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Sample records for optimizing suicide prevention

  1. Optimizing Online Suicide Prevention: A Search Engine-Based Tailored Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Search engines are increasingly used to seek suicide-related information online, which can serve both harmful and helpful purposes. Google acknowledges this fact and presents a suicide-prevention result for particular search terms. Unfortunately, the result is only presented to a limited number of visitors. Hence, Google is missing the opportunity to provide help to vulnerable people. We propose a two-step approach to a tailored optimization: First, research will identify the risk factors. Second, search engines will reweight algorithms according to the risk factors. In this study, we show that the query share of the search term "poisoning" on Google shows substantial peaks corresponding to peaks in actual suicidal behavior. Accordingly, thresholds for showing the suicide-prevention result should be set to the lowest levels during the spring, on Sundays and Mondays, on New Year's Day, and on Saturdays following Thanksgiving. Search engines can help to save lives globally by utilizing a more tailored approach to suicide prevention.

  2. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  3. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  4. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  5. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or mania, decrease the effectiveness of medication, enhance impulsive behavior, and severely cloud judgment. Beginning to feel better It might sound strange, but someone dealing with depression may be most likely to attempt suicide just when he or she seems to have ...

  6. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  7. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  8. [Improving suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Suicidal thoughts precede a suicide attempt. Knowing the people who are exposed to such thoughts enables prevention to be improved. The results of a study of the general population show that one in five French people claim to have already seriously considered committing suicide. This represents a particularly concerning public health issue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  10. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  11. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  12. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. METHOD: The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. DISCUSSION: This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  13. Optimizing suicide prevention programs and their implementation in Europe (OSPI-Europe): An evidence-based multi-level approach

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-11-23

    Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major

  14. Police and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.

  15. Suicide note themes and suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies. The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined. The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03). The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.

  16. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2014-10-01

    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CONTEMPORARY PRINCIPLES OF SUICIDE PREVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljusic, Dragana; Ravanic, Dragan; Filipovic Danic, Snezana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Cvetkovic, Jovana; Stojanovic Tasic, Mirjana

    2016-11-01

    Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. This study is aimed at analyzing and presenting contemporary methods in suicide prevention in the world as well as at identifying specific risk groups and risk factors in order to explain their importance. in suicide prevention. The literature search covered electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. In order to select the relevant articles, the authors searched for the combination of key-words which included the following medical subject heading terms (suicide or suicide ideation or attempted) and (prevention or risk factors) and (man or elders or mental disorders). Data analysis covered meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original scientific papers with different characteristics of suicide preventions, risk factors and risk groups. Worldwide evidence-based interventions for suicide prevention are divided in universal, selective and indicated interventions. Restricted approach to various methods of committing suicide as well as pharmacotherapy contributes to a lower suicide rate. Suicide risk factors can be categorized as proximal and distal. The following groups are at highest risk of committing suicide: males. older persons and persons with registered psychiatric disorders. There is a lot of evidence that suicide is preventable. It is known that only 28 coun tries in the world have national suicide prevention strategies and Serbia is not one of them.

  18. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  19. Health professionals' attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunero, S; Smith, J; Bates, E; Fairbrother, G

    2008-09-01

    Preventing suicide can depend upon the ability of a range of different health professionals to make accurate suicide risk assessments and treatment plans. The attitudes that clinicians hold towards suicide prevention initiatives may influence their suicide risk assessment and management skills. This study measures a group of non-mental health professionals' attitude towards suicide prevention initiatives. Health professionals that had attended suicide prevention education showed significantly more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. The findings in this study further support the effectiveness of educating non-mental health professionals in suicide risk awareness and management.

  20. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The US Department of Veterans Affairs’ Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Methods: We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA’s medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014—overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA’s medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Results: Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA’s medical records. Conclusion: Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA’s medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems. PMID:28123228

  1. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  2. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. F. Yip

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  3. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries. PMID:22690187

  4. Suicide Prevention with Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…

  5. Air Force Medical Service > Resources > Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Suicide Prevention ACE Questions Risk Factors Warning Signs Protective Factors Helping Resources Force Social Media Guide (PDF) USAF Social Media Sites Suicide Prevention Banner prevnext General . What do you need to know to effectively raise awareness about suicide prevention? Daily connections can

  6. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nursing students’ attitude toward suicide prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D.; Tamphasana, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals’ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients. PMID:25013311

  8. Nursing students' attitude toward suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D; Tamphasana, L

    2013-07-01

    Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals' knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  9. The Literacy Educator's Role in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…

  10. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  11. Emotional Impact of a Video-Based Suicide Prevention Program on Suicidal Viewers and Suicide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Dhillon-Davis, Luther E.; Dhillon-Davis, Kieran K.

    2009-01-01

    In light of continuing concerns about iatrogenic effects associated with suicide prevention efforts utilizing video-based media, the impact of emotionally-charged videos on two vulnerable subgroups--suicidal viewers and suicide survivors--was explored. Following participation in routine suicide education as a part of the U.S. Air Force Suicide…

  12. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...

  13. The use of technology in suicide prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Larsen, M.E.; Cummins, N.; O'Dea, B.; Tighe, J.; Nicholas, J.; Shand, F.; Epps, J.; Christensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death globally, and is notably a significant cause of death amongst young people. A suicide outcome is a complex combination of personal, social, and health factors, and therefore suicide prevention is a challenge, requiring a systems approach incorporating

  14. Getting Real about Suicide Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Theodora

    2018-01-01

    After her son died by suicide, Theodora Schiro vowed to raise awareness and teach others about depression and suicide. In this article, Schiro (a former teacher and principal) explains how educators can detect warning signs, devise preventative programs, and fight the stigma associated with suicide.

  15. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  16. The use of technology in Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mark E; Cummins, Nicholas; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; O'Dea, Bridianne; Tighe, Joe; Nicholas, Jennifer; Shand, Fiona; Epps, Julien; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death globally, and is notably a significant cause of death amongst young people. A suicide outcome is a complex combination of personal, social, and health factors, and therefore suicide prevention is a challenge, requiring a systems approach incorporating public health strategies, screening at-risk individuals, targeted interventions, and follow-up for suicide survivors and those bereaved by suicide. Engineering practice has been implicated in the hindrance of the adoption of suicide prevention strategies, such as installing safety barriers at the Golden Gate Bridge, however technological developments offer new opportunities in suicide prevention, and the potential to reduce the number of deaths by suicide. We present an overview of current technological developments which are facilitating research in the field of suicide prevention, including multiple modes of screening such as network analysis of mobile-phone collected connectivity data, automatic detection of suicidality from social media content, and crisis detection from acoustic variability in speech patterns. The current field of mhealth apps for suicide prevention is assessed, and an innovative app for an Indigenous population is presented. From this overview, future challenges - technical and ethical - are discussed.

  17. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  18. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  19. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population......; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  20. Lithium and suicide prevention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, V; Vaiva, G; Masson, M; Geoffroy, P A

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and recurrent psychiatric disorder. The severity of prognosis in BD is mainly linked to the high rate of suicide in this population. Indeed, patients with BD commit suicide 20 to 30 times more frequently than the general population, and half of the BD population with an early age of onset have a history of suicide attempt. International therapeutic guidelines recommend lithium (Li) as the first-line treatment in BD for its prophylactic action on depressive or manic episodes. In addition, Li is the only mood stabilizer that has demonstrated efficacy in suicide prevention. This effect of Li is unfortunately often unknown to psychiatrists. Thus, this review aims to highlight evidence about the preventive action of Li on suicide in BD populations. We conducted a literature search between April 1968 and August 2014 in PubMed database using the following terms: "lithium" AND "suicide" OR "suicidality" OR "suicide attempt". As confirmed by a recent meta-analysis, many studies show that Li has a significant effect on the reduction of suicide attempts and deaths by suicide in comparison to antidepressants or other mood-stabilisers in BD populations. Studies have demonstrated that long-term treatment with Li reduces suicide attempts by about 10% and deaths by suicide by about 20%. The combination of Li and an antidepressant could reduce suicidal behaviours by reducing suicidal ideation prior to depressive symptoms. It appears crucial for Li efficacy in suicide prevention to maintain the Li blood concentrations in the efficient therapeutic zone and to instate long-term Li treatment. The "impulsive-aggressive" endophenotype is associated with suicide in BD. The specific action of Li on the 5-HT serotoninergic system could explain the specific anti-suicidal effects of Li via the modulation of impulsiveness and aggressiveness. Furthermore, genetic variants of the glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β (GSK3α and β; proteins inhibited by Li) seem to

  1. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    ; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  2. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part II International Comparisons of Suicide Prevention Services in Correctional Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, H.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Konrad, N.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Suicide Prevention created a Task Force on Suicide in Prisons to better disseminate the information in this domain. One of its objectives was to summarize suicide-prevention activities in the prison systems. This study of the Task Force uncovered many differences

  3. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  4. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part I Recommendations fromthe International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Suicide in Prisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, N.; Daigle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, L.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000 the Department of Mental Health of the World Health Organization (WHO) published a guide named Preventing Suicide. A Resource for Prison Officers as part of the WHO worldwide initiative for the prevention of suicide. In 2007 there are new epidemiological data on prison suicide, a more

  5. Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…

  6. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, D.P.; de Vries, A.L.M.; de Groot, M.H.; de Keijser, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce

  7. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  8. Suicide prevention through means restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W.; Chang, Shu-Sen; Dawson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 3-year phased bans of the pesticides dimethoate and fenthion in 2008–2010, and paraquat in 2009–2011, on suicide mortality in Sri Lanka. Methods: Age-standardised overall, sex-specific, and method-specific suicide rates were calculated using Sri Lankan police...... data (1989–2015). Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the change in the rate and number of suicide deaths in post-ban years (2011–15) compared to those expected based on pre-ban trends (2001–10). Findings: Overall suicide mortality dropped by 21% between 2011 and 2015, from 18.......3 to 14.3 per 100,000. The decline in pesticide suicides during this same period was larger than for overall suicides: from 8.5 to 4.2 per 100,000, a 50% reduction. This was accompanied by a smaller concurrent rise in non-pesticide suicide mortality with a 2% increase (9.9 to 10.1 per 100,000). In 2015...

  9. The Esperance primary prevention of suicide project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Janine; Kisely, Stephen

    2002-10-01

    Suicide has been a major community concern in Esperance, a geographically isolated port on the south coast of Western Australia. To evaluate the effect of three evidence-based initiatives for the primary prevention of suicide: (i) providing suicide awareness sessions for staff members in health, education and social services; (ii) limiting the sale of over the counter analgesics (aspirin and paracetamol) to packets containing less than the minimum lethal dose; and (iii) implementing Commonwealth media guidelines in the reporting of suicides by media. Changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, comfort and use, before and after each intervention were assessed using standardized instruments and pro forma derived from previous work, such as the Youth Suicide Prevention Training Manual and Suicide Intervention Beliefs Scale. Percentage changes in the number of retail outlets selling over the counter analgesics to less than potentially lethal quantities (less than 8 g of paracetamol or aspirin) were also measured. Media representatives were interviewed to gain their perceptions of Commonwealth Guidelines for the reporting of suicide, and encouraged to consult the project team before reporting suicide related issues. The baseline survey illustrated that mental health staff and general practitioners were more aware of suicide issues, risk factors for suicide and awareness of professional and ethical responses than staff from other services, and were more willing to raise the issue with a person at risk. Thirty-three subjects participated in suicide awareness training of whom 21 (66%) returned questionnaires. There were significant increases in awareness of suicide-related issues and risk factors, as well as reported levels of knowledge of professional and ethical responses and comfort, competence and confidence levels when assisting a person at risk. Only three media representatives were aware of the Commonwealth Health Department Guidelines for reporting suicide and only

  10. Suicide Prevention: does it work?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-03-05

    Mar 5, 2016 ... suicide, family violence (including physical or sexual abuse), having guns or other ... treatment of mental and addictive disorders, restricted access to lethal means of .... therapy in manic-depressive disorders25 and addiction.

  11. A Buddhist approach to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disayavanish, Chamlong; Disayavanish, Primprao

    2007-08-01

    The majority of the Thai population is Buddhists and Buddhism has a great deal of influence on their mind, character, way of life, and health, particularly mental health. According to the Four Noble Truths (Cattări ariyasaccani), suicide is a form of suffering that is originated from craving (Tanhă). Therefore, human beings cannot avoid suffering by taking their own lives, nor do they escape from "the wheel of suffering" by doing so. Moreover, the consequence of suicide is a rebirth in the woeful planes of existence, and hence further suffering endlessly. From the present study, the Buddhist approach to suicide prevention can be considered in the following areas: 1) Buddhist attitude toward suicide, 2) faith and confidence in life after death, 3) providing monks with general knowledge and understanding about suicide and life after death, 4) early identification of mental disorders, persons at risk of suicide and prompt referral to appropriate mental health professionals, 5) control of access to instruments of suicide, 6) control of alcohol and drug abuse, 7) prevention of HIV infection, 8) responsible media reporting and 9) practice of meditation.

  12. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area.......Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area....

  13. Christian Ethical Boundaries of Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Liégeois

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries the general rule is that caregivers do everything possible to prevent suicide. The aim of this essay is to critically reflect on that position along three questions: is there an unconditional obligation to live, how far does the duty reach to safeguard life, and how does one deal with the tension between suicide prevention and euthanasia? The study material consists of Christian theological and ethical literature and relevant legislation, while the method is a religious ethical reflection, clarified by means of a case study. We consider suicide as an expression of an existential search for meaning and interwoven with psychiatric problems. After discussing the three ethical arguments against suicide, we conclude that the inviolability of life is a generally recognized and fundamental value, but that there is no unconditional obligation to live. Nevertheless, there is a legal duty to safeguard life. In practice however, restriction of freedom and coercion are counterproductive in the search for meaning and require a proportional assessment between inviolability of life and autonomy. Finally, the legal possibility of euthanasia in mental suffering or medically assisted suicide brings caregivers in a confusing situation. Good companionship of the euthanasia request may help finding a new life perspective and hence may contribute to suicide prevention.

  14. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569

  15. Defense.gov Special Report: Suicide Prevention and Awareness - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Submit Search DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: Suicide Prevention and Awareness Updated July 23 , 2014 Suicide Prevention and Awareness Stand by Them Take a Stand Emotional strain can be the most nation's support the most. Top Stories Suicide Prevention Takes Courage, Communication, Official Says The

  16. Intervention Studies in Suicide Prevention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To

  17. Suicide Prevention in a Diverse Campus Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    As the college population in the United States rapidly diversifies, leaders of successful campus suicide prevention programs are recognizing the importance of targeting specific groups of students. Recent estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics indicated that in 2008 more than one-third (36.7 percent) of college students…

  18. Gatekeeper Training in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Cory; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Gatekeeper training is one of the most commonly employed methods for identifying and intervening with at-risk students (Davidson and Locke, 2010). Within the context of campus suicide prevention, a gatekeeper is broadly defined as any individual who has the potential to come into contact with at-risk students (Davidson and Locke, 2010). Although…

  19. Changing the Direction of Suicide Prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Dan; Berman, Alan L

    2017-08-01

    It is axiomatic that the goal of suicide prevention is the prevention of suicide. Yet in spite of significant efforts to this end since the middle of the last century, and most notably in the last decade, the rate of suicide in the U.S. has not declined; rather, it has increased. To address this issue, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) brought together leading prevention specialists from other public health problems where successes have been achieved, representatives from countries where suicide rates have declined, and U.S. based suicide prevention researchers and program directors, to "think outside the box" and propose innovative, scalable approaches that might better drive success in achieving desired results from U.S. suicide prevention efforts. The recommendations should challenge our preconceptions and force us outside our own mental constraints to broaden our perspectives and suggest catalysts for real change in suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Program: Promoting Pro-social Behavior and Preventing Suicidality in Primary School Students. A Randomised-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an enhanced version of the Aussie Optimism Program (AOP was investigated in a cluster randomized controlled trial. Grade 6 students aged 10–11 years of age (N = 2288 from 63 government primary schools in Perth, Western Australia, participated in the pre, post, and follow-up study. Schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Aussie Optimism with teacher training, Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching, or a usual care condition that received the regular Western Australian Health Education Curriculum. Students in the Aussie Optimism conditions received 20, 1-h lessons relating to social and interpersonal skills and optimistic thinking skills over the last 2 years of primary school. Parents in the active conditions received a parent information booklet each year, plus a self-directed program in Grade 7. Students and parents completed the Extended Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Students who scored in the clinical range on the Emotional Symptoms Scale were given The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents IV, to assess suicidal ideation and behavior, and depressive and anxiety disorders. Results indicated that Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching was associated with the best outcomes: a significant increase in student-reported pro-social behavior from pre-test to post-test 1 (maintained at post-test 2 and significantly lower incidence rates from suicidal ideation at post-test 2 and follow-up. No significant intervention effects on anxiety and depressive disorders, and total difficulties were reported. These findings suggest that the AOP with teacher training along with coaching may have the potential to positively impact on suicidality and pro-social behavior in the pre-adolescent years.

  1. The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

  2. Defense.gov - Special Report: Suicide Prevention and Awareness - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commitment to Suicide Prevention Solutions Invisible wounds such as depression and post-traumatic stress take Associated With DOD Suicides Ways to Enhance Protective Factors Related Links DOD Suicide Prevention YouTube Twitter Icon: YouTube YouTube Icon: Google Plus Google + Icon: Instagram Instagram Icon: Flickr Flickr

  3. The Emergency Department: Challenges and Opportunities for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Babeva, Kalina; Horstmann, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) can offer life-saving suicide prevention care. This article focuses on the ED and emergency services as service delivery sites for suicide prevention. Characteristics of EDs, models of emergency care, ED screening and brief intervention models, and practice guidelines and parameters are reviewed. A care process model for youths at risk for suicide and self-harm is presented, with guidance for clinicians based on the scientific evidence. Strengthening emergency infrastructure and integrating effective suicide prevention strategies derived from scientific research are critical for advancing suicide prevention objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyata Thapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.

  5. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  7. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  8. [Stigma - risk factor and consequence of suicidal behavior : Implications for suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Rüsch, N

    2017-11-16

    Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention. This paper discusses the currently available knowledge regarding this hypothesis. Many studies confirmed the association between the stigmatization of mental illness and suicidality and there is initial evidence for the influence of suicide stigma and suicidality. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions to reduce suicidality and prevent suicide has not yet been tested. Reducing stigma among members of the general population and mental health care professionals as well as programs to support individuals in coping with stigmatization could be important components of successful suicide prevention.

  9. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  10. Suicide and Suicide Prevention among Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Inuit in Canada have among the highest suicide rates in the world, and it is primarily among their youth. Risk factors include known ones such as depression, substance use, a history of abuse, and knowing others who have made attempts or have killed themselves, however of importance are the negative effects of colonialism. This took place for Inuit primarily during the government era starting in the 1950s, when Inuit were moved from their family-based land camps to crowded settlements run by white men, and children were removed from their parents and placed into residential or day schools. This caused more disorganization than reorganization. The most negative effect of this colonialism/imperialism for Inuit has been on their family and sexual relationships. Many Inuit youth feel alone and rejected. Suicide prevention has been taking place, the most successful being community-driven programs developed and run by Inuit. Mental health factors for Indigenous peoples are often cultural. It is recommended that practitioners work with the community and with Inuit organizations. Empowered communities can be healing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.

    2016-01-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.

  12. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  13. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  14. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; FISHER, Steve; BAILEY, Eleanor; HERRMAN, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community’s overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Aim Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. Methods A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Results Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one’s feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Conclusions Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be

  15. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  16. Suicide prevention as a community development process: understanding circumpolar youth suicide prevention through community level outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David

    2009-06-01

    Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup'ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcohol abuse as a community development process through changes at the community level. Quasi-experimental design with assessment at pre- and post-intervention or at 4 time points. The community development process for this project began in October 2004. The first program baseline assessment began in November 2006, prior to prevention activities with youth and parents, and the post-intervention assessment concluded in March 2008. Five key informants pre- and post-intervention completed a community readiness assessment, which is a structured procedure assessing a community's awareness of suicide as an issue and its, organizational readiness for prevention programming. Forty-three adult caregivers or sponsors of youth in the prevention program completed an assessment of behaviours that contributed to community protective factors from youth suicide and alcohol abuse at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The 54 youth who participated in the prevention program completed an assessment of community protective factors, also at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The community protective factors from suicide that were assessed included safety, enforcement of alcohol prohibitions, role models, support and opportunities for youth. Community readiness for the prevention efforts increased to new developmental stages of readiness post-intervention, and a trend in the data suggested community protective factors increased in the amount of protective behaviours

  17. The Role of Religious Leaders in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsushi Hirono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine American and Japanese clergy’s perception of their role in the prevention of suicide. The research questions are as follows: (a How do clergy in the United States and Japan perceive suicide? (b Do they see suicide differently? and (c How do they envision the role of suicide prevention? The hypotheses are as follows: (a Christian clergy think that suicide is an unacceptable “sin”; (b Buddhist clergy are more accepting of suicide than Christian clergy; (c there are role differences related to suicide prevention in the Japanese and American religious communities; and (d American and Japanese religious leaders have a different view of their obligations related to suicide prevention. The investigator sent 400 anonymous mail surveys, respectively, to New York and Tokyo. The surveys asked about the clergy’s personal beliefs and the Church’s role in suicide prevention. The investigator analyzed the responses using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The major findings are that many American Christian clergy consider suicide to be a sin, but that “God’s love is available for people who committed suicide.” Many Japanese Buddhist clergy think how one dies is not the most important issue.

  18. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  19. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention re...

  20. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  2. Is Case Management Effective for Long-Lasting Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Wu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2015-01-01

    Case management services have been implemented in suicide prevention programs. To investigate whether case management is an effective strategy for reducing the risks of repeated suicide attempts and completed suicides in a city with high suicide rates in northern Taiwan. The Suicide Prevention Center of Keelung City (KSPC) was established in April 2005. Subjects included a consecutive sample of individuals (N = 2,496) registered in KSPC databases between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, with at least one episode of nonfatal self-harm. Subjects were tracked for the duration of the study. Of all the subjects, 1,013 (40.6%) received case management services; 416 (16.7%) had at least one other deliberate self-harm episode and 52 (2.1%) eventually died by suicide. No significant differences were found in the risks of repeated self-harm and completed suicides between suicide survivors who received case management and those who refused the services. However, a significant reduction in suicide rates was found after KSPC was established. Findings suggest that case management services might not reduce the risks of suicide repetition among suicide survivors during long-term follow-up. Future investigation is warranted to determine factors impacting the downward trend of suicide rates.

  3. Preventing plane-assisted suicides through the lessons of research on homicide and suicide-homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2016-08-01

    The Germanwings 9525 incident drew significant attention to the 'plane-assisted suicide' construct, yet little scientific literature exists on this topic. This paper reviews the available literature and applies lessons from the suicide-homicide and men's mental health literature to better understand this construct from a scientific perspective. A systematic review of the relevant clinical literature was undertaken. Multiple lines of evidence suggests the applicability and relevance of suicide-homicide research and men's mental health to the plane-assisted suicide phenomenon. Plane-assisted suicides occur within an overwhelmingly male, middle aged population who, in addition to suicide, commit large scale acts of murder. Issues of divorce, separation, and threats to masculinity appear integral to an effective prevention program. Further research in the understanding of plane-assisted suicide as a product of neuropsychiatric disorder may advance such prevention efforts and have the opportunity to reduce the loss of life in future tragedies.

  4. Suicide prevention via the Internet: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Nina; Scourfield, Jonathan; Evans, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    While concerns abound regarding the impact of the Internet on suicidal behaviors, its role as a medium for suicide prevention remains underexplored. The study examines what is currently known about the operation and effectiveness of Internet programs for suicide and self-harm prevention that are run by professionals. Systematic searches of scholarly databases and suicide-related academic journals yielded 15 studies that presented online prevention strategies. No professional programs with a sole focus on nonsuicidal self-harm were identified, thus all studies reviewed focused on suicide prevention. Studies were predominantly descriptive and summarized the nature of the strategy and the target audience. There was no formal evaluation of program effectiveness in preventing suicide. Studies either presented strategies that supported individuals at risk of suicide (n = 8), supported professionals working with those at risk (n = 6), or attempted to improve website quality (n = 1). Although the Internet increasingly serves as an important medium for suicidal individuals, and there is concern about websites that both promote and encourage suicidal activity, there is lack of published evidence about online prevention strategies. More attention is needed in the development and evaluation of such preventative approaches.

  5. [Suicidal behavior: a psychiatric emergency situation, suicide prevention: a psychiatric obligation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfersdorf, M; Schneider, B; Schmidtke, A

    2015-09-01

    In German psychiatry suicidal behavior is seen as sign of a psychiatric crisis in a person in the context of psychopathology, psychodynamics and psychosocial situation. Psychiatric disorders are found in up to 90% of people who commit suicide and the time span following the decision to commit suicide is often very short, within 24 h. Suicide prevention is a central duty and obligation in psychiatry and psychotherapy. This article gives an overview on the current state of knowledge on suicide from a clinical point of view.

  6. Tracking a Movement: U.S. Milestones in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Jahn, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidology and suicide prevention are relatively new fields of study in the United States, but they have made significant progress since their beginnings. This study aimed to identify the most impactful theories in the history of science and suicidology and the most impactful events in the suicide prevention movement. These theories and events…

  7. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  8. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D; Roche, Kathleen M; Chow, Sy-Miin; Schenck, Anna P; Byam, Leslie-Ann

    2016-12-06

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop "Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide" was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report that addressed data systems relevant to suicide prevention efforts through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. During the workshop, experts discussed the evidence and participants commented during open forums. After considering the data from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an independent panel prepared a draft report that was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 5 weeks for public comment. This abridged version of the final report provides a road map for optimizing youth suicide prevention efforts by highlighting strategies for guiding the next decade of research in this area. These strategies include recommendations for improving data systems, enhancing data collection and analysis methods, and strengthening the research and practice community.

  9. Media Roles in Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the ‘Werther effect’) and less about protective effect media can have (the ‘Papageno effect’). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283

  10. The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Inga-Lill; Di Lucca, Maria Anna; Hadlaczky, Gergö

    2016-02-04

    Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received a questionnaire with items concerning work with suicidal patients to which 358 (71.6%) responded. A set of attitude items were tested using structural equation modelling (LISREL). Three models were found to be satisfactory valid and reliable: Job clarity, Job confidence and Attitudes towards prevention. These were then used in regression analyses as dependent variables with predictors such as experience of work with suicidal patients, perceived sufficient training, age and gender. Perceived sufficient training was consistently the most important predictor for all three attitude concepts (p prevention). Age was another significant predictor for Job clarity (p suicide for Job confidence (p suicide preventive education is likely to improve attitudes towards the prevention of suicide, clarity and confidence regarding their role in the care for suicidal patients. These improvements may contribute to the prevention of suicide in health care settings.

  11. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  12. Treating the Capability for Suicide: A Vital and Understudied Frontier in Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Law, Keyne C; Jin, Hyejin; Houtsma, Claire; Khazem, Lauren R; Assavedo, Brittney L

    2017-10-01

    Current efforts at suicide prevention center largely on reducing suicidal desire among individuals hospitalized for suicidality or being treated for related psychopathology. Such efforts have yielded evidence-based treatments, and yet the national suicide rate has continued to climb. We propose that this disconnect is heavily influenced by an unmet need to consider population-level interventions aimed at reducing the capability for suicide. Drawing on lessons learned from other public health phenomena that have seen drastic declines in frequency in recent decades (HIV, lung cancer, motor vehicle accidents), we propose that current suicidality treatment efforts trail current suicidality theories in their lack of focus on the extent to which individuals thinking about suicide are capable of transitioning from ideation to attempt. We summarize extant evidence for specific capability-centered approaches (e.g., means safety) and propose other options for improving our ability to address this largely overlooked variable. We also note that population-level approaches in this regard would represent an important opportunity to decrease risk in individuals who either lack access to evidence-based care or underreport suicidal ideation, as a reduced capability for suicide would theoretically diminish the potency of suicidal desire and, in this sense, lower the odds of a transition from ideation to attempt. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. The Zero Suicide Model: Applying Evidence-Based Suicide Prevention Practices to Clinical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Brodsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is reaching epidemic proportions, with over 44,000 deaths by suicide in the US, and 800,000 worldwide in 2015. This, despite research and development of evidence-based interventions that target suicidal behavior directly. Suicide prevention efforts need a comprehensive approach, and research must lead to effective implementation across public and mental health systems. A 10-year systematic review of evidence-based findings in suicide prevention summarized the areas necessary for translating research into practice. These include risk assessment, means restriction, evidence-based treatments, population screening combined with chain of care, monitoring, and follow-up. In this article, we review how suicide prevention research informs implementation in clinical settings where those most at risk present for care. Evidence-based and best practices address the fluctuating nature of suicide risk, which requires ongoing risk assessment, direct intervention and monitoring. In the US, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention has put forth the Zero Suicide (ZS Model, a framework to coordinate a multilevel approach to implementing evidence-based practices. We present the Assess, Intervene and Monitor for Suicide Prevention model (AIM-SP as a guide for implementation of ZS evidence-based and best practices in clinical settings. Ten basic steps for clinical management model will be described and illustrated through case vignette. These steps are designed to be easily incorporated into standard clinical practice to enhance suicide risk assessment, brief interventions to increase safety and teach coping strategies and to improve ongoing contact and monitoring of high-risk individuals during transitions in care and high risk periods.

  14. Youth suicide prevention: does access to care matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V

    2009-10-01

    Recent increases in adolescent suicide rates after a decade of decline highlight the relevance of pediatric suicide prevention. Existing strategies to intervene with youth at risk for suicide are largely based on the premise that access to effective services is of critical importance. This review aims to examine the relationship between youth suicide and access to care. Promising reductions in suicidal thinking and behavior have been associated with the application of manualized psychotherapies, collaborative interventions in primary care, lithium for mood-disordered adults, and clozapine in schizophrenia. Suicide rates correlate inversely with indices of care access across the lifespan, including antidepressant prescription rates. Suicide is a preventable cause of death, and any public health relevant effort to prevent youth suicide must include improving access to effective care for at-risk youth as a strategy. Education and training of professionals and consumers, the integration of mental health services in primary care, and the use of novel technologies to track and maintain contact with at-risk youth are worthy of study. Additional research on the relationship between specific treatments, especially antidepressants, and youth suicide risk reduction is desperately needed.

  15. Impacts of stress, self-efficacy, and optimism on suicide ideation among rehabilitation patients with acute pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Shusheng; Chen, Huawen

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of pesticide ingestion as a means to commit suicide is a critical public health problem. An important predictor of suicidal behavior is suicide ideation, which is related to stress. However, studies on how to defend against stress-induced suicidal thoughts are limited. This study explores the impact of stress on suicidal ideation by investigating the mediating effect of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism. Direct and indirect (via self-efficacy and dispositional optimism) effects of stress on suicidal ideation were investigated among 296 patients with acute pesticide poisoning from four general hospitals. For this purpose, structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrap method were used. Results obtained using SEM and bootstrap method show that stress has a direct effect on suicide ideation. Furthermore, self-efficacy and dispositional optimism partially weakened the relationship between stress and suicidal ideation. The final model shows a significant relationship between stress and suicidal ideation through self-efficacy or dispositional optimism. The findings extended prior studies and provide enlightenment on how self-efficacy and optimism prevents stress-induced suicidal thoughts.

  16. Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalsman, Gil; Hawton, Keith; Wasserman, Danuta; van Heeringen, Kees; Arensman, Ella; Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Höschl, Cyril; Barzilay, Ran; Balazs, Judit; Purebl, György; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Bobes, Julio; Cozman, Doina; Hegerl, Ulrich; Zohar, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Many countries are developing suicide prevention strategies for which up-to-date, high-quality evidence is required. We present updated evidence for the effectiveness of suicide prevention interventions since 2005. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library using multiple terms related to suicide prevention for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2014. We assessed seven interventions: public and physician education, media strategies, screening, restricting access to suicide means, treatments, and internet or hotline support. Data were extracted on primary outcomes of interest, namely suicidal behaviour (suicide, attempt, or ideation), and intermediate or secondary outcomes (treatment-seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription or use rates, or referrals). 18 suicide prevention experts from 13 European countries reviewed all articles and rated the strength of evidence using the Oxford criteria. Because the heterogeneity of populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis, we present a narrative analysis. We identified 1797 studies, including 23 systematic reviews, 12 meta-analyses, 40 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 67 cohort trials, and 22 ecological or population-based investigations. Evidence for restricting access to lethal means in prevention of suicide has strengthened since 2005, especially with regard to control of analgesics (overall decrease of 43% since 2005) and hot-spots for suicide by jumping (reduction of 86% since 2005, 79% to 91%). School-based awareness programmes have been shown to reduce suicide attempts (odds ratio [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and suicidal ideation (0·5, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025). The anti-suicidal effects of clozapine and lithium have been substantiated, but might be less specific than previously thought. Effective pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression are important in prevention. Insufficient evidence exists to assess the

  17. Forging an agenda for suicide prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Eric D

    2013-05-01

    Suicide prevention must be transformed by integrating injury prevention and mental health perspectives to develop a mosaic of common risk public health interventions that address the diversity of populations and individuals whose mortality and morbidity contribute to the burdens of suicide and attempted suicide. Emphasizing distal preventive interventions, strategies must focus on people and places--and on related interpersonal factors and social contexts--to alter the life trajectories of people before they become suicidal. Attention also must be paid to those in the middle years--the age with the greatest overall burden. We need scientific and social processes that define priorities and assess their potential for reducing what has been a steadily increasing rate of suicide during the past decade.

  18. Forging an Agenda for Suicide Prevention in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Suicide prevention must be transformed by integrating injury prevention and mental health perspectives to develop a mosaic of common risk public health interventions that address the diversity of populations and individuals whose mortality and morbidity contribute to the burdens of suicide and attempted suicide. Emphasizing distal preventive interventions, strategies must focus on people and places—and on related interpersonal factors and social contexts—to alter the life trajectories of people before they become suicidal. Attention also must be paid to those in the middle years—the age with the greatest overall burden. We need scientific and social processes that define priorities and assess their potential for reducing what has been a steadily increasing rate of suicide during the past decade. PMID:23488515

  19. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Enhancing Mental Health Care for Suicidal Individuals and Other People in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie L. H.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lake, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Linking at-risk callers to ongoing mental health care is a key goal of crisis hotline interventions that has not often been addressed in evaluations of hotlines' effectiveness. We conducted telephone interviews with 376 suicidal and 278 nonsuicidal crisis callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) to assess rates of mental…

  20. Suicide Prevention. A Guide to Curriculum Planning. Bulletin No. 0500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide is intended to reduce the youth suicide rate by teaching decision-making skills and coping mechanisms, and helping students develop self-esteem and communication skills. It was designed to be used by a local suicide prevention curriculum committee or team responsible for the development, implementation, and evaluation of the local…

  1. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  2. Suicide prevention: a proposed national strategy for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first is a multicentre programme targeting non-fatal suicidal behaviours, known as ... Keywords: Suicide; Prevention; National strategy; South Africa. Received: 16/08/2012 ... to enter university or the open labour market).2,5,7-8. Risk factors.

  3. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  4. Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

  5. Social media and suicide prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Herrman, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Social media platforms are commonly used for the expression of suicidal thoughts and feelings, particularly by young people. Despite this, little is known about the ways in which social media can be used for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify current evidence pertaining to the ways in which social media are currently used as a tool for suicide prevention. Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1991 and April 2014. English language articles with a focus on suicide-related behaviour and social media were included. No exclusion was placed on study design. Thirty studies were included; 4 described the development of social media sites designed for suicide prevention, 6 examined the potential of social media in terms of its ability to reach or identify people at risk of suicide, 15 examined the ways in which people used social media for suicide prevention-related purposes, and 5 examined the experiences of people who had used social media sites for suicide prevention purposes. No intervention studies were identified. Social media platforms can reach large numbers of otherwise hard-to-engage individuals, may allow others to intervene following an expression of suicidal ideation online, and provide an anonymous, accessible and non-judgmental forum for sharing experiences. Challenges include difficulties controlling user behaviour and accurately assessing risk, issues relating to privacy and confidentiality and the possibility of contagion. Social media appears to hold significant potential for suicide prevention; however, additional research into its safety and efficacy is required. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network: A National Health Care System-Based Suicide Event Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmire, Claire; Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    The US Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA's medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014-overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA's medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA's medical records. Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA's medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems.

  7. Psychiatric Medication Intake in Suicide Victims: Gender Disparities and Implications for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschakis, Antonios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2016-11-01

    Frequency and gender differences of psychiatric medication intake in a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area were investigated with a particular focus on the implications for suicide prevention. Data were collected from the toxicological analyses of the suicide cases of the period November 2007-October 2009. Information was available for 262 individuals, 196 men (74.8%) and 66 women (25.2%); 109 of these (41.6%) were receiving psychiatric medication(s). Women were statistically more frequently under treatment: antidepressants (32.8% vs. 11.3%, p suicides. More thoughtful choice of psychiatric medication could possibly already prevent a number of female suicides. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Suicide Prevention: College Students' Intention to Intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Rosalie S

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this article was to examine college students' intention to intervene with a suicidal individual and examine the Willingness to Intervene against Suicide questionnaire (WIS). College students (n = 1065) completed an online questionnaire about their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding suicide and suicide intervention as well as their intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and multiple regression. It was found that the WIS significantly predicted intention to intervene with a suicidal individual. The WIS was internally consistent with adequate goodness-of-fit indices for three of the four sub-scales. The WIS is an effective tool for predicting intention to intervene; however, the subjective norms sub-scale should be revised to improve the model.

  9. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvers, Jennifer; Bjerregaard, Peter; Eriksen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    , families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective...... Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention......BACKGROUND: Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals...

  10. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  11. Ten Things Parents Can Do to Prevent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... teen at risk for suicide . Spend some time reading these ten ways you can help prevent a ...

  12. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  13. Promoting CARE: including parents in youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Walsh, Elaine; Pike, Kenneth C; Herting, Jerald R

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of augmenting a youth suicide-preventive intervention with a brief, home-based parent program. A total of 615 high school youth and their parents participated. Three suicide prevention protocols, a youth intervention, a parent intervention, and a combination of youth and parent intervention, were compared with an "intervention as usual" (IAU) group. All groups experienced a decline in risk factors and an increase in protective factors during the intervention period, and sustained these improvements over 15 months. Results reveal that the youth intervention and combined youth and parent intervention produced significantly greater reductions in suicide risk factors and increases in protective factors than IAU comparison group.

  14. The relationship between attitudes toward suicide and willingness to pay for suicide prevention: a cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    There are gaps in our knowledge of the role attitudes toward suicide play in determining people's willingness to participate (WTP) for suicide prevention. We conducted a large nationwide cross-sectional study with the aim of clarifying the relationship between WTP for reducing suicide risk and attitudes toward suicide. Ordinal logistic regression analyses (n = 1771) showed that there were significant associations of WTP for suicide prevention with 'Suicide as a right' (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.25 to -.04, p = .006), 'Preventability/readiness to help' (β = .81, 95% CI: .69-.94, p suicide prevention is more likely to be achieved through provision of information that increases endorsement of 'preventability/readiness to help' and 'common occurrence' factors, and decreases 'suicide as a right' scores.

  15. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  16. Outcomes of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Natalie Arce; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Griffin, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    A university-wide suicide prevention program was implemented to provide students, faculty, and staff tools to identify, assist, and refer distressed and suicidal individuals. The study examined participant self-reports of suicide-related knowledge and prevention skills, group differences in suicide prevention knowledge and skills, group…

  17. Suicide prevention for men - using the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Madsen, Bente Hjorth

      In most countries men have a higher suicide rate than women. In Denmark suicide among men is almost three times as frequent as among women. For this reason we wanted to ask the following question: Is there any way to facilitate mens' access to help, when they are in a crisis? Could men be better...

  18. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  19. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  20. [Antidepressants do prevent suicide, at least pending something better...].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtet, Philippe; Olié, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem worldwide, with about 1.5 million deaths each year France ranks 7th in the EU Patients with depression account for the majority of completed suicides. As most of these individuals are not adequately treated, it is conceivable that better treatment of depression would reduce suicide mortality. However, the last ten years have seen a controversy over a possible suicidogenic effect of antidepressants. Here we summarize data from the different types of studies that have cast a shadow over these drugs which can save lives when used effectively to treat depression. Better knowledge of the pathophysiology of "suicidal behaviour disorder" should identify therapeutic targets for innovative agents capable of preventing suicide.

  1. [Recognition, care and prevention of suicidal behaviour in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Németh, Attila; Kurimay, Tamás; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Purebl, György; Döme, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential. 2. Treatment and care: Acute intervention should start immediately in order to keep the patient alive. Existing evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy (including dialectical behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy) in preventing suicidal behaviour. Some other psychological treatments are promising, but the supporting evidence is currently insufficient. Studies show that antidepressant and mood stabilizer treatments decrease the risk for suicidality among responders in mood disorder patients. However, the risk of suicidal behaviour in depressed patients treated with antidepressants exists during the first 10-14 days of treatment, which requires careful monitoring. Short-term supplementary medication with anxiolytics and hypnotics in the case of anxiety and insomnia is recommended. Treatment with antidepressants of children and adolescents should only be given under supervision of a specialist. Long-term treatment with lithium has been shown to be very effective in preventing both suicide and attempted suicide in patients with unipolar and bipolar depression. Treatment with clozapine is effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. Other atypical antipsychotics are promising but more evidence is required. 3. Family and social support: The suicidal person should always be motivated to involve family in the treatment. Psychosocial treatment and support is recommended, as the

  2. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  3. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: a novel multimodal community intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tajima, Miyuki; Tanaka, Eriko; Uda, Hidenori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yotsumoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Naoki

    2008-09-15

    To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. This study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals). The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000460.

  4. [Current situation of suicide in Japan, and what pharmacists contribute to suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

      In Japan, a national countermeasure has been forwarded since the enactment of the Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures in 2006 and the Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative in 2007. The distinctive policy of the Japanese countermeasure is expressed as the word, "comprehensive," which means that suicide prevention may not only be carried out only by mental health measures but also by comprehensive measures including chance of administrative practices. This policy is proper, although mental health measures appear to be too simple inclining to psychiatric treatments for the classic type of "depression" by a pharmacotherapy. The authors have insisted that mental health measures including psychiatric treatments are also required to be more comprehensive. This paper describes that benzodiazepine (BZ)-abuse problems including overdosing by suicidal intents have got worse recently as psychiatric clinics have increased and most of BZ abusers obtain the abused drugs form psychiatrists. This current situation indicates that pharmacists need to monitor psychiatrists' prescribing behavior and qualities of psychiatric treatment is required to be refined, suggesting pharmacists may be one of the "Gate Keeper," as supporting resources for suicide prevention. Additionally, this paper explained that basic attitudes and responses acquired by pharmacists as a supporter for suicide prevention.

  5. Suicide and Suicide Prevention among Inuit in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Inuit in Canada have among the highest suicide rates in the world, and it is primarily among their youth. Risk factors include known ones such as depression, substance use, a history of abuse, and knowing others who have made attempts or have killed themselves, however of importance are the negative effects of colonialism. This took place for Inuit primarily during the government era starting in the 1950s, when Inuit were moved from their family-based land camps to crowded settlements run by ...

  6. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach.

  7. Suicide in classical mythology: cues for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, A; Miotto, P

    2005-05-01

    To compare well established antecedents and correlates of completed suicide with the motives and the mechanics reported in Greek mythology. A well-known collection of Greek myths, the Book of fables by Hyginus, was explored to investigate the mechanics driving an individual to imagine, design and carry out a suicide attempt. Females outnumber males in the mythographer's list, their favourite methods to die being drowning, hanging, self-burning and throwing themselves down from on high. Some kind of familial recurrence of suicide was accounted for, and a large percentage of these suicides was connected to incest. Shame, sense of guilt and grief for the death of a loved one are the most frequently reported psychological correlates of the act, whereas defeat, failure or a catastrophic change in living conditions and, among females, an unfortunate love affair figure as the main antecedents of suicide. Negative life events and emotional reactions to the severing of social ties frequently occur as antecedents of suicide in Greek mythology. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2005.

  8. [Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.

  9. The Unequal Burden of Suicide among Minnesotans: Three Strategies for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nate; Roesler, Jon; Heinen, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Minnesota's suicide rate has been increasing for more than 10 years. This article describes the demographic groups at highest risk for suicide and suicide attempts in the state. It also highlights prevention strategies outlined in the Minnesota State Suicide Prevention Plan 2015-2020.

  10. A Systematic Assessment of Smartphone Tools for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mark Erik; Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death globally, and there has been a rapid growth in the use of new technologies such as mobile health applications (apps) to help identify and support those at risk. However, it is not known whether these apps are evidence-based, or indeed contain potentially harmful content. This review examines the concordance of features in publicly available apps with current scientific evidence of effective suicide prevention strategies. Apps referring to suicide or deliberate self-harm (DSH) were identified on the Android and iOS app stores. Systematic review methodology was employed to screen and review app content. App features were labelled using a coding scheme that reflected the broad range of evidence-based medical and population-based suicide prevention interventions. Best-practice for suicide prevention was based upon a World Health Organization report and supplemented by other reviews of the literature. One hundred and twenty-three apps referring to suicide were identified and downloaded for full review, 49 of which were found to contain at least one interactive suicide prevention feature. Most apps focused on obtaining support from friends and family (n = 27) and safety planning (n = 14). Of the different suicide prevention strategies contained within the apps, the strongest evidence in the literature was found for facilitating access to crisis support (n = 13). All reviewed apps contained at least one strategy that was broadly consistent with the evidence base or best-practice guidelines. Apps tended to focus on a single suicide prevention strategy (mean = 1.1), although safety plan apps provided the opportunity to provide a greater number of techniques (mean = 3.9). Potentially harmful content, such as listing lethal access to means or encouraging risky behaviour in a crisis, was also identified. Many suicide prevention apps are available, some of which provide elements of best practice, but none that provide comprehensive evidence

  11. A Systematic Assessment of Smartphone Tools for Suicide Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Erik Larsen

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death globally, and there has been a rapid growth in the use of new technologies such as mobile health applications (apps to help identify and support those at risk. However, it is not known whether these apps are evidence-based, or indeed contain potentially harmful content. This review examines the concordance of features in publicly available apps with current scientific evidence of effective suicide prevention strategies.Apps referring to suicide or deliberate self-harm (DSH were identified on the Android and iOS app stores. Systematic review methodology was employed to screen and review app content. App features were labelled using a coding scheme that reflected the broad range of evidence-based medical and population-based suicide prevention interventions. Best-practice for suicide prevention was based upon a World Health Organization report and supplemented by other reviews of the literature.One hundred and twenty-three apps referring to suicide were identified and downloaded for full review, 49 of which were found to contain at least one interactive suicide prevention feature. Most apps focused on obtaining support from friends and family (n = 27 and safety planning (n = 14. Of the different suicide prevention strategies contained within the apps, the strongest evidence in the literature was found for facilitating access to crisis support (n = 13. All reviewed apps contained at least one strategy that was broadly consistent with the evidence base or best-practice guidelines. Apps tended to focus on a single suicide prevention strategy (mean = 1.1, although safety plan apps provided the opportunity to provide a greater number of techniques (mean = 3.9. Potentially harmful content, such as listing lethal access to means or encouraging risky behaviour in a crisis, was also identified.Many suicide prevention apps are available, some of which provide elements of best practice, but none that provide comprehensive

  12. Suicide prevention strategies in Japan: a 15-year review (1998-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Kodaka, Manami; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kawano, Kenji; Katsumata, Yotaro; Fujimori, Maiko; Hisanaga, Ayaka; Takahashi, Yoshitomo

    2015-02-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem and solutions to it can be found only through a global dialog. The suicide rate in Japan has been alarming, but Japan has made substantial efforts to reduce this rate, making prevention a high priority. This report reviews the developmental stages of a comprehensive policy of suicide prevention in Japan from 1998 to 2013. Our review suggests that suicide prevention activities were facilitated by the 2006 Basic Act for Suicide Prevention and the 2007 General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy. Along with the establishment of a Special Fund program for local governments, the Basic Act and General Principles led to the development of a comprehensive and multi-sector approach to suicide prevention. Suicide rates in Japan, especially among middle-aged men, decreased consistently after 2009, suggesting that the initiatives were effective. Continuous monitoring is needed to evaluate Japan's suicide prevention policy.

  13. Exposure to a Mnemonic Interferes with Recall of Suicide Warning Signs in a Community-Based Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J.; Steiner-Pappalardo, Nicole; Rudd, M. David

    2009-01-01

    The incremental impact of adding a mnemonic to remember suicide warning signs to the Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) community awareness briefing was investigated with a sample of young, junior-enlisted airmen. Participants in the standard briefing significantly increased their ability to list suicide warning signs and improved…

  14. Why Do We Report Suicides and How Can We Facilitate Suicide Prevention Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824

  15. Impact of the Garrett Lee Smith youth suicide prevention program on suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Christine; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; Reid, Hailey; Goldston, David B; McKeon, Richard

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether a reduction in youth suicide mortality occurred between 2007 and 2010 that could reasonably be attributed to Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) program efforts. We compared youth mortality rates across time between counties that implemented GLS-funded gatekeeper training sessions (the most frequently implemented suicide prevention strategy among grantees) and a set of matched counties in which no GLS-funded training occurred. A rich set of background characteristics, including preintervention mortality rates, was accounted for with a combination of propensity score-based techniques. We also analyzed closely related outcomes that we did not expect to be affected by GLS as control outcomes. Counties implementing GLS training had significantly lower suicide rates among the population aged 10 to 24 years the year after GLS training than similar counties that did not implement GLS training (1.33 fewer deaths per 100 000; P = .02). Simultaneously, we found no significant difference in terms of adult suicide mortality rates or nonsuicide youth mortality the year after the implementation. These results support the existence of an important reduction in youth suicide rates resulting from the implementation of GLS suicide prevention programming.

  16. [Can we consider the journalist an actor in suicide prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notredame, C-E; Pauwels, N; Vaiva, G; Danel, T; Walter, M

    2016-10-01

    After more than 50 years of dedicated research, media coverage of suicide is now well known to have a significant influence on the suicide epidemiology. This influence is supposed to result from two opposite effects. The Werther effect (WE) refers to the robust increase of suicide rates following the publication of a suicide story. This specific kind of mass cluster implies a suggestion process, i.e. imitation of the depicted death by vulnerable persons. In contract, the preventive potential of medias has been labeled the "Papageno effect" (PE). Although more recently discovered and far less known, PE predicts that journalists can help prevent suicidal behaviors beyond a simple WE reduction. Because PE and WE directly bridge journalistic productions to suicidal events, several national and international health organisms (including the World Health Organization) started to see the media as new prevention opportunities. In this paper, we intend to assess the extent to which journalists can be considered as public health actors in the specific field of suicide prevention. Based on a critical review of the so-called Media effect studies, we explore the opportunities, limits and constraints of collaborating with media professionals for public health actions. For that purpose, we focus on the main strategy employed so far, namely providing recommendations for more cautious coverage of suicide. An overview of the efficacy of these recommendations serves not only as a starting point for understanding how public health and journalistic perspectives can confront, but also how they can be combined in a fertile way. Numerous suicide prevention organisms developed strategies in order to assist journalists in reporting suicide stories in a safer way. As a formal support to these strategies, around 30 national or international guides have been produced around the word, with the shared aim of reducing WE and, eventually, promoting PE. The recommendations about articles' style

  17. Pharmacological prevention of suicide in patients with major mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltan; Gonda, Xenia

    2013-12-01

    The risk of self-destructive behavior in mood disorders is an inherent phenomenon and suicidal behavior in patients with unipolar or bipolar major mood disorders strongly relates to the presence and severity of depressive episodes. Consequently, early recognition, and successful acute and long-term treatment of depressive disorders is essential for suicide prevention in such patients. Large-scale, retrospective and prospective naturalistic long-term clinical studies, including severely ill, frequently suicidal depressives show that appropriate pharmacotherapy markedly reduces suicide morbidity and mortality even in this high-risk population. Supplementary psycho-social interventions further improve the effect. The slightly elevated (but in absolute sense quite low) risk of suicidal behavior among patients taking antidepressants compared to those taking placebo in randomized controlled antidepressant trials on unipolar major depression might be the consequence of the depression-worsening potential of antidepressant monotherapy in subthreshold and mixed bipolar depressed patients included in these trials and falsely diagnosed as suffering from unipolar major depression. Concurrent depression-focused psychotherapies increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and this way contribute to suicide prevention for patients with mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Discontinuation of depression treatment from the perspective of suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that discontinuation of treatment for depression may increase the risk of suicide. A population-based register study in Denmark did not find a lower risk among people over age 50 who followed treatment in comparison with those who discontinued treatment with antidepressants at an early stage. This result, however, does not allow us to think superficially that early discontinuation of treatment does not increase the risk of suicide. It is because the study has limitations without information of such as psychiatric diagnoses, severity of the depressed state, and reasons of discontinuation. It is safe for clinicians to aim at preventing discontinuation of treatment. Particularly, in Japan and South Korea where there is a sociocultural climate of tolerability for suicide, suicide can occur in milder depressed state and discontinuation of treatment should be taken more seriously than in Western countries.

  19. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  20. Evaluating nurses' knowledge, attitude and competency after an education programme on suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sally Wai-chi; Chien, Wai-tong; Tso, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an education programme on suicide prevention for nurses working in general hospitals. A mixed method design that included a single group pretest-posttest analysis and focus group interviews was used. A convenient sample of 54 registered nurses was recruited from the medical and surgical units of two regional general hospitals. An 18-hour education programme on suicide prevention based on reflective learning principles was provided to the participants. The outcome measures used included participants' attitudes towards, knowledge of, competence in and stress levels arising from suicide prevention and management. Eighteen participants joined the focus group interviews. There were statistically significant positive changes in the pre- and post-test measures of participants' attitudes and competence levels. Qualitative data showed that participants had applied the new knowledge they acquired in clinical practice. They perceived themselves as being more aware of the problem of suicide and more competent in managing suicide risk. Participants highlighted certain barriers that exist to providing optimal care, including inadequate manpower, lack of support from senior staff and a lack of guidelines. Ongoing education may be necessary to expedite changes. The education programme provided can be delivered to other health care professional groups and the results further evaluated.

  1. Guidelines on suicide prevention measures for South Korea and Japan based on recent suicide trends: the need to utilize this approach to devise future suicide prevention measures for the rest of asia and the rest of the world

    OpenAIRE

    INOUE K.; CHAIZHUNUSOVA N.; HOSHI M.; NOSO Y.; TAKEICHI N.; OSPANOVA N.; MOLDAGALIEV T.; SARSEMBINA ZH.; KALIEVA A.; JAMEDINOVA U.; CHEGEDEKOVA SH.; SHARAPIYEVA A.; BITEBAYEVA D.; RAKHYPBEKOV T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Devising and implementing effective suicide prevention measures is an urgent matter for countries around the world. South Korea and Japan have some of the world’s highest suicide rates, so the current study examined more effective suicide prevention measures for those countries with a focus on recent suicide rates by age group. Materials and Methods: This study examined the suicide rate for each sex by age group in South Korea and Japan in 2009 and 2012, and this study then calc...

  2. Effects of Educating Local Government Officers and Healthcare and Welfare Professionals in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirayasu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.

  3. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  4. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk...

  5. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk... families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In addition, the surveys...

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  7. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  8. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Parra-Vidales, Esther; de Leo, Diego; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Methods Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Results Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ

  9. Myths and Facts about Suicide from Individuals Involved in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtz, David R.; Cerel, Julie; Rodgers, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Myth-busting, in which a so-called myth is presented and dispelled by facts, is used in suicide prevention gatekeeper trainings such as QPR. Evidence from other areas of public health shows this technique leads to memory for myths and not facts. An internet survey was used to determine if the "myths" and "facts" presented in QPR are endorsed as…

  10. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the...

  11. Hope and Resilience - Suicide Prevention in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    Konference rapport fra seminaret "Hope and Resilience in Suicide Prevention", der blev afholdt i Nuuk, november 2009. Rapporten beskriver baggrunden for seminaret og indeholder referater af oplæg fra seminaret givet af forskere, praktikere og unge. Et væsentligt indhold i rapporten er desuden...

  12. Peer Involvement in Campus-Based Suicide Prevention: Key Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Snyder, Melanie G.; Wiggins, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Students on a college campus are involved in each other's lives in ways that are pervasive and consequential, including during times of distress. A comprehensive campus based suicide prevention plan includes strategies to promote peer involvement that are both safe and effective. Careful program planning, careful training and careful messaging are…

  13. Relationship of optimism and suicidal ideation in three groups of patients at varying levels of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Boehm, Julia K; Beach, Scott R; Beale, Eleanor E; DuBois, Christina M; Healy, Brian C

    2016-06-01

    Optimism has been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, but there have been few studies in patients at high suicide risk. We analyzed data from three study populations (total N = 319) with elevated risk of suicide: (1) patients with a recent acute cardiovascular event, (2) patients hospitalized for heart disease who had depression or an anxiety disorder, and (3) patients psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation or following a suicide attempt. For each study we analyzed the association between optimism (measured by the Life-Orientation Test-Revised) and suicidal ideation, and then completed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis of the findings to synthesize this data. The meta-analysis of the three studies showed that higher levels of self-reported optimism were associated with a lower likelihood of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = .89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .85-.95, z = 3.94, p optimism (OR = .84, 95% CI = .76-.92, z = 3.57, p optimism may be associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms, for a wide range of patients with clinical conditions that place them at elevated risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  15. The Opinions of GP's Patients About Suicide, Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: An Italian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Vicentini, Silvia; Siviero, Francesca; Grossi, Antonello; Toniolo, Emanuele; Baldo, Vincenzo; De Leo, Diego

    2015-08-01

    A survey about opinions on end-of-life issues of a population represented by 1,171 people in the waiting room of general practitioners' surgeries was conducted in a province of northern Italy. Most subjects did not consider suicide as a reasonable option even in cases of a serious and incurable disease. Moreover, subjects did not consider euthanasia as a possible option either; however, they did express an opposite attitude when considering euthanasia in a third-person perspective. People with a personal history of suicidal behavior appear to present as a different population, overall expressing more open attitudes. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  17. Building and Maintaining an Effective Campus-Wide Coalition for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Moffitt, Lauren; McLeod, Mark; Zesiger, Heather; Ammirati, Rachel; Berg, John P.; McIntosh, Belinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing suicide is a commonly shared priority among college administrators, faculty, staff, students, and family members. Coalitions are popular health promotion mechanisms for solving community-wide problems and are valuable in campus-wide suicide prevention efforts. This article provides an example of an effective suicide prevention…

  18. Suicide Prevention in College Students: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodríguez, María Del C; Huertas, Ivonne Bayron

    2013-01-01

    Described by Durkheim (1966) as the crudest expression of the social phenomena, suicide is of interest to clinicians, academics and researchers. Within the academic context, this issue has to be addressed and prevented. We are interested in sharing the process of participative action that led to the creation of a Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) for college students. Based on knowledge that was generated through a collaborative effort among all sectors of the academic community, we developed a prevention campaign that is culturally sensitive to our university's environment. This campaign is directed towards overcoming the stigma of seeking help and is characterized by promoting a sense of wellbeing in a holistic manner, paying attention not only to the individual, but also to elements of their sociocultural environment.

  19. Improving Suicide Prevention in Dutch Regions by Creating Local Suicide Prevention Action Networks (SUPRANET): A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Renske; De Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Mérelle, Saskia; Donker, Gé; Terpstra, Sanne; Derijck, Carla; Franx, Gerdien

    2017-03-28

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as teachers or police officers; (3) targeting high-risk persons in the community; and (4) training and support of professionals in primary care settings. The implementation starts in seven Dutch pilot regions. Each region is designated as a Suicide Prevention Action NETwork (SUPRANET). This paper describes the SUPRANET program components and the evaluation of its feasibility and impact. The findings will be used to facilitate the national implementation of EAAD in The Netherlands and to add new findings to the existing literature on EAAD.

  20. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redvers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Objective: Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. Design: We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Results: Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Conclusion: Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied

  1. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redvers, Jennifer; Bjerregaard, Peter; Eriksen, Heidi; Fanian, Sahar; Healey, Gwen; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Jong, Michael; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Linton, Janice; Pollock, Nathaniel; Silviken, Anne; Stoor, Petter; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied evaluation methods and outcomes. The studies we included consistently

  2. A scoping review of Indigenous suicide prevention in circumpolar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redvers, Jennifer; Bjerregaard, Peter; Eriksen, Heidi; Fanian, Sahar; Healey, Gwen; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Jong, Michael; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Linton, Janice; Pollock, Nathaniel; Silviken, Anne; Stoor, Petter; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Objective Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. Design We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Results Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Conclusion Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied evaluation methods and

  3. Optimizing preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCola, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional approach to preventive maintenance (PM) is based on adherence to manufacturers's requirements and recommended frequencies. When equipment fails, either new procedures are established or the frequency is increased. This leads to an increase in the number of PM activities, overloading not only maintenance resources, but support as well. There is no correlation between more PM and an increase in equipment reliability. More PM may actually induce failures. Reliability-centered maintenance, a new concept in utility maintenance, is based on identifying system/subsystem functions, failures, and dominant failure modes to develop or revise PM tasks. The activities described in this paper are based on actual implementation of this concept on an ongoing project to upgrade the PM program at one of the largest electric utilities in the country. Optimum PM activities are those that, when implemented, will minimize factors that c cause equipment to fail. One technique described illustrates how equipment performance, failure modes, and causes can be related to minimize the occurrence of failures. Operating history and service life of a component are key factors in determining the most effective PM activities, provided that the factors are related to failure modes and causes

  4. Successful model of suicide prevention in the Ukraine military environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod A; Mokhovikov, Alexander N; Stiliha, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of suicidal behavior in the Ukraine military environment and gives an example of the successful prevention approach. The model of prevention is based on (1) education of the responsible officers, (2) training of the representatives of the most vulnerable risk groups, and (3) follow-up procedures based on distribution of pocket books for soldiers, educational booklets, and sets of helpful materials for officers. One of the main conclusions is that the prevention activity must be organized as a continuum of actions, seminars, consultations, and materials distribution.

  5. Advantages and pitfalls of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization report (2014 recommends the introduction of national programs for suicide prevention. However, the research on their effectiveness is scarce. As a result, policy makers do not have sufficient data for their decisions on the appropriate level of investment in suicide prevention. It is of great importance to know whether the introduction of a national prevention program results in a reduction in suicide rates, and if so, in what age groups and over what period of time after the announcement of the program. Sweden introduced the first suicide prevention program in 1995. It was then modified in 2008, and most recently in 2015. Objectives: The aim of this study was to answer the question about the impact of the suicide prevention program in Sweden (2008 on the total suicide rate as well as the age- and gender-specific suicide rates in the subsequent years. Material and methods: The study provides the overview of the suicide prevention program and suicide rates in Sweden in males and females, in the age groups 0–24, 25–44, 45–64 and over 65, 1, 3 and 6 years before and after the introduction of the national program for suicide prevention. The study presents the statistical analysis of changes in average suicide rates following the announcement of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008 with reference to chosen periods. Conclusions: The Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention did not result in the reduction of suicide rates in the year after its introduction, whereas suicide rates decreased in all groups, except for the youth (under 24 years old, in 2009–2011 and 2009–2014.

  6. Factors Influencing Suicidal Tendencies of Patients with Diagnosis of Attempted Suicide in Medical History and Potential Prevention of Relapse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrbová, Kvetoslava; Dóci, Ivan; Hamplová, Lidmila; Dvořák, Vít; Selingerová, Šárka; Růžičková, Veronika; Chmelařová, Šárka

    2017-12-01

    consumption is the highest-risk factor in connection with relapsing suicide. In case of psychiatric patients with attempted suicide in their medical history, all verified preventive and therapeutic procedures that can contribute to prevention of relapses should be used within follow-up professional care. Specific approach of the closest social environment, medical literacy of the population and state safety measures are important. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  7. Prevention of suicidal behaviour among army personnel: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M J; Sharpe, D; Rutter, D; Weaver, T

    2009-09-01

    To examine the context of suicidal behaviour among soldiers in the United Kingdom and identify factors that could reduce the risk of such behaviour. A series of in-depth interviews with service providers involved in treating soldiers following deliberate self harm. Their responses were compared with those of a small sub-sample of soldiers who presented to Army medical services following self harm. We interviewed 21 service providers with a range of experience and professional backgrounds and 10 soldiers. Service providers told us that the rarity of suicide among soldiers together with lower levels of mental illness amongst those who end their lives made suicide prevention in the Army a difficult task. However they highlighted concerns about recruitment and retention of young soldiers, and stated that stigmatisation of mental illness in the Army sometimes prevented those with suicidal ideation seeking help. They also highlighted the role of alcohol use in precipitating self-harm. Soldiers who had self-harmed told us that they struggled to balance the demands of work and family life and described harming themselves impulsively often while intoxicated with alcohol. Soldiers look to sources of support outside the Army, and see commanding officers, rather than healthcare professionals, as helping resolve their problems. Neither service providers nor soldiers mentioned helplines and other 'independent' sources of confidential advice and support which are available to soldiers serving with the British Army. Our findings highlight problems associated with efforts to reduce suicide among soldiers but suggest that these should focus continuing to try to reduce stigmatisation of mental distress and specifically on the role of commanding officers. Greater efforts should also be made to publicise existing sources of help and reduce levels of alcohol misuse.

  8. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  9. Suicide Prevention Guideline Implementation in Specialist Mental Healthcare Institutions in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, Gerdien; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad; Smit, Johannes Hendrikus

    2018-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on average 40% of all suicides concern patients treated by mental healthcare institutions (MHIs). Recent evidence indicates that implemented guideline recommendations significantly reduce the odds for patients to die by suicide. Implementation of the multidisciplinary guideline for diagnosis and treatment of suicidal behaviors is a main objective of the Dutch National Suicide Prevention Strategy. To this end, 24 MHIs that collectively reported 73% of patient suicides in 2015 received an educational outreach intervention offered by the national center of expertise. Aim: To investigate changes in levels of implementation of guideline recommendations; and to assess the degree of variation on suicide prevention policies and practices between MHIs. Methods: Implementation study with a prospective cohort design studying change over time on all domains of a Suicide Prevention Monitor, a guideline-based instrument assessing suicide prevention policies and practices within MHIs. Data were collected in six-month intervals between 2015 and 2017. Results: MHIs improved significantly on four out of ten domains: the development of an organizational suicide prevention policy; monitoring and trend-analysis of suicides numbers; evaluations after suicide; and clinician training. No improvement was measured on the domains pertaining to multi-annual training policies; collaborative care with external partners; recording and evaluation of suicide attempts; routine assessment of suicidality in all patients; safety planning and involving next of kin and carers. Furthermore, marked practice variation between MHIs was found which did not decrease over time. Conclusion: This study shows significant improvement in the implementation of four out of ten guideline-based suicide prevention policies in 24 specialist mental healthcare institutions in The Netherlands. The implementation level of suicide prevention policies and practices still appears to vary significantly

  10. Effects of a suicide prevention programme for hospitalised patients with mental illness in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Jeong Soon

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of a suicide prevention programme on the levels of depression, self-esteem, suicidal ideation and spirituality in patients with mental illness. Instances of suicide have significant correlations with depression, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation and a low level of spirituality in the victims. Therefore, addressing depression, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation as suicide risk factors and increasing levels of spirituality can constitute an effective programme to prevent suicide among patients with mental illness. The study was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised design. The study sample consisted of 45 patients with mental illness who had been admitted to the psychiatric unit in a university hospital in South Korea. The patients were assigned to control and experimental groups of 23 and 22 members, respectively. The suicide prevention programme was conducted with the experimental group over four weeks and included eight sessions (two per week). The control group received only routine treatments in the hospital. The experimental group that participated in the programme had significantly decreased mean scores for depression and suicidal ideation compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the mean scores for self-esteem and spirituality between the groups. The suicide prevention programme might be usefully applied as a nursing intervention for patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards or clinics where the goals are to decrease depression and suicidal ideation. Typical treatments for hospitalised patients with mental illness are not enough to prevent suicide. Intervention for suicide prevention needs to apply an integrated approach. The suicide prevention programme using an integrated approach is more effective in reducing depression and suicidal ideation in patients with mental illness than applying routine treatments in the hospital. © 2013 John Wiley

  11. A Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Canada: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Rhodes, Anne E; Duda, Stephanie; Cheung, Amy H; Manassis, Katharina; Links, Paul; Mushquash, Christopher; Braunberger, Peter; Newton, Amanda S; Kutcher, Stanley; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Santos, Robert G; Manion, Ian G; Mclennan, John D; Bagnell, Alexa; Lipman, Ellen; Rice, Maureen; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We conducted an expedited knowledge synthesis (EKS) to facilitate evidence-informed decision making concerning youth suicide prevention, specifically school-based strategies and nonschool-based interventions designed to prevent repeat attempts. Systematic review of review methods were applied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: systematic review or meta-analysis; prevention in youth 0 to 24 years; peer-reviewed English literature. Review quality was determined with AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews). Nominal group methods quantified consensus on recommendations derived from the findings. No included review addressing school-based prevention (n = 7) reported decreased suicide death rates based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled cohort studies (CCSs), but reduced suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and proxy measures of suicide risk were reported (based on RCTs and CCSs). Included reviews addressing prevention of repeat suicide attempts (n = 14) found the following: emergency department transition programs may reduce suicide deaths, hospitalizations, and treatment nonadherence (based on RCTs and CCSs); training primary care providers in depression treatment may reduce repeated attempts (based on one RCT); antidepressants may increase short-term suicide risk in some patients (based on RCTs and meta-analyses); this increase is offset by overall population-based reductions in suicide associated with antidepressant treatment of youth depression (based on observational studies); and prevention with psychosocial interventions requires further evaluation. No review addressed sex or gender differences systematically, Aboriginal youth as a special population, harm, or cost-effectiveness. Consensus on 6 recommendations ranged from 73% to 100%. Our EKS facilitates decision maker access to what is known about effective youth suicide prevention interventions. A national research-to-practice network that links researchers and decision

  12. Long-Term Outcomes for the Promoting CARE Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Herting, Jerald R.; Snedker, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a long-term look at suicide risk from adolescence to young adulthood for former participants in Promoting CARE, an indicated suicide prevention program. Methods: Five hundred ninety-three suicide-vulnerable high school youth were involved in a long-term follow-up study. Latent class growth models identify patterns of change…

  13. The quality of online suicide prevention in the Netherlands and Flanders in 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, W.; Spijker, B.A.J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internet can provide valuable support for persons with suicidal tendencies. By means of the Google search engine we found and categorised 153 Dutch websites dealing with suicide. The websites relating to suicide prevention (n = 23) were scored for quality against a list of 17 quality

  14. The Influence of Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training on Resident Assistants' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Martin A. Swanbrow; Drum, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the mental health influence on resident assistants associated with their training in suicide prevention and their subsequent role as campus mental health gatekeepers. Despite considerable prior personal experience with their own suicidal thinking as well as with others who have thoughts of suicide, a multiple regression…

  15. Campus Suicide Prevention and Intervention: Putting Best Practice Policy into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cheryl A.; Mandrusiak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Findings from biannual American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment surveys have highlighted the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicides on Canadian university campuses and the need for comprehensive suicide prevention programs. This article explores how one large western Canadian university…

  16. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs): Examples from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftanou, Maria; Cox, Georgina; Nicholas, Angela; Spittal, Matthew J; Machlin, Anna; Robinson, Jo; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Media campaigns have received increased attention as an intervention for combating suicide. Suicide prevention campaigns involving public service announcements (PSAs) have not been well described and have been subject to minimal evaluation. This study aimed to identify suicide prevention PSAs from around the world and analyze and describe their content. We searched the Internet for short, English-language PSAs that had been screened as part of suicide prevention campaigns and identified 35. Most commonly, these PSAs focused on the general population and/or people who might be at risk of suicide, and had a particular emphasis on young people. Almost 60% promoted open discussion about suicide, around 50% indicated that the life of a suicidal person was important, about 40% acknowledged the suffering associated with suicidal thoughts and feelings, about 25% stressed that suicide is preventable, and about 20% focused on the devastating impact of suicide for those left behind. Most PSAs promoted some sort of support for people at risk of suicide, usually a helpline or website. Although these messages appeared appropriate and practical there is a lack of research on the impact that they may have on people with varying degrees of suicide risk. Further work is needed to ensure that they are consistent with theories of behavior change, and that they are having their desired impacts.

  17. A Systematic Review of Suicide Prevention Programs for Military or Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Steven C.; Munjas, Brett; Shekelle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Military personnel and veterans have important suicide risk factors. After a systematic review of the literature on suicide prevention, seven (five in the U.S.) studies of military personnel were identified containing interventions that may reduce the risk of suicide. The effectiveness of the individual components was not assessed, and problems in…

  18. Attempted Suicide among Young Rural Women in the People's Republic of China: Possibilities for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Veronica; Phillips, Michael R.; He, Fengsheng; Ji, Huiyu

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a sample of 147 young women living in rural areas in China who had attempted suicide. The women's suicidal behavior was characterized by high levels of impulsivity and low rates of mental illness, including depression. Detailed suggestions are made about ways to implement suicide prevention strategies within the particular social and…

  19. A ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention: radical change or doing the same things better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Fitzpatrick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health concern. Continued high suicide rates, coupled with emerging international evidence, have led to the development of a ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention, which is now being trialled as part of a proposed Suicide Prevention Framework for NSW (New South Wales, Australia. The Framework replicates successful international approaches. It is organised around nine components, ranging from individual to population-level approaches, to improve coordination and integration of existing services. If implemented fully, the Framework may lead to a significant reduction in suicide. However, to ensure its long-term success, we must attend to underlying structures within the system and their interrelationships. Such an approach will also ensure that policy makers and local suicide prevention action groups, particularly in rural areas, are able to respond to local challenges and incorporate multiple perspectives into their practice, including evidence for the broader social determinants of suicide.

  20. The failure of suicide prevention in primary care: family and GP perspectives - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Gerard; Mallon, Sharon; Rondon-Sulbaran, Janeet; Galway, Karen; Rosato, Michael; Hughes, Lynette

    2017-11-21

    Although Primary care is crucial for suicide prevention, clinicians tend to report completed suicides in their care as non-preventable. We aimed to examine systemic inadequacies in suicide prevention from the perspectives of bereaved family members and GPs. Qualitative study of 72 relatives or close friends bereaved by suicide and 19 General Practitioners who have experienced the suicide of patients. Relatives highlight failures in detecting symptoms and behavioral changes and the inability of GPs to understand the needs of patients and their social contexts. A perceived overreliance on anti-depressant treatment is a major source of criticism by family members. GPs tend to lack confidence in the recognition and management of suicidal patients, and report structural inadequacies in service provision. Mental health and primary care services must find innovative and ethical ways to involve families in the decision-making process for patients at risk of suicide.

  1. Science from evaluation: testing hypotheses about differential effects of three youth-focused suicide prevention trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Del Quest, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    As part of an evaluation component of a youth suicide prevention, a quasi-experimental repeated measures design tested hypotheses about two brief suicide prevention gatekeeper trainings (Question, Persuade, Refer [QPR] and RESPONSE) and one longer suicide intervention skills training (Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training [ASIST]). All three trainings showed large changes in prevention attitudes and self-efficacy, largely maintained at follow-up. ASIST trainees had large increases in asking at-risk youth about suicide at follow-up. Convergent with other research, modeling and role-play in training are crucial to increased prevention behaviors. Practice and research implications are discussed, including social work roles in suicide prevention and research.

  2. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. National strategy for suicide prevention in Japan: impact of a national fund on progress of developing systems for suicide prevention and implementing initiatives among local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives on Preventing Suicide in Children and Adolescents in Schools: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Victoria; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-07-03

    Given the important role teachers play as gatekeepers in school suicide prevention, this study explored teachers' perspectives on what should be done to improve current suicide prevention efforts. The study, in Queensland, Australia, was part of a large-scale survey examining teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience of suicidality. One hundred and fifteen teachers responded to an online survey question regarding their views on the requirements for school suicide prevention. Qualitative analysis identified five themes from teachers' responses: awareness and stigma reduction, support services for students, education and training, bullying and the role of social media. The results of this study provide some profound insights into teachers' perspectives on suicide and highlight the critical need for improved suicide prevention efforts in schools.

  5. Training medical providers in evidence-based approaches to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHay, Tamara; Ross, Sarah; McFaul, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue in the United States and worldwide, and its prevention is a public health imperative. Primary care practices are an important setting for suicide prevention, as primary care providers have more frequent contact with patients at risk for suicide than any other type of health-care provider. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, in partnership with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, has developed a Suicide Prevention Toolkit and an associated training curriculum. These resources support the education of primary care providers in evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating patients at risk for suicide. The application of this curriculum to post-graduate medical training is presented here. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. School- and Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Interventions: Hot Idea, Hot Air, or Sham?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah

    2017-06-01

    Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Coping planning: a patient-centred and strengths-focused approach to suicide prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of premature death and, despite significant investment, the prevalence rate has remained relatively stable for more than a decade. Theoretically, the use of 'safety planning' as a response to suicidality likely maintains suicide as a potential solution for vulnerable people. This paper describes a theoretically-supported paradigm shift from safety planning to 'coping planning' to improve patient outcomes and improve the confidence and competence of clinicians working with people with suicidality. Coping planning is a strategy used to support people with acute distress. Its components of 'caring', 'collaborating' and 'connecting' reinforce existing strengths, promote self-efficacy and link people with more intensive supports, as needed. Coping planning overcomes the limitations of existing approaches. It reframes suicide prevention from managing patients disclosing suicidality to ensuring patients have minimally sufficient temporary support to help them cope. This approach has the potential to promote coping self-efficacy and prevent deterioration that leads to suicide.

  8. Suicide Prevention Strategies in Tennessee Community Colleges: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for college students; annually approximately 1,100 students in institutions of higher education die by suicide. However, most research related to college student suicide was conducted using the sample of 4-year institutions. Community colleges have seldom been included in the sample of suicide research…

  9. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Parra-Vidales, Esther; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ depending on the country. Although all

  10. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  11. [30 years against suicide: a summary of our research on depression and suicide prevention between 1985 and 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Döme, Péter; Gonda, Xénia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we gather and discuss the results of our workgroup on depression and suicide prevention published between 1985 and 2015. We hope that this summary will focus the interest of the scientific community on suicidology and turn the attention of decision-makers on the fact that despite of its marked decrease in the past three decades, the suicide rate in Hungary is still the second highest in the EU. So, based on expert opinion, joint action is needed in order to achieve a further decrease of suicide rate in Hungary.

  12. Collaborative Knowledge-Making in the Everyday Practice of Youth Suicide Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Morris, Jonathan; Hinbest, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The development and implementation of a new school-based suicide prevention education programme in one secondary school in Vancouver, British Columbia, recently provided us with an opportunity to conduct an in-depth, qualitative case study. The purpose of our study was to deepen our understanding of how school-based suicide prevention education…

  13. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  14. Expanding Capacity for Suicide Prevention: The ALIVE @ Purdue Train-the-Trainers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Taub, Deborah J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Miles, Nathan; Werden, Donald; Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among college students. One effective strategy for suicide prevention is gatekeeper training. Gatekeeper training has been described as a prevention strategy that improves detection and referral of at-risk individuals. Purdue recognized that only some of the resident assistants (RAs) were receiving this…

  15. Evaluating Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) Suicide Prevention Training in a College Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Keating, Niki L.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses short-term and long-term learning outcomes of Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) suicide prevention training in a college setting. Two hundred seventy-three participants completed pretest, posttest, and follow-up surveys regarding suicide prevention knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results indicated: (a) increases in suicide…

  16. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: A descriptive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. Aims: To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Method: Two strategies were used. First,

  17. Direct versus indirect psychosocial and behavioural interventions to prevent suicide and suicide attempts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwijk, Esther L; Parekh, Amrita; Oquendo, Maria A; Allen, I Elaine; Franck, Linda S; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-06-01

    Psychosocial and behavioural interventions that address suicidal thoughts and behaviour during treatment (direct interventions) might be more effective in preventing suicide and suicide attempts than indirect interventions that address symptoms associated with suicidal behaviour only (eg, hopelessness, depression, anxiety, quality of life). To test this hypothesis, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychosocial and behavioural interventions aimed at preventing suicide and suicide attempts. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO from inception to Dec 25, 2015, for randomised controlled trials that reported suicides or suicide attempts as an outcome, irrespective of participants' diagnoses or the publication language. We excluded studies with pharmacological or device-based interventions, those that targeted communities or clinicians, primary prevention trials, and trials that reported events of non-suicidal self-injury as suicide attempts. Trials that had no suicides or suicide attempts in both groups were also excluded. Data were extracted by one investigator and independently verified by a second investigator. We used random-effects models of the odds ratio (OR) based on a pooled measure of suicides and the number of individuals who attempted suicide, immediately post-treatment and at longer-term follow-up. Of 2024 unique abstracts screened, 53 articles met eligibility criteria and reported on 44 studies; 31 studies provided post-treatment data with 6658 intervention group participants and 6711 control group participants at baseline, and 29 studies provided follow-up data. The post-treatment difference between direct interventions and indirect interventions did not reach statistical significance at the 0·05 level (OR 0·62 [95% CI 0·45-0·87] vs 0·93 [0·77-1·12], p=0·06) and represented a large effect size (Cohen's d=0·77). At longer-term follow-up, the difference was not significant (OR 0·65 [0·46-0

  18. [Expectation for JSPN's contribution following revision of General Principles for Suicide Prevention Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Japan's national suicide prevention efforts following the 1998 surge in the number of suicide deaths can be divided into three stages: the first stage administrated mainly by the health ministry (1998-2005), the second and transitional stage when it was upgraded to a full governmental issue (2005-2006), and the third and present stage following the promulgation of the Basic Act for Suicide Prevention in 2006. In June 2007, the General Principles for Suicide Prevention Policy (GPSP), a guideline on how the national government should act to promote suicide prevention, was announced, urging local governments to tackle the problem of suicide. The GPSP was set to be revised after around five years from its publication, and, thus, a revised GPSP was published in August of 2012. Based on the five years of challenges, the revised GPSP states that suicide prevention strategies should move on to more practical and community-oriented ones. The National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), through its Center for Suicide Prevention, played a coordinating role in putting forward a proposal for the revision, working with 29 academic societies including the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (JSPN). In February 2013, by further developing the relationships with academic societies, etc., which were forged in the above-mentioned process, NCNP set up the Preparatory Committee for the Evidence-based Suicide Prevention Consortium in order to contribute to suicide prevention strategies from an academic perspective. Meanwhile, in the World Health Organization's 66th World Health Assembly held in May 2013, the Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 was approved. Its core principle is "no health without mental health", and it has the following four objectives: (1) to strengthen effective leadership and governance for mental health; (2) to provide comprehensive, integrated, and responsive mental health and social care services in community-based settings; (3) to

  19. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Apter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  20. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  1. The Economic Cost of Suicide and Non-Fatal Suicide Behavior in the Australian Workforce and the Potential Impact of a Workplace Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M

    2017-03-27

    Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work. The present value of the economic cost of suicide and NFSB is estimated at $6.73 billion. Our analysis suggests the economic benefit of implementing a universal workplace strategy would considerably outweigh the cost of the strategy. For every one dollar invested, the benefits would be in excess of $1.50 ($1.11-$3.07), representing a positive economic investment. All variations of the key parameter hold the positive benefit-cost ratio. Rates of suicide and NFSB are far too high in Australia and elsewhere. More needs to be done to reduce this burden. Although workplace strategies are appropriate for those employed, these interventions must be used within a multifaceted approach that reflects the complex nature of self-harming behavior.

  2. The Economic Cost of Suicide and Non-Fatal Suicide Behavior in the Australian Workforce and the Potential Impact of a Workplace Suicide Prevention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kinchin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work. The present value of the economic cost of suicide and NFSB is estimated at $6.73 billion. Our analysis suggests the economic benefit of implementing a universal workplace strategy would considerably outweigh the cost of the strategy. For every one dollar invested, the benefits would be in excess of $1.50 ($1.11–$3.07, representing a positive economic investment. All variations of the key parameter hold the positive benefit-cost ratio. Rates of suicide and NFSB are far too high in Australia and elsewhere. More needs to be done to reduce this burden. Although workplace strategies are appropriate for those employed, these interventions must be used within a multifaceted approach that reflects the complex nature of self-harming behavior.

  3. Workplace suicide prevention: a systematic review of published and unpublished activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Lamotagne, Anthony D

    2015-03-01

    There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Suicide Prevention: Critical Elements for Managing Suicidal Clients and Counselor Liability Without the Use of a No-Suicide Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeane B.; Bartlett, Mary L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite its entrenchment as a standard of practice, no-suicide contracts fail to achieve their purpose as an effective part of treatment or as an effective method of inoculating counselors against potential lawsuits should a client commit suicide. Critical elements for managing suicidal clients and counselor liability without reliance on the…

  5. Peer-support suicide prevention in a non-metropolitan U.S. community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Ashby, Judy; Hoskins, Olivia D; Greene, Farrah N

    2009-01-01

    Though suicide is a leading cause of death for high school age youth, the overall base rates for suicide deaths are relatively low. Consequently, very few evidence-based suicide prevention programs that address suicide death have emerged. Relative to urban areas, non-metropolitan and rural communities in particular tend to report higher suicide rates that are compounded by poor access to mental health care. In the current study, 63 high school youth participated in the three-day, LifeSavers peer-support suicide prevention training program. The goals of the program are to teach youth to engage in teamwork and listen to others without judgment in addition to recognizing the signs for youth who may be at risk for suicide. The overall aim of LifeSavers is to create a culture whereby primary prevention is active and crisis situations are preempted. Each participant in the current study completed pre-test and posttraining measures of suicide attitudes and knowledge, self-esteem, and also self-acceptance. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge and positive attitudes toward suicide prevention and also self-esteem, but not self-acceptance. Though more work is needed, these preliminary data reveal that youth in rural communities may benefit from programming such as LifeSavers that commit to advancing peer support and peer-gatekeeping efforts.

  6. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  7. Crafting safe and effective suicide prevention media messages: outcomes from a workshop in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea; Krysinska, Karolina; Bryant, Marc; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Suicide and suicide-related behaviours are major public health concerns in Australia and worldwide. One universal intervention that has received an increased focus as a means of preventing suicide is the use of media campaigns. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the kinds of campaign messages that are safe and effective. The current paper aims to expand on this knowledge. The study objectives were to: (1) explore what suicide prevention experts consider to be essential characteristics of effective and safe suicide media campaigns; (2) develop suicide prevention media messages; and (3) explore the impact that these messages might have on different audiences. We conducted a workshop in July 2015 which was attended by 21 experts (professionals with knowledge about suicide prevention and/or media campaigns, and people with a lived experience of suicide). The experts were split into three groups, and each group developed a suicide prevention message for one of the following target audiences: people at risk of suicide; family and peers of people at risk of suicide; and people bereaved by suicide. The three groups generally agreed that these messages had to include two key characteristics: (1) validate or reflect the target group's issues and needs; and (2) promote help-seeking behaviours. They noted, however, that messages that might have a positive impact for one target audience might inadvertently have a negative impact for other target audiences. In particular, they were concerned that messages designed for family and peers about being supportive and looking for warning signs might leave those who had been bereaved by suicide feeling isolated, guilty or traumatised. Workshop participants highlighted that gaps exist in relation to the use of appropriate language, were unsure of how to create destigmatising messages without normalising or sensationalising suicide and commented on the lack of evaluative evidence for the efficacy of media campaigns. Developing

  8. Suicide Prevention Training: Policies for Health Care Professionals Across the United States as of October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Janessa M; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Van Natta, Sara E; Holliday, Carrie

    2018-06-01

    To identify and compare state policies for suicide prevention training among health care professionals across the United States and benchmark state plan updates against national recommendations set by the surgeon general and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention in 2012. We searched state legislation databases to identify policies, which we described and characterized by date of adoption, target audience, and duration and frequency of the training. We used descriptive statistics to summarize state-by-state variation in suicide education policies. In the United States, as of October 9, 2017, 10 (20%) states had passed legislation mandating health care professionals complete suicide prevention training, and 7 (14%) had policies encouraging training. The content and scope of policies varied substantially. Most states (n = 43) had a state suicide prevention plan that had been revised since 2012, but 7 lacked an updated plan. Considerable variation in suicide prevention training for health care professionals exists across the United States. There is a need for consistent polices in suicide prevention training across the nation to better equip health care providers to address the needs of patients who may be at risk for suicide.

  9. SIAM (Suicide intervention assisted by messages): the development of a post-acute crisis text messaging outreach for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Alavi, Zarrin; Vaiva, Guillaume; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique; Vidailhet, Pierre; Gravey, Michel; Guillodo, Elise; Brandt, Sara; Walter, Michel

    2014-11-18

    Suicidal behaviour and deliberate self-harm are common among adults. Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services can reduce reattempt risk. Feasibility trials demonstrated that intervention through text message was also effective in preventing suicide repetition amongst suicide attempters. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of text message intervention versus traditional treatment on reducing the risk of suicide attempt repetition among adults after self-harm. The study will be a 2-year multicentric randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants will be adults discharged after self-harm, from emergency services or after a short hospitalization. Participants will be recruited over a 12-month period. The intervention is comprised of an SMS that will be sent at h48, D7, D15 and monthly. The text message enquires about the patients' well-being and includes information regarding individual sources of help and evidence-based self help strategies. Participants will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. As primary endpoint, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide in each group at 6 months. As secondary endpoints, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide at 13 month, the number of suicide attempts in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 13 month, the number of death by suicide in the intervention and control groups at month 6 and 13. In both groups, suicidal ideations, will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. Medical costs and satisfaction will be assessed at month 13. This paper describes the design and deployment of a trial SIAM; an easily reproducible intervention that aims to reduce suicide risk in adults after self-harm. It utilizes several characteristics of interventions that have shown a significant reduction in the number of suicide reattempts. We

  10. Prevention of suicide among adolescents and young people: reflecting on the experience of Western models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Bovina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze various preventive and proactive suicide programs, which operate in a number of Western countries. We consider various measures implemented under the auspices of the WHO, as well as in the framework of the European Alliance Against Depression. Following J. Henden, wediscuss three types of suicide prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention covers the population as a whole – suicide prevention is to promote the value of health and life. This type of prevention is addressed to a wide audience, including teenagers and young adults groups. Secondary prevention is aimed at those who have attempted to commit suicide, because the presence of attempts is a significant feature that allows to predict next attempts. Tertiary prevention is addressed to suicider’s close circle, it aims at help the suicider’s relatives to survive this event, use the appropriate ways of coping with the tragic situation.

  11. Evaluating the implementation of "managing the risk of suicide: a suicide prevention strategy for the ACT 2009-2014".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Johann; Griffiths, Kathleen; Rickwood, Debra; Carron-Arthur, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, governments have invested significantly in policies and strategies to prevent the tragic loss of life to suicide. However, there has been little focus on evaluating the implementation of such policies. This paper reports on the evaluation of the implementation of "Managing the Risk of Suicide: A Suicide Prevention Strategy for the ACT 2009-2014," the Australian Capital Territory's (ACT) suicide prevention strategy. We sought to answer two questions: (1) Could agencies provide data reporting on their progress in implementing the activities for which they were responsible?; and (2) Could a judgment about implementation progress be made and, if so, to what extent was the activity implemented? Individually tailored electronic surveys were sent to 18 ACT agencies annually over 4 years to measure their progress in implementing activities for which they had responsibility. By year four, full data were provided for 64% of activities, maximal partial data for 9%, and minimal partial data for 27%. Forty-two per cent of activities were fully implemented, 20% were partially implemented, and 38% were not implemented or could not be measured. It is possible to measure implementation of suicide prevention strategies, but appropriate processes and dedicated resources must be in place at the outset.

  12. Why do we report suicides and how can we facilitate suicide prevention efforts? Perspectives of Hong Kong media professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and thoughts about such reporting. To understand Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers' interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion.

  13. The Struggle to Prevent and Evaluate: Application of Population Attributable Risk and Preventive Fraction to Suicide Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysinska, Karolina; Martin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Population attributable risk (PAR) estimates have been used in suicide research to evaluate the impact of psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors, including affective disorders, traumatic life events, and unemployment. A parallel concept of preventive fraction (PF), allowing for estimation of the impact of protective factors and effectiveness…

  14. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  15. Developing a Teen Suicide Prevention Program in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Jane

    2004-01-01

    The problem of adolescent suicide worldwide is discussed. Teen suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds in the United States, and has become an increasing concern for counselors employed in schools. Contributing factors to suicide, such as cultural and socio-demographic factors, dysfunctional family patterns, cognitive…

  16. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  17. The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes: urban and gender disparity in age-specific suicide rates in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, F-W; Liao, S-C; Wu, C-Y; Lee, M-B

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes is an important issue worldwide today. The impact of urbanization and gender is controversial in suicide rates. Hence, this study adjusted on potential risk factors and secular changes for suicide rates in gender and rural/urban areas. Observational study. A Suicide Prevention Center was established by the Executive Yuan in Taiwan in 2005 and tried to carry out suicidal intervention in the community in every city and town. There were two phases, including the first phase of the programme from 2005 to 2008, and the second phase of the programme from 2009 to 2013. The crude suicide rates data from the period of 1991-2013, which recruited nine urban and 14 rural areas in Taiwan, were extracted from the Taiwanese national mortality data file. The suicide rates in two areas of Taiwan (Taipei city and Yilan County) were further used to compare the differences between urban and rural areas. The results show that unemployment increased the suicide rate in men aged 45-64 years and in women older than 65 years of age in Taiwan. High divorce and unemployment rates resulted in increased suicide rates in men in the city, whereas emotional distress was the main cause of suicides in men in rural areas. The main method of suicide was jumping from a high building for both sexes in the city, whereas drowning was the most common method of suicide for men in rural areas. Following the intervention programme, suicide behaviour began to decrease in all urban and rural areas of Taiwan. This study showed the cumulative effect of the intervention programme in decreasing the suicide rate in Taiwan. Moreover, the gender-specific suicidal rate and disparity in suicidal methods in urban and rural areas should be considered in further preventive strategies in Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [The General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy from the perspective of clinical psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    In view of the fact that the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, the Basic Act on Suicide Prevention was implemented in 2006 with the objective of comprehensively promoting suicide prevention measures on a national scale. Based on this Basic Act, in 2007, the Japanese government formulated the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy as a guideline for recommended suicide prevention measures. These General Principles were revised in 2012 in accordance with the initial plan of holding a review after five years. The Basic Act places an emphasis on the various social factors that underlie suicides and takes the perspective that suicide prevention measures are also social measures. The slogan of the revised General Principles is "Toward Realization of a Society in which Nobody is Driven to Commit Suicide". The General Principles list various measures that are able to be used universally. These contents would be sufficient if the objective of the General Principles were "realization of a society that is easy to live in"; however, the absence of information on the effectiveness and order of priority for each measure may limit the specific effectiveness of the measures in relation to the actual prevention of suicide. In addition, considering that nearly 90% of suicide victims are in a state at the time of committing suicide in which a psychiatric disorder would be diagnosed, it would appear from a psychiatric standpoint that measures related to mental health, including expansion of psychiatric services, should be the top priority in suicide prevention measures. However, this is not the case in the General Principles, in either its original or revised form. Revisions to the General Principles related to clinical psychiatry provide more detailed descriptions of measures for individuals who unsuccessfully attempt suicide and identify newly targeted mental disorders other than depression; however, the overall proportion of contents relating to

  19. Religious Activities and Suicide Prevention: A Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Stack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis contributes to the existing literature on religion and suicide in three interrelated ways: (1 providing an analysis of suicide completions whereas most research is based on non-lethal levels of suicidality; (2 assessing the relationship with concrete individual level data on completed suicides instead of aggregated data marked by the ecological fallacy issue; and (3 providing gender specific analyses to determine if the relationship is gendered. METHODS. Data come from the U.S. Public Health Service, National Mortality Followback Survey. They refer to 16,795 deaths including 1385 suicides. Significant others of the deceased were interviewed to measure all variables. The dependent variable is a binary variable where 1 = death by suicide and 0 = all other causes. The central independent variable is an index of religious activities. Controls are included for five categories of confounders (1 psychiatric morbidity; (2 help-seeking behavior; (3 Opportunity factors such as firearms; (4 social integration; and (5 demographics. RESULTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that controlling for 16 predictors of suicide, a one unit increase in religious activities reduced the odds of a suicide death by 17% for males and by 15% for females. The difference in coefficients is not significant (Z = 0.51. Other significant predictors of suicide deaths included suicide ideation (OR = 8.87, males, OR = 11.48, females and firearm availability (OR = 4.21, males, OR = 2.83, females. DISCUSSION. Religious activities were found to lower suicide risk equally for both men and women. Further work is needed to assess pathways, including suicide ideation, between religious activities and lowered suicide risk. This is the first U.S. based study to test for a gendered association between religion and suicide at the individual level of analysis.

  20. The Hospital Management of Fatal Self-Poisoning in Industrialized Countries: An Opportunity for Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Navneet; Turnbull, Pauline; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mackway-Jones, Kevin; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is a prevalent cause of death worldwide. A substantial proportion of individuals who poison themselves come into contact with medical services before they die. Our focus in the current study was the medical management of drug self-poisoning in industrialized countries and its possible contribution to suicide prevention.…

  1. The Impact of Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention on University Resident Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Miles, Nathan; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Prieto-Welch, Susan L.; Werden, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Resident assistants (RAs) can serve as important suicide prevention gatekeepers. The purpose of the study was to determine if training improved RAs' crisis communications skills and suicide-related knowledge and to determine if the knowledge elements predicted crisis communications skills. New RAs showed significant improvement in all areas from…

  2. Preventing Suicide on Campus May Mean Fences and Nets as Well as Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Limiting access to some methods of suicide, a strategy known as means restriction, is gaining support among mental-health researchers. Some suicides can be prevented, the logic goes, if it is more challenging for an impulsive individual to harm himself. But on most campuses, that strategy has not taken hold. Instead, counseling and education tend…

  3. Key considerations for preventing suicide in older adults: consensus opinions of an expert panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    The number of older adults is growing rapidly. This fact, combined with the high rates of suicide in later life, indicates that many more older adults will die by their own hands before rigorous trials can be conducted to fully understand the best approaches to prevent late life suicide....

  4. Suicide Prevention in the Schools: Guidelines for Middle and High School Settings. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, David

    2009-01-01

    In this book, David Capuzzi, a renowned expert on suicide, encourages suicide prevention in schools through the use of a clear and effective crisis management plan designed to identify and serve at-risk youth. His concise, step-by-step framework provides essential information for school counselors, administrators, and faculty on suicide…

  5. Psychologic-Pedagogical Conditions for Prevention of Suicidal Tendencies among Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abil, Yerkin A.; Kim, Natalia P.; Baymuhambetova, Botagoz Sh.; Mamiyev, Nurlan B.; Li, Yelena D.; Shumeyko, Tatyana S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of research: to develop complex of psychology-pedagogical conditions, directed on prevention of suicidal tendencies among teenagers. On analysis basis of scientific literature authors disclose main causes of suicidal behavior in adolescence. To confirm science veracity of advanced theoretic assumptions, describes experiment, conducted on basis…

  6. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  7. Key considerations for preventing suicide in older adults: consensus opinions of an expert panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of older adults is growing rapidly. This fact, combined with the high rates of suicide in later life, indicates that many more older adults will die by their own hands before rigorous trials can be conducted to fully understand the best approaches to prevent late life suicide....... AIMS: To disseminate key considerations for interventions addressing senior suicidal behavior. METHODS: An international expert panel has reviewed and discussed key considerations for interventions against suicide in older adults based on existing evidence, where available, and expert opinion. RESULTS...

  8. Does a Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Program Work in a School Setting? Evaluating Training Outcome and Moderators of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody; Abraibesh, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the suicide prevention gatekeeper training program QPR (Question, Persuade, and Refer) among school personnel using a non-equivalent control group design. Substantial gains were demonstrated from pre- to post-test for attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding suicide and suicide prevention. Exploratory…

  9. Characteristics of U.S. Mental Health Facilities That Offer Suicide Prevention Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto-Crawford, S Janet; Smith, Kelley E; McKeon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized mental health facilities that offer suicide prevention services or outcome follow-up after discharge. The study analyzed data from 8,459 U.S. mental health facilities that participated in the 2010 National Mental Health Services Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare facilities that offered neither of the prevention services with those that offered both or either service. About one-fifth of mental health facilities reported offering neither suicide prevention services nor outcome follow-up. Approximately one-third offered both, 25% offered suicide prevention services only, and 21% offered only outcome follow-up after discharge. Facilities that offered neither service were less likely than facilities that offered either to offer comprehensive support services or special programs for veterans; to offer substance abuse services; and to be accredited, licensed, or certified. Further examination of facilitators and barriers in implementing suicide prevention services in mental health facilities is warranted.

  10. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  12. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  13. A descriptive study of baccalaureate nursing students' responses to suicide prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rail-suicide prevention: Systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Emma; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Rail-related suicide is a relatively rare but extremely lethal method of suicide that can have far-reaching consequences. The aim of the systematic literature review was to analyze the existing literature on the effectiveness of rail-suicide prevention activities. Databases used were Scopus, Medline, and ProQuest. The search terms used were "suicid*," "prevent*," "rail*," or "train." English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1 January 1990 and 30 April 2015 that presented an overview of rail-related suicide prevention activities and included an analysis of effectiveness were used. We retrieved 1,229 results in the original search with nine papers presenting empirical evidence. Three studies in the review analyzed the effectiveness of platform screen doors and another three analyzed the installation of blue lights, two papers analyzed the effectiveness of suicide pits, and one included the influence of media reporting guidelines. Platform screen doors, suicide pits, blue lights, and improved media guidelines all have the potential to reduce rail-related suicide events and deaths. The review was restricted to English-language peer-reviewed papers published within the chosen time period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. [Media coverage of suicide: From the epidemiological observations to prevention avenues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notredame, Charles-Édouard; Pauwels, Nathalie; Walter, Michel; Danel, Thierry; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Media coverage of suicide can result in increased morbi-mortality suicidal rates, due to an imitation process in those who are particularly vulnerable. This phenomenon is known as "Werther effect". Werther effect's magnitude depends on several qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the media coverage, in a dose-effect relationship. An extensive (in terms of audience and history repetition) and salient coverage (glorification of suicide, description of the suicidal method, etc.) increases the risk of contagion. Celebrities' suicide is particularly at risk of Werther effect. Media may also have a preventive role with respect to suicide. Indeed, according to "Papageno effect", journalists could, under certain conditions, help preventing suicide when reporting suicide stories. Two main theories in the field of social psychology have been proposed to account for Werther and Papageno effects: social learning theory and differential identification. Identification of Werther and Papageno effects uncovers new responsibilities and potentialities for the journalists in terms of public health. Their description provides a basis for promising targeted prevention actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Web-Based and Mobile Suicide Prevention Interventions for Young People: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Yael; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Suicide is a significant public health issue, and is especially concerning in adolescents and young adults, who are over-represented both in attempts and completed suicide. Emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to deliver suicide prevention interventions to these populations. The current systematic review aims to identify online and mobile psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for young people, and evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Method: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for all articles published between January, 2000 and May, 2015. Peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on interventions for young people aged 12–25 years with suicidality as a primary outcome were eligible for inclusion. No exclusions were placed on study design. Results: One study met inclusion criteria, and found significant reductions in the primary outcome of suicidal ideation, as well as depression and hopelessness. Two relevant protocol papers of studies currently underway were also identified. Conclusions: There is a paucity of current evidence for online and mobile interventions for suicide prevention in youth. More high quality empirical evidence is required to determine the effectiveness of these novel approaches to improving suicide outcomes in young people. PMID:27274742

  17. Effects of a training workshop on suicide prevention among emergency room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Kotaro; Akiyama, Keiko; Yamada, Tomoki; Sakamoto, Yumiko; Yanagisawa, Yaeko; Morimura, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Higashioka, Hiroaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Thurber, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Suicide attempts are frequently encountered by emergency department nurses. Such encounters can potentially provide a foundation for secondary suicide prevention. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 7-hr training program for emergency room nursing personnel in Japan. In all, 52 nurses completed the questionnaires before the workshop and 1 month after the workshop. The nurses' understanding of and willingness to care for suicidal patients positively changed. It is feasible to provide a 7-hr, relatively short, workshop on suicidal prevention aimed at emergency medical staff and to improve attitudes during a follow-up of 1 month. It is uncertain whether the positive attitudes of emergency nurses toward suicide and/or educational interventions could impact the outcomes of these interventions. Further studies are needed to address these important questions in this field.

  18. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  19. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  20. Restrictions in means for suicide: an effective tool in preventing suicide: the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    , overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality in Denmark were compared with official information about availability of barbiturates and analgesics and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on availability of household gas with carbon monoxide content...

  1. Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: The Implications of the Dutch Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    A study illustrates how legal sanction promotes a culture that transforms suicide into assisted suicide and encourages choosing death when faced with serious illness. The question of extending legal euthanasia to those not physically ill complicates the issue. Also, doctors may feel they can end a terminally-ill patient's life without consent.…

  2. [An evaluation of a new Dutch suicide prevention tool (KEHR); datadriven evaluation and learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, M H; de Winter, R F P; van der Plas, W; Kerkhof, A J F M

    2016-01-01

    Multidisciplinary evaluation of suicide cases effectively decreases the suicide rate in mental health care. A new suicide prevention tool (KEHR) can be used in this connection. KEHR has been developed on the basis of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on the assessment and treatment of suicidal behaviour. The guideline can serve as a frame of reference for the multidisciplinary evaluation of suicide cases. KEHR aims to provide professionals with a better method for preventing suicide. To describe and evaluate the recently developed KEHR strategy for reducing the number of suicide cases in mental health care. Naturalistic and observational study. In the course of a year 22 out of 23 suicide cases that had occurred in the pilot institution were evaluated with the help of the KEHR system. Outcomes were discussed with members of multidisciplinary teams. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the evaluation process. Professionals from the main disciplines involved were very willing to use the new tool and were prepared to reflect on their views on the outcomes. The professionals were ready to learn from the suicide cases. Data collected with the tool provided information that can be used to improve guideline adherence. However, the use of KEHR did not lead automatically to the formulation of adjustments and improvements relating to suicidal patients. A specific procedure for improving individual and team performance needs to be developed and tested thoroughly. KEHR is a promising strategy for improving and enhancing the guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of suicidal behaviour of patients in mental health care. Special procedures need to be developed and studied in order to implement the improvements deemed necessary as a result of the pilot study. The KEHR tool (in the Dutch language) is accessible to mental health care workers after online registration (www.mijnkehr.nl).

  3. Best Practices for Suicide Prevention Messaging and Evaluating California's "Know the Signs" Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah

    2017-09-01

    Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.

  4. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  5. Professional Issues in School Counseling and Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents and has become a public health concern in the United States. In addition, certain groups of students are more at risk for suicide than others. School counselors have an ethical obligation to protect their students and are in an ideal position to educate students and staff about the risks…

  6. Suicide Prevention: does it work? | Agnihotri | Archives of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk factors of suicide which occur in people of all genders, ages and ethnicities, although complex to fully understand, share certain characteristics that include depression (other mental disorders, psychosis or substance abuse disorder), a prior suicide attempt, family history of a mental disorder or substance abuse, ...

  7. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication......, previous inpatient treatment, self-discharge before evaluation, sociopathy, unemployment, frequent change of address, hostility, and living alone. Several of the predictors are overlapping and most of them were already identified in early studies of factors predictive of repetition of suicide attempt...... or previous psychiatric treatment. In our follow-up study from Bispebjerg Hospital, we found that the risk of suicide during a ten-year follow-up period among patients admitted in 1980 after self-poisoning was 30 times greater than in the general population. We also found increased mortality by all other...

  8. Assisted suicide laws create discriminatory double standard for who gets suicide prevention and who gets suicide assistance: Not Dead Yet responds to Autonomy, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Not Dead Yet is a national disability rights organization formed in 1996 to articulate and organize the disability rights opposition to legalization of assisted suicide. In the first half of 2009, Not Dead Yet and four other national disability organizations joined in an amicus brief filed in Baxter v. State of Montana, an assisted suicide case on appeal to the state Supreme Court. Autonomy, Inc., another disability organization, filed an amicus brief in favor of a constitutional right to assisted suicide. The author reviews the lower court opinion and the key arguments in these amicus briefs from the perspective of Not Dead Yet. The Montana District Court concluded that the privacy and dignity provisions of the Montana Constitution establish a constitutional right to physician assisted suicide for terminally ill people, and that potential abuses of that right could be regulated by state statute. The author addresses the question, "What does disability have to do with it?" The author uses a combination of clinical research, legal analysis and the Oregon Reports on assisted suicide to examine the claim that abuses can be prevented by restricting assisted suicide to competent people who are terminally ill and choose it voluntarily. Autonomy, Inc.'s arguments explicitly depend on the medical profession's ability to reliably predict terminal status, and the capacity of society and the law to implement a double standard of suicide prevention and suicide assistance based on terminal status. Not Dead Yet's central argument is that such a double standard based on health status constitutes unlawful discrimination under the Americans With Disabilities Act. The author highlights data from the Oregon Reports demonstrating that lethal prescriptions were issued to people who were not terminally ill under the law's definition, and examines various problems of implementation and enforcement under the Oregon and Washington assisted suicide statutes. Particular attention is given to

  9. Suicide Prevention in an Emergency Department Population: The ED-SAFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ivan W; Camargo, Carlos A; Arias, Sarah A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Allen, Michael H; Goldstein, Amy B; Manton, Anne P; Espinola, Janice A; Jones, Richard; Hasegawa, Kohei; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of deaths in the United States. Although the emergency department (ED) is an opportune setting for initiating suicide prevention efforts, ED-initiated suicide prevention interventions remain underdeveloped. To determine whether an ED-initiated intervention reduces subsequent suicidal behavior. This multicenter study of 8 EDs in the United States enrolled adults with a recent suicide attempt or ideation and was composed of 3 sequential phases: (1) a treatment as usual (TAU) phase from August 2010 to December 2011, (2) a universal screening (screening) phase from September 2011 to December 2012, and (3) a universal screening plus intervention (intervention) phase from July 2012 to November 2013. Screening consisted of universal suicide risk screening. The intervention phase consisted of universal screening plus an intervention, which included secondary suicide risk screening by the ED physician, discharge resources, and post-ED telephone calls focused on reducing suicide risk. The primary outcome was suicide attempts (nonfatal and fatal) over the 52-week follow-up period. The proportion and total number of attempts were analyzed. A total of 1376 participants were recruited, including 769 females (55.9%) with a median (interquartile range) age of 37 (26-47) years. A total of 288 participants (20.9%) made at least 1 suicide attempt, and there were 548 total suicide attempts among participants. There were no significant differences in risk reduction between the TAU and screening phases (23% vs 22%, respectively). However, compared with the TAU phase, patients in the intervention phase showed a 5% absolute reduction in suicide attempt risk (23% vs 18%), with a relative risk reduction of 20%. Participants in the intervention phase had 30% fewer total suicide attempts than participants in the TAU phase. Negative binomial regression analysis indicated that the participants in the intervention phase had significantly fewer total suicide attempts

  10. The US Air Force suicide prevention program: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kerry L; Pflanz, Steven; Talcott, Gerald W; Campise, Rick L; Lavigne, Jill E; Bajorska, Alina; Tu, Xin; Caine, Eric D

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) in reducing suicide, and we measured the extent to which air force installations implemented the program. We determined the AFSPP's impact on suicide rates in the air force by applying an intervention regression model to data from 1981 through 2008, providing 16 years of data before the program's 1997 launch and 11 years of data after launch. Also, we measured implementation of program components at 2 points in time: during a 2004 increase in suicide rates, and 2 years afterward. Suicide rates in the air force were significantly lower after the AFSPP was launched than before, except during 2004. We also determined that the program was being implemented less rigorously in 2004. The AFSPP effectively prevented suicides in the US Air Force. The long-term effectiveness of this program depends upon extensive implementation and effective monitoring of implementation. Suicides can be reduced through a multilayered, overlapping approach that encompasses key prevention domains and tracks implementation of program activities.

  11. Tensions in perspectives on suicide prevention between men who have attempted suicide and their support networks: Secondary analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Spurrier, Michael; Player, Michael J; Wilhelm, Kay; Whittle, Erin L; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Proudfoot, Judith

    2018-02-01

    Men generally have higher rates of suicide, despite fewer overt indicators of risk. Differences in presentation and response suggest a need to better understand why suicide prevention is less effective for men. To explore the views of at-risk men, friends and family about the tensions inherent in suicide prevention and to consider how prevention may be improved. Secondary analysis of qualitative interview and focus group data, using thematic analysis techniques, alongside bracketing, construction and contextualisation. A total of 35 men who had recently made a suicide attempt participated in interviews, and 47 family and friends of men who had made a suicide attempt took part in focus groups. Participants recounted their experiences with men's suicide attempts and associated interventions, and suggested ways in which suicide prevention may be improved. Five tensions in perspectives emerged between men and their support networks, which complicated effective management of suicide risk: (i) respecting privacy vs monitoring risk, (ii) differentiating normal vs risky behaviour changes, (iii) familiarity vs anonymity in personal information disclosure, (iv) maintaining autonomy vs imposing constraints to limit risk, and (v) perceived need for vs failures of external support services. Tension between the different perspectives increased systemic stress, compounding problems and risk, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of detection of and interventions for men at risk of suicide. Suggested solutions included improving risk communication, reducing reliance on single source supports and increasing intervention flexibility in response to individual needs. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mobile Apps for Suicide Prevention: Review of Virtual Stores and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Isabel; Castillo, Gema; Arambarri, Jon; López-Coronado, Miguel; Franco, Manuel A

    2017-10-10

    The best manner to prevent suicide is to recognize suicidal signs and signals, and know how to respond to them. We aim to study the existing mobile apps for suicide prevention in the literature and the most commonly used virtual stores. Two reviews were carried out. The first was done by searching the most commonly used commercial app stores, which are iTunes and Google Play. The second was a review of mobile health (mHealth) apps in published articles within the last 10 years in the following 7 scientific databases: Science Direct, Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, The Cochrane Library, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar. A total of 124 apps related to suicide were found in the cited virtual stores but only 20 apps were specifically designed for suicide prevention. All apps were free and most were designed for Android. Furthermore, 6 relevant papers were found in the indicated scientific databases; in these studies, some real experiences with physicians, caregivers, and families were described. The importance of these people in suicide prevention was indicated. The number of apps regarding suicide prevention is small, and there was little information available from literature searches, indicating that technology-based suicide prevention remains understudied. Many of the apps provided no interactive features. It is important to verify the accuracy of the results of different apps that are available on iOS and Android. The confidence generated by these apps can benefit end users, either by improving their health monitoring or simply to verify their body condition. ©Isabel de la Torre, Gema Castillo, Jon Arambarri, Miguel López-Coronado, Manuel A Franco. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 10.10.2017.

  13. [Psychophysiology of suicide in prison: a contribution in terms of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Nino; Alliani, Daniela; Ghini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in detention environment is a phenomenon that affects both prisoners and operators, especially prison service. Currently, in terms of suicide prevention, the interest is shifting from an etiology essentially endogenous to exogenous factors, seeing as the criticality of system has its origin in the lack of knowledge of the "detained person". This work neglects statistics and detection models to look at all those behaviors that are part of suicide, although the suicidal act is not genuine. This view allows to identify areas of risk and it is not just for have a look over "the death event". Aware that no definition is enough to shed light on this phenomenon where subjectivity is elusive, we must always bear in mind the behaviors that precede it and exogenous and endogenous factors. To better understand the phenomenon of suicide in prison it is necessary to be aware of the action that a "totalizing institution" has on the individual.

  14. Beneficial and harmful effects of educative suicide prevention websites: randomised controlled trial exploring Papageno v. Werther effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Background Suicide prevention organisations frequently use websites to educate the public, but evaluations of these websites are lacking. Aims To examine the effects of educative websites and the moderating effect of participant vulnerability. Method A total of 161 adults were randomised to either view an educative website on suicide prevention or an unrelated website in a single-blinded randomised controlled trial (trial registration with the American Economic Association's registry: RCT-ID: 000924). The primary outcome was suicidal ideation; secondary outcomes were mood, suicide-prevention-related knowledge and attitudes towards suicide/seeking professional help. Data were collected using questionnaires before ( T 1 ), immediately after exposure ( T 2 ), and 1 week after exposure ( T 3 ) and analysed using linear mixed models. Results No significant intervention effect was identified for the entire intervention group with regard to suicidal ideation, but a significant and sustained increase in suicide-prevention-related knowledge ( T 3 v T 1 P suicidal ideation ( T 3 v T 1 , P suicide prevention websites appeared to increase suicide-prevention-related knowledge, and among vulnerable individuals website exposure may be associated with a reduction of suicidal ideation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  15. Improving suicide prevention in Dutch regions by creating local suicide prevention action networks (SUPRANET): a study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, R.; Beurs, D. de; Mokkenstorm, J.; Mérelle, S.; Donker, G.; Terpstra, S.; Derijck, C.

    2017-01-01

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as

  16. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  17. Prediction and prevention of suicide in patients with unipolar depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis George

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological data suggest that between 59 and 87% of suicide victims suffered from major depression while up to 15% of these patients will eventually commit suicide. Male gender, previous suicide attempt(s, comorbid mental disorders, adverse life-situations, acute psycho-social stressors etc. also constitute robust risk factors. Anxiety and minor depression present with a low to moderate increase in suicide risk but anxiety-depression comorbidity increases this risk dramatically Contrary to the traditional psychoanalytic approach which considers suicide as a retrospective murder or an aggression turned in-wards, more recent studies suggest that the motivations to commit suicide may vary and are often too obscure. Neurobiological data suggest that low brain serotonin activity might play a key role along with the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Social factors include social support networks, religion etc. It is proven that most suicide victims had asked for professional help just before committing suicide, however they were either not diagnosed (particularly males or the treatment they received was inappropriate or inadequate. The conclusion is that promoting suicide prevention requires the improving of training and skills of both psychiatrists and many non-psychiatrists and especially GPs in recognizing and treating depression and anxiety. A shift of focus of attention is required in primary care to detect potentially suicidal patients presenting with psychological problems. The proper use of antidepressants, after a careful diagnostic evaluation, is important and recent studies suggest that successful acute and long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy reduces suicide morbidity and mortality.

  18. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & ... Do Teens Try to Kill Themselves? Depression Substance Abuse Suicide Is Not Always Planned Warning Signs What ...

  19. Use of New Technologies in the Prevention of Suicide in Europe: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Pérez-López, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A

    2017-06-27

    New technologies are an integral component of today's society and can complement existing suicide prevention programs. Here, we analyzed the use of new technologies in the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The aim of this paper was to assess the opinions of professionals in incorporating such resources into the design of a suicide prevention program for the region of Zamora in Spain. This investigation, encompassed within the European project entitled European Regions Enforcing Actions against Suicide (EUREGENAS), includes 11 regions from 8 different countries and attempts to advance the field of suicide prevention in Europe. Using a specifically designed questionnaire, we assessed the opinions of 3 different groups of stakeholders regarding the use, frequency of use, facilitators, content, and format of new technologies for the prevention of suicide. The stakeholders were comprised of policy and public management professionals, professionals working in the area of mental health, and professionals related to the social area and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). A total of 416 participants were recruited in 11 regions from 8 different European countries. The utility of the new technologies was valued positively in all 8 countries, despite these resources being seldom used in those countries. In all the countries, the factors that contributed most to facilitating the use of new technologies were accessibility and free of charge. Regarding the format of new technologies, the most widely preferred formats for use as a tool for the prevention of suicide were websites and email. The availability of information about signs of alarm and risk factors was the most relevant content for the prevention of suicide through the use of new technologies. The presence of a reference mental health professional (MHP) was also considered to be a key aspect. The countries differed in the evaluations given to the different formats suggesting that the cultural

  20. School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura

    2015-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and effects of suicide prevention programs: comparison between workplace and other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Shima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The present study reviews the literature on suicide prevention programs conducted in the workplace and other settings, namely school, the community, medical facilities, jail, and the army, by conducting an electronic literature search of all articles published between 1967 and November 2007. From a total of 256 articles identified, various contents of suicide prevention programs were determined, and in 34 studies, the effect of programs was evaluated. A review of the literature reveals that the common contents of suicide prevention programs in the workplace and other settings are education and training of individuals, development of a support network, cooperation from internal and external resources, as well as education and training of managers and staff. Although the characteristic contents of suicide prevention programs at the workplace aimed at improving personnel management and health care, screening and care for high-risk individuals, as well as improvement of building structures, were not described. Although a reduction in undesirable attitudes and an increase in mental health knowledge and coping skills in the workplace are in agreement with findings in other settings, suicide rate, suicide-associated behavior, and depression, which were assessed in other settings, were not evaluated in the three studies targeting the workplace.

  2. Online and Social Media Suicide Prevention Interventions for Young People: A Focus on Implementation and Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy.

  3. Student Evaluation of the Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program in Midwest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alexandra; Zackula, Rosalee; Klaus, Nicole M.; McGinness, Liz; Carr, Susan; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Yellow Ribbon is a gatekeeper-type suicide prevention program that is widely used in public schools. However, data on its effectiveness are limited. The purpose of our study was to evaluate self-reported changes in knowledge and comfort level communicating about suicide following Yellow Ribbon training for a large, representative sample of students from a public school system in the midwestern United States. Methods The program was administered to students within the same school district during 2006 through 2009. A pre-post survey using a 4-point Likert scale was administered to rate students’ knowledge of risk factors and available resources, comfort level communicating about suicide, estimate of friends at risk for suicide, and behavioral intent toward help-seeking. Results Aggregate responses from 3,257 students, aged 11 to 18 years, were collected by the schools; 51% were female, 33% were Hispanic, and 30% were white. Suicide-related knowledge of risk factors, where to go for help, and resources, along with comfort level in asking for help, all significantly improved following program participation (Cramer’s V = 0.243 to 0.376, P suicide prevention program appears to be beneficial for students in the midwestern United States. We observed significant improvement in knowledge, comfort level, and behavioral intent for help-seeking if suicidal thoughts occur. Findings also suggested that Yellow Ribbon training administered during middle school may be especially helpful for males. PMID:27733952

  4. Suicide prevention through online gatekeeping using search advertising techniques: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime; Ito, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Nurturing gatekeepers is an effective suicide prevention strategy. Internet-based methods to screen those at high risk of suicide have been developed in recent years but have not been used for online gatekeeping. A preliminary study was conducted to examine the feasibility and effects of online gatekeeping. Advertisements to promote e-mail psychological consultation service use among Internet users were placed on web pages identified by searches using suicide-related keywords. We replied to all emails received between July and December 2013 and analyzed their contents. A total of 139 consultation service users were analyzed. The mean age was 23.8 years (SD = 9.7), and female users accounted for 80% of the sample. Suicidal ideation was present in 74.1%, and 12.2% had a history of suicide attempts. After consultation, positive changes in mood were observed in 10.8%, 16.5% showed intentions to seek help from new supporters, and 10.1% of all 139 users actually took help-seeking actions. Online gatekeeping to prevent suicide by placing advertisements on web search pages to promote consultation service use among Internet users with suicidal ideation may be feasible.

  5. [Most important deficits, contradictions and possibilities in suicide prevention in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is not only a contradictory biological, psychological, sociocultural and spiritual phenomenon, but also a serious public health problem, which is manifold, therefore the fight against it is also complex. The aim of the present publication is to establish the current situation of the fight against suicide in Hungary, which are the most important deficits, contradictions and unexploited possibilities. The author states that although we have accomplished important steps in the prevention of suicide, we did not realise the majority of them in everyday practice. The author defines the most important problems and tasks which should be solved in the next decade. In the near future a great deal more should be done for prevention than what we have accomplished so far in order to significantly reduce the number of suicide victims in Hungary.

  6. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton C; Doran, Christopher M; Tsey, Komla

    2013-05-13

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981-2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically and culturally diverse Indigenous

  7. Gender differences in suicide prevention responses: implications for adolescents based on an illustrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-02-23

    There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.

  8. Gender Differences in Suicide Prevention Responses: Implications for Adolescents Based on an Illustrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hamilton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Methods: Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. Results: The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. Conclusions: We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.

  9. Smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring for suicidal patients : Rationale and study protocol of the CASPAR (Continuous Assessment for Suicide Prevention And Research) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuij, Chani; van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Ruwaard, Jeroen; de Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; van Duijn, Erik; de Winter, Remco F.P.; O'Connor, Rory C.; Smit, Jan H.; Riper, Heleen; Kerkhof, Ad

    2018-01-01

    Background: It remains difficult to predict and prevent suicidal behaviour, despite growing understanding of the aetiology of suicidality. Clinical guidelines recommend that health care professionals develop a safety plan in collaboration with their high-risk patients, to lower the imminent risk of

  10. The SOS Suicide Prevention Program: Further Evidence of Efficacy and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Elizabeth A; Aseltine, Robert H; James, Amy

    2016-02-01

    This study replicated and extended previous evaluations of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in a high school population using a more rigorous pre-test post-test randomized control design than used in previous SOS evaluations in high schools (Aseltine and DeMartino 2004; Aseltine et al. 2007). SOS was presented to an ethnically diverse group of ninth grade students in technical high schools in Connecticut. After controlling for the pre-test reports of suicide behaviors, exposure to the SOS program was associated with significantly fewer self-reported suicide attempts in the 3 months following the program. Ninth grade students in the intervention group were approximately 64% less likely to report a suicide attempt in the past 3 months compared with students in the control group. Similarly, exposure to the SOS program resulted in greater knowledge of depression and suicide and more favorable attitudes toward (1) intervening with friends who may be exhibiting signs of suicidal intent and (2) getting help for themselves if they were depressed or suicidal. In addition, high-risk SOS participants, defined as those with a lifetime history of suicide attempt, were significantly less likely to report planning a suicide in the 3 months following the program compared to lower-risk participants. Differential attrition is the most serious limitation of the study; participants in the intervention group who reported a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months at baseline were more likely to be missing at post-test than their counterparts in the control group.

  11. Recent developments in suicide prevention among the Indigenous peoples of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter 'Indigenous') population health issue. Over 2015-2016, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Suicide Prevention Project (ATSISPEP) aimed to identify success factors in Indigenous suicide prevention. For non-Indigenous practitioners working with indigenous clients at risk of suicide, ATSISPEP identified important considerations to make treatment more effective. The start is acknowledging the differences in the historical, cultural, political, social and economic experiences of Indigenous peoples, and their greater exposure to trauma, psychological distress and risks to mental health. These mental health difficulties are specific and more prevalent amongst Indigenous peoples and communities due to the ongoing impacts of colonisation in Australia including a range of social determinants impacting on the well-being of Indigenous peoples today. Working effectively with Indigenous clients also includes being able to establish culturally safe work environments, and the ability of non-Indigenous practitioners to work in a culturally competent and trauma-informed manner. There are also considerations regarding time protocols and client follow-up. Further, postvention responses might be required. Supporting selective suicide prevention activity among younger people (and other groups at increased risk) and community-level work is an important complement to working with Indigenous individuals at risk of suicide.

  12. Cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention for male prisoners: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D; Tarrier, N; Dunn, G; Awenat, Y; Shaw, J; Ulph, F; Gooding, P

    2015-12-01

    Prisoners have an exceptional risk of suicide. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for suicidal behaviour has been shown to offer considerable potential, but has yet to be formally evaluated within prisons. This study investigated the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a novel, manualized cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy for suicidal male prisoners. A pilot randomized controlled trial of CBSP in addition to treatment as usual (CBSP; n = 31) compared with treatment as usual (TAU; n = 31) alone was conducted in a male prison in England. The primary outcome was self-injurious behaviour occurring within the past 6 months. Secondary outcomes were dimensions of suicidal ideation, psychiatric symptomatology, personality dysfunction and psychological determinants of suicide, including depression and hopelessness. The trial was prospectively registered (number ISRCTN59909209). Relative to TAU, participants receiving CBSP therapy achieved a significantly greater reduction in suicidal behaviours with a moderate treatment effect [Cohen's d = -0.72, 95% confidence interval -1.71 to 0.09; baseline mean TAU: 1.39 (S.D. = 3.28) v. CBSP: 1.06 (S.D. = 2.10), 6 months mean TAU: 1.48 (S.D. = 3.23) v. CBSP: 0.58 (S.D. = 1.52)]. Significant improvements were achieved on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and personality dysfunction. Improvements on psychological determinants of suicide were non-significant. More than half of the participants in the CBSP group achieved a clinically significant recovery by the end of therapy, compared with a quarter of the TAU group. The delivery and evaluation of CBSP therapy within a prison is feasible. CBSP therapy offers significant promise in the prevention of prison suicide and an adequately powered randomized controlled trial is warranted.

  13. Late-life suicide prevention strategies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kim; Deming, Charlene

    2017-09-08

    Late life suicide prevention differs from suicide prevention for other age groups: first, the number of older adults worldwide is on the rise; second, late-life suicide receives much less attention in all societal spheres, from the media, to federal funding agencies, to healthcare initiatives. Recent findings indicate an association between internalized ageist stereotypes and reduced will to live. Recent research also addresses the role of cognitive control as a contributor to risk and as an intervention target (e.g., through psychotherapies such as problem solving therapy) as well as firearm safety as a promising, though a politicized and challenging strategy to implement. Another strategy that may prove feasible is an approach on upstream prevention strategies in healthcare. One strategy we believe holds great promise is the promotion of high quality geriatric medicine. Geriatricians are trained to work with patients to prioritize the promotion of physical and cognitive functioning (rather than solely absence of disease) and to focus on well-being as a goal. Thus, geriatricians routinely target numerous late-life suicide risk factors-physical illness, functioning, pain, and (dis)satisfaction with life. However, efficacious strategies will not prevent suicide deaths if they are not implemented-addressing ageism as a universal prevention strategy is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile Health Technology Interventions for Suicide Prevention: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Ruth; Francis, Kady; Duggan, Jim; Bogue, John; O'Sullivan, Mary; Chambers, Derek; Young, Karen

    2018-01-26

    Previous research has reported that two of the major barriers to help-seeking for individuals at risk of suicide are stigma and geographical isolation. Mobile technology offers a potential means of delivering evidence-based interventions with greater specificity to the individual, and at the time that it is needed. Despite documented motivation by at-risk individuals to use mobile technology to track mental health and to support psychological interventions, there is a shortfall of outcomes data on the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) technology on suicide-specific outcomes. The objective of this study is to develop a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile technology-based interventions for suicide prevention. The search includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CRESP and relevant sources of gray literature. Studies that have evaluated psychological or nonpsychological interventions delivered via mobile computing and communication technology, and have suicidality as an outcome measure will be included. Two authors will independently extract data and assess the study suitability in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Studies will be included if they measure at least one suicide outcome variable (ie, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, suicidal behavior). Secondary outcomes will be measures of symptoms of depression. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous and reported outcomes are amenable for pooled synthesis, meta-analysis will be performed. A narrative synthesis will be conducted if the data is unsuitable for a meta-analysis. The review is in progress, with findings expected by summer 2018. To date, evaluations of mobile technology-based interventions in suicide prevention have focused on evaluating content as opposed to efficacy. Indeed, previous research has

  15. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  16. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  17. Urban American Indian Community Perspectives on Resources and Challenges for Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  18. Putting program evaluation to work: a framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Thigpen, Sally; Lockman, Jennifer; Mackin, Juliette; Madden, Mary; Perkins, Tamara; Schut, James; Van Regenmorter, Christina; Williams, Lygia; Donovan, John

    2013-06-01

    The economic and human cost of suicidal behavior to individuals, families, communities, and society makes suicide a serious public health concern, both in the US and around the world. As research and evaluation continue to identify strategies that have the potential to reduce or ultimately prevent suicidal behavior, the need for translating these findings into practice grows. The development of actionable knowledge is an emerging process for translating important research and evaluation findings into action to benefit practice settings. In an effort to apply evaluation findings to strengthen suicide prevention practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supported the development of three actionable knowledge products that make key findings and lessons learned from youth suicide prevention program evaluations accessible and useable for action. This paper describes the actionable knowledge framework (adapted from the knowledge transfer literature), the three products that resulted, and recommendations for further research into this emerging method for translating research and evaluation findings and bridging the knowledge-action gap.

  19. Flaming Chalice of Hope: A Case Study of Suicide Prevention in a Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Spencer-Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of spiritual and emotional health is key for the development of a comprehensive public health approach to suicide prevention. Faith communities play a unique and powerful role in shaping this integration. This case study investigated one United States-based, predominantly White Unitarian Universalist faith community’s efforts in the development of promising practices for “upstream, midstream, and downstream” approaches to suicide prevention. Through a series of in-depth interviews with stakeholders (leadership, volunteers, family members with lived experience, response patterns were used to identify key strategies to promote mental health and prevent suicide. These key strategies include developing healthy social connectedness across one’s life, finding ways to make meaning by connecting with something larger than oneself, and cultivating a community that is compassionate and knowledgeable when assisting its members through emotional crises.

  20. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for more than 1% of all deaths; Suicide ... of weakness or will somehow interfere with their career. It‘s important to remember that actual weakness poses ...

  1. Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of youth suicides has increased dramatically among the Inuit in Greenland since the modernization started in the 1950s. Suicides currently peak at age 15-24 Men: 400-500, Women: 100-150 per 100,000 person-years. The methods are drastic: shooting or hanging. An early peak was seen...... in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...... of the modernization process but it is hard to pinpoint causal relationships. It is rather the "modernization package" that should be regarded as risk factors for suicides....

  2. On the Relationship Between Suicide-Prevention and Suicide-Advocacy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret Pabst

    Numerous advocacy groups concerned with "death with dignity" have formed in response to medical advances which extend the process of dying. Natural death legislation and the Living Will are but two examples of suicide advocacy for the terminally ill. These groups are emerging world-wide and range from conservative insistence on passive…

  3. Preliminary effectiveness of surviving the teens(®) suicide prevention and depression awareness program on adolescents' suicidality and self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T

    2011-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on students' suicidality and perceived self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors. High school students in Greater Cincinnati schools were administered a 3-page survey at pretest, immediate posttest, and 3-month follow-up. A total of 1030 students participated in the program, with 919 completing matched pretests and posttests (89.2%) and 416 completing matched pretests and 3-month follow-ups (40.4%). Students were significantly less likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to be currently considering suicide, to have made a suicidal plan or attempted suicide during the past 3 months, and to have stopped performing usual activities due to feeling sad and hopeless. Students' self-efficacy and behavioral intentions toward help-seeking behaviors increased from pretest to posttest and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Students were also more likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to know an adult in school with whom they felt comfortable discussing their problems. Nine in 10 (87.3%) felt the program should be offered to all high school students. The findings of this study lend support for suicide prevention education in schools. The results may be useful to school professionals interested in implementing effective suicide prevention programming to their students. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  4. The suicide prevention effect of lithium: more than 20 years of evidence-a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, U; Severus, E; Bauer, R; Ritter, P; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B; Bauer, M

    2015-12-01

    The management and treatment of patients with suicidal behavior is one of the most challenging tasks for health-care professionals. Patients with affective disorders are at high risk for suicidal behavior, therefore, should be a target for prevention. Numerous international studies of lithium use have documented anti-suicidal effects since the 1970s. Despite the unambiguous evidence of lithium's anti-suicidal effects and recommendations in national and international guidelines for its use in acute and maintenance therapy of affective disorders, the use of lithium is still underrepresented. The following article provides a comprehensive review of studies investigating the anti-suicidal effect of lithium in patients with affective disorders.

  5. Optimism/pessimism and future orientation as predictors of suicidal ideation: Are there ethnic differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elizabeth A; Chang, Edward C

    2016-10-01

    The present study sought to test the generalizability of Chang et al.'s (2013) model, which suggests that optimism/pessimism and future orientation function as additive and interactive predictors of suicidal risk, to specific ethnic minority college student groups (i.e., Asian Americans, African Americans, and Latino Americans). The present study used Chang et al.'s (2013) model to predict suicidal ideation among 81 (34 male and 47 female) Asian-American, 71 (22 male and 49 female) African-American adults, and 83 (34 male and 49 female) Latino-American college students. Our results indicated that this model did not predict suicidal ideation well for Asian-American college students; however, it did work well to predict suicidal ideation for African-American and Latino-American college students. Our findings indicate that optimism/pessimism and future orientation are important positive cognitions involved with suicidal ideation for African-American and Latino-American college students. Further research is needed to better understand the cultural underpinnings of how these positive cognitions work to predict suicide-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Suicidal ideation and behaviour among persons seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa: a lost opportunity for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene

    2017-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) are among the psychiatric sequela of HIV/AIDS. Few studies have however examined the prevalence and correlates of SIB among persons seeking HIV testing. We set out to document the prevalence and correlates of SIB among people seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa (SA). A cross-sectional research design was used to recruit a sample (n = 500) of individuals seeking HIV testing. Self-report measures were used to assess two-week prevalence of SIB as well as life-time prevalence of suicide attempt. A structured clinical interview was used to assess common mental disorders (CMDs). Regression analysis was used to determine if CMD and socio-demographic variables predicted suicidal ideation. The mean age of the sample was 36 years, 51.6% were female and 46.6% were unemployed. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 24.27% while the two-week prevalence of suicide attempt and suicide plans was 2.8%. Suicidal ideation was not associated with age, gender, employment status, family income or household food insecurity. CMDs were significantly associated with suicidal ideation; individuals with depressive disorders were approximately 5.5 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, while those with generalised anxiety disorder, trauma-related disorders and alcohol use disorder were approximately 7, 4.7 and 2.8 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, respectively. Results suggest that persons seeking HIV testing may be a well-delineated group of persons at risk of suicide in this region of SA. Contact with the health care system during HIV testing provides an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention interventions in what appears to be a high risk group.

  7. [Perceived satisfaction and usefulness of suicide prevention information for patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Y; Senra-Rivera, C; Seoane-Pesqueira, G; González-García, A; Álvarez-Ariza, M; de-Las-Heras-Liñero, E; Atienza, G

    2014-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction of persons with suicidal behaviour and their relatives using patient information material included in the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behaviour. The sample was made up of 57 patients with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and 52 relatives. The participants were recruited through a suicide prevention programme (Programa de intervención intensiva en conducta suicida [PII] - Suicidal Behaviour Intensive Intervention Programme) and a family association (Federación de Asociaciones de Familiares y Personas con enfermedad mental de Galicia [FEAFES] - Galician Federation of Associations of Relatives and Persons with mental diseases). An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed to ascertain the degree of perceived satisfaction and usefulness of using the information included in the guidelines. The descriptive data of the sample is presented, along with an exploratory factorial analysis of the questionnaire that yielded two dimensions, i.e., format and usefulness. Patients scored significantly lower than the relatives in two dimensions; nevertheless, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the level of general satisfaction. The socio-demographic variables did not influence the results. Similarly, no differences were observed between patients with and without history of suicidal behaviour. Participants stressed that Primary Care was the setting best suited for dissemination of this type of information. In general, both patients and relatives displayed a high level of satisfaction with the patient information material assessed. Furnishing information of this type to patients with suicidal ideation and/or behaviour could act as a preventive-educational tool. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology & preventive aspects of railway suicides and fatalities related to trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K; Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Singh, Uma Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Suicide and trespass are major contributors to risk on the railway, resulting in around 170-180 fatalities per year in Lucknow region, as well as associated major disruption to the rail network. Lucknow is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. The analysis included train-pedestrian fatalities during 2007-2012. The data for 2007-2012 were collected from the autopsy reports of the university, case sheets from the hospital, the general prosecutor's investigations report and the inquest reports from police. The results show that the majority of victims were males. Half of the suicide victims were 20-39 years old. Accidents happened most frequently in situations when a person was walking on the tracks/in front of train (22.7%) or were crossing the tracks illegally (20.9%). Among all train-pedestrian fatalities, about half of the victims (42.8%) were intoxicated by alcohol. Female suicide victims suffered from mental health problems more frequently (55.8%) than male suicide victims. Overall, there is no reason to believe that train-pedestrian fatalities are unavoidable. By contrast, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents should be based on a systems approach involving effective measures introduces by several organisations such as government, railway organisations, various authorities (such as public health, education, enforcement, urban planning) and communities. Same measures can often be used to prevent both trespassing and suicides, even though their effectiveness may depend on the target group. In addition, there are measures specifically targeted to prevent either trespassing or suicides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention; gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010 are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers.

  10. MATES in Construction: Impact of a Multimodal, Community-Based Program for Suicide Prevention in the Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullestrup, Jorgen; Lequertier, Belinda; Martin, Graham

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale workplace-based suicide prevention and early intervention program was delivered to over 9,000 construction workers on building sites across Queensland. Intervention components included universal General Awareness Training (GAT; general mental health with a focus on suicide prevention); gatekeeper training provided to construction worker volunteer ‘Connectors’; Suicide First Aid (ASIST) training offered to key workers; outreach support provided by trained and supervised MIC staff; state-wide suicide prevention hotline; case management service; and postvention support provided in the event of a suicide. Findings from over 7,000 workers (April 2008 to November 2010) are reported, indicating strong construction industry support, with 67% building sites and employers approached agreeing to participate in MIC. GAT participants demonstrated significantly increased suicide prevention awareness compared with a comparison group. Connector training participants rated MIC as helpful and effective, felt prepared to intervene with a suicidal person, and knew where to seek help for a suicidal individual following the training. Workers engaged positively with the after-hours crisis support phone line and case management. MIC provided postvention support to 10 non-MIC sites and sites engaged with MIC, but not yet MIC-compliant. Current findings support the potential effectiveness and social validity of MIC for preventing suicide in construction workers. PMID:22163201

  11. Developing Social Media-Based Suicide Prevention Messages in Partnership With Young People: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea

    2017-10-04

    Social media is increasingly being used by young people for health-related issues, including communicating about suicide. Due to the concerns about causing distress or inducing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, to date young people neither have been engaged in the development of social media-based suicide prevention interventions nor have interventions focused on educating young people about safe ways to communicate about suicide online. Given the potential that social media holds to deliver messages to vast numbers of people across space and time and the fact that young people often prefer to seek help from their friends and peers, safely educating and engaging young people to develop suicide prevention messages that can be delivered via social media is an obvious next step. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide education to a small number of secondary school students about safe ways to communicate about suicide via social media; (2) engage the same young people in the development of a suite of social media-based suicide prevention multimedia messages; (3) assess the impact of this on participants; and (4) assess the acceptability and safety of the messages developed. This study involved two phases. In phase 1, 20 participants recruited from two schools took part in an 8- to 10-week program during which they were provided with psychoeducation about mental health and suicide, including how to talk safely about suicide online, and they were then supported to design and develop their own media messages. These participants completed an evaluation questionnaire at the conclusion of the program. In phase 2, a larger group of participants (n=69), recruited via an opt-in process, viewed the media messages and completed a short questionnaire about each one. Participants in phase 1 enjoyed the program and reported that they learned new skills, such as how to talk safely about suicide online, and felt more able to provide emotional support to others (16/20, 80%). No

  12. Suicide Prevention: It’s All About Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Emile Durkheim in his book A Study in Sociology, and Thomas Joiner’s book Why People Die By Suicide. In order to frame Durkheim’s and Joiner’s theories...rates within France. For example, Durkheim theorized religious affiliation, not necessarily beliefs, but the very belonging and active participation...collective rules generated through immersion in group life (integration).ൢ 10 According to Durkheim : What constitutes this society is the

  13. Suicidal communication signifies suicidal intent in Chinese completed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue Mei; Jia, Shu Hua

    2012-11-01

    Recognizing suicidal communication from the distressful catharsis in a high-risk group with suicidal tendencies is essential for suicide prevention. This study analyzes whether suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Various types of suicidal communication are defined, and their clinical significance is further explored. A comprehensive analysis of the psychological autopsy data of 200 victims of completed suicide, including their general socio-demographic status, suicidal communication methods, previous suicide attempts, mental disorders, and psychosocial situation. Our results showed that 39.5% of all the subjects were suicidal communicators, 23.0% had previously attempted suicide, and 14.0% left suicide notes; 32.4% of 142 subjects free of physical disease suffered from mental disorders. Suicidal communication included verbal communication, behavioral communication, and suicidal notes. Younger people with a higher level of education were more inclined to communicate their suicidal intent by leaving a suicide note. Suicide notes, but not previous suicide attempts or psychosocial situation, were significantly correlated with suicidal intent. Suicidal communicators showed higher depression scores than non-communicators. Those who suffered from mood disorders with higher levels of both depression and suicidal intent were more likely to expose their intent through behavioral communication. The present study provides strong evidence that suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Current findings help interpret high-risk, self-destructive behavior and consequently provide the theoretical basis for a feasible suicide prevention program.

  14. Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: A Systematic Review Focusing on Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D; Denneson, Lauren M; Low, Allison R; Bauer, Brian W; O'Neil, Maya; Kansagara, Devan; Teo, Alan R

    2017-10-01

    Suicide rates in veteran and military populations in the United States are high. This article reviews studies of the accuracy of methods to identify individuals at increased risk of suicide and the effectiveness and adverse effects of health care interventions relevant to U.S. veteran and military populations in reducing suicide and suicide attempts. Trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews relevant to U.S. veterans and military personnel were identified in searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and Cochrane databases (January 1, 2008, to September 11, 2015), on Web sites, and in reference lists. Investigators extracted and confirmed data and dual-rated risk of bias for included studies. Nineteen studies evaluated accuracy of risk assessment methods, including models using retrospective electronic records data and clinician- or patient-rated instruments. Most methods demonstrated sensitivity ≥80% or area-under-the-curve values ≥.70 in single studies, including two studies based on electronic records of veterans and military personnel, but specificity varied. Suicide rates were reduced in six of eight observational studies of population-level interventions. Only two of ten trials of individual-level psychotherapy reported statistically significant differences between treatment and usual care. Risk assessment methods have been shown to be sensitive predictors of suicide and suicide attempts, but the frequency of false positives limits their clinical utility. Research to refine these methods and examine clinical applications is needed. Studies of suicide prevention interventions are inconclusive; trials of population-level interventions and promising therapies are required to support their clinical use.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment for Suicide Attempt Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hughes, Jennifer L; Babeva, Kalina N; Sugar, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death. New data indicate alarming increases in suicide death rates, yet no treatments with replicated efficacy or effectiveness exist for youths with self-harm presentations, a high-risk group for both fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts. We addressed this gap by evaluating Safe Alternatives for Teens and Youths (SAFETY), a cognitive-behavioral, dialectical behavior therapy-informed family treatment designed to promote safety. Randomized controlled trial for adolescents (12-18 years of age) with recent (past 3 months) suicide attempts or other self-harm. Youth were randomized either to SAFETY or to treatment as usual enhanced by parent education and support accessing community treatment (E-TAU). Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, or end of treatment period, and were followed up through 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was youth-reported incident suicide attempts through the 3-month follow-up. Survival analyses indicated a significantly higher probability of survival without a suicide attempt by the 3-month follow-up point among SAFETY youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 1.00, standard error = 0), compared to E-TAU youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 0.67, standard error = 0.14; z = 2.45, p = .02, number needed to treat = 3) and for the overall survival curves (Wilcoxon χ 2 1  = 5.81, p = .02). Sensitivity analyses using parent report when youth report was unavailable and conservative assumptions regarding missing data yielded similar results for 3-month outcomes. Results support the efficacy of SAFETY for preventing suicide attempts in adolescents presenting with recent self-harm. This is the second randomized trial to demonstrate that treatment including cognitive-behavioral and family components can provide some protection from suicide attempt risk in these high-risk youths. Clinical trial registration information

  16. Program for suicidal prevention, mental disorder treatment, and mental health development for resident doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Jiménez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High demand of care and the academic burden of courses of specialization in medicine affect the mental health of medical residents with events ranging from simple emotional discomfort to development of affective disorders in susceptible individuals. The suicide of physicians has produced programs for their attention in some countries. We present the first mental health clinic for residents of a high specialty hospital in Mexico, focused on the prevention of suicide and depression, treatment of mental disorders and mental health promotion. Unlike the reports of other countries, we get participation of more than 95%, we provide appropriate treatment and follow-up to residents with mental disorder, and there has not been a consummate suicide. We assume that the use of different strategies (scrutiny, adapting models of prevention of suicide as a peer and gatekeeper training, informative sessions of mental health promotion and stigma, interventions targeted at individuals and groups with conflicts has been useful against barriers that do not allow doctors to identify the risk of suicide warning signs, seek help for mental disorder, and seek to improve their mental health.

  17. A Centennial Milestone (1910-2010): 100 Years of Youth Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Anniversaries are appropriate times for reflecting on the past and planning for the future, and in this 100th anniversary year of Sigmund Freud's famous group meeting--a meeting among a large group of prominent mental health professionals that provides a useful marker and arguable "starting point" for contemporary youth suicide prevention efforts,…

  18. Efficacy of Adolescent Suicide Prevention E-Learning Modules for Gatekeepers : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The

  19. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  20. Youth Suicide Prevention: Mental Health and Public Health Perspectives. A Presentation and Training Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This presentation and training aid provides a brief overview and discussion of the nature and scope of youth suicide, what prevention programs try to do, a framework for a public health approach, guides to programs and more. This material can be used for both handouts and as overheads for use with presentations. (GCP)

  1. Google Trends: Ready for real-time suicide prevention or just a Zeta-Jones effect? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Gaman, Alexandru; Brunel, Lore; Haffen, Emmanuel; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2015-08-30

    Two studies have shown that increasing the consultation of the word "suicide" in the Google search engine was associated with a subsequent increase in the prevalence of suicide attempts. The main goal of this article was to explore the trends generated by a key-word search associated with suicide, depression and bipolarity in an attempt to identify general trends (disorders epidemics in the population/"real events" vs newsworthy advertisement/"media event"). Based on previous studies, the frequency of the search words "how to suicide" and "commit suicide" were analyzed for suicide, as well as "depression" (for depressive disorders) and "bipolar disorder". Together, these analyses suggest that the search for the words "how to suicide" or "commit suicide" on the Google search engine may be a good indicator for suicide prevention policies. However, the tool is not developed enough to date to be used as a real time dynamic indicator of suicide epidemics. The frequency of the search for the word "suicide" was associated with those for "depression" but not for "bipolar disorder", but searches for psychiatric conditions seem to be influenced by media events more than by real events in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. I...

  3. Perspectives of rural health and human service practitioners following suicide prevention training programme in Australia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The national suicide prevention strategy for England: the reality of a national strategy for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M; Jenkins, R

    2006-12-01

    Suicide is recognized as a global phenomenon and many countries now have national suicide prevention strategies. International guidance on suicide prevention and accepted epidemiological and treatment-based research underpins healthcare policy relating to suicide reduction. There has been an established comprehensive strategy in England since 2002. However, the rate of suicide continues to be a concern and nurses hold a key role in the implementation of national, regional and local policy into practice. The aim of this paper is to consider the current implications of the national suicide prevention strategy in England for nursing. This discussion paper draws upon both empirical evidence-based literature, governmental guidance and policy-related documentation. The national suicide prevention strategy for England currently continues to have a multifaceted impact on the nursing profession. This ranges from clinical practice issues such as risk assessment through to broader public health responsibilities. If nurses and allied health professionals are to be effective in their role within suicide prevention, they will need to be supported in building awareness of the wider context of the national policy. In particular, this will mean working effectively and collaboratively with the voluntary sector, service users and other non-medical agencies.

  5. Developing a Brief Suicide Prevention Intervention and Mobile Phone Application: a Qualitative Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Beth D; Biernesser, Candice; Wolfe, Kristin L; Foxwell, Aleksandra A; Craddock Lee, Simon J; Rial, Katie V; Patel, Sarita; Cheng, Carol; Goldstein, Tina; McMakin, Dana; Blastos, Beatriz; Douaihy, Antoine; Zelazny, Jamie; Brent, David A

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth and has become a serious public health problem. There has been limited research on strategies to decrease the likelihood of reattempt in adolescents. As phase one of a treatment development study, clinicians, parents and adolescents participated in qualitative interviews in order to gain new perspectives on developing a targeted intervention and a safety plan phone application for suicide prevention. Participants indicated that transition of care, specific treatment targets and safety planning were important parts of treatment. In addition, all participants endorsed the use of a smartphone application for these purposes.

  6. Efficacy of Adolescent Suicide Prevention E-Learning Modules for Gatekeepers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M

    2016-01-29

    Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The transition to a Web-based setting could address obstacles associated with face-to-face gatekeeper training. Although Web-based suicide prevention training targeting adolescents exists, so far no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to investigate their efficacy. This RCT study investigated the efficacy of a Web-based adolescent suicide prevention program entitled Mental Health Online, which aimed to improve the knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers working with adolescents (12-20 years old). The program consisted of 8 short e-learning modules each capturing an important aspect of the process of early recognition, guidance, and referral of suicidal adolescents, alongside additional information on the topic of (adolescent) suicide prevention. A total of 190 gatekeepers (ages 21 to 62 years) participated in this study and were randomized to either the experimental group or waitlist control group. The intervention was not masked. Participants from both groups completed 3 Web-based assessments (pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up). The outcome measures of this study were actual knowledge, and participants' ratings of perceived knowledge and perceived self-confidence using questionnaires developed specifically for this study. The actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and perceived self-confidence of gatekeepers in the experimental group improved significantly compared to those in the waitlist control group at posttest, and the effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up. The overall effect sizes were 0.76, 1.20, and 1.02, respectively, across assessments. The findings of this study indicate that Web-based suicide prevention e-learning modules can be an

  7. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  8. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.

  9. The effectiveness of platform screen doors for the prevention of subway suicides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong Woon; Kang, Sung Jin; Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Subway suicide can significantly impact the general public. Platform Screen Doors (PSDs) are considered to be an effective strategy to prevent suicides at subway stations, but the evidence on their effectiveness is limited. We assessed the effectiveness of installing half- and full-height platform screen doors in reducing subway suicides using Poisson regression analysis. Ten-year monthly panel data for 121 subway stations between 2003 and 2012 in the Seoul metropolitan area were used for the analysis. We found that installing PSDs decreases fatal suicide cases by 89% (95% CI: 57-97%). We also found that the installation of full-height PSDs resulted in the elimination of subway suicides by completely blocking access to the track area; however, half-height PSDs, which do not extend to the ceiling of the platform, were not as effective as full-height ones. Our findings were based on the data from a single subway operator for a limited period of time. Accordingly, we did not consider the possibility that some passengers choose to die at a station run by other operators. Our study did not examine the potential substitution effects of other suicide methods. Installing physical barriers at subway stations can be an effective strategy to reduce the number of subway suicides; however, half-height PSDs are not as effective as full-height ones, even when they are as high as the height of an adult. Thus, these barriers should be made high enough so that nobody can climb over them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Getting into trouble: perspectives on stress and suicide prevention among Pacific Northwest Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle

    2011-07-01

    Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.

  11. Spirituality and Wellbeing in the Context of a Study on Suicide Prevention in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Wagani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between spirituality and wellbeing, including its benefits for physical and mental health, has been recognized in the Eastern cultures for a very long time, although the sharp division between science and religion has caused, for the most part, its neglect inWestern cultures until recently. Nevertheless, limited efforts have been made to explore the impact of spirituality and religion on wellbeing, including the prevention of suicide. We begin with an overview of the literature on religiousness, spirituality, and health and wellbeing. Further, we present a novel study focused on a sample of 160 Indian students from a spiritually oriented university in North India with the aim to understand how spirituality affects their lives and wellbeing and their views about suicide. Our results show that spirituality, generally, has a positive impact on participants’ wellbeing with a potential protective effect against suicidal behavior, although more research on spiritual/religious beliefs as a source of difficulties is warranted.

  12. Does a TV Public Service Advertisement Campaign for Suicide Prevention Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; You, Jung-Won; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Soo; Kwon, Se Won; Park, Jong-Ik

    2017-05-01

    One of the critical measures in suicide prevention is promoting public awareness of crisis hotline numbers so that individuals can more readily seek help in a time of crisis. Although public service advertisements (PSA) may be effective in raising the rates of both awareness and use of a suicide hotline, few investigations have been performed regarding their effectiveness in South Korea, where the suicide rate is the highest among OECD countries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a television PSA campaign. We analyzed a database of crisis phone calls compiled by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare to track changes in call volume to a crisis hotline that was promoted in a TV campaign. We compared daily call counts for three periods of equal length: before, during, and after the campaign. The number of crisis calls during the campaign was about 1.6 times greater than the number before or after the campaign. Relative to the number of suicide-related calls in the previous year, the number of calls during the campaign period surged, displaying a noticeable increase. The findings confirmed that this campaign had a positive impact on call volume to the suicide hotline.

  13. Patterns of intimate partner homicide suicide in later life: Strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Salari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonia SalariDepartment Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intimate partner homicide suicide (IPHS constitutes the most violent domestic abuse outcome, devastating individuals, families, neighborhoods and communities. This research used content analysis to analyze 225 murder suicide events (444 deaths among dyads with at least one member 60 or older. Data were collected from newspaper articles, television news transcripts, police reports and obituaries published between 1999 and 2005. Findings suggest the most dangerous setting was the home and the majority of perpetrators were men. Firearms were most often employed in the violence. Relationship strife was present in some cases, but only slightly higher than the divorce rate for that age group. Illness was cited in just over half of the cases, but 30% of sick elderly couples had only a perpetrator who was ill. Evidence of suicide pacts and mercy killings were very rare and practitioners are encouraged to properly investigate these events. Suicidal men in this age range must be recognized as a potential threat to others, primarily their partner. Homicide was sometimes the primary motive, and the perpetrators in those cases resembled the “intimate terrorist.” Victims in those cases were often terrorized before the murder. Clinicians are educated about the patterns of fatal violence in later life dyads and provided with strategies for prevention.Keywords: murder-suicide, domestic violence, elder abuse, self abuse

  14. An Evaluation of a Unique Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention of College Students: Demonstrating Effective Partnering within Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Lisa A.; Lynch, Joseph F.; Bane, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death. In this study, we evaluated a gatekeeper training suicide prevention program that emphasizes emotional connectivity with students in crisis and incorporates the collaborative efforts between Housing/Residential Programs and the Counseling Center. Participants consisted of graduate…

  15. A review of multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines in suicide prevention: toward an emerging standard in suicide risk assessment and management, training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Hom, Melanie A; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2014-10-01

    The current paper aims to: (1) examine clinical practice guidelines in suicide prevention across fields, organizations, and clinical specialties and (2) inform emerging standards in clinical practice, research, and training. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify clinical practice guidelines and resource documents in suicide prevention and risk management. The authors used PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search, and keywords included: clinical practice guideline, practice guideline, practice parameters, suicide, suicidality, suicidal behaviors, assessment, and management. To assess for commonalities, the authors reviewed guidelines and resource documents across 13 key content categories and assessed whether each document suggested validated assessment measures. The search generated 101 source documents, which included N = 10 clinical practice guidelines and N = 12 additional resource documents (e.g., non-formalized guidelines, tool-kits). All guidelines (100 %) provided detailed recommendations for the use of evidence-based risk factors and protective factors, 80 % provided brief (but not detailed) recommendations for the assessment of suicidal intent, and 70 % recommended risk management strategies. By comparison, only 30 % discussed standardization of risk-level categorizations and other content areas considered central to best practices in suicide prevention (e.g., restricting access to means, ethical considerations, confidentiality/legal issues, training, and postvention practices). Resource documents were largely consistent with these findings. Current guidelines address similar aspects of suicide risk assessment and management, but significant discrepancies exist. A lack of consensus was evident in recommendations across core competencies, which may be improved by increased standardization in practice and training. Additional resources appear useful for supplemental use.

  16. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described.

  17. Suicide in Illinois, 2005-2010: A reflection of patterns and risks by age groups and opportunities for targeted prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLone, Suzanne G; Loharikar, Anagha; Sheehan, Karen; Mason, Maryann

    2016-10-01

    Suicide accounts for two thirds of all deaths from intentional or violence-related injury and is a leading cause of death in the United States. Patterns of suicide have been well described among high-risk groups, but few studies have compared the circumstances related to suicides across all age groups. We sought to understand the epidemiology of suicide cases in Illinois and to characterize the risks and patterns for suicide among different age groups. We used suicide data collected from the Illinois Violent Death Reporting System to assess demographics, method of suicide, circumstances, and mental health status among different age groups. Between 2005 and 2010, 3,016 suicides were reported; 692 (23%) were female, and the median age (n = 3,013) was 45 years (range, 10-98 years). The most common method/weapon types were hanging/strangulation (33%), firearm (32%) and poisoning (21%). Hanging was more common (74%) among young people aged 10 to 19 years, while firearm use was more common among elderly persons age 65 years and older (55%). The percentage of victims within an age group experiencing a crisis within two weeks before committing suicide was highest among 10- to 14-year-olds, while the risk factor of having a family member or friend die in the past 5 years was highest among older victims. The final analysis demonstrated age-related trends in suicide in Illinois, suggesting prevention programs should tailor services by age. Epidemiologic study, level IV.

  18. Root Cause Analyses of Suicides of Mental Health Clients: Identifying Systematic Processes and Service-Level Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; Chicop, David; O'Halloran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict imminent risk of suicide is limited, particularly among mental health clients. Root cause analysis (RCA) can be used by health services to identify service-wide approaches to suicide prevention. To (a) develop a standardized taxonomy for RCAs; (b) to quantitate service-related factors associated with suicides; and (c) to identify service-related suicide prevention strategies. The RCAs of all people who died by suicide within 1 week of contact with the mental health service over 5 years were thematically analyzed using a data collection tool. Data were derived from RCAs of all 64 people who died by suicide between 2008 and 2012. Major themes were categorized as individual, situational, and care-related factors. The most common factor was that clients had recently denied suicidality. Reliance on carers, recent changes in medication, communication problems, and problems in follow-through were also commonly identified. Given the difficulty in predicting suicide in people whose expressions of suicidal ideation change so rapidly, services may consider the use of strategies aimed at improving the individual, stressor, support, and care factors identified in this study.

  19. The Impact of a Suicide Prevention Strategy on Reducing the Economic Cost of Suicide in the New South Wales Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Gullestrup, Jorgen; Swannell, Sarah; Milner, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Little research has been conducted into the cost and prevention of self-harm in the workplace. To quantify the economic cost of self-harm and suicide among New South Wales (NSW) construction industry (CI) workers and to examine the potential economic impact of implementing Mates in Construction (MIC). Direct and indirect costs were estimated. Effectiveness was measured using the relative risk ratio (RRR). In Queensland (QLD), relative suicide risks were estimated for 5-year periods before and after the commencement of MIC. For NSW, the difference between the expected (i.e., using NSW pre-MIC [2008-2012] suicide risk) and counterfactual suicide cases (i.e., applying QLD RRR) provided an estimate of potential suicide cases averted in the post-MIC period (2013-2017). Results were adjusted using the average uptake (i.e., 9.4%) of MIC activities in QLD. Economic savings from averted cases were compared with the cost of implementing MIC. The cost of self-harm and suicide in the NSW CI was AU $527 million in 2010. MIC could potentially avert 0.4 suicides, 1.01 full incapacity cases, and 4.92 short absences, generating annual savings of AU $3.66 million. For every AU $1 invested, the economic return is approximately AU $4.6. MIC represents a positive economic investment in workplace safety.

  20. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  1. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  2. Data Linkage Strategies to Advance Youth Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Kharrazi, Hadi; Wilson, Renee F; Musci, Rashelle J; Susukida, Ryoko; Gharghabi, Fardad; Zhang, Allen; Wissow, Lawrence; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-12-06

    Linking national, state, and community data systems to data from prevention programs could allow for longer-term assessment of outcomes and evaluation of interventions to prevent suicide. To identify and describe data systems that can be linked to data from prevention studies to advance youth suicide prevention research. A systematic review, an environmental scan, and a targeted search were conducted to identify prevention studies and potentially linkable external data systems with suicide outcomes from January 1990 through December 2015. Studies and data systems had to be U.S.-based and include persons aged 25 years or younger. Data systems also had to include data on suicide, suicide attempt, or suicidal ideation. Information about participants, intervention type, suicide outcomes, primary analytic method used for linkage, statistical approach, analyses performed, and characteristics of data systems was abstracted by 2 reviewers. Of 47 studies (described in 59 articles) identified in the systematic review, only 6 were already linked to data systems. A total of 153 unique and potentially linkable data systems were identified, but only 66 were classified as "fairly accessible" and had data dictionaries available. Of the data systems identified, 19% were established primarily for research, 11% for clinical care or operations, 29% for administrative services (such as billing), and 52% for surveillance. About one third (37%) provided national data, 12% provided regional data, 63% provided state data, and 41% provided data below the state level (some provided coverage for >1 geographic unit). Only U.S.-based studies published in English were included. There is untapped potential to evaluate and enhance suicide prevention efforts by linking suicide prevention data with existing data systems. However, sparse availability of data dictionaries and lack of adherence to standard data elements limit this potential. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  3. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  5. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Andrea; Hawton, Keith; Stockton, Sarah; Geddes, John R

    2013-06-27

    To assess whether lithium has a specific preventive effect for suicide and self harm in people with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, web based clinical trial registries, major textbooks, authors of important papers and other experts in the discipline, and websites of pharmaceutical companies that manufacture lithium or the comparator drugs (up to January 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing lithium with placebo or active drugs in long term treatment for mood disorders. Two reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. The main outcomes were the number of people who completed suicide, engaged in deliberate self harm, and died from any cause. 48 randomised controlled trials (6674 participants, 15 comparisons) were included. Lithium was more effective than placebo in reducing the number of suicides (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.66) and deaths from any cause (0.38, 0.15 to 0.95). No clear benefits were observed for lithium compared with placebo in preventing deliberate self harm (0.60, 0.27 to 1.32). In unipolar depression, lithium was associated with a reduced risk of suicide (0.36, 0.13 to 0.98) and also the number of total deaths (0.13, 0.02 to 0.76) compared with placebo. When lithium was compared with each active individual treatment a statistically significant difference was found only with carbamazepine for deliberate self harm. Lithium tended to be generally better than the other active comparators, with small statistical variation between the results. Lithium is an effective treatment for reducing the risk of suicide in people with mood disorders. Lithium may exert its antisuicidal effects by reducing relapse of mood disorder, but additional mechanisms should also be considered because there is some evidence that lithium decreases aggression and possibly impulsivity, which might be another mechanism mediating the

  6. Suicide Prevention Legislation: What School Psychologists Need to Know and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Richard; Poland, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a leading, preventable cause of death in our nation for youth ages 10-24, and rates have increased slowly, but steadily since 2007. The rate of increase recorded between 2014 and 2015 for the youth 15-19 years old was the largest jump in the past decade (from 11.6 to 12.5 per 100,000) and the rate for youth 10-14 years old doubled…

  7. The Army’s Use of Spirituality in the Prevention of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of Religion/Spirituality in the Prevention of Suicide Psychological and Psychiatric Studies Sigmund Freud , a critic of religion, believed religion...might help people with behavioral health issues. In his writings, Freud affirmed, “If only religion can answer the question of the purpose of life one...youth ministry. 47 Sigmund Freud , Civilization and its Discontents (1930) trans. James Strachey, Standard Addition of the Psychological Works of

  8. A Human Systems Integration Analysis of the Army Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the key to the prevention of suicide is positive leadership and deep concern by supervisors of military personnel and civilian employees who are at... Belongingness Respected and Valued Relationship Problems Loving Relationship Unit Cohesion Peer Support Engaged Leadership Sleep Disturbances Quality...and DA civilian employees who are at increased risk of suicide” (U.S. Army, 2010, pg. 2). Figure 34 shows how the synchronization of this

  9. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  10. Associations Between the Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Campaign and Calls to Related Crisis Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Stephens, Brady; Draper, John; Kemp, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Transit Authority Suicide Prevention (TASP) campaign was launched by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in a limited number of U.S. cities to promote the use of crisis lines among veterans of military service. Methods We obtained the daily number of calls to the VCL and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) for six implementation cities (where the campaign was active) and four control cities (where there was no TASP campaign messaging) for a 14-month period. To identify changes in call volume associated with campaign implementation, VCL and NSPL daily call counts for three time periods of equal length (pre-campaign, during campaign, and post-campaign) were modeled using a Poisson log-linear regression with inference based on the generalized estimating equations. Results Statistically significant increases in calls to both the VCL and the NSPL were reported during the TASP campaign in implementation cities, but were not reported in control cities during or following the campaign. Secondary outcome measures were also reported for the VCL and included the percentage of callers who are veterans, and calls resulting in a rescue during the study period. Conclusions Results from this study reveal some promise for suicide prevention messaging to promote the use of telephone crisis services and contribute to an emerging area of research examining the effects of campaigns on help seeking. PMID:25364053

  11. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Koot, Hans M; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2014-01-01

    E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Two strategies were used. First, articles were systematically searched in databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Second, Google search was used to find e-learning modules on the Web. The literature search resulted in 448 papers, of which none met the inclusion criteria of this study. The Google search resulted in 130 hits, of which 23 met the inclusion criteria of this review. Organizations that owned the modules were contacted, of which 13 responded and nine were included in this study. The effectiveness of two e-learning modules is currently being tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), one organization is planning to test the effectiveness of their module, and one organization has compared their face-to-face training with their online training. Furthermore, the included modules have different characteristics. There is a need for RCTs to study the effectiveness of online modules in this area and to understand which characteristics are essential to create effective e-learning modules to educate gatekeepers in suicide prevention.

  12. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  13. The Help-line "Invito alla Vita": a new project for suicide prevention in Trentino region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma; Andreatta, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    "Invito alla Vita" is a community-based suicide prevention project that officially started in Trentino in late 2008. The project was promoted by the local Health Services, trying from the beginning to involve other community subjects, and has been working over five years and a half in different directions, particularly promoting a phone help-line. The aims of the Invito alla Vita (IaV) Help Line have been clear from the beginning: decrease the sense of loneliness, offer encouragement and support, promote engagement with health services, reduce stigma and prejudice. Contrary to popular misconceptions, talking with people about suicide will not increase suicide risk, neither will it induce patients to commit suicide.The volunteers involved in the IaV help-line offer people empathic listening without judgment and easy tips, to reduce loneliness, sadness and supply reassurance that other people care. In this study we tried to deepen our knowledges about the volunteers' motivations and necessities to use them for creating a better system of support: we realized indeed that continuous training and supervision, along with official awards given by community institutions, are basic factors to sustain the volunteers' motives to cooperate with the help line.

  14. The Role of Stigma and Denormalization in Suicide-Prevention Laws in East Asia: A Sociocultural, Historical, and Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin A; Courtwright, Andrew; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    In many Western countries, the criminalization and stigmatization of suicide has given way to a biomedical approach aimed at destigmatizing suicide and treating underlying mental illness. By contrast, in many East Asian countries, suicide has never historically been criminalized or stigmatized. High rates of suicide in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently led policy makers in those countries to pursue innovative suicide-prevention strategies. The intentional denormalization of harmful behaviors has been discussed in the public health and ethics literatures, particularly with regard to smoking cessation, and could represent a novel mechanism for preventing suicides in East Asia. Using examples from the sociocultural, historical, and legal discourses surrounding suicide in Western and East Asian contexts, we suggest that denormalization can be a justified, culturally relevant suicide-prevention strategy, but that care must be taken to avoid shaming or stigmatizing suicidal individuals. Specifically, we propose the term weak denormalization to refer to an ethically permissible strategy at the mildest end of a spectrum of denormalizing approaches-milder than the reintegrative shaming described in the criminal justice literature, and diametrically opposed to outright stigmatization, which is generally considered ethically impermissible. Given the severe stigma of mental illness in East Asia, adopting the dominant Western view of suicide as solely a psychiatric concern would not be justified. Weak denormalization strategies in East Asia should be culturally tailored and rigorously tested on a small scale. They should include social supports, praise for the bravery of those of who seek help, and strategies to reduce shame regarding perceived social failure.

  15. Contribution to optimization of preventive replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legat, V.; Zaludova, A.H.; Cervenka, V.; Jurca, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the optimal interval for preventive maintenance/replacement using either an age-based or diagnostic-based renewal strategy. For the case of a finite-time horizon, for which the computations are complicated, a simple formula is proposed for modifying the commonly used inifinite-time solution so that it gives a good approximation to the exact finite-time solution. Examples demonstrate that the method is sufficiently accurate and simple in practice for typical engineering components with Weibull life distributions and for a reasonable range of the cost factor (ratio of unit corrective to unit preventive maintenance costs). This paper investigates the problem of the accuracy of the results compared to the exact, finite-time solution for a selected matrix of time-to failure Weibull shape parameters and cost factors commonly occurring in technical practice. Applications offer substantial benefits to both manufacturer and user of technical equipment

  16. The World Health Organization (WHO) dataset for guiding suicide prevention policies: A 3-decade French national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Boucekine, Mohamed; Brunel, Lore; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Boyer, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Public health policies aim to prevent suicide in the general population. Assessing their effectiveness is required to further guide public health policies. The present article focuses on the French paradox. The French health care system was classified as the best in the world according the World Health Organization (WHO). However, suicide rates in France remain high compared to other European countries. The aim of the present article was to analyze (i) the evolution of suicide Age-Standardized Death (ASDRs) in France during the last three decades and the associations with socio-economic parameters and (ii) to understand which populations may specifically benefit from further targeted suicide prevention policies. The database of the World Health Organization (WHO), freely available, was explored in April 2015. ASDRs were calculated each year by ratio between the number of deaths by suicide and the total population (per 100,000 inhabitants). Number of deaths by gender and age were also analyzed. Overall, ASDR suicide has decreased since 1987 in France (-32.8% between 1987 and 2010). However, France kept the same rank (10/26) when compared to other European countries between 1987 and 2010. The relative burden of suicide in all-causes mortality increased during the same period (+28.2%) while the total number of deaths by suicide increased only slightly (+3.9%). More specifically, the number of deaths by suicide increased substantially in [35-54] years old (+40%) and 75+ years old (+27%) males, and in [35-54] (+41%) years old females. Between 2000 and 2010, suicide rates significantly decreased when yearly mean income increased, and when general and psychiatric care beds decreased. Although ASDR suicide has decreased in France since 1987, this decline is quite modest when considering its universal access to care, the prevention of depression and suicide public policies. Suicide prevention public policies should focus on evaluation and improvement of prevention and care

  17. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. Methods and Findings A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20

  18. [Study protocol of a prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour program based on case management (PSyMAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Pilar A; Rodríguez-Revuelta, Julia; González-Blanco, Leticia; Burón, Patricia; Al-Halabí, Susana; Garrido, Marlen; García-Alvarez, Leticia; García-Portilla, Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of suicidal behaviour is a public health priority in the European Union. A previous suicide attempt is the best risk predictor for future attempts, as well as completed suicides. The primary aim of this article is to describe a controlled study protocol designed for prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour that proposes case management, and includes a psychoeducation program, as compared with the standard intervention (PSyMAC). Patients admitted from January 2011 to June 2013 to the emergency room of the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias were evaluated using a protocol including sociodemographic, psychiatric, and psychosocial assessment. Patients were randomly assigned to either a group receiving continuous case management including participation in a psychoeducation program (experimental group), or a control group receiving standard care. The primary objective is to examine whether or not the period of time until recurrent suicidal behaviour in the experimental group is significantly different from that of the control group. PSyMAC proposes low cost and easily adaptable interventions to the usual clinical setting that can help to compensate the shortcoming of specific action protocols and suicidal behaviour prevention programs in our country. The evaluation of PSyMAC results will determine their real effectivity as a case-magament program to reduce suicidal risk. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  20. The possibilities of suicide prevention in adolescents. A holistic approach to protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    physical or biological-somatic level which includes physical circumstances, genetics, health, and diseases; (2) at the mental or psychological level, which includes mental health, self-esteem, and ability to deal with difficult circumstances, manage emotions, or cope with stress; (3) at the cultural level or the broader life environment, and this includes social, political, environmental, and economic factors that contribute to available options and quality of life; (4) at the social level, which includes relationships and involvement with others such as family, friends, workmates, the wider community and the person's sense of belonging; (5) at the spiritual level, which includes faith, hope, charity, despair, salvation. Children and adolescents spend a lot of time at school, so teachers must be educated to notice any warning signs of suicide, but the majority of pedagogues not only do not know the most important mental and psychosomatic symptoms, but do not recognize them in children and do not know how to handle them either. Hopelessness is the most important spiritual risk factor. The Beck Hopelessness Scale is a tool for easy application in general practice. The author lists some important symptoms and signs that neither parents nor teachers are able to recognize and handle, and provides useful advice for prevention.

  1. Death by hanging: implications for prevention of an important method of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, R J; Dundas, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with deaths by hanging among young people in Queensland, Australia. An examination of coroner's reports for all deaths by hanging of people under 25 years of age that occurred in Queensland in the years 1995 and 1996. All cases were recorded as suicides. Most were males and a quarter were indigenous persons. Half the deaths occurred in regional or rural areas. Unemployment, the experience of personal loss, psychiatric illness and alcohol use were possible precipitating agents. Early warning signs were the onset of uncharacteristic behaviours and threats of suicide. The private nature of hanging means that there are rarely opportunities to prevent it in the period immediately before the fatal event. Earlier interventions will have to be considered. To prevent hanging as a means of suicide, we need to understand more about the difficulties experienced by some young men who are living in rural areas. We need more information about the cultural problems experienced by indigenous youths in their teenage years. Young people in the justice system may need personal support. There is a pressing need to determine if young people, especially in rural areas, have adequate access to the professional expertise needed to diagnose and treat mental disorders.

  2. Aboriginal youth suicide in Quebec: the contribution of public policy for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Vitenti, Livia; Morin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of youth suicide in some First Nations villages of Northern Quebec is an important public health problem. Based on a six-year field study in three villages belonging to the Atikamekw and Anishinabe groups, this paper proposes changes in three areas of social policy that could contribute to prevention of youth suicide. These three areas are: youth protection, administration of justice, and housing. An argument is made first to adapt the youth protection law of Quebec and to give greater responsibility to communities in individual cases in order to prevent child placement outside the villages. Regarding the administration of justice, we suggest initiatives to encourage rapid prosecution of crimes on reserves and the adoption of an approach based on reconciliation between perpetrator and victim. Finally, we indicate how housing measures could help safeguard children's wellbeing given that overcrowding can contribute to suicide. The discussion also proposes that these three key changes in social policy could be relevant in other Aboriginal communities both within and outside of Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thinking and Doing Prevention: A Critical Analysis of Contemporary Youth Crime and Suicide Prevention Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Stoneman, Lorinda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we have traced some of the dominant cultural narratives shaping current understandings of youth crime and suicide. We have aimed to show some of the ways that our received understandings of what the problem is and what should be done about it are social constructions that privilege a certain kind of scientific explanation. By…

  4. Hybrid Optimization Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search for Preventive Maintenance Period Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All equipment must be maintained during its lifetime to ensure normal operation. Maintenance is one of the critical roles in the success of manufacturing enterprises. This paper proposed a preventive maintenance period optimization model (PMPOM to find an optimal preventive maintenance period. By making use of the advantages of particle swarm optimization (PSO and cuckoo search (CS algorithm, a hybrid optimization algorithm of PSO and CS is proposed to solve the PMPOM problem. The test functions show that the proposed algorithm exhibits more outstanding performance than particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages of strong optimization ability and fast convergence speed to solve the PMPOM problem.

  5. Static metrics of impact for a dynamic problem: The need for smarter tools to guide suicide prevention planning and investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Atkinson, Jo-An; Heffernan, Mark; McDonnell, Geoff; Prodan, Ante; Osgood, Nathaniel; Hickie, Ian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates two approaches to estimate the potential impact of a population-level intervention on Australian suicide, to highlight the importance of selecting appropriate analytic approaches for informing evidence-based strategies for suicide prevention. The potential impact of a psychosocial therapy intervention on the incidence of suicide in Australia over the next 10 years was used as a case study to compare the potential impact on suicides averted using: (1) a traditional epidemiological measure of population attributable risk and (2) a dynamic measure of population impact based on a systems science model of suicide that incorporates changes over time. Based on the population preventive fraction, findings suggest that the psychosocial therapy intervention if implemented among all eligible individuals in the Australian population would prevent 5.4% of suicides (or 1936 suicides) over the next 10 years. In comparison, estimates from the dynamic simulation model which accounts for changes in the effect size of the intervention over time, the time taken for the intervention to have an impact in the population, and likely barriers to the uptake and availability of services suggest that the intervention would avert a lower proportion of suicides (between 0.4% and 0.5%) over the same follow-up period. Traditional epidemiological measures used to estimate population health burden have several limitations that are often understated and can lead to unrealistic expectations of the potential impact of evidence-based interventions in real-world settings. This study highlights these limitations and proposes an alternative analytic approach to guide policy and practice decisions to achieve reductions in Australian suicide.

  6. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra Farah; Hides, Leanne; Kisely, Steve; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Black, Emma; Gill, Neeraj; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree

    2016-10-21

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword "Indigenous" (e.g. "Maori", "First Nations", "Native American", "Inuit", "Metis" and "Aboriginal") were also used. Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  7. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  8. Helping Callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Who Are at Imminent Risk of Suicide: Evaluation of Caller Risk Profiles and Interventions Implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S; Lake, Alison M; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Galfalvy, Hanga; Kleinman, Marjorie; Williams, Caitlin; Glass, Andrew; McKeon, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Crisis lines are settings where identifying individuals at imminent risk of suicidal behavior and intervening to keep them safe are critical activities. We examined clinical characteristics of crisis callers assessed by telephone crisis helpers as being at imminent risk of suicide, and the interventions implemented with these callers. Data were derived from 491 call reports completed by 132 helpers at eight crisis centers in the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. Helpers actively engaged the callers in collaborating to keep themselves safe on 76.4% of calls and sent emergency services without the callers' collaboration on 24.6% of calls. Four different profiles of imminent risk calls emerged. Caller profiles and some helper characteristics were associated with intervention type. Our findings provide a first step toward an empirical formulation of imminent risk warning signs and recommended interventions. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. Ibobbly mobile health intervention for suicide prevention in Australian Indigenous youth: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Joseph; Shand, Fiona; Ridani, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Andrew; De La Mata, Nicole; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-27

    Rates of youth suicide in Australian Indigenous communities are 4 times the national youth average and demand innovative interventions. Historical and persistent disadvantage is coupled with multiple barriers to help seeking. Mobile phone applications offer the opportunity to deliver therapeutic interventions directly to individuals in remote communities. The pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-help mobile app (ibobbly) targeting suicidal ideation, depression, psychological distress and impulsivity among Indigenous youth in remote Australia. Remote and very remote communities in the Kimberley region of North Western Australia. Indigenous Australians aged 18-35 years. 61 participants were recruited and randomised to receive either an app (ibobbly) which delivered acceptance-based therapy over 6 weeks or were waitlisted for 6 weeks and then received the app for the following 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) to identify the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation in the previous weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Although preintervention and postintervention changes on the (DSI-SS) were significant in the ibobbly arm (t=2.40; df=58.1; p=0.0195), these differences were not significant compared with the waitlist arm (t=1.05; df=57.8; p=0.2962). However, participants in the ibobbly group showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 and K10 scores compared with waitlist. No differences were observed in impulsivity. Waitlist participants improved after 6 weeks of app use. Apps for suicide prevention reduce distress and depression but do not show significant reductions on suicide ideation or impulsivity. A feasible and acceptable means of lowering symptoms for mental health disorders in remote communities is via

  10. Optimizing Screening and Risk Assessment for Suicide Risk in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    thoughts of death/ suicide , perceived controllability of suicidal thoughts, and suicidal impulses , all loaded onto a separate factor. These finding... suicidal thoughts as well as plans and impulses for suicidal behavior. For each question, participants are asked to respond using a four-point likert...1222. Bender, T., Gordon, K., Bresin, K., & Joiner, T. (2011). Impulsivity and suicidality : The mediating role of painful and provocative experiences

  11. The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

  12. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  13. [After the Great East Japan Earthquake : suicide prevention and a gatekeeper program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Nakamura, Hikaru; Akahira, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    When considering approaches to mental health in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as well as the resulting tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it is not sufficient to focus interventions solely on individuals experiencing mental health issues. The situation demands a comprehensive approach that includes programs that target improvements to mental health literacy among residents in areas affected by the disaster, the rebuilding of relationships between residents themselves, collaboration with recovery and support activities, and mental health support for people participating in recovery and support efforts. From a medium- to long-term perspective, suicide prevention is an important issue. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts are being promoted in areas of Iwate Prefecture affected by the disaster. In suicide prevention programs, it is crucial to foster the development of human resources in the local community. In order to expand community supports, it is necessary to provide education on ways of supporting those affected by a disaster to local medical personnel, people staffing inquiry and consultation offices, and people in fields related to mental health. Suicide prevention and disaster relief efforts are both approaches that target people in difficulty, and they share commonalities in principles, systems, and approaches to human resource development. "Mental health first aid" is a program developed in Australia that defines methods of early intervention by non-professionals who encounter someone experiencing a mental health problem. The mental health first aid-based gatekeeper training program of the Japanese government's Cabinet Office, which the author's research team helped to develop, allows participants to obtain the knowledge and skills required of gatekeepers. In 2012, a module for disaster-affected areas was developed and added to the program, with additional content that provides program participants with the

  14. Best practices: the Utah Youth Suicide Study: best practices for suicide prevention through the juvenile court system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Doug; Dawson, Kristin L; Grey, Todd C; McMahon, William M

    2011-12-01

    Utah is among a group of Western Mountain states in which suicide rates among youths are consistently high. The Utah Youth Suicide Study incorporated data from every government agency in Utah, utilizing a statewide Office of the Medical Examiner. A key finding was that 63% of suicide decedents had contact with the juvenile courts. The group developed a best practices model within the juvenile court system for early mental health intervention. Significant cost savings were demonstrated. The model includes screening at-risk teenagers with the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Treatment includes both psychiatric care and in-home behavioral intervention. Services were effectively delivered on a large scale.

  15. An analysis of child deaths by suicide in Queensland Australia, 2004-2012. What are we missing from a preventative health services perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Oprescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article analyses case descriptions of child suicides from 2004 to 2012 toinform future policy and practice. Methods: Quantitative data and case descriptions for 159 child suicides (under 18 years in Queensland, Australia, were analysed quantitatively using SPSS and qualitatively using automated content analyzis (Leximancer. Results: More than three quarters of child suicides involved hanging and 81% of suicides occurred in the family home. Less than 20% of the deceased left a note, however there was evidence of planning in 54% of cases. Most common triggering events were family conflicts. Conclusions: Effective suicide prevention interventions require a comprehensive understanding of risk factors. Quality of case descriptions varied widely, which can hamper injury prevention efforts through an incomplete understanding of characteristics of, and important factors in child suicide. Additional attention and resources dedicated to this public health issue could enhance the development and implementation of effective intervention strategies targeting child and adolescent suicide.

  16. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Farah Nasir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Method Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: ‘suicide’, ‘gatekeeper’, ‘training’, ‘suicide prevention training’, ‘suicide intervention training’ and ‘Indigenous’. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword “Indigenous” (e.g. “Maori”, “First Nations”, “Native American”, “Inuit”, “Metis” and “Aboriginal” were also used. Results Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Conclusion Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  17. Critical Components of Suicide Prevention Programs for Colleges and Universities: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…

  18. The Basic Act for Suicide Prevention: Effects on Longitudinal Trend in Deliberate Self-Harm with Reference to National Suicide Data for 1996–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miharu Nakanishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A suicide prevention strategy was launched in Japan in 2006 to address the high suicide rate, which had increased considerably since 1998. The national strategy from 2007 involved the enhancement of psychiatric treatment services at emergency medical facilities and supportive observation by individuals close to patients. The national suicide rate has decreased gradually since 2008; however, national information regarding the number of patients who had engaged in deliberate self-harm was absent. Therefore, the present study examined the longitudinal trend in hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm in Japan. Data from the National Patient Survey between 1996 and 2014—a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care every 3 years—were used. Data for 13,014 patients were included in the estimation of the number of hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm. The results show that the estimated number of admissions due to deliberate self-harm increased from 2078 in September 1996 to 3189 in September 2008, when the national number of suicide cases peaked, and decreased to 1783 in 2014. Approximately half of the patients were admitted to hospital because of self-harm via means other than drug poisoning, which had a high mortality rate (5.6%. The proportion of patients receiving public assistance was higher in those who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (8.5% relative to that observed in the general population. Overall, the trend in deliberate self-harm was synchronous with the number of suicide cases over time. As economic poverty has been associated with suicidal ideation and behavior and some recipients of public assistance tend to abuse psychotropic medication, the public assistance program should provide mental health support for recipients of social benefit schemes.

  19. Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

  20. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  1. Reshaping Time: Recommendations for Suicide Prevention in LBGT Populations. Reflections on "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations" from Journal of Homosexuality 58(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the journal's 2011 consensus recommendations for the prevention of LGBT suicide. Invoking the axiom approach of Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick's seminal Epistemology of the Closet, the author argues that merely offering practical guidelines at the level of the demonstrative and the instructive may not be sufficient models to address the urgency of suicide rates in LGBTQ youth populations.

  2. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  3. Development and pilot evaluation of an online psychoeducational program for suicide prevention among university students: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the second leading cause of death for the university aged population globally. A significant proportion of students with suicidal ideation or behaviours do not seek professional help. Few primary suicide prevention programs have specifically targeted help seeking for suicidal ideation or behaviours among university students. Methods: This study reported the development and pilot test of a brief, two-module online psychoeducational program (ProHelp that aimed to encourage help seeking for suicidal ideation and behaviours among university students. The program consists of two five-minute modules that address the risk factors and warning signs of suicide, stigmatising attitudes, and perceived barriers to help seeking. 156 Chinese university students and 101 Australian university students were recruited to evaluate the effectiveness of this program at post-test and one-month follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to the psychoeducational program or an attention control program. Results: Of the Chinese and Australian students who were randomised into the study, around 50% completed the two­day post­test survey, and 30% completed the one-month follow­up survey. Although no significant difference was found between the control and experimental group on professional help-seeking beliefs and intentions, both groups' help-seeking attitudes increased during the study (p=0.003 for the post­test survey, and p=0.008 for the follow­up survey. The experimental group in both countries demonstrated a significant improvement in suicide literacy at the post-test survey (p=0.015 compared to control. Qualitative feedback indicated that the ProHelp program was user-friendly, clear, and helpful. Conclusions: This study provides initial evidence that a brief online psychoeducational program could enhance university students' suicide literacy in both China and Australia. It also suggests that increasing suicide literacy might not be

  4. Development of a 2-h suicide prevention program for medical staff including nurses and medical residents: A two-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Yukako; Kubo, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Ryoko; Sakai, Tomomichi; Sugihara, Genichi; Naito, Chisako; Oda, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Suzuki, Yuriko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kobara, Keiji; Cho, Tetsuji; Kuga, Hironori; Takao, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Yoko; Matsumura, Yumi; Murai, Toshiya; Akashi, Koichi; Kanba, Shigenobu; Otsuka, Kotaro; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a crucial global health concern and effective suicide prevention has long been warranted. Mental illness, especially depression is the highest risk factor of suicide. Suicidal risk is increased in people not only with mental illness but also with physical illnesses, thus medical staff caring for physically-ill patients are also required to manage people with suicidal risk. In the present study, we evaluated our newly developed suicide intervention program among medical staff. We developed a 2-h suicide intervention program for medical staff, based on the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), which had originally been developed for the general population. We conducted this program for 74 medical staff members from 2 hospitals. Changes in knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence in early intervention of depression and suicide-prevention were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires at 3 points; pre-program, immediately after the program, and 1 month after program. This suicide prevention program had significant effects on improving perceived skills and confidence especially among nurses and medical residents. These significant effects lasted even 1 month after the program. Design was a single-arm study with relatively small sample size and short-term follow up. The present study suggests that the major target of this effective program is nurses and medical residents. Future research is required to validate the effects of the program with control groups, and also to assess long-term effectiveness and actual reduction in suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Taking One’s Own Life in Hospital? Patients and Health Care Professionals Vis-à-Vis the Tension between Assisted Suicide and Suicide Prevention in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Reiter-Theil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS organizing assisted suicide (AS is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the mortal dose after a more or less rigorous exploration of the patient’s decisional capacity. However, Swiss health care facilities and professionals are committed to providing suicide prevention. Despite the liberal attitude in society, the legitimacy of organized AS is ethically questioned. How can health professionals be supported in their moral uncertainty when confronted with patient wishes for suicide? As an approach towards reaching this objective, two ethics policies were developed at the Basel University Hospital to offer orientation in addressing twofold and divergent duties: handling requests for AS and caring for patients with suicidal thoughts or after a suicide attempt. According to the Swiss tradition of “consultation” (“Vernehmlassung”, controversial views were acknowledged in the interdisciplinary policy development processes. Both institutional policies mirror the clash of values and suggest consistent ways to meet the challenges: respect and tolerance regarding a patient’s wish for AS on the one hand, and the determination to offer help and prevent harm by practicing suicide prevention on the other. Given the legal framework lacking specific norms for the practice of RTDS, orientation is sought in ethical guidelines. The comparison between the previous and newly revised guideline of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences reveals, in regard to AS, a shift from the medical criterion, end of life is near, to a patient rights focus, i.e., decisional capacity, consistent with the law. Future experience will show whether and how this change will be integrated into clinical practice. In this process, institutional ethics policies may

  6. Appropriate Targets for Search Advertising as Part of Online Gatekeeping for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime; Ito, Jiro

    2018-05-01

    Gatekeeper training is an effective suicide prevention strategy. However, the appropriate targets of online gatekeeping have not yet been clarified. We examined the association between the outcomes of online gatekeeping using the Internet and the characteristics of consultation service users. An advertisement to encourage the use of e-mail-based psychological consultation services among viewers was placed on web pages that showed the results of searches using suicide-related keywords. All e-mails received between October 2014 and December 2015 were replied to as part of gatekeeping, and the obtained data (responses to an online questionnaire and the content of the received e-mails) were analyzed. A total of 154 consultation service users were analyzed, 35.7% of whom were male. The median age range was 20-29 years. Online gatekeeping was significantly more likely to be successful when such users faced financial/daily life or workplace problems, or revealed their names (including online names). By contrast, the activity was more likely to be unsuccessful when it was impossible to assess the problems faced by consultation service users. It may be possible to increase the success rate of online gatekeeping by targeting individuals facing financial/daily life or workplace problems with marked tendencies for self-disclosure.

  7. Gun retailers as storage partners for suicide prevention: what barriers need to be overcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Lauren A; Tung, Gregory J; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Brandspigel, Sara; Betz, Marian; Runyan, Carol W

    2018-02-07

    Safe storage of guns outside the household while someone is at risk for suicide is important for suicide prevention. Some gun retailers offer temporary firearm storage as a community resource. Others may be willing if perceived barriers can be addressed. We invited all gun retailers in eight Mountain West states to respond to a questionnaire about the barriers they perceive in offering temporary, voluntary gun storage for community members. Ninety-five retailers responded (25% response rate). Fifty-eight percent believed federal laws make it harder to store guns and 25% perceived state laws to be obstacles. Over 60% cited legal liability in storing and returning guns as barriers. Other important barriers included cost, space and logistical issues of drop off and pick up. Strategies to reduce legal and other barriers will need to be addressed to better engage gun retailers as a community resource for safe gun storage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  9. Suicide risk in placebo-controlled trials of treatment for acute manic episode and prevention of manic-depressive episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storosum, Jitschak G.; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Linszen, Don H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to investigate whether there is a greater suicide risk in the placebo arms of placebo-controlled studies of active medication for the treatment of acute manic episode and the prevention of manic/depressive episode. If so, this would be a strong ethical argument

  10. Suicide prevention guideline implementation in specialist mental healthcare institutions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkenstorm, Jan; Franx, Gerdien; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad; Smit, Johannes Hendrikus

    2018-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on average 40% of all suicides concern patients treated by mental healthcare institutions (MHIs). Recent evidence indicates that implemented guideline recommendations significantly reduce the odds for patients to die by suicide. Implementation of the multidisciplinary guideline

  11. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth.

  12. Personal suicidality in reception and identification with suicidal film characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality (n = 150) watched either It's My Party or The Fire Within, censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with questionnaires before the movie. Identity work and identification with the protagonist were measured after the movie. Suicidality was directly associated with identity work during film dramas depicting suicide methods. The reception of suicide-related media content seems to partially depend on personal suicidality. Potential implications for suicide prevention are discussed.

  13. Community-Based Suicide Prevention Research in Remote On-Reserve First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Corinne A.; Campeau, Mike; Katz, Laurence Y.; Enns, Murray W.; Elias, Brenda; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a complex problem linked to genetic, environmental, psychological and community factors. For the Aboriginal population more specifically, loss of culture, history of traumatic events, individual, family and community factors may also play a role in suicidal behaviour. Of particular concern is the high rate of suicide among Canadian…

  14. Does Availability of Mental Health Resources Prevent Recurrent Suicidal Behavior? An Ecological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…

  15. The physician's role in suicide prevention: lessons learned from a public awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Melissa; Griffin, Tom; Reidenberg, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate in Minnesota has increased every year since 2000, making suicide a serious public health problem. In the spring and summer of 2009, the nonprofit organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) launched a public awareness campaign targeting four populations at high risk of suicidal behavior and suicide: adult men, seniors, teens, and American Indians. The goals of the campaign were to increase awareness about suicide in general and to let people know how they could help someone who may be at risk. In their evaluation of the campaign, researchers found a need to provide physicians and other health care professionals with appropriate information about suicide and resources that are available for those who may need help.They also learned the importance of engaging physicians in planning future campaigns.

  16. Toward mHealth Brief Contact Interventions in Suicide Prevention: Case Series From the Suicide Intervention Assisted by Messages (SIAM) Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Larsen, Mark Erik; Mesmeur, Catherine; Gravey, Michel; Billot, Romain; Walter, Michel; Lemey, Christophe; Lenca, Philippe

    2018-01-10

    Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services after a suicide attempt (SA) can reduce reattempt risk. Pilot studies have demonstrated that interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technologies are feasible in a suicide prevention setting. The aim of this study was to report three cases of patients recruited in the Suicide Intervention Assisted by Messages (SIAM) study to describe how a mobile intervention may influence follow-up. SIAM is a 2-year, multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants in the intervention group receive SIAM text messages 48 hours after discharge, then at day 8 and day 15, and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The study includes participants aged 18 years or older, who have attended a participating hospital for an SA, and have been discharged from the emergency department (ED) or a psychiatric unit (PU) for a stay of less than 7 days. Eligible participants are randomized between the SIAM intervention messages and a control group. In this study, we present three cases from the ongoing SIAM study that demonstrate the capability of a mobile-based brief contact intervention for triggering patient-initiated contact with a crisis support team at various time points throughout the mobile-based follow-up period. Out of the 244 patients recruited in the SIAM randomized controlled trial, three cases were selected to illustrate the impact of mHealth on suicide risk management. Participants initiated contact with the emergency crisis support service after receiving text messages up to 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Contact was initiated immediately following receipt of a text message or up to 6 days following a message. This text message-based brief contact intervention has demonstrated the potential to reconnect suicidal individuals with crisis support services while they are experiencing

  17. Predictive Modeling and Concentration of the Risk of Suicide: Implications for Preventive Interventions in the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John F; Bossarte, Robert M; Katz, Ira R; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Hannemann, Claire M; Nielson, Christopher; Schoenbaum, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) evaluated the use of predictive modeling to identify patients at risk for suicide and to supplement ongoing care with risk-stratified interventions. Suicide data came from the National Death Index. Predictors were measures from VHA clinical records incorporating patient-months from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2011, for all suicide decedents and 1% of living patients, divided randomly into development and validation samples. We used data on all patients alive on September 30, 2010, to evaluate predictions of suicide risk over 1 year. Modeling demonstrated that suicide rates were 82 and 60 times greater than the rate in the overall sample in the highest 0.01% stratum for calculated risk for the development and validation samples, respectively; 39 and 30 times greater in the highest 0.10%; 14 and 12 times greater in the highest 1.00%; and 6.3 and 5.7 times greater in the highest 5.00%. Predictive modeling can identify high-risk patients who were not identified on clinical grounds. VHA is developing modeling to enhance clinical care and to guide the delivery of preventive interventions.

  18. The Impact of Experiential Exercises on Communication and Relational Skills in a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper-Training Program for College Resident Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Susan; Wallack, Cory; Sartin, Robert M.; Dayton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to identify students at risk for suicide, many colleges are implementing suicide prevention training for campus gatekeepers. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 3-hour, experiential-based gatekeeper training that included an emphasis on enhancing communication skills and relational connection in addition to the didactic…

  19. Emotionally Troubled Teens' Help-Seeking Behaviors: An Evaluation of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…

  20. The baby or the bath water? Lessons learned from the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Research Prioritization Task Force literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis Molock, Sherry; Heekin, Janet M; Matlin, Samantha G; Barksdale, Crystal L; Gray, Ekwenzi; Booth, Chelsea L

    2014-09-01

    The Research Prioritization Task Force of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention conducted a comprehensive literature review of suicide prevention/intervention trials to assess the quality of the scientific evidence. A literature "review of reviews" was conducted by searching the most widely used databases for mental health and public health research. The quality of the reviews was evaluated using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews system; the quality of the scientific evidence for the suicide preventions/interventions was assessed using U.S. Preventive Services Task Force criteria. The reviews were limited to peer-reviewed publications with human subjects published in English. Ninety-eight systematic reviews and 45 primary sources on suicide prevention/interventions published between January 2000 and September 2012 were evaluated. The results suggest that the quality of both the systematic reviews and the scientific evidence for suicide preventions/interventions were mixed. The majority of the systematic reviews and prevention/interventions were evaluated as fair to poor in quality. There are many promising suicide prevention/intervention trials, but research findings are often inconclusive because of methodologic problems. Methodologic problems across systematic reviews include not conducting hand searches, not surveying gray literature, and being unable to aggregate data across studies. Methodologic problems with the scientific quality of the prevention/intervention trials include paucity of information on sample demographic characteristics, poorly defined outcomes, and excluding actively suicidal participants. Suggestions for ways to improve the quality of the systematic reviews and suicide preventions/interventions are provided. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Physician suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preven, D W

    1981-01-01

    The topic of physician suicide has been viewed from several perspectives. The recent studies which suggest that the problem may be less dramatic statistically, do not lessen the emotional trauma that all experience when their lives are touched by the grim event. Keeping in mind that much remains to be learned about suicides in general, and physician suicide specifically, a few suggestions have been offered. As one approach to primary prevention, medical school curriculum should include programs that promote more self-awareness in doctors of their emotional needs. If the physician cannot heal himself, perhaps he can learn to recognize the need for assistance. Intervention (secondary prevention) requires that doctors have the capacity to believe that anyone, regardless of status, can be suicidal. Professional roles should not prevent colleague and friend from identifying prodromal clues. Finally, "postvention" (tertiary prevention) offers the survivors, be they family, colleagues or patients, the opportunity to deal with the searing loss in a therapeutic way.

  2. THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL-BASED YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION: EXPERIENCES AND PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Maryke; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicidal behaviour poses a significant public health concern. Mental health care professionals working in schools have an important role to play in youth suicide prevention initiatives, although little is known of the experiences of this group of professionals in the developing world. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mental health professionals working in South African schools and document their insights, attitudes and beliefs regarding youth suicidal behaviour. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven school-based mental health care professionals and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Participants reported that they relied on a reactive strategy by responding to youths who were in crisis. They were challenged by a lack of support from faculty staff, lack of access to resources, and heavy caseloads. Findings highlight the need for a proactive and collaborative approach to suicide prevention among mental health care professionals, teachers and parents in South African schools and improved training and supervision.

  3. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-II. The Amager Project, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Vangborg, Kerstin; Sørensen, Holger J

    2010-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high but only few effect studies have been carried out. The Baerum Model from Norway offers practical and affordable intervention for those not being offered psychiatric treatment. During a period from 2005-2007, all attempted suicide patients except those...... was 6 months. After this intervention period, all patients were followed passively for an extra 6 months. The design was an intent-to-treat one. The outcomes were: 1) repetition of attempted suicide or suicide, and 2) total number of suicidal acts. A total of 200 patients were offered participation, 67...... refused. Of the 133 participants, 69 were randomized to the OPAC programme and 64 to the (non-intervention) control group. Four in each group dropped out after initial participation. There was a significant lower proportion who repeated a suicide attempt the intervention group (proportion 8.7%) than...

  4. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu Sen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14–20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation...... in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. Methods: We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales...... or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries. We excluded other interventions aimed at limiting community access to pesticides. We extracted data from studies presenting pesticide suicide data and overall suicide data from before...

  5. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869

  6. Does practice make perfect? A randomized control trial of behavioral rehearsal on suicide prevention gatekeeper skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wendi F; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed.

  7. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  8. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu-Sen; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Lee, Won Jin; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-10-01

    pesticides in five of the six countries studied, including four studies using optimum analytical methods, were followed by reductions in pesticide suicides and, in three of these countries, falls in overall suicide mortality. Greece was the only country studied that did not show a decrease in pesticide suicide following a ban. There were no high-quality studies of restricting sales to people for occupational uses; four of the seven studies (in three of the five countries studied-India, Denmark, and the USA) showed sales restrictions were followed by decreases in pesticide suicides; one of the two studies investigating trends in overall suicide mortality reported a fall in deaths in Denmark, but there were also decreases in suicide deaths from other methods. National bans on highly hazardous pesticides, which are commonly ingested in acts of self-poisoning, seem to be effective in reducing pesticide-specific and overall suicide rates. Evidence is less consistent for sales restrictions. A worldwide ban on the use of highly hazardous pesticides is likely to prevent tens of thousands of deaths every year. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The War Within: Preventing Suicide in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    estimates that approximately 4 percent of those with depression will die by suicide (Goldsmith et al., 2002), and, though the same figure is not yet...evidence of suicide clusters primarily among teens (Gould, 1990; Gould, Wallenstein, and Kleinman, 1990; Gould, Wallenstein, Kleinman, et al., 1990...discuss the relationship of each with suicide . Depression . Depression is a mood disorder characterized by feeling sad and blue for a period lasting more

  10. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  11. Equipment reliability process improvement and preventive maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darragi, M.; Georges, A.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.; Croteau, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant wants to optimize its preventive maintenance program through an Integrated Equipment Reliability Process. All equipment reliability related activities should be reviewed and optimized in a systematic approach especially for aging plants such as G2. This new approach has to be founded on best practices methods with the purpose of the rationalization of the preventive maintenance program and the performance monitoring of on-site systems, structures and components (SSC). A rational preventive maintenance strategy is based on optimized task scopes and frequencies depending on their applicability, critical effects on system safety and plant availability as well as cost-effectiveness. Preventive maintenance strategy efficiency is systematically monitored through degradation indicators. (author)

  12. Comparison of Baseline Characteristics between Community-based and Hospital-based Suicidal Ideators and Its Implications for Tailoring Strategies for Suicide Prevention: Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Moon, Jungjoon; Shim, Se Hoon; Paik, Jong Woo; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Cho, Seong Jin; Kim, Min Hyuk; Kim, Seokho; Park, Jae Hyun; You, Sungeun; Jeon, Hong Jin; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify distinguishing factors between populations with suicidal ideation recruited from hospitals and communities to make an efficient allocation of limited anti-suicidal resources according to group differences. We analyzed the baseline data from 120 individuals in a community-based cohort (CC) and 137 individuals in a hospital-based cohort (HC) with suicidal ideation obtained from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior (K-COMPASS) study. First, their sociodemographic factors, histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses, and suicidal behaviors were compared. Second, diagnosis by the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, scores of psychometric scales were used to assess differences in clinical severity between the groups. The results revealed that the HC had more severe clinical features: more psychiatric diagnosis including current and recurrent major depressive episodes (odds ratio [OR], 4.054; P suicide risk (OR, 4.817; P suicidality. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  13. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than prescribed medicines) can reduce the risk of suicide. In homes with children or teenagers: Keep all prescription medicines high up ... or attempted suicide. Alternative Names Depression - suicide; Bipolar - suicide ... in children Depression among the elderly References American Psychiatric Association. ...

  14. The cognitive behavioural prevention of suicide in psychosis: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Kelly, James; Maqsood, Sehar; Snelson, Natasha; Maxwell, Janet; Law, Heather; Dunn, Graham; Gooding, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Suicide behaviour in psychosis is a significant clinical and social problem. There is a dearth of evidence for psychological interventions designed to reduce suicide risk in this population. To evaluate a novel, manualised, cognitive behavioural treatment protocol (CBSPp) based upon an empirically validated theoretical model. A randomly controlled trial with independent and masked allocated and assessment of CBSPp with TAU (n=25, 24 sessions) compared to TAU alone (n=24) using standardised assessments. Measures of suicide probability, and suicidal ideation were the primary outcomes and measures of hopelessness, depression, psychotic symptoms, functioning, and self-esteem were the secondary outcomes, assessed at 4 and 6 months follow-up. The CBSPp group improved differentially to the TAU group on two out of three primary outcome measures of suicidal ideation and suicide probability, and on secondary outcomes of hopelessness related to suicide probability, depression, some psychotic symptoms and self-esteem. CBSPp is a feasible intervention which has the potential to reduce proxy measures of suicide in psychotic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  16. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  17. Suicide announcement on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Thomas D; Hatch, Gary M; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Fischer, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    The media and the Internet may be having an influence on suicidal behavior. Online social networks such as Facebook represent a new facet of global information transfer. The impact of these online social networks on suicidal behavior has not yet been evaluated. To discuss potential effects of suicide notes on Facebook on suicide prevention and copycat suicides, and to create awareness among health care professionals. We present a case involving a suicide note on Facebook and discuss potential consequences of this phenomenon based on literature found searching PubMed and Google. There are numerous reports of suicide notes on Facebook in the popular press, but none in the professional literature. Online social network users attempted to prevent planned suicides in several reported cases. To date there is no documented evidence of a copycat suicide, directly emulating a suicide announced on Facebook. Suicide notes on online social networks may allow for suicide prevention via the immediate intervention of other network users. But it is not yet clear to what extent suicide notes on online social networks actually induce copycat suicides. These effects deserve future evaluation and research.

  18. Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royakkers, Lambèr; Steen, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e.g., meetings with potential end-users and discussions with members of the Ethical Advisory Board of the project. Furthermore, we also found-possibly somewhat counterintuitively-that a commercial, with its focus on understanding and satisfying customers' needs, can promote VSD.

  19. Optimizing the assessment of suicidal behavior: the application of curtailment techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D.P. de; Fokkema, M.; O'Connor, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given their length, commonly used scales to assess suicide risk, such as the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) are of limited use as screening tools. In the current study we tested whether deterministic and stochastic curtailment can be applied to shorten the 19-item SSI, without

  20. Effectiveness of a community-based program for suicide prevention among elders with early-stage dementia: A controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Pill; Yang, Jinhyang

    The purpose of this study was to develop a small-group-focused suicide prevention program for elders with early-stage dementia and to assess its effects. This was a quasi-experimental study with a control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 62 elders diagnosed with early-stage dementia who were receiving care services at nine daycare centers in J City Korea participated in this study. The experimental group participated in the suicide prevention program twice a week for 5 weeks with a pretest and two posttests The developed suicide prevention program had a significant effect on the perceived health status, social support, depression, and suicidal ideation of elders with early-stage dementia. Nurses should integrate risk factors such as depression and protective factors such as health status and social support into a suicide prevention program. This community-based program in geriatric nursing practice can be effective in preventing suicide among elders with early-stage dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint optimization of production scheduling and machine group preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Lei; Song, Sanling; Chen, Xiaohui; Coit, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Joint optimization models were developed combining group preventive maintenance of a series system and production scheduling. In this paper, we propose a joint optimization model to minimize the total cost including production cost, preventive maintenance cost, minimal repair cost for unexpected failures and tardiness cost. The total cost depends on both the production process and the machine maintenance plan associated with reliability. For the problems addressed in this research, any machine unavailability leads to system downtime. Therefore, it is important to optimize the preventive maintenance of machines because their performance impacts the collective production processing associated with all machines. Too lengthy preventive maintenance intervals may be associated with low scheduled machine maintenance cost, but may incur expensive costs for unplanned failure due to low machine reliability. Alternatively, too frequent preventive maintenance activities may achieve the desired high reliability machines, but unacceptably high scheduled maintenance cost. Additionally, product scheduling plans affect tardiness and maintenance cost. Two results are obtained when solving the problem; the optimal group preventive maintenance interval for machines, and the assignment of each job, including the corresponding start time and completion time. To solve this non-deterministic polynomial-time problem, random keys genetic algorithms are used, and a numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed model. - Highlights: • Group preventive maintenance (PM) planning and production scheduling are jointed. • Maintenance interval and assignment of jobs are decided by minimizing total cost. • Relationships among system age, PM, job processing time are quantified. • Random keys genetic algorithms (GA) are used to solve the NP-hard problem. • Random keys GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are compared.

  2. Hot Idea or Hot Air: A Systematic Review of Evidence for Two Widely Marketed Youth Suicide Prevention Programs and Recommendations for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; LeBlanc, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Youth suicide is highly related to mental disorders. While communities and schools are marketed to with a plethora of suicide prevention programs, they often lack the capacity to choose evidence-based programs. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of two youth suicide prevention programs to help determine if the quality of evidence available justifies their wide spread dissemination. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration SPECTR database, SocIndex, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, Research Library, and Web of Science, for relevant studies. We included studies/systematic reviews/meta-analysis that evaluated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or safety of Signs of Suicide (SOS) and Yellow Ribbon (YR) suicide prevention programs that target adolescents. We applied the Office of Justice Program What Works Repository (OJP-R) to evaluate the quality of the included studies as effective, effective with reservation, promising, inconclusive evidence, insufficient evidence, and ineffective. Two SOS studies were ranked as “inconclusive evidence” based on the OJP-R. One SOS study was ranked as having “insufficient evidence” on OJP-R. The YR study was ranked as “ineffective” using OJP-R. We only included studies in peer-reviewed journals in English and therefore may have missed reports in grey literature or non-English publications. Results: We cannot recommend that schools and communities implement either the SOS or YR suicide prevention programs. Purchasers of these programs should be aware that there is no evidence that their use prevents suicide. Conclusions: Academics and organizations should not overstate the positive impacts of suicide prevention interventions when the evidence is lacking. PMID:26336375

  3. Prevention Starts With Awareness: Adoptive Adolescents at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2017-09-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk for suicide attempts than other age groups. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death in the United States for ages 12 to 18; moreover, the risk of suicide is significantly higher for adoptive teens. In fact, adoptive teenagers have a four times higher rate of suicide attempts than biological children, perhaps due to the underlying nature of adoption, which can involve a pervasive sense of grief and loss for the adoptee. Unresolved anger and sadness from feelings of abandonment-especially when transitioning to adolescence-can cause a seemingly functional child to dissociate through self-harm and eventually demonstrate suicidal behavior. Little evidence-based research exists on the risk factors for adoptive teens who resort to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is vitally important for school nurses to understand the emotional stressors that adolescent adoptees face throughout life to help identify teens at risk for suicide. School districts and registered nurses are well positioned to address this critical health issue through education, assessment, and intervention.

  4. Suicide Prevention in Schizophrenia: Do Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Orsolini, Laura; Lamis, Dorian A; Goldsmith, David R; Nardella, Adele; Falcone, Giulia; Corigliano, Valentina; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although this figure appears to be an underestimate of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients. This background encouraged the present review of research pertaining to LAIs in relation to modifiable risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia. We viewed our task as gathering, speculating and critically appraising the available research relevant to the topic, with the aim of formulating a hypothesis to be tested with further research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims: The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…

  6. Discussing Firearm Ownership and Access as Part of Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: "Means Safety" versus "Means Restriction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relative utility of the terms "means safety" versus "means restriction" in counseling individuals to limit their access to firearms in the context of a mock suicide risk assessment. Overall, 370 participants were randomized to read a vignette depicting a clinical scenario in which managing firearm ownership and access was discussed either using the term "means safety" or "means restriction." Participants rated the term "means safety" as significantly more acceptable and preferable than "means restriction." Participants randomized to the "means safety" condition reported greater intentions to adhere to clinicians' recommendations to limit access to a firearm for safety purposes (F[1,367] = 7.393, p = .007, [Formula: see text]). The term "means safety" may be more advantageous than "means restriction" when discussing firearm ownership and access in clinical settings and public health-oriented suicide prevention efforts.

  7. Optimization of Adhesive Pastes for Dental Caries Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodata, Patteera; Juntavee, Apa; Juntavee, Niwut; Peerapattana, Jomjai

    2017-11-01

    Dental caries prevention products available on the market contain only remineralizing agents or antibacterial agents. This study aimed to develop adhesive pastes containing calcium phosphate and α-mangostin for dental caries prevention using the optimization technique. Calcium phosphate was used as a remineralizing agent, and extracted α-mangostin was used as an antibacterial agent. The effect of the independent variables, which were fumed silica, Eudragit ® EPO, polyethylene glycol, and ethyl alcohol, on the responses was investigated. The drying time, erosion rate, calcium release rate, and α-mangostin release rate were established as the measured responses. An equation and a model of the relationship were constructed. An optimal formulation was obtained, and its effect on dental caries prevention was investigated using the pH-cycling model. The quadratic equation revealed that the drying time, calcium release rate, and α-mangostin release rate tended to decrease when increasing the fumed silica and decreasing other factors. The erosion rate tended to increase when decreasing Eudragit ® EPO and increasing other factors. The observed responses of the optimal adhesive pastes were not significantly different from the predicted responses. This result demonstrated that optimization is an efficient technique in the formulation development of the adhesive pastes. In addition, the optimal adhesive pastes could enhance acid resistance activity to the tooth enamel.

  8. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  9. Can sports events affect suicidal behavior? A review of the literature and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    Engagement in sports and physical activity, either actively as an athlete or in a passive way as a spectator, impacts interpersonal behavior and physical and mental health. The study reviews literature on the relationship between sports spectatorship and suicidal behavior to ascertain whether sports spectatorship has an impact on suicidal behavior, either increasing the risk or being a protective factor. The literature was searched via PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Nine studies published between 1986 and 2006 were identified. The reviewed studies focused on the impact of sports events on the societal level, and analyzed data regarding national or local suicide rates. Their results indicate that sports events can have an impact on suicide mortality and morbidity, but this relationship seems to be mediated by age, gender, marital status, and alcohol consumption, as well as the process and outcome of the game (e.g., victory vs. defeat of the favored team). There is some evidence that sports events can reduce the rates of suicide on the societal level; however, there is a lack of studies exploring how sports spectatorship might influence levels of suicide risk in individuals and how mediating variables might operate on the individual level.

  10. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon.

  11. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Box. American Association of Suicidology, Suicide Prevention Social Media - Weekly Twitter Chats with Expert Guests. September 21, 2014. Gutierrez...T. E. Jr. (2012). Sleep problems outperform depression and hopelessness as cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation and...associated with suicidal ideation , even after accounting for symptoms of depression , hopelessness, PTSD diagnosis, anxiety symptoms and drug and alcohol

  12. Preventing Instability Phenomenon in Gas-lift Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahdiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems that sometimes occur in gas allocation optimization is instability phenomenon. This phenomenon reduces the oil production and damages downhole and surface facilities. Different works have studied the stability and suggested some solutions to override it, but most of them (such as making the well intelligent are very expensive and thus they are not applicable to many cases. In this paper, as a new approach, the stability has been studied in gas allocation optimization problems. To prevent the instability, instability has been assumed as a constraint for the optimizer and then the optimizer has been run. For the optimization, first a genetic algorithm and then a hybrid of genetic algorithm and Newton-Quasi have been used, and their results are compared to ensure the good performance of the optimizer; afterwards, the effect of adding the instability constraint to the problem on production reduction have been discussed. The results show that the production loss with adding this constraint to the system is very small and this method does not need any additional and expensive facilities for preventing the instability. Therefore, the new method is applicable to different problems.

  13. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  14. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are pa...

  15. Some Syndromes Among Suicidal People: The Problem of Suicide Potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Carl I.

    An on-going research project at the Los Angeles Suicide Prevention Center is attempting to describe the potential suicide. Comparisons on a rating scale were made among patients who commit suicide and a random sample of case histories from the coroner's office. Approximately 10 syndromes or subgroupings of people who commit suicide have been…

  16. NIMH Answers Questions about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... else? Q: What if someone seems suicidal on social media? Q: What if I want to write a story about suicide? Q: Where can I go for more information on suicide prevention? Reprints Menu Q: How common is suicide in children and teens? Q: What are some of the ...

  17. Evaluation of the 113Online Suicide Prevention Crisis Chat Service: Outcomes, Helper Behaviors and Comparison to Telephone Hotlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Huisman, Annemiek; Wiebenga, Jasper; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H

    2017-06-01

    Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U.S. Lifeline Centers in 2003-2004, with similar but not identical associations with specific helpers' styles and attitudes. Our findings support a positive effect of the 113Online chat service, to be enhanced by practice standards addressing an apparent lack of focus on the central issue of suicidality during chats, as well as by the development of best practices specific for online crisis intervention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Characteristics of Women Who Have Had Cosmetic Breast Implants That Could Be Associated with Increased Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review, Proposing a Suicide Prevention Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Manoloudakis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates an increased risk of suicide among women who have had cosmetic breast implants. An explanatory model for this association has not been established. Some studies conclude that women with cosmetic breast implants demonstrate some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk while others support that the breast augmentation protects from suicide. A systematic review including data collection from January 1961 up to February 2014 was conducted. The results were incorporated to pre-existing suicide risk models of the general population. A modified suicide risk model was created for the female cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty candidate. A 2-3 times increased suicide risk among women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation has been identified. Breast augmentation patients show some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk. The majority of women reported high postoperative satisfaction. Recent research indicates that the Autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants and fibromyalgia syndrome are associated with silicone implantation. A thorough surgical, medical and psycho-social (psychiatric, family, reproductive, and occupational history should be included in the preoperative assessment of women seeking to undergo cosmetic breast augmentation. Breast augmentation surgery can stimulate a systematic stress response and increase the risk of suicide. Each risk factor of suicide has poor predictive value when considered independently and can result in prediction errors. A clinical management model has been proposed considering the overlapping risk factors of women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation with suicide.

  19. Suicide and Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best way to identify risk. Murder and suicide In rare cases, people who are suicidal are ... access to a firearm Starting antidepressants and increased suicide risk Most antidepressants are generally safe, but the ...

  20. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-II. The Amager Project, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Vangborg, Kerstin; Sørensen, Holger J

    2010-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high but only few effect studies have been carried out. The Baerum Model from Norway offers practical and affordable intervention for those not being offered psychiatric treatment. During a period from 2005-2007, all attempted suicide patients except those...... with major psychiatric diagnoses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe/psychotic depression), were offered participation. The intervention group received the OPAC programme (outreach, problem solving, adherence, continuity) and the control group received treatment as usual (TAU). The intervention period...... refused. Of the 133 participants, 69 were randomized to the OPAC programme and 64 to the (non-intervention) control group. Four in each group dropped out after initial participation. There was a significant lower proportion who repeated a suicide attempt the intervention group (proportion 8.7%) than...

  1. Effectiveness of suicide prevention gatekeeper-training for university administrative staff in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Asakura, Satoshi; Kusumi, Ichiro; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Japanese college and university students. Gatekeeper-training programs have been shown to improve detection and referral of individuals who are at risk of suicide by training non-mental-health professional persons. However, no studies have investigated the effectiveness of such programs in university settings in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the gatekeeper-training program for administrative staff in Japanese universities. We developed a 2.5-h gatekeeper-training program based on the Mental Health First Aid program, which was originally developed for the general public. Seventy-six administrative staff at Hokkaido University participated in the program. Competence and confidence in managing suicide intervention, behavioral intention as a gatekeeper and attitude while handling suicidal students were measured by a self-reported questionnaire before, immediately after and a month after the program. We found a significant improvement in competence in the management of suicidal students. We also found improvements in confidence in management of suicidal students and behavioral intention as a gatekeeper after training, though questionnaires for those secondary outcomes were not validated. These improvements continued for a month. About 95% of the participants rated the program as useful or very useful and one-third of the participants had one or more chances to utilize their skills within a month. The current results suggest the positive effects of the training program in university settings in Japan. Future evaluation that includes comparison with standard didactic trainings and an assessment of long-term effectiveness are warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Optimized preventive replacement policy for large cascade systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzen, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The repair-bottleneck problem as a limiting factor for system reliability can be overcome. Design need only cover the steady state, wearout induced accumulations of failures being precluded by preventive replacements with subsequent recycling. As a result, a reliable system appears to be feasible on an economic basis, optimization in detail to be left to more precised cost-benefit studies. As a reference system the radio-frequency-generator cascade of a single-cell linear accelerator is considered. (DG)

  3. A PSO approach for preventive maintenance scheduling optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.N.A.; Lapa, C.M.F.; Mol, A.C.A.; Luz, A.F. da

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for preventive maintenance policy optimization, focused in reliability and cost. The probabilistic model for reliability and cost evaluation is developed in such a way that flexible intervals between maintenance are allowed. As PSO is skilled for realcoded continuous spaces, a non-conventional codification has been developed in order to allow PSO to solve scheduling problems (which is discrete) with variable number of maintenance interventions. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop PWR has been considered. Results demonstrate ability in finding optimal solutions, for which expert knowledge had to be automatically discovered by PSO. (author)

  4. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  5. Suicidality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide appear common in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Available evidence indicates that approximately 80% of individuals with BDD experience lifetime suicidal ideation and 24% to 28% have attempted suicide. Although data on completed suicide are limited and preliminary, the suicide rate appears markedly high. These findings underscore the importance of recognizing and effectively treating BDD. However, BDD is underrecognized in clinical settings even though it is relatively common and often presents to psychiatrists and other mental health practitioners, dermatologists, surgeons, and other physicians. This article reviews available evidence on suicidality in BDD and discusses how to recognize and diagnose this often secret disorder. Efficacious treatments for BDD, ie, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are also discussed. Although data are limited, it appears that SRIs often diminish suicidality in these patients. Additional research is greatly needed on suicidality rates, characteristics, correlates, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of suicidality in BDD. PMID:18449358

  6. The role of mobile phone technology in understanding and preventing suicidal behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D. de; Kirtley, O.; Kerkhof, A.; Portzky, G.; O'Connor, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we discuss how mobile phone technology has the potential to move the field forward in terms of understanding suicide risk as well as laying foundations for the development of effective treatments/interventions. We have focused on mobile health technology given the rapid growth of

  7. Engaging Chinese Immigrant Parents in Youth Suicide Prevention: Shifting Parenting Paradigm in a Culturally Relevant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Irene Wai Ming; Chu, Hsiao-Ching; Bloom, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a school and community collaborative initiative that targeted students of Chinese descent as a suicide at-risk population. Its main focus was to reach out to immigrant parents to help them strengthen communication and relationships with their adolescent children and to facilitate their access to mental health services in the…

  8. Control-Group Study of an Intervention Training Program for Youth Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Francois; Houle, Janie; Marcoux, Isabelle; Renaud, Johanne

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether training can improve competency in intervening with suicidal youths. In this study we attempted to verify the effectiveness of such a training program on helper competency. Forty-three helpers who received the training were compared with 28 helpers who did not. Participants who received the training improved in…

  9. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  10. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bans of WHO Class I Pesticides in Bangladesh—suicide prevention without hampering agricultural output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Dewan, Gourab; Verma, Vasundhara R; Knipe, Duleeka W; Isha, Ishrat Tahsin; Faiz, M Abul; Gunnell, David J; Eddleston, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Results Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Conclusions Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs. PMID:29024951

  12. Bans of WHO Class I Pesticides in Bangladesh-suicide prevention without hampering agricultural output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Dewan, Gourab; Verma, Vasundhara R; Knipe, Duleeka W; Isha, Ishrat Tahsin; Faiz, M Abul; Gunnell, David J; Eddleston, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  13. Secondary combined suicide pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanth, S H; Girish Chandra, Y P; Hugar, Basappa S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar

    2014-03-01

    This article reports a combined suicide pact, where in a young couple; a 26 year old male and a 20 year old female committed suicide by using two methods. The couple had resorted to hanging and self-immolation to prevent failure of single method alone. In secondary combined suicides, several other methods of suicide are tried after the first method chosen has failed. It is primary combined suicide only when two or more methods are used simultaneously. Both types of combined suicide by one individual is well reported in the literature whereas the same by two persons together is rare. In this report, the deceased were disappointed lovers, poor and the family members were against their marriage. The investigation of scene, methods employed to commit suicide, autopsy findings and the interview with their relatives altogether suggested that it was a secondary combined suicide pact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rådbo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41 where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas.

  15. Mapping the evidence of prevention and intervention studies for suicidal and self-harming behaviors in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Stefanie; Parker, Alexandra; Purcell, Rosemary; Callahan, Patrick; Liu, Ping; Hetrick, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Suicide and self-harm (SSH) in young people is a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Effective interventions are of critical importance to reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with SSH. To investigate the extent and nature of research on interventions to prevent and treat SSH in young people using evidence mapping. A systematic search for SSH intervention studies was conducted (participant mean age between 6-25 years). The studies were restricted to high-quality evidence in the form of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and controlled trials. Thirty-eight controlled studies and six systematic reviews met the study inclusion criteria. The majority (n = 32) involved psychological interventions. Few studies (n = 9) involved treating young people with recognized mental disorders or substance abuse (n = 1) which also addressed SSH. The map was restricted to RCTs, CCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, and thus might have neglected important information from other study designs. The effectiveness of interventions within the trials was not evaluated. The evidence base for SSH interventions in young people is not well established, which hampers best-practice efforts in this area. Promising interventions that need further research include school-based prevention programs with a skills training component, individual CBT interventions, interpersonal psychotherapy, and attachment-based family therapy. Gaps in the research exist in evaluations of interventions for SSH in young people with identifiable psychopathology, particularly substance use disorder, and research that classifies participants on the basis of their suicidal intent.

  16. The Effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavior Grief Therapy to Prevent Complicated Grief in Relatives of Suicide Victims : The Mediating Role of Suicide Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; Neeleman, J.; van der Meer, K.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n =122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior

  17. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  18. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  19. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2016-01-01

    Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance.

  20. Multi-objective group scheduling optimization integrated with preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiufang; Jiang, Min

    2017-11-01

    This article proposes a single-machine-based integration model to meet the requirements of production scheduling and preventive maintenance in group production. To describe the production for identical/similar and different jobs, this integrated model considers the learning and forgetting effects. Based on machine degradation, the deterioration effect is also considered. Moreover, perfect maintenance and minimal repair are adopted in this integrated model. The multi-objective of minimizing total completion time and maintenance cost is taken to meet the dual requirements of delivery date and cost. Finally, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve this optimization model, and the computation results demonstrate that this integrated model is effective and reliable.

  1. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Koot, Hans M

    2014-02-08

    Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are participant's ratings on perceived knowledge, perceived self-confidence, and actual knowledge regarding adolescent suicidality. A randomized controlled trial will be carried out among 154 gatekeepers. After completing the first assessment (pre-test), participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the waitlist control group. One week after completing the first assessment the experimental group will have access to the website Mental Health Online containing the eight e-learning modules and additional information on adolescent suicide prevention. Participants in both conditions will be assessed 4 weeks after completing the first assessment (post-test), and 12 weeks after completing the post-test (follow-up). At post-test, participants from the experimental group are asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire on the modules. The waitlist control group will have access to the modules and additional information on the website after completing the follow-up assessment. Gatekeepers can benefit from e-learning modules on adolescent suicide prevention. This approach allows them to learn about this sensitive subject at their own pace and from any given location, as long as they have access to the Internet. Given the flexible nature of the program, each participant can compose his/her own training creating an instant customized course with the required steps in adolescent suicide prevention. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3625.

  2. 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action. A Report of the U.S. Surgeon General and of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem that causes immeasurable pain, suffering, and loss to individuals, families, and communities nationwide. Many people may be surprised to learn that suicide was one of the top 10 causes of death in the United States in 2009. And death is only the tip of the iceberg. For every person who dies by suicide,…

  3. Health Coaching to Optimize Well-Being among Returning Veterans with Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12...the intervention and obtaining quantitative health outcome data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Veterans, suicide, psychological well-being, health coaching

  4. Pathways for Preparation: Locating Suicide Education in Preparing Professionals for Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…

  5. Using a service sector segmented approach to identify community stakeholders who can improve access to suicide prevention services for veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthieu, Monica M; Gardiner, Giovanina; Ziegemeier, Ellen; Buxton, Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Veterans in need of social services may access many different community agencies within the public and private sectors. Each of these settings has the potential to be a pipeline for attaining needed health, mental health, and benefits services; however, many service providers lack information on how to conceptualize where Veterans go for services within their local community. This article describes a conceptual framework for outreach that uses a service sector segmented approach. This framework was developed to aid recruitment of a provider-based sample of stakeholders (N = 70) for a study on improving access to the Department of Veterans Affairs and community-based suicide prevention services. Results indicate that although there are statistically significant differences in the percent of Veterans served by the different service sectors (F(9, 55) = 2.71, p = 0.04), exposure to suicidal Veterans and providers' referral behavior is consistent across the sectors. Challenges to using this framework include isolating the appropriate sectors for targeted outreach efforts. The service sector segmented approach holds promise for identifying and referring at-risk Veterans in need of services. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of

  7. What is in It for Them? Understanding the Impact of a ‘Support, Appreciate, Listen Team’ (SALT)-Based Suicide Prevention Peer Education Program on Peer Educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, Bobby; de Wit, Emma E.; Bahirat, Jyotsna Dnyaneshwar; Bunders-Aelen, Joske F.G.; Regeer, Barbara J.

    2018-01-01

    Youth suicide is a public health problem in India, and young people in school, particularly adolescents, experience heavy psychological burden. Prevention programs, involving peer educators (PEs), have proved useful strategies to address this problem, but their impact on the PEs is less understood,

  8. A Content Analysis of Online Suicide Notes: Attempted Suicide Versus Attempt Resulting in Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, John; Ioannou, Maria; Coyne, Angela; Hemingway, Siobhan

    2017-09-28

    Fifty suicide notes of those who died by suicide and 50 suicide notes of those who survived their suicide attempt were analyzed using Smallest Space Analysis. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of four variables: saying goodbye to their audience, feelings of loneliness, method used to attempt suicide, and negative self-image. Furthermore, three different suicide note themes of those who died and three suicide note themes from those who survived were also identified. The analysis revealed that suicide note writers who died by their attempt were more likely to combine a dislike of themselves and a concern for loved ones. The implications of the work in terms of suicide prevention are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  10. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  11. Emotionally troubled teens' help-seeking behaviors: an evaluation of surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens(®) program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed significant increases in mean scores of the Behavioral Intent to Communicate with Important Others Regarding Emotional Health Issues subscale (p Teens program has a positive effect on help-seeking behaviors in troubled youth. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. HPA axis hyperactivity as suicide predictor in elderly mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is associated with suicidal behaviour and age-associated alterations in HPA axis functioning may render elderly individuals more susceptible to HPA dysregulation related to mood disorders. Research on HPA axis function in suicide prediction in elderly mood disorder patients is sparse. The study sample consisted of 99 depressed elderly inpatients 65 years of age or older admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000. The hypothesis was that elderly mood disorder inpatients who fail to suppress cortisol in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are at higher risk of suicide. The DST non-suppression distinguished between suicides and survivors in elderly depressed inpatients and the suicide attempt at the index episode was a strong predictor for suicide. Additionally, the DST non-suppression showed higher specificity and predictive value in the suicide attempter group. Due to age-associated alterations in HPA axis functioning, the optimal cut-off for DST non-suppression in suicide prediction may be higher in elderly mood disorder inpatients. These data demonstrate the importance of attempted suicide and DST non-suppression as predictors of suicide risk in late-life depression and suggest the use for neuroendocrine testing of HPA axis functioning as a complementary tool in suicide prevention.

  13. Experiences and wisdom behind the numbers: qualitative analysis of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Chelsea L

    2014-09-01

    The Research Prioritization Task Force of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention conducted a stakeholder survey including 716 respondents from 49 U.S. states and 18 foreign countries. To conduct a qualitative analysis on responses from individuals representing four main stakeholder groups: attempt and loss survivors, researchers, providers, and policy/administrators. This article focuses on a qualitative analysis of the early-round, open-ended responses collected in a modified online Delphi process, and, as an illustration of the research method, focuses on analysis of respondents' views of the role of life and emotional skills in suicide prevention. Content analysis was performed using both inductive and deductive code and category development and systematic qualitative methods. After the inductive coding was completed, the same data set was re-coded using the 12 Aspirational Goals (AGs) identified by the Delphi process. Codes and thematic categories produced from the inductive coding process were, in some cases, very similar or identical to the 12 AGs (i.e., those dealing with risk and protective factors, provider training, preventing reattempts, and stigma). Other codes highlighted areas that were not identified as important in the Delphi process (e.g., cultural/social factors of suicide, substance use). Qualitative and mixed-methods research are essential to the future of suicide prevention work. By design, qualitative research is explorative and appropriate for complex, culturally embedded social issues such as suicide. Such research can be used to generate hypotheses for testing and, as in this analysis, illuminate areas that would be missed in an approach that imposed predetermined categories on data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Using Information and Communication Technologies to Prevent Suicide Among Secondary School Students in Two Regions of Chile: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mascayano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing concern for addressing suicide among adolescents in Latin America. Recent mental health policies encourage the development and implementation of preventive interventions for suicide. Such initiatives, however, have been scarcely developed, even in countries with solid mental health services such as Chile. The use of information and communications technology (ICT might contribute to create accessible, engaging, and innovative platforms to promote well-being and support for adolescents with mental health needs and suicide risk.Objective: To evaluate a program based on ICT to prevent suicide and enhance mental health among adolescents in Chile. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT will be conducted including 428 high-school students aged 18–14 years in two regions of Chile. Study procedures will take place as follows: (1 design of the intervention model and creation of prototype; (2 selection and randomization of the participating public schools; (3 implementation of the 3-month intervention and evaluation at baseline, post-intervention period, and a 2-month follow-up. Suicidal ideation at the 2-month follow up is the primary outcome in this study. Secondary outcomes include negative psychological outcomes (e.g., stigma, depression, anxiety as well as a number of protective psychological and social factors. Indicators regarding the study implementation will be also gathered. Discussion: Here we describe a novel program based on technological devices and aimed to target youth suicide in Chile. This is the first clinical trial of such a program in Latin America, and to our knowledge, the first of its kind in any middle income country.Trial Registration: gov Identifier: NCT03514004

  15. Optimal diagnosis, prevention, and management of periprosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafer N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Tafer,1 Wilson Belaieff,1 Céline Cuérel,1 Matthieu Zingg,1 Pierre Hoffmeyer,1 Ilker Uçkay1,2 1Orthopedic Surgery Department, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals and Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: The pace of the aging population is steadily rising worldwide with a parallel increase in the demand for joint replacement procedures. With the increasing number of patients undergoing arthroplasty, there is also an increased risk for arthroplasty infection that may lead to severe complications, poorer outcome, and substantial extra costs for health care systems. Current rates of prosthetic joint infection are not dramatically different from the 1960s or 1970s, but some general principles are now better defined, and their management has been studied extensively during the past decades, thus resulting in a change in clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to summarize important principles of prosthetic joint infection to guide the clinician and to contribute to the optimal diagnosis, prevention, and management of periprosthetic joint infections. Keywords: arthroplasty infection, antibiotic therapy, biofilm, surgery, prevention

  16. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide: learning and behavioural outcomes of a training-of-trainers model to facilitate grassroots community health education to address Indigenous youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Trout, Lucas; Rataj, Suzanne; Kirk, Tanya; Moto, Roberta; McEachern, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) youth suicide remains a substantial and recalcitrant health disparity, especially in rural/remote communities. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES) is a community health intervention that responds to the need for culturally responsive and evidence-supported prevention practice, using a grassroots approach to spark multilevel and community-based efforts for suicide prevention. This paper describes theoretical and practical considerations of the approach, and assesses the feasibility and preliminary learning and behavioural outcomes of the training-of-trainers model. It details the training of a first cohort of intervention facilitators in Northwest Alaska (NWA). Thirty-two people from 11 NWA village communities completed the PC CARES facilitator training, preparing them to implement the intervention in their home communities. Facilitator pre-post surveys focused on readiness to facilitate, a group quiz assessed participants' understanding of relevant research evidence, and practice facilitation exercises demonstrated competency. Curriculum fidelity and accuracy scores were calculated using audio recordings from learning circles conducted by facilitators in their home communities. Facilitator reflections describe the successes of the model and identify several areas for improvement. As of March 2017, 20 of the 32 trained facilitators in 10 of the 11 participating villages have hosted 54 LCs, with a total of 309 unique community members. Coding of these LCs by 2 independent raters indicate acceptable levels of fidelity and accurate dissemination of research evidence by facilitators. Facilitator reflections were positive overall, suggesting PC CARES is feasible, acceptable and potentially impactful as a way to translate research to practice in under-resourced, rural AN communities. PC CARES represents a practical community education and mobilisation approach to Indigenous youth suicide prevention that displays

  17. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    58 D. Budget Proposal……………………………………………………………...59 E. USAF Suicide Data…………………………………………………………..62 F. ZSP Proposed Outline vs . AFSPP... unmarried members (excess relative risk of 18%). Discussion The goals of the AFSPP seems to have been accomplished with the results as outlined in this...95.4% had never experienced combat.16 Unlike their civilian counterparts being married does not appear to have a protective effect on suicidal rates

  19. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide--I. Feasibility (acceptability, adherence, and effectiveness) of a Baerum-model like aftercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high with only limited research been put into effect studies. The Baerum-model from Norway offers a practical and affordable intervention. Our aim was to study the acceptability and effectiveness of a Baerum-model like intervention after attempted suicide using...... a quasi-experimental design. During a period in 2004, attempted suicide patients were offered follow-up care by a rapid-response outreach programme, an intervention lasting 6 months; a control group was established prospectively from a similar period in 2002. The design was an intent-to-treat analysis....... The outcome was measured by: 1) participation by acceptance and adherence, 2) repetition of suicide attempt and suicide, and 3) including the number of repetitive acts in 1 year after the attempted suicide episode. Follow-up period was 1 year. Participation was 70%. There was a significant lower repetition...

  2. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-I. Feasibility (acceptability, adherence, and effectiveness) of a Baerum-model like aftercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, M.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Repetition after attempted suicide is high with only limited research been put into effect studies. The Baerum-model from Norway offers a practical and affordable intervention. Our aim was to study the acceptability and effectiveness of a Baerum-model like intervention after attempted suicide using...... a quasi-experimental design. During a period in 2004, attempted suicide patients were offered follow-up care by a rapid-response outreach programme, an intervention lasting 6 months; a control group was established prospectively from a similar period in 2002. The design was an intent-to-treat analysis....... The outcome was measured by: 1) participation by acceptance and adherence, 2) repetition of suicide attempt and suicide, and 3) including the number of repetitive acts in 1 year after the attempted suicide episode. Follow-up period was 1 year. Participation was 70%. There was a significant lower repetition...

  3. Preventing Suicide through Improved Training in Suicide Risk Assessment and Care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force Report Addressing Serious Gaps in U.S. Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, William M., Jr.; Allen, Michael H.; Feldman, Barry N.; Gutin, Nina J.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Kleespies, Phillip M.; Quinnett, Paul; Simpson, Skip

    2012-01-01

    There are twice as many suicides as homicides in the United States, and the suicide rate is rising. Suicides increased 12% between 1999 and 2009. Mental health professionals often treat suicidal patients, and suicide occurs even among patients who are seeking treatment or are currently in treatment. Despite these facts, training of most mental…

  4. SUICIDE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: CAUSES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide is against the law in Kenya. The existence of suicide phenomena in the society is a major issue that needs to be looked into with a lot of concern, and creating effective preventative measure is a matter of urgency. Knowledge concerning suicide is largely limited. The majority of people in the society treat suicide ...

  5. Moody, Suicide and Survival: A Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) define suicide; (2) explicate Raymond Moody's position on suicide and survival after death; (3) analyze logical connections between divine commands and moral judgments; and (4) offer constructive comments on suicide and suicide prevention. (Author/RC)

  6. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  7. HIV prevention fatigue and HIV treatment optimism among young men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Birkett, Michelle; Janulis, Patrick; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    HIV prevention fatigue (the sense that prevention messages are tiresome) and being overly optimistic about HIV treatments are hypothesized to increase HIV risk behavior. Little research has examined these constructs and their correlates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), who are at high risk for HIV. YMSM (N = 352; M age = 20; 50% Black) completed measures of prevention fatigue, treatment optimism, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge and attitudes during a longitudinal study. Overall, YMSM reported low levels of HIV prevention fatigue and treatment optimism. Path analysis (n = 307) indicated that greater prevention fatigue and treatment optimism predicted higher rates of condomless sex, but condomless sex did not predict later increases in prevention fatigue or treatment optimism. Results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of high prevention fatigue and treatment optimism among YMSM and point to potential causal relationships among these variables and condomless sex. PMID:28825861

  8. Interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation in adolescence: An indirect association through perceived burdensomeness toward others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitron, Victor; Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Green, Kelly L; Hatkevich, Claire; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-15

    Research has documented significant associations between life stress, especially interpersonal stress, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. Little is known about variables that explain the association between interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. The present study evaluated a conceptual model in which interpersonal stress (chronic and episodic) predicted suicidal ideation indirectly via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness among 180 inpatients (65.0% girls) ages 12-17 years (M=14.72, SD=1.49). Non-interpersonal stress was also examined to determine whether the model was specific to interpersonal stress or common to stress in general. Structural equation modeling identified a significant indirect effect of chronic interpersonal stress on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness. Episodic interpersonal stress was significantly correlated with thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, but was not a significant predictor of suicidal ideation in a model that controlled for depressive and anxious symptoms. No significant associations were found between non-interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. Adolescents were the sole informant source, data on psychiatric diagnoses were not available, and the optimal time interval for examining stress remains unclear. The cross-sectional study design prevents conclusions regarding directionality. These findings highlight the role of chronic interpersonal stress in suicidal ideation in adolescents, as well as the potential promise of perceived burdensomeness as a target for programs designed to prevent or reduce suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing individual iron deficiency prevention strategies in physiological pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarskiy V.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sideropenia by the end of pregnancy takes place in all mothers without exception. Moreover, the selective administration of iron preparations, in contrast to the routine, makes it possible to avoid hemochromatosis, frequency of which in the general population makes from 0.5 to 13 %. The aim of the study was to optimize the individual strategy for the prevention of iron deficiency in physiological pregnancy. A prospective pre-experimental study was conducted, the criterion of inclusion in which was the mother’s extragenital and obstetrical pathology during the first half of pregnancy, a burdened obstetric and gynecological anamnesis. The study group of 98 women with a physiological pregnancy in the period of 20 to 24 weeks was recruited by simple ran- dom selection. Serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and serum iron were used to estimate iron deficiency. In the latent stage of iron deficiency against a background of monthly correction with Fenules ® in a dose of 90 mg of elemental iron per day, there was a significant increase in ferritin and iron in the blood rotor. In healthy mothers, during the gestational period of 20–24 weeks, a regularity arises in the replenishment of iron status, especially in the case of repeated pregnancy, which is successfully satisfied during the month of Fenules ® intake in doses of 45 mg or 90 mg per day with a serum ferritin level of, respectively, 30 up to 70 μg/l or less than 30 μg/l.

  10. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virupaksha, H G; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  11. Social-Emotional Needs: A School-Based Approach to Preventing Suicide among Students with Gifts and Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a succinct primer on some of the basic constructs that adults need to know to help keep students with gifts and talents from completing suicide. It focuses on the school as the primary context to look out for potentially suicidal gifted students. This makes sense, as students spend a considerable amount of time in school,…

  12. Suicide Ideation among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…

  13. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  14. The Optimization of Corruption Prevention Towards Indonesia Corruption-free

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Hibnu; Raharjo, Agus; Pranoto

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can't be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indones...

  15. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a serious public health problem. Over 800,000 people worldwide die by suicide every year. In the US, one suicide death occurs approximately every 12 minutes. While the causes of suicide are complex, the goals of suicide prevention are simple?reduce factors that increase risk, and increase factors that promote resilience or coping. Factors that increase suicide risk include family history of suicide, family history of child abuse, previous suicide attempt...

  16. You Can't Recover from Suicide: Perspectives on Suicide Education in MSW Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Gianino, Mark; Muroff, Jordana; McLaughlin, Donna; Feldman, Barry N.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a profound worldwide public health problem that has received increased attention in recent years. The major federal response, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention, calls for more suicide education for mental health professionals, including social workers. Little is known about the amount of suicide education in MSW curricula…

  17. Considerations in the Use of Interactive Voice Recording for the Temporal Assessment of Suicidal Ideation and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Todd M; Maisto, Stephen A; Britton, Peter C; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-09-01

    A greater understanding of the temporal variation of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior is needed to inform more effective prevention efforts. Interactive voice recording (IVR) allows for the study of temporal relationships that cannot be captured with most traditional methodologies. To examine the feasibility of implementing IVR for the assessment of suicidal ideation. Participants (n = 4) receiving a brief intervention based on dialectical behavior therapy were asked to respond to three phone-based surveys each day over 6 weeks that assessed suicidal ideation and alcohol consumption. Participants completed 77.7% of daily assessments, reported that calls were not burdensome, and indicated that calls were sometimes helpful in interrupting suicidal ideation. The preliminary data reported here provide optimism for the use of IVR and other forms of ecological momentary assessment in the exploration of the antecedents of suicidal behavior.

  18. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...... counselling and good information on all aspects of the disease, especially in the first stages and at time of progression, could be an instrument of prevention of suicides in MS patients. Furthermore, recognition and treatment of depression and pain is important....

  19. Suicide Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View Cart | ({{Header.numItems}} Item s ) Home Health & Wellness Mental Health Suicide March 15, 2018 @ 9:56 AM | 3 Min Read | 10105 Views Suicide Awareness Suicide is a serious concern in military communities; ...

  20. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  1. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  2. A social work contribution to suicide prevention through assertive brief psychotherapy and community linkage: use of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Melissa; Joubert, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    There is a striking absence of literature articulating and evaluating clinical social work contributions to suicide prevention, despite considerable practice in this important field. This article reports on a model of assertive brief psychotherapeutic intervention and facilitated linkage to community services utilized in a prospective cohort study of emergency department suicide attempt aftercare. A key outcome measure, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used with 65 patients to assess psychosocial domains at initial presentation, 4-weeks, 3-months, and 6-months. There were significant improvements in the domains of work, finance, leisure, social life, living situation, personal safety and health by 3 months. There were highly significant correlations between psychosocial improvements and improved depression scores.

  3. Can Access to Data Prevent Army Suicides Identifying Optimal Response Strategies for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    activities. One shortfall of this approach, however, is the lack of guidance on how Army leaders should interpret and use these data. To address this gap ...records Personal relationships Divorce, Army Community Service records Financial problems Wage garnishment, creditor notification agreed that leaders...endorsed by three panelists. compared, noting that there are significant differences between battalions with respect to age, gender , and rank

  4. A Journey toward Health and Hope: Your Handbook for Recovery after a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 32. “There were things that I told complete strangers because I knew that they understood where I ... the field of suicide prevention. Excellent website for cutting-edge information about suicide and suicide prevention. http: / / ...

  5. Psychological and sociological aspects of parenting and their relation to suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the evidence on the role of childhood adversities, family structure, and parenting in youth suicidal behavior, and suggests that future suicide research could benefit from investigating how parenting can protect against suicidal behavior in young people at risk. It discusses how empirical studies have moved from routinely including various operationalizations of "non-optimal" parenting as a "risk factor" for adolescent suicidal behavior to identifying pathways of influence and buffer effects. It argues that measures (both at the micro and the macro level) that target vulnerable populations such as parents with weak material and social resources, low social and emotional support, mental health problems and few networks, and high-risk children might be beneficial in preventing youth suicidal behaviors.

  6. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  7. Military and civilian media coverage of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R

    2011-01-01

    Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.

  8. Characteristics of methods of suicide attempts in Korea: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Cha, Boseok; Chung, Young-Chul; Ha, Tae Hyon; Hong Jeong, Seong; Jung, Hee Yeon; Ju, Gawon; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Min-Hyuk; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Moon, Eunsoo; Ahn, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Because the method used for a suicide attempt is an important determinant of outcome, these methods should be explored. The present study was a nationwide investigation of suicide attempts and the characteristics of suicidal behavior. To compare the suicide methods used in attempted suicides with those used in completed suicides and to examine the factors associated with each phenomenon. The present study reviewed the medical charts of subjects who had attempted suicide and subsequently visited the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers from May 1, 2013 to November 7, 2013. All subjects completed a full psychiatric interview conducted by trained psychiatric residents. Suicide-attempt methods were divided into the following six categories: drug poisoning, pesticide poisoning, gassing, cutting, hanging, and others. The associations among demographic variables, related psychiatric variables, and suicide-attempt methods were analyzed using a multinomial regression analysis. Of the 1359 suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries and the 14,160 completed suicides, drug poisoning and cutting were the most common suicidal behaviors with/without injuries, but they were the least frequent method of completed suicides. In contrast, hanging and jumping from a height were less common among failed suicide attempts but resulted in a higher percentage of fatalities. Being male, age, and area of residence were associated with pesticide poisoning, whereas previous suicide attempts were associated with cutting, pesticide poisoning, and gassing. A previous suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide; thus, assessing the characteristics of suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries is necessary to prevent these attempts. The present findings showed that the methods of suicide used by individuals who only attempted suicide differed from those used by individuals who completed. Of the suicide methods, pesticide

  9. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  10. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  11. Association between level of suicide risk, characteristics of suicide attempts, and mental disorders among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Youn, Tak; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Haesoo; Lee, Hyo Chu; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2018-04-11

    Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response). High-risk suicide attempters had more past attempts compared with moderate- and low-risk suicide attempters. Suicide attempts were closely linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities regardless of degree of current level of suicide risk, but the relative risk for having at least one mental disorder was the highest in high-risk attempters. Specifically, the relative risks for depressive disorder, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders were higher in high-risk attempters, and relative risk for somatoform disorder was higher in low-risk attempters than others. Our findings indicated that special attention is required for suicide attempters with a history of repeated attempts and current mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders.

  12. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Phyo; Pisani, Anthony R; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-11-09

    Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for "upstream" youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer 'opinion leader' programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength-an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program-and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target population to spread public health messages. ©Phyo Thiha, Anthony

  13. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  14. Suicide among War Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Rozanov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  15. Suicide among war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its' frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.

  16. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  17. Emotional Responses to Suicidal Patients: Factor Structure, Construct, and Predictive Validity of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form

    OpenAIRE

    Shira Barzilay; Zimri S. Yaseen; Zimri S. Yaseen; Mariah Hawes; Bernard Gorman; Rachel Altman; Adriana Foster; Alan Apter; Paul Rosenfield; Igor Galynker; Igor Galynker

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMental health professionals have a pivotal role in suicide prevention. However, they also often have intense emotional responses, or countertransference, during encounters with suicidal patients. Previous studies of the Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form (TRQ-SF), a brief novel measure aimed at probing a distinct set of suicide-related emotional responses to patients found it to be predictive of near-term suicidal behavior among high suicide-risk inpatients. The purpose o...

  18. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Identification of Optimal Preventive Maintenance Decisions for Composite Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laks, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Gherman, B.; Porumbel, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a decision support tool which identifies cost-optimal maintenance decisions for a given planning period. Simultaneously, the reliability state of the component is kept at or below a given reliability threshold: a failure limit policy applies. The tool is developed to support

  20. Discussion of Late-Life Suicide: How Social Workers Perceive and Intervene in Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…