tension. Finally, we show in a minimal model of a tissue that all cells experience similar forces from the surrounding microenvironment, despite differences in the extent of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion. This interdependence of cell-cell and cell-ECM forces has significant implications for the maintenance of the mechanical integrity of tissues, mechanotransduction, and tumor mechanobiology.

  19. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  20. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  2. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...... scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  3. New cell sources for T cell engineering and adoptive immunotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors...

  4. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  5. Internalization of NK cells into tumor cells requires ezrin and leads to programmed cell-in-cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Zhen Guo; Peng Xia; Tingting Liu; Jufang Wang; Shan Li; Lihua Sun; Jianxin Lu; Qian Wen; Mingqian Zhou; Li Ma; Xia Ding; Xiaoning Wang; Xuebiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key players in the orchestration of immune response and elimination of defective cells. We have previously reported that natural killer (NK) cells enter target tumor cells, leading to either target cell death or self-destruction within tumor cells. However, it has remained elusive as to the fate of NK cells after internaliza-tion and whether the heterotypic cell-in-cell process is different from that of the homotypic cell-in-cell event recently named entosis. Here, we show that NK cells undergo a cell-in-cell process with the ultimate fate of apoptosis within tumor cells and reveal that the internalization process requires the actin cytoskeletal regulator, ezrin. To visualize how NK cells enter into tumor cells, we carried out real-time dual color imaging analyses of NK cell internalization into tumor cells. Surprisingly, most NK cells commit to programmed cell death after their entry into tumor cells, which is distinctively different from entosis observed in the homotypic cell-in-cell process. The apoptotic cell death of the internalized NK cells was evident by activation of caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, NK cell death after internalization is attenuated by the caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, confirming apoptosis as the mode of NK cell death within tumor cells. To determine protein factors essential for the entry of NK cells into tumor cells, we car-ried out siRNA-based knockdown analysis and discovered a critical role of ezrin in NK cell internalization. Impor-tantly, PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin promotes the NK cell internalization process. Our findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism by which ezrin governs NK cell internalization into tumor cells.

  6. Islet cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anabel; Khoo, Adrian; Tejedo, Juan R; Bedoya, Francisco J; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been great success in driving stem cells toward insulin-expressing cells. However, the protocols developed to date have some limitations, such as low reliability and low insulin production. The most successful protocols used for generation of insulin-producing cells from stem cells mimic in vitro pancreatic organogenesis by directing the stem cells through stages that resemble several pancreatic developmental stages. Islet cell fate is coordinated by a complex network of inductive signals and regulatory transcription factors that, in a combinatorial way, determine pancreatic organ specification, differentiation, growth, and lineage. Together, these signals and factors direct the progression from multipotent progenitor cells to mature pancreatic cells. Later in development and adult life, several of these factors also contribute to maintain the differentiated phenotype of islet cells. A detailed understanding of the processes that operate in the pancreas during embryogenesis will help us to develop a suitable source of cells for diabetes therapy. In this chapter, we will discuss the main transcription factors involved in pancreas specification and beta-cell formation.

  7. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  8. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  9. Cell Factory Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories.

  10. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  11. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  12. Peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padam Narayan Tandon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma or the so-called "giant cell epulis" is the most common oral giant cell lesion. It normally presents as a soft tissue purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This lesion probably does not represent a true neoplasm, but rather may be reactive in nature, believed to be stimulated by local irritation or trauma, but the cause is not certainly known. This article reports a case of peripheral giant cell granuloma arising at the maxillary anterior region in a 22-year-old female patient. The lesion was completely excised to the periosteum level and there is no residual or recurrent swelling or bony defect apparent in the area of biopsy after a follow-up period of 6 months.

  13. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  14. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of TFH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on TFH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate TFH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing TFH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138(+) plasma and IgD(-)CD27(+) memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented TFH cell development. Added to TFH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on TFH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control TFH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the TFH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the TFH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  16. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  17. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  18. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  19. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  20. Cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Dosal, F L; Estrada, J A; Piérard, G E

    1991-04-01

    We report an unusual cutaneous hamartoma with pagetoid cells characterized by the presence of intraepidermal cells resembling Toker's cells of the nipple. These cells were EMA positive and could be related to the histogenesis of some Paget's disease.

  1. Cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the cell to substratum and cell to cell interactions of a diverse group of microalgae based on the Extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek (XDLVO) approach using the previously reported physico-chemical surface properties. The microalgae included 10 different species of green algae and diatoms from both freshwater and saltwater environments while the substrata included glass, indium-tin oxide (ITO), stainless steel, polycarbonate, polyethylene, and polystryrene. The results indicated that acid-base interactions were the dominating mechanism of interaction for microalgae. For green algae, if at least one of the interacting surfaces was hydrophobic, adhesion at primary minimum was predicted without any energy barrier. However, most diatom systems featured energy barriers for adhesion due to repulsive van der Waals interactions. The results reported in this study are expected to provide useful data and insight into the interaction mechanisms of microalgae cells with each other and with substrata for a number of practical applications including prevention of biofouling of photobioreactors and other man-made surfaces, promotion of biofilm formation in algal biofilm photobioreactors, and developing bioflocculation strategies for energy efficient harvesting of algal biomass. Particularly, Botryococcus braunii and Cerithiopsis fusiformis were identified as promising species for biofloccuation and biofilm formation in freshwater and saltwater aquatic systems, respectively. Finally, based on the observed trends in this study, use of hydrophilic algae and hydrophilic coatings over surfaces are recommended for minimizing biofouling in aquatic systems.

  2. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  3. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Agosto, Luis M; Ilinskaya, Anna; Dorjbal, Batsukh; Truong, Rosaline; Derse, David; Uchil, Pradeep D; Heidecker, Gisela; Mothes, Walther

    2013-01-01

    Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  4. Cell-to-cell transmission can overcome multiple donor and target cell barriers imposed on cell-free HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhong

    Full Text Available Virus transmission can occur either by a cell-free mode through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell transmission involving direct cell-to-cell contact. The factors that determine whether a virus spreads by either pathway are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the relative contribution of cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission to the spreading of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We demonstrate that HIV can spread by a cell-free pathway if all the steps of the viral replication cycle are efficiently supported in highly permissive cells. However, when the cell-free path was systematically hindered at various steps, HIV transmission became contact-dependent. Cell-to-cell transmission overcame barriers introduced in the donor cell at the level of gene expression and surface retention by the restriction factor tetherin. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies that efficiently inhibit cell-free HIV were less effective against cell-to-cell transmitted virus. HIV cell-to-cell transmission also efficiently infected target T cells that were relatively poorly susceptible to cell-free HIV. Importantly, we demonstrate that the donor and target cell types influence critically the extent by which cell-to-cell transmission can overcome each barrier. Mechanistically, cell-to-cell transmission promoted HIV spread to more cells and infected target cells with a higher proviral content than observed for cell-free virus. Our data demonstrate that the frequently observed contact-dependent spread of HIV is the result of specific features in donor and target cell types, thus offering an explanation for conflicting reports on the extent of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV.

  5. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  6. Biology of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Frederick R; Umen, James G

    2015-05-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants; and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that has been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell division, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth and the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole-basal body-flagellar cycle. Here, we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell-cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell-cycle control, compared with this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple-fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly, we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell-cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  9. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  10. Embryonic stem cell-somatic cell fusion and postfusion enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Huseyin; Verma, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are able to reprogram somatic cells following cell fusion. The resulting cell hybrids have been shown to have similar properties to pluripotent cells. It has also been shown that transcriptional changes can occur in a heterokaryon, without nuclear hybridization. However it is unclear whether these changes can be sustained following removal of the dominant ES nucleus. In this chapter, methods are described for the cell fusion of mouse tetraploid ES cells with somatic cells and enrichment of the resulting heterokaryons. We next describe the conditions for the differential removal of the ES cell nucleus, allowing for the recovery of somatic cells.

  11. New Cell Sources for T Cell Engineering and Adoptive Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes. The latter offer the prospect for true off-the-shelf, genetically enhanced, histocompatible cell therapy products. PMID:25842976

  12. Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45 min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes.

  13. Myoepithelial cells in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  14. Melanoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar B Pandav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma, also known as inflammatory pseudotumor is a tumor-like lesion that manifests primarily in the lungs. But it may occur in various other anatomic locations like orbit, head and neck, liver and rarely in the oral cavity. We here report an exceedingly rare case of gingival plasma cell granuloma in a 58 year old woman who presented with upper gingival polypoidal growth. The histopathological examination revealed a mass composed of proliferation of benign spindle mesenchymal cells in a loose myxoid and fibrocollagenous stroma along with dense infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells predominantly containing plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma.

  16. Regulatory T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  17. Trafficking and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Florian; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2009-07-01

    The migration of single cells and epithelial sheets is of great importance for gastrulation and organ formation in developing embryos and, if misregulated, can have dire consequences e.g. during cancer metastasis. A keystone of cell migration is the regulation of adhesive contacts, which are dynamically assembled and disassembled via endocytosis. Here, we discuss some of the basic concepts about the function of endocytic trafficking during cell migration: transport of integrins from the cell rear to the leading edge in fibroblasts; confinement of signalling to the front of single cells by endocytic transport of growth factors; regulation of movement coherence in multicellular sheets by cadherin turnover; and shaping of extracellular chemokine gradients. Taken together, endocytosis enables migrating cells and tissues to dynamically modulate their adhesion and signalling, allowing them to efficiently migrate through their extracellular environment.

  18. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely...... focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies...... in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta...

  19. NCAM regulates cell motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna

    2002-01-01

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells...... independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment...... to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine...

  20. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Risler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sec...

  1. Myoepithelial cells in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N; Masthan, K M K; Babu, N Aravindha; Anbazhagan, V

    2015-04-01

    Myoepithelial cells are a normal constituent of the salivary acini and ducts and are found between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Microscopically myoepithelial cells are thin and spindle-shaped and ultrastructurally they possess a number of Cytoplasmic processes that extend between and over the acinar and ductal-lining cells, and they show features of both smooth muscle and epithelium. They play a vital role during expulsion of saliva and regulates the electrolytic exchange. They also perform as tumor suppressors and are considered to play a very important role in differentiation of various salivary gland tumors and help in the diagnosis of tumors. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells in both benign and malignant tumors can take numerous forms including epithelioid, plasmacytoid, spindle and clear cell variant, and this variability largely accounts for difficulties in histopathological diagnosis.

  2. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge; Garcia-Martinez; Bjorn; Bakker; Klaske; M; Schukken; Judith; E; Simon; Floris; Foijer

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells(IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to reality. However,as somatic cells might have accumulated various chromosomal abnormalities,including aneuploidies throughout their lives,the resulting IPSCs might no longer carry the perfect blueprint for the tissue to be generated,or worse,become at risk of adopting a malignant fate. In this review,we discuss the contribution of aneuploidy to healthy tissues and how aneuploidy can lead to disease. Furthermore,we review the differences between how somatic cells and stem cells respond to aneuploidy.

  3. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddhartha Bhowmik; LI Yong

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a recent development which has brought a promise of great therapeutic values. The previous technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been ineffective in humans. Recent discoveries show that human fibroblasts can be reprogrammed by a transient over expression of a small number of genes; they can undergo induced pluripotency. iPS were first produced in 2006. By 2008, work was underway to remove the potential oncogenes from their structure. In 2009, protein iPS (piPS) cells were discovered. Surface markers and reporter genes play an important role in stem cell research. Clinical applications include generation of self renewing stem cells, tissue replacement and many more. Stem cell therapy has the ability to dramatically change the treatment of human diseases.

  5. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  6. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnaik Mangesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive lesion composed of polyclonal plasma cells. It manifests primarily in the lungs, but may occur in various other anatomic locations like the oral cavity. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas involving the tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva have been reported in the past. This case presents a 54-year-old female with chronic periodontitis and mandibular anterior gingival overgrowth treated by Phase I therapy (scaling and root planing and excisional biopsy. Histological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltrate containing sheets of plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. This case highlights the need to biopsy for unusual lesions to rule out potential neoplasms.

  7. Mammary epithelial cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine Terra; Dembo, Micah

    2007-01-01

    a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation...... in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal...

  8. Immobilized Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  9. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  10. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  11. Lymphomas of large cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, W G; Gétaz, E P

    1977-09-03

    Historial aspects of the classification of large-cell lymphomas are described. Immunological characterization of the lymphomas has been made possible by identification of T and B lymphocytes according to their cell membrane surface characteristics. The pathogenesis of lymphomas has been clarified by the germinal (follicular) centre cell concepts of Lennert and Lukes and Collins. The various classifications are presented and compared. Whether these subdivisions will have any relevance in the clinical context remains to be seen.

  12. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  13. Cells as Drops and Drops as Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Eric R.

    2013-03-01

    How do the mechanical properties of tissues emerge from the interactions of individual cells? To shed some light on this fundamental biological question, we consider a model system of clusters of cohesive cells adherent to soft substrates. We quantify traction forces over a wide range of cluster sizes. The scaling of traction stresses with cluster size suggests the emergence of an apparent surface tension for large colonies. To explore the possible impact of cellular surface tension on physiology, we consider the behavior of liquid droplets on soft substrates. In this case, we find that the competition of surface tension and substrate elasticity can lead to rich phenomenology, mimicking certain aspects of the physiology of cells and tissues.

  14. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; O'Donnell, Charles W; Deng, Francis; Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia Walton; DiIorio, Philip; Rezania, Alireza; Gifford, David K; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-02-25

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic β cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in vitro and their in vivo counterparts are essential to validate hPSC-derived cells. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of sorted insulin-expressing (INS(+)) cells derived from three independent hPSC lines, human fetal pancreata, and adult human islets points to two major conclusions: (i) Different hPSC lines produce highly similar INS(+) cells and (ii) hPSC-derived INS(+) (hPSC-INS(+)) cells more closely resemble human fetal β cells than adult β cells. This study provides a direct comparison of transcriptional programs between pure hPSC-INS(+) cells and true β cells and provides a catalog of genes whose manipulation may convert hPSC-INS(+) cells into functional β cells.

  15. Origins of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, B A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, S M

    2011-08-01

    Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics.

  16. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  17. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  18. Assessment of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon; Nguyen, Vy; Coder, David

    2013-01-01

    Cell viability may be judged by morphological changes or by changes in membrane permeability and/or physiological state inferred from the exclusion of certain dyes or the uptake and retention of others. This unit presents methods based on dye exclusion, esterase activity, and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as protocols for determining the pre-fixation viability of fixed cells either before or after fixation with amine-reactive dyes suitable for a range of excitation wavelengths. Membrane-impermeable dead cell and live cell dyes as well as dye-exclusion procedures for microscopy are also included.

  19. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryopyrin-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome (CAPS) (Juvenile) Dermatomyositis (Juvenile) Familial Mediterranean Fever (Juvenile) Fibromyalgia Giant Cell Arteritis Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoperosis ...

  20. Analysing immune cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  1. Applications of Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different purposes for which the cell microencapsulation technology can be used. These include immunoisolation of non-autologous cells used for cell therapy; immobilization of cells for localized (targeted) delivery of therapeutic products to ablate, repair, or regenerate tissue; simultaneous delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in cell therapy; spatial compartmentalization of cells in complex tissue engineering; expansion of cells in culture; and production of different probiotics and metabolites for industrial applications. For each of these applications, specific examples are provided to illustrate how the microencapsulation technology can be utilized to achieve the purpose. However, successful use of the cell microencapsulation technology for whatever purpose will ultimately depend upon careful consideration for the choice of the encapsulating polymers, the method of fabrication (cross-linking) of the microbeads, which affects the permselectivity, the biocompatibility and the mechanical strength of the microbeads as well as environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, osmotic pressure, and storage solutions.The various applications discussed in this chapter are illustrated in the different chapters of this book and where appropriate relevant images of the microencapsulation products are provided. It is hoped that this outline of the different applications of cell microencapsulation would provide a good platform for tissue engineers, scientists, and clinicians to design novel tissue constructs and products for therapeutic and industrial applications.

  2. Cell sorting in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krens, S F Gabby; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-01-01

    During the development of multicellular organisms, cell fate specification is followed by the sorting of different cell types into distinct domains from where the different tissues and organs are formed. Cell sorting involves both the segregation of a mixed population of cells with different fates and properties into distinct domains, and the active maintenance of their segregated state. Because of its biological importance and apparent resemblance to fluid segregation in physics, cell sorting was extensively studied by both biologists and physicists over the last decades. Different theories were developed that try to explain cell sorting on the basis of the physical properties of the constituent cells. However, only recently the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the physical properties driving cell sorting, have begun to be unraveled. In this review, we will provide an overview of different cell-sorting processes in development and discuss how these processes can be explained by the different sorting theories, and how these theories in turn can be connected to the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving these processes.

  3. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  4. Rapid cooled lens cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, David M.; Hsu, Ike C.

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the optomechanical design, thermal analysis, fabrication, and test evaluation processes followed in developing a rapid cooled, infrared lens cell. Thermal analysis was the key engineering discipline exercised in the design phase. The effect of thermal stress on the lens, induced by rapid cooling of the lens cell, was investigated. Features of this lens cell that minimized the thermal stress will be discussed in a dedicated section. The results of thermal analysis on the selected lens cell design and the selection of the flow channel design in the heat exchanger will be discussed. Throughout the paper engineering drawings, illustrations, analytical results, and photographs of actual hardware are presented.

  5. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  6. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  7. Littoral Cells 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Littoral cells along the California Coast. Originally digitized by Melanie Coyne from the Assessment and Atlas of Shoreline Erosion Along the California Coast...

  8. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  9. A focus on parietal cells as a renewing cell population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; M; Karam

    2010-01-01

    The fact that the acidsecreting parietal cells undergo continuous renewal has been ignored by many gastroenterologists and cell biologists. In the past, it was thought that these cells were static. However, by using 3Hthymidine radioautography in combination with electron microscopy, it was possible to demonstrate that parietal cells belong to a continuously renewing epithelial cell lineage. In the gastric glands, stem cells anchored in the isthmus region are responsible for the production of parietal cells...

  10. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J.; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G.; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, ...

  11. Regulation of B Cell to Plasma Cell Transition within the Follicular B Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, K-P; Kyläniemi, M K; Lassila, O

    2015-09-01

    Persistent humoral immunity depends on the follicular B cell response and on the generation of somatically mutated high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Upon activation by an antigen, cognately activated follicular B cells and follicular T helper (TFH ) cells initiate germinal centre (GC) reaction during which high-affinity effector cells are generated. The differentiation of activated follicular B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells is guided by complex selection events, both at the cellular and molecular level. The transition of B cell into a plasma cell during the GC response involves alterations in the microenvironment and developmental state of the cell, which are guided by cell-extrinsic signals. The developmental cell fate decisions in response to these signals are coordinated by cell-intrinsic gene regulatory network functioning at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  12. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  13. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  14. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  15. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  16. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  17. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  18. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...... activation through coculture with T cells activated by anti-T-cell receptor or anti-CD3 antibodies suggest that cellular interaction with T cells, independent of antigen presentation or lymphokine secretion, induces or triggers B cells to become responsive to T-derived lymphokines, and that this may...

  19. Stem cell regulation: Implications when differentiated cells regulate symmetric stem cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyem, Marte Rørvik; Måløy, Frode; Jakobsen, Per; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-09-07

    We use a mathematical model to show that if symmetric stem cell division is regulated by differentiated cells, then changes in the population dynamics of the differentiated cells can lead to changes in the population dynamics of the stem cells. More precisely, the relative fitness of the stem cells can be affected by modifying the death rate of the differentiated cells. This result is interesting because stem cells are less sensitive than differentiated cells to environmental factors, such as medical therapy. Our result implies that stem cells can be manipulated indirectly by medical treatments that target the differentiated cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells): Potential stem cells of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review.

  1. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  2. T-cell costimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1996-01-01

    The CD40L molecule expressed by CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes is known to deliver signals that activate B cells and macrophages. It now appears that CD40L regulates T cells themselves, during both their development and their participation in adaptive immune responses....

  3. Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    -derived stromal cells (ASCs) to enrich the fat graft, a procedure termed cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). The aim of this review was to systematically review the current preclinical and clinical evidence for the efficacy of CAL compared with conventional lipotransfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search...

  4. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  5. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  6. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to participate…

  7. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  8. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  9. Tumor cell metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  10. Transparent solar cell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  11. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get Screened for Sickle Cell Trait Did you know there’s more than one way ...

  12. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  13. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  14. Stem cells in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.

  15. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  16. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  17. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  18. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazaretian, S.P.; Schenberg, M.E.; Simpson, I.; Slootweg, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour and dentinogenic ghost cell tumour. This is the case of a middle-aged male who presented with a slow-growing maxillary tumour. He was asymptomatic until pain symptoms developed prior to initi

  19. Tetraspanins in Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKöberle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are key mediators of the immune system, most prominently known for their role in eliciting harmful allergic reactions. Mast cell mediator release (e. g. by degranulation is triggered by Fc{epsilon}RI recognition of antigen – IgE complexes. Until today no therapeutic targeting of this and other mast cell activation pathways is established. Among possible new candidates there are tetraspanins that have been described on mast cells already several years ago.Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins acting as scaffolds, mediating local clustering of their interaction partners and thus amplify their activities. More recently, tetraspanins were also found to exert intrinsic receptor functions. Tetraspanins have been found to be crucial components of fundamental biological processes like cell motility and adhesion. In immune cells, they not only boost the effectiveness of antigen presentation by clustering MHC molecules, they are also key players in all kinds of degranulation events and immune receptor clustering. This review focuses on the contribution of tetraspanins clustered with Fc{epsilon}RI or residing in granule membranes to classical mast cells functions but also undertakes an outlook on the possible contribution of tetraspanins to newly described mast cell functions and discusses possible drugging strategies.

  20. Ghrelin and cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Wenjiao An; Weizhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a gastric hormone that has been found to have a wide variety of biological functions. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of ghrelin on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells.

  1. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  2. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  3. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  4. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  5. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  6. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  7. NCAM regulates cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kawa, Anna; Walmod, Peter S; Belman, Vadym; Gallagher, Helen C; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Nina

    2002-01-15

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine inhibitor of NCAM-negative cell locomotion through a heterophilic interaction with a cell-surface receptor. As we showed that the two N-terminal immunoglobulin modules of NCAM, which are known to bind to heparin, were responsible for this inhibition, we presume that this receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. A model for the inhibitory effect of NCAM is proposed, which involves competition between NCAM and extracellular components for the binding to membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

  8. cell tumours of childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuron-specific-enolase, vimentin and neurofilament us- .... ated on a 4-point scale based on the number of positive cells: Negative staining (—) = no tumour cell stained. Minimal .... the same laboratory, have been shown previously to be.

  9. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  10. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chien, Ke-Hung; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone) and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells). The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  11. Transition of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous. A fraction of these cells constitute multipotent cells that can self-renew and mainly give rise to mesodermal lineage cells such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cell

  12. Induction of embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to get hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem (ES) cells and to study development mechanisms of hematopoietic cells, the method of inducing embryonic stem cells to hematopoietic cells was explored by differenciating mouse ES cells and human embryonic cells in three stages. The differentiated cells were identified by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and Wright's staining. The results showed that embryoid bodies (EBs) could form when ES cells were cultured in the medium with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). However, cytokines, such as stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythropoietin (EPO) and granular colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), were not helpful for forming EBs. SCF, TPO and embryonic cell conditional medium were useful for the differentiation of mouse EBs to hematopoietic progenitors. Eighty-six percent of these cells were CD34+ after 6-d culture. Hematopoietic progenitors differentiated to B lymphocytes when they were cocultured with primary bone marrow stroma cells in the DMEM medium with SCF and IL-6. 14 d later, most of the cells were CD34-CD38+. Wright's staining and immunohistochemistry showed that 80% of these cells were plasma-like morphologically and immunoglubolin positive. The study of hematopoietic cells from human embryonic cells showed that human embryonic cell differentiation was very similar to that of mouse ES cells. They could form EBs in the first stage and the CD34 positive cells account for about 48.5% in the second stage.

  13. Mast cells and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Laurent; Hermine, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The prominent role for mast cells in the inflammatory response has been increasingly well documented in recent years. Mast cells not only contribute to maintain homeostasis via degranulation and to generate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but also sit at a major crossroads for both innate and adaptive immune responses. The part played by mast cells in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis identifies mast cells as a valuable treatment target in these diseases. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting the c-Kit mast cell receptor have been found effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. When used in combination with other available drugs, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors may improve the therapeutic management of these diseases.

  14. Mast cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Dubreuil, Patrice; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier; Damaj, Gandhi

    2013-02-21

    Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of aggressive systemic mastocytosis accounting for mast cell activation-involvement of the liver, spleen, peritoneum, bones, and marrow-are frequent. Diagnosis is based on the presence of ≥ 20% atypical mast cells in the marrow or ≥ 10% in the blood; however, an aleukemic variant is frequently encountered in which the number of circulating mast cells is < 10%. The common phenotypic features of pathologic mast cells encountered in most forms of mastocytosis are unreliable in MCL. Unexpectedly, non-KIT D816V mutations are frequent and therefore, complete gene sequencing is necessary. Therapy usually fails and the median survival time is < 6 months. The role of combination therapies and bone marrow transplantation needs further investigation.

  15. Dynamics of cell orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel A.

    2007-09-01

    Many physiological processes depend on the response of biological cells to mechanical forces generated by the contractile activity of the cell or by external stresses. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitivity of cells and the elasticity of the matrix, we predict the dynamics and orientation of cells in both the absence and presence of applied stresses. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the cellular forces in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency.

  16. Physics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Safran, Samuel A.

    2013-07-01

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  17. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  18. Cell-Size Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. PMID:26254313

  19. Cell manipulation in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

  20. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process....... It facilitates the understanding of the task and structure of cell controllers and uses this knowledge directly in the implementation of the system. By applying generic models CCE facilitates reuse of software components and maintenance of applications. In many enterprises, software makes up an increasing part...

  1. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  2. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  3. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎向锋; 李雅芹; 蔡军; 张德远

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  4. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  5. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  6. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  7. Advances in stem cell research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In 1998, biologists Thomson and Gearhart successfully derived stem cells from human embryos. One year later, several researchers discovered that adult stem cells still retain the ability to be differentiated into unrelated types of cells. Advances in stem cell research open a promising direction for applied medical science. Moreover, it may also force scientists to reconsider the fundamental theory about how cells grow up. Stem cell research was considered by Science as the top of the ten breakthroughs of science of the year[1]. This paper gives a survey of recent advances in stem cell research. 1 Overview In the 1980s, embryonic stem cell and/or embryonic germ cell line (ES cell line, EG cell line) of multifarious mammalian animals, especially those of non-human pri-mates, had been established. In 1998, Thomson and Shamblott obtained ES, EG cell lines from human blasto-cysts and gonad ridges of early human embryos, respec-tively. Their research brought up an ethical debate about whether human embryos can be used as experimental materials. It was not appeased until 1999 when research-ers discovered that stem cells from adults still retain the ability to become different kinds of tissue cells. For in-stance, brain cells can become blood cells[2], and cells from bone marrow can become cells in liver. Scientists believe, for a long time, that cells can only be developed from early pluripotent embryo cells; the differentiation potential of stem cells from mature tissues is restricted to only one of the cell types of the tissue where stem cells are obtained. Recent stem cell researches, however, sub-verted the traditional view of stem cells. These discoveries made scientists speed ahead with the work on adult stem cells, hoping to discover whether their promise will rival that of ES cells.

  8. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  9. From Adult Bone Marrow Cells to Other Cell Lineages:Transdifferentiation or Cells Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation or local injection of bone marrow cells can induce unexpected changes of their fate. The results of these experiments showed that after transplantation or injecton, some of tissue specific somatic cells such as hepatocytes, skeleton, cardiac muscle cells and brain cells expressed the donor cell-specific genes, such as Y chromosome. There are two hypotheses that can explain this phenomenon. One is bone marrow stem cell transdifferentiation and the other is spontaneous cell fusion.

  10. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro eJinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  11. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  12. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  13. Many facets of stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research area on stem cells is one of frontiers in biology.The collection of five research articles in this issue aims to cover timely developments in stem cell biology, ranging from generating and identifying stem cell line to manipulating stem cells, and from basic mechanism analysis to applied medical potential.These papers reflect the various research tasks in stem cell biology.

  14. Quantitative imaging of epithelial cell scattering identifies specific inhibitors of cell motility and cell-cell dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerke, D.; le Duc, Q.; Blonk, I.; Kerstens, A.; Spanjaard, E.; Machacek, M.; Danuser, G.; de Rooij, J.

    2012-01-01

    The scattering of cultured epithelial cells in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a model system that recapitulates key features of metastatic cell behavior in vitro, including disruption of cell-cell adhesions and induction of cell migration. We have developed image analysis tools that

  15. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  16. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state.

  17. Single-cell model of prokaryotic cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Kristo; Aaviksaar, Tõnis; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-01-21

    One of the recognized prokaryotic cell cycle theories is Cooper-Helmstetter (CH) theory which relates start of DNA replication to particular (initiation) cell mass, cell growth and division. Different aspects of this theory have been extensively studied in the past. In the present study CH theory was applied at single cell level. Universal equations were derived for different cell parameters (cell mass and volume, surface area, DNA amount and content) depending on constructivist cell cycle parameters (unit mass, replication and division times, cell age, cell cycle duration) based on selected growth laws of cell mass (linear, exponential). The equations derived can be integrated into single-cell models for the analysis and design of bacterial cells. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Immunology of Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Yang

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of pluri-potent stem cells to repair the tissues in which stem cells reside holds great promise in development of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating chronic and degenerative diseases. However,numerous reports show that stem cell therapy, even in an autologous setting, triggers lymphocyte infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important question to be answered is how the host immune system responds to engrafted autologous stem cells or allogeneous stem cells. In this brief review, we summarize the progress in several related areas in this field, including some of our data, in four sections: (1) immunogenicity of stem cells; (2)strategies to inhibit immune rejection to allograft stem cells; (3) immune responses to cancer stem cells; and (4)mesenchymal stem cells in immune regulation. Improvement of our understanding on these and other aspects of immune system-stem cell interplay would greatly facilitate the development of stem cell-based therapeutics for regenerative purposes.

  19. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera

    2017-06-05

    Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl)), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl) brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stretching cells with DEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Rosset, S.; Shea, H. R.

    2012-04-01

    Biological cells regulate their biochemical behavior in response to mechanical stress present in their organism. Most of the available cell cultures designed to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on cells are cm2 area, far too large to monitor single cell response or have a very low throughput. We have developed two sets of high throughput single cell stretcher devices based on dielectric elastomer microactuators to stretch groups of individual cells with various strain levels in a single experiment. The first device consists of an array of 100 μm x 200 μm actuators on a non-stretched PDMS membrane bonded to a Pyrex chip, showing up to 4.7% strain at the electric field of 96 V/μm. The second device contains an array of 100 μm x 100 μm actuators on a 160% uniaxially prestretched PDMS membrane suspended over a frame. 37% strain is recorded at the nominal electric field of 114 V/μm. The performance of these devices as a cell stretcher is assessed by comparing their static and dynamic behavior.

  1. Rethinking Guard Cell Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Stomata control gaseous fluxes between the internal leaf air spaces and the external atmosphere and, therefore, play a pivotal role in regulating CO2 uptake for photosynthesis as well as water loss through transpiration. Guard cells, which flank the stomata, undergo adjustments in volume, resulting in changes in pore aperture. Stomatal opening is mediated by the complex regulation of ion transport and solute biosynthesis. Ion transport is exceptionally well understood, whereas our knowledge of guard cell metabolism remains limited, despite several decades of research. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on metabolism in guard cells, particularly the roles of starch, sucrose, and malate. We explore the possible origins of sucrose, including guard cell photosynthesis, and discuss new evidence that points to multiple processes and plasticity in guard cell metabolism that enable these cells to function effectively to maintain optimal stomatal aperture. We also discuss the new tools, techniques, and approaches available for further exploring and potentially manipulating guard cell metabolism to improve plant water use and productivity. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Cell density monitoring and control of microencapsulated CHO cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Harriet Emma

    2015-01-01

    Though mammalian cells play a key role in the manufacturing of recombinant glycosylated proteins, cell cultures and productivity are limited by the lack of suitable systems to enable stable perfusion culture. Microencapsulation, or entrapping cells within a semi-permeable membrane, offers the potential to generate high cell density cultures and improve the productivity by mimicking the cells natural environment. However, the cells being secluded by the microcapsules membrane are difficult to ...

  3. Plasma cells negatively regulate the follicular helper T cell program

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting cells under the antigen-specific control of follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Here, we demonstrate that isotype-switched plasma cells expressed MHCII, CD80 and CD86 and intracellular machinery required for antigen presentation. Antigen-specific plasma cells could access, process and present sufficient antigen in vivo to induce multiple TH cell functions. Importantly, antigen-primed plasma cells failed to induce interleukin 21 or Bcl-6 in naïv...

  4. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell su...

  5. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    al., 2010). In addition, there were a significant number of cell cycle and mitosis associated transcripts in the highly expressed gene set including...red blood cell lysis with 10 volumes of 16 PharmLyse (BD Biosciences) for 15 minutes at room temperature . Remaining cells were pelleted at 4uC for 15...processes (23%, GO:0008152) or the cell cycle (10%, GO:0007049), consistent with mitotically active cells (Fig. 4C). Cell cycle and mitosis associated

  6. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    progenitor cells (NPCs) by expressing an activated form of Notch1 (N1ICD) or oncogenic PIK3CA (PIK3CA*) in the developing mouse cerebellum, using cell...resistance, pediatric cancer, brain tumor, Notch1, PIK3CA, cell of origin, molecular subtypes, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation...neural progenitor cells, tumor initiation. 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Major goals of the project: The stated goals of this project are to: 1) test the

  7. Mesothelial cell differentiation into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sally M Lansley; Searles, Richelle G.; Hoi, Aina; Thomas, Carla; Moneta, Helena; Herrick, Sarah E; Thompson, Philip J; Mark, Newman; Sterrett, Gregory F; Prêle, Cecilia M; Mutsaers, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Serosal pathologies including malignant mesothelioma (MM) can show features of osseous and/or cartilaginous differentiation although the mechanism for its formation is unknown. Mesothelial cells have the capacity to differentiate into cells with myofibroblast, smooth muscle and endothelial cell characteristics. Whether they can differentiate into other cell types is unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that mesothelial cells can differentiate into cell lineages of the embryonic mesoderm i...

  8. Cell Growth Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Exogene Corporation uses advanced technologies to enhance production of bio-processed substances like proteins, antibiotics and amino acids. Among them are genetic modification and a genetic switch. They originated in research for Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Extensive experiments in cell growth through production of hemoglobin to improve oxygen supply to cells were performed. By improving efficiency of oxygen use by cells, major operational expenses can be reduced. Greater product yields result in decreased raw material costs and more efficient use of equipment. A broad range of applications is cited.

  9. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  10. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  12. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  13. Cardiac stem cell niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Leri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1α and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed.

  14. Giant Cell Fibroma

    OpenAIRE

    Tahere Nosratzehi; Lale Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell fibroma is a fibrous tumor which represents about 2 to 5% of all oral fibrotic proliferations. Compared to traumatic fibroma, giant (traumatic fibroma or irritation fibroma) cell fibroma occurs at a younger age. In about 60% of the cases the lesion is diagnosed within the first three decades of life and is slightly more in women. 50% of the cases is observed in the gum and will appear as a nodule with a papillary surface [1]. The giant cell fibroma is treated by conservative excisi...

  15. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  16. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  17. Conversion of primordial germ cells to pluripotent stem cells: methods for cell tracking and culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are unipotent cells committed to germ lineage: PGCs can only differentiate into gametes in vivo. However, upon fertilization, germ cells acquire the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body, including germ cells. Therefore, germ cells are thought to have the potential for pluripotency. PGCs can convert to pluripotent stem cells in vitro when cultured under specific conditions that include bFGF, LIF, and the membrane-bound form of SCF (mSCF). Here, the culture conditions which efficiently convert PGCs to pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells are described, as well as methods used for identifying pluripotent candidate cells during culture.

  18. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  19. Embryonic stem cells: prospects for developmental biology and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Anna M; Boheler, Kenneth R

    2005-04-01

    Stem cells represent natural units of embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, in particular, possess a nearly unlimited self-renewal capacity and developmental potential to differentiate into virtually any cell type of an organism. Mouse ES cells, which are established as permanent cell lines from early embryos, can be regarded as a versatile biological system that has led to major advances in cell and developmental biology. Human ES cell lines, which have recently been derived, may additionally serve as an unlimited source of cells for regenerative medicine. Before therapeutic applications can be realized, important problems must be resolved. Ethical issues surround the derivation of human ES cells from in vitro fertilized blastocysts. Current techniques for directed differentiation into somatic cell populations remain inefficient and yield heterogeneous cell populations. Transplanted ES cell progeny may not function normally in organs, might retain tumorigenic potential, and could be rejected immunologically. The number of human ES cell lines available for research may also be insufficient to adequately determine their therapeutic potential. Recent molecular and cellular advances with mouse ES cells, however, portend the successful use of these cells in therapeutics. This review therefore focuses both on mouse and human ES cells with respect to in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their use in basic cell and developmental biology and toxicology and presents prospects for human ES cells in tissue regeneration and transplantation.

  20. A novel cell subset:Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports introduce a novel cell subset of DCs with antigenic phenotypes shared by both NK cells and B cells, but without surface markers of pDCs and T cells, appearing to be a chimera of NK cells and DCs, namely interferon-producing killer dendritic cells(IKDCs).IKDCs not only secret type I and type II interferons to recognize and kill tumor cells effectively, but also express MHC-II molecules to present antigens.Thus, IKDCs are considered as important immunosurveilance cells for tumors, providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  1. Cell therapy for diabetes mellitus: an opportunity for stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, B; Bedoya, F J; Tejedo, J R; Hmadcha, A; Ruiz-Salmerón, R; Lim, S; Martin, F

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a deficit in beta cell mass and a failure of glucose homeostasis. Both circumstances result in a variety of severe complications and an overall shortened life expectancy. Thus, diabetes represents an attractive candidate for cell therapy. Reversal of diabetes can be achieved through pancreas and islet transplantation, but shortage of donor organs has prompted an intensive search for alternative sources of beta cells. This achievement has stimulated the search for appropriate stem cell sources. Both embryonic and adult stem cells have been used to generate surrogate beta cells or otherwise restore beta cell functioning. In this regard, several studies have reported the generation of insulin-secreting cells from embryonic and adult stem cells that normalized blood glucose values when transplanted into diabetic animal models. Due to beta cell complexity, insulin-producing cells generated from stem cells do not possess all beta cell attributes. This indicates the need for further development of methods for differentiation and selection of completely functional beta cells. While these problems are overcome, diabetic patients may benefit from therapeutic strategies based on autologous stem cell therapies addressing late diabetic complications. In this article, we discuss the recent progress in the generation of insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, together with the challenges for the clinical use of diabetes stem cell therapy.

  2. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  3. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  4. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  5. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We an

  6. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  7. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inherited from the other, a person will have sickle cell trait . People with sickle cell trait are generally healthy. Only rarely do people with sickle cell trait have complications similar to those seen in people ...

  8. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  9. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  10. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A

    1990-01-01

    Fibronectins are widespread extracellular matrix and body fluid glycoproteins, capable of multiple interactions with cell surfaces and other matrix components. Their structure at a molecular level has been resolved, yet there are still many unanswered questions regarding their biologic activity...... in vivo. Much data suggests that fibronectins may promote extracellular matrix assembly, and cell adhesion to those matrices. However, one outstanding enigma is that fibronectins may, under different circumstances, promote both cell migration and anchorage. An analysis of the interaction of fibroblasts...... with proteolytically derived and purified domains of plasma fibronectin revealed that the type of adhesion and the correlated cytoskeletal organization depended on multiple interactions of fibronectin domains with the cell surface. Human dermal fibroblasts were capable of interacting with the integrin-binding domain...

  11. Plant Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greb, Thomas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-01-01

    .... While the promise of organ regeneration and the end of cancer have captured our imagination, it has gone almost unnoticed that plant stem cells represent the ultimate origin of much of the food we...

  12. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  13. RSW Cell Centered Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New cell centered grids are generated to complement the node-centered ones uploaded. Six tarballs containing the coarse, medium, and fine mixed-element and pure tet....

  14. Whole cell entrapment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Jorge A; Rivero, Cintia W

    2013-01-01

    Microbial whole cells are efficient, ecological, and low-cost catalysts that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical, environmental, and alimentary industries, among others. Microorganism immobilization is a good way to carry out the bioprocess under preparative conditions. The main advantages of this methodology lie in their high operational stability, easy upstream separation and bioprocess scale-up feasibility. Cell entrapment is the most widely used technique for whole cell immobilization. This technique-in which the cells are included within a rigid network-is porous enough to allow the diffusion of substrates and products, protects the selected microorganism from the reaction medium, and has high immobilization efficiency (100 % in most cases).

  15. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  17. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  18. Mast cells & Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eJönsson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Classically, allergy depends on IgE antibodies and on high-affinity IgE receptors expressed by mast cells and basophils. This long accepted IgE/FcεRI/mast cell paradigm, on which the definition of immediate hypersensitivity was based in the Gell and Coomb’s classification, appears too reductionist. Recently accumulated evidence indeed requires that not only IgE but also IgG antibodies, that not only FcεRI but also FcγR of the different types, that not only mast cells and basophils but also neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, and other myeloid cells by considered as important players in allergy. This view markedly changes our understanding of allergic diseases and, possibly, their treatment.

  19. Beta Cell Breakthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supply one person's insulin needs. Floating in a coffee cup–sized flask of reddish liquid in Melton's ... cells with nutrients and oxygen and transport their waste away. If the box is too big, only ...

  20. The Giant Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)