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Sample records for optimizing odor-baited trap

  1. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

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    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  2. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

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    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  3. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

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    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  4. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

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    Pedro N. Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804 and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869 - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.

  5. Optimization and simulation of MEMS rectilinear ion trap

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    Huang Gang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a MEMS rectilinear ion trap was optimized under simulated conditions. The size range of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap’s electrodes studied in this paper is measured at micron scale. SIMION software was used to simulate the MEMS rectilinear ion trap with different sizes and different radio-frequency signals. The ion-trapping efficiencies of the ion trap under these different simulation conditions were obtained. The ion-trapping efficiencies were compared to determine the performance of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap in different conditions and to find the optimum conditions. The simulation results show that for the ion trap at micron scale or smaller, the optimized length–width ratio was 0.8, and a higher frequency of radio-frequency signal is necessary to obtain a higher ion-trapping efficiency. These results have a guiding role in the process of developing MEMS rectilinear ion traps, and great application prospects in the research fields of the MEMS rectilinear ion trap and the MEMS mass spectrometer.

  6. Optimization of multifunnel traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): influence of size, trap coating, and color.

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    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    Field assays were conducted in southeastern and south-central Michigan in 2011 and 2012 to optimize green and purple multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps for use as a survey tool for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Larger sized (12- and 16-unit) multifunnel traps caught more beetles than their smaller-sized (4- and 8-unit) counterparts. Green traps coated with untinted (white) fluon caught almost four times as many adult A. planipennis as Rain-X and tinted (green) fluon-coated traps and almost 33 times more beetles than untreated control traps. Purple multifunnel traps generally caught much lower numbers of A. planipennis adults than green traps, and trap catch on them was not affected by differences in the type of coating applied. However, trap coating was necessary as untreated control purple traps caught significantly less beetles than traps treated with Rain-X and untinted or tinted (purple) fluon. Proportions of male beetles captured were generally much higher on green traps than on purple traps, but sex ratios were not affected by trap coating. In 2012, a new shade of purple plastic, based on a better color match to an attractive purple paint than the previously used purple, was used for trapping assays. When multifunnel traps were treated with fluon, green traps caught more A. planipennis adults than both shades of purple and a prism trap that was manufactured based on the same color match. Trap catch was not affected by diluting the fluon concentration applied to traps to 50% (1:1 mixture in water). At 10%, trap catch was significantly lowered.

  7. Probing Entanglement in Adiabatic Quantum Optimization with Trapped Ions

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    Philipp eHauke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic quantum optimization has been proposed as a route to solve NP-complete problems, with a possible quantum speedup compared to classical algorithms. However, the precise role of quantum effects, such as entanglement, in these optimization protocols is still unclear. We propose a setup of cold trapped ions that allows one to quantitatively characterize, in a controlled experiment, the interplay of entanglement, decoherence, and non-adiabaticity in adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that, in this way, a broad class of NP-complete problems becomes accessible for quantum simulations, including the knapsack problem, number partitioning, and instances of the max-cut problem. Moreover, a general theoretical study reveals correlations of the success probability with entanglement at the end of the protocol. From exact numerical simulations for small systems and linear ramps, however, we find no substantial correlations with the entanglement during the optimization. For the final state, we derive analytically a universal upper bound for the success probability as a function of entanglement, which can be measured in experiment. The proposed trapped-ion setups and the presented study of entanglement address pertinent questions of adiabatic quantum optimization, which may be of general interest across experimental platforms.

  8. Optimization of Pheromone Traps for Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

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    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael John; Allison, Jeremy Dean; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2.5:2.5 volumetric blend of Z9-14:OAc, Z9-14:OH, and 14Ac was superior to similarly baited standard bucket funnel and delta traps. We also estimated the release rate and ratios of the pheromone compounds loaded into an artificial permeation dispenser through solid-phase microextraction sampling. Results showed that the released blend of pheromone compounds mirrored the dispensed ratios relatively accurately and that release rates are affected by temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Configuration analysis and optimization on multipolar Galatea trap

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    Tong, W. M., E-mail: dianqi@hit.edu.cn; Tao, B. Q.; Jin, X. J.; Li, Z. W. [Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation (China)

    2016-10-15

    Multipolar Galatea magnetic trap simulation model was established with the finite element simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics. Analyses about the magnetic section configuration show that better magnetic configuration should make more plasma stay in the weak magnetic field rather than the annular magnetic shell field. Then an optimization model was established with axial electromagnetic force, weak magnetic field area and average magnetic mirror ratio as the optimization goals and with the currents of myxines as design variables. Select appropriate weight coefficients and get optimization results by applying genetic algorithm. Results show that the superiority of the target value of typical application parameters, including the average magnetic mirror can reduce more than 5%, the weak magnetic field area can increase at least 65%, at the same time, axial electromagnetic force acting on the outer myxines can be reduced to less than 50 N. Finally, the results were proved by COMSOL Multiphysics and the results proved the optimized magnetic trap configuration with more plasma in the weak magnetic field can reduce the plasma diffusion velocity and is more conducive for the constraint of plasma.

  10. New element for optimizing the functioning of sediment traps

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    Schwindt, Sebastian; Franca, Mário; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Sediment traps protect urban areas against excessive sediment transport during hazardous floods and consist typically of a retention basin with an open sediment check dam at the downstream end. The design, as well as the morphological processes within the retention basin, were analyzed by several authors. With regard to open sediment check dams two types of triggering mechanisms for the initiation of sediment retention can be distinguished: (1) mechanical and (2) hydraulic clogging of the structure. Recent studies have shown that outlet structures combining both clogging principles may be considered to avoid undesired self-flushing. Further elements of check dams are conceivable, e.g. for retaining or conveying driftwood. This study analyses experimentally working principles and design criteria of standard elements of sediment traps. Furthermore, it introduces a new structural element to the sediment trap design with a guiding channel in the retention reservoir. Taking into account the natural shape of mountain rivers, the guiding channel has a trapezoidal cross-section shape and a rough but fixed bed. The effect of the guiding channel on sediment deposition pattern and re-mobilization are studied by means of physical model experiments with a standardized hydrograph and variable sediment supply. The results are evaluated by means of zenithal pictures and bedload transport rate, measured at the downstream end of the model. Major advantages of the combined use of both clogging principles include an improved control of the initiation of sediment deposition in order to allow for sediment transfer for small floods and a reduction of hazards related to self-flushing.

  11. A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates

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    Damiano Preatoni

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.

  12. Optimal wavelength scale diffraction gratings for light trapping in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Teck Kong; Wilson, Jonathan; Mokkapati, Sudha; Catchpole, Kylie R

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric gratings are a promising method of achieving light trapping for thin crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, we systematically examine the potential performance of thin silicon solar cells with either silicon (Si) or titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) gratings using numerical simulations. The square pyramid structure with silicon nitride coating provides the best light trapping among all the symmetric structures investigated, with 89% of the expected short circuit current density of the Lambertian case. For structures where the grating is at the rear of the cell, we show that the light trapping provided by the square pyramid and the checkerboard structure is almost identical. Introducing asymmetry into the grating structures can further improve their light trapping properties. An optimized Si skewed pyramid grating on the front surface of the solar cell results in a maximum short circuit current density, J sc , of 33.4 mA cm −2 , which is 91% of the J sc expected from an ideal Lambertian scatterer. An optimized Si skewed pyramid grating on the rear performs as well as a rear Lambertian scatterer and an optimized TiO 2 grating on the rear results in 84% of the J sc expected from an optimized Si grating. The results show that submicron symmetric and skewed pyramids of Si or TiO 2 are a highly effective way of achieving light trapping in thin film solar cells. TiO 2 structures would have the additional advantage of not increasing recombination within the cell. (paper)

  13. The optimism trap: Migrants' educational choices in stratified education systems.

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    Tjaden, Jasper Dag; Hunkler, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Immigrant children's ambitious educational choices have often been linked to their families' high level of optimism and motivation for upward mobility. However, previous research has mostly neglected alternative explanations such as information asymmetries or anticipated discrimination. Moreover, immigrant children's higher dropout rates at the higher secondary and university level suggest that low performing migrant students could have benefitted more from pursuing less ambitious tracks, especially in countries that offer viable vocational alternatives. We examine ethnic minority's educational choices using a sample of academically low performing, lower secondary school students in Germany's highly stratified education system. We find that their families' optimism diverts migrant students from viable vocational alternatives. Information asymmetries and anticipated discrimination do not explain their high educational ambitions. While our findings further support the immigrant optimism hypothesis, we discuss how its effect may have different implications depending on the education system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Optimal design of a 7 T highly homogeneous superconducting magnet for a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; He Yuan; Ma Lizhen; Huang Wenxue; Xia Jiawen

    2010-01-01

    A Penning trap system called Lanzhou Penning Trap (LPT) is now being developed for precise mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics(IMP). One of the key components is a 7 T actively shielded superconducting magnet with a clear warm bore of 156 mm. The required field homogeneity is 3 x 10 -7 over two 1 cubic centimeter volumes lying 220 mm apart along the magnet axis. We introduce a two-step method which combines linear programming and a nonlinear optimization algorithm for designing the multi-section superconducting magnet. This method is fast and flexible for handling arbitrary shaped homogeneous volumes and coils. With the help of this method an optimal design for the LPT superconducting magnet has been obtained. (authors)

  15. Multivariate optimization of headspace trap for furan and furfural simultaneous determination in sponge cake.

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    Cepeda-Vázquez, Mayela; Blumenthal, David; Camel, Valérie; Rega, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Furan, a possibly carcinogenic compound to humans, and furfural, a naturally occurring volatile contributing to aroma, can be both found in thermally treated foods. These process-induced compounds, formed by close reaction pathways, play an important role as markers of food safety and quality. A method capable of simultaneously quantifying both molecules is thus highly relevant for developing mitigation strategies and preserving the sensory properties of food at the same time. We have developed a unique reliable and sensitive headspace trap (HS trap) extraction method coupled to GC-MS for the simultaneous quantification of furan and furfural in a solid processed food (sponge cake). HS Trap extraction has been optimized using an optimal design of experiments (O-DOE) approach, considering four instrumental and two sample preparation variables, as well as a blocking factor identified during preliminary assays. Multicriteria and multiple response optimization was performed based on a desirability function, yielding the following conditions: thermostatting temperature, 65°C; thermostatting time, 15min; number of pressurization cycles, 4; dry purge time, 0.9min; water / sample amount ratio (dry basis), 16; and total amount (water + sample amount, dry basis), 10g. The performances of the optimized method were also assessed: repeatability (RSD: ≤3.3% for furan and ≤2.6% for furfural), intermediate precision (RSD: 4.0% for furan and 4.3% for furfural), linearity (R 2 : 0.9957 for furan and 0.9996 for furfural), LOD (0.50ng furan g sample dry basis -1 and 10.2ng furfural g sample dry basis -1 ), LOQ (0.99ng furan g sample dry basis -1 and 41.1ng furfural g sample dry basis -1 ). Matrix effect was observed mainly for furan. Finally, the optimized method was applied to other sponge cakes with different matrix characteristics and levels of analytes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Dynamic regime of coherent population trapping and optimization of frequency modulation parameters in atomic clocks.

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    Yudin, V I; Taichenachev, A V; Basalaev, M Yu; Kovalenko, D V

    2017-02-06

    We theoretically investigate the dynamic regime of coherent population trapping (CPT) in the presence of frequency modulation (FM). We have formulated the criteria for quasi-stationary (adiabatic) and dynamic (non-adiabatic) responses of atomic system driven by this FM. Using the density matrix formalism for Λ system, the error signal is exactly calculated and optimized. It is shown that the optimal FM parameters correspond to the dynamic regime of atomic-field interaction, which significantly differs from conventional description of CPT resonances in the frame of quasi-stationary approach (under small modulation frequency). Obtained theoretical results are in good qualitative agreement with different experiments. Also we have found CPT-analogue of Pound-Driver-Hall regime of frequency stabilization.

  17. Neutron lifetime experiments using magnetically trapped neutrons: optimal background correction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the first stage of each run of a neutron lifetime experiment, a magnetic trap is filled with neutrons. In the second stage of each run, decay events plus background events are observed. In a separate experiment, background is measured. The mean lifetime is estimated by fitting a two parameter exponential model to the background-corrected data. For two models of the background signal, I determine the optimal ratio of the number of 'background-only' measurements to the number of primary 'neutron decay plus background' measurements. Further, for each run, I determine the optimal allocation of time for filling and for observing decay events. For the case where the background consists of an activated material (aluminum) plus a stationary Poisson process, the asymptotic standard error of the lifetime estimate computed from the background-corrected data is lower than the asymptotic standard error computed from the uncorrected data. For the case where the background is a stationary Poisson process, background correction is desirable provided that the background intensity is sufficiently small compared to the rate at which neutrons enter the trap

  18. Optimization of particle trapping and patterning via photovoltaic tweezers: role of light modulation and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matarrubia, J; García-Cabañes, A; Plaza, J L; Agulló-López, F; Carrascosa, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of light modulation m and particle size on the morphology and spatial resolution of nano-particle patterns obtained by photovoltaic tweezers on Fe : LiNbO 3 has been investigated. The impact of m when using spherical as well as non-spherical (anisotropic) nano-particles deposited on the sample surface has been elucidated. Light modulation is a key parameter determining the particle profile contrast that is optimum for spherical particles and high-m values (m ∼ 1). The minimum particle periodicities reachable are also investigated obtaining periodic patterns up to 3.5 µm. This is a value at least one order of magnitude shorter than those obtained in previous reported experiments. Results are successfully explained and discussed in light of the previous reported models for photorefraction including nonlinear carrier transport and dielectrophoretic trapping. From the results, a number of rules for particle patterning optimization are derived. (paper)

  19. Optimization of a Scintillator for the Measurement of Positrons from Trapped, Polarized 37K

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Erin; Melconian, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Precision beta decay experiments can be used to test the Standard Model via their value of correlation parameters. The TRINAT Collaboration is performing such an experiment using a source of polarized 37K from a magneto optical trap. The momentum of an emitted positron will be detected using a Silicon strip detector backed by a plastic scintillator. The goal of my research was to optimize the readout of the scintillator by testing different experimental setups. The front face and sides of the scintillator and light guide were wrapped with various reflective materials to find which maximized the light output. We found that one layer of Teflon tape on the front face with a loose wrapping of 3M-ESR (Enhanced Spectral Reflector) on the sides was optimal. We then tested the position dependence of this detector by moving a collimated source of betas across the front face, showing only a (5.9 +/- 0.5)% reduction in light collection at the edge compared to the center. The product of this work will be used in the upcoming TRINAT experiment measuring the beta asymmetry of 37K.

  20. Ultratrace determination of lead by hydride generation in-atomizer trapping atomic absorption spectrometry: Optimization of plumbane generation and analyte preconcentration in a quartz trap-and-atomizer device

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    Kratzer, Jan, E-mail: jkratzer@biomed.cas.cz

    2012-05-15

    A compact trap-and-atomizer device and a preconcentration procedure based on hydride trapping in excess of oxygen over hydrogen in the collection step, both constructed and developed previously in our laboratory, were employed to optimize plumbane trapping in this device and to develop a routine method for ultratrace lead determination subsequently. The inherent advantage of this preconcentration approach is that 100% preconcentration efficiency for lead is reached in this device which has never been reported before using quartz or metal traps. Plumbane is completely retained in the trap-and-atomizer device at 290 Degree-Sign C in oxygen-rich atmosphere and trapped species are subsequently volatilized at 830 Degree-Sign C in hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Effect of relevant experimental parameters on plumbane trapping and lead volatilization are discussed, and possible trapping mechanisms are hypothesized. Plumbane trapping in the trap-and-atomizer device can be routinely used for lead determination at ultratrace levels reaching a detection limit of 0.21 ng ml{sup -1} Pb (30 s preconcentration, sample volume 2 ml). Further improvement of the detection limit is feasible by reducing the blank signal and increasing the trapping time. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-atomizer trapping HG-AAS was optimized for Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A compact quartz trap-and-atomizer device was employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generation, preconcentration and atomization steps were investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 100% preconcentration efficiency for lead was reached. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analytical method was developed for Pb determination (LOD of 0.2 ng ml{sup -1} Pb).

  1. Thermocapillary actuation by optimized resistor pattern: bubbles and droplets displacing, switching and trapping.

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    Selva, Bertrand; Miralles, Vincent; Cantat, Isabelle; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2010-07-21

    We report a novel method for bubble or droplet displacement, capture and switching within a bifurcation channel for applications in digital microfluidics based on the Marangoni effect, i.e. the appearance of thermocapillary tangential interface stresses stemming from local surface tension variations. The specificity of the reported actuation is that heating is provided by an optimized resistor pattern (B. Selva, J. Marchalot and M.-C. Jullien, An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics, J. Micromech. Microeng., 2009, 19, 065002) leading to a constant temperature gradient along a microfluidic cavity. In this context, bubbles or droplets to be actuated entail a surface force originating from the thermal Marangoni effect. This actuator has been characterized (B. Selva, I. Cantat, and M.-C. Jullien, Migration of a bubble towards a higher surface tension under the effect of thermocapillary stress, preprint, 2009) and it was found that the bubble/droplet (called further element) is driven toward a high surface tension region, i.e. toward cold region, and the element velocity increases while decreasing the cavity thickness. Taking advantage of these properties three applications are presented: (1) element displacement, (2) element switching, detailed in a given range of working, in which elements are redirected towards a specific evacuation, (3) a system able to trap, and consequently stop on demand, the elements on an alveolus structure while the continuous phase is still flowing. The strength of this method lies in its simplicity: single layer system, in situ heating leading to a high level of integration, low power consumption (P < 0.4 W), low applied voltage (about 10 V), and finally this system is able to manipulate elements within a flow velocity up to 1 cm s(-1).

  2. Light-trapping optimization in wet-etched silicon photonic crystal solar cells

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    Eyderman, Sergey, E-mail: sergey.eyderman@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Department of Physics, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hafez, M.; Al-Ameer, S. S.; Al-Harby, T. S.; Al-Hadeethi, Y. [Department of Physics, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bouwes, D. M. [iX-factory GmbH, Konrad Adenauer–Allee 11, 44263 Dortmund (Germany)

    2015-07-14

    We demonstrate, by numerical solution of Maxwell's equations, near-perfect solar light-trapping and absorption over the 300–1100 nm wavelength band in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) architectures, amenable to fabrication by wet-etching and requiring less than 10 μm (equivalent bulk thickness) of crystalline silicon. These PhC's consist of square lattices of inverted pyramids with sides comprised of various (111) silicon facets and pyramid center-to-center spacing in the range of 1.3–2.5 μm. For a wet-etched slab with overall height H = 10 μm and lattice constant a = 2.5 μm, we find a maximum achievable photo-current density (MAPD) of 42.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, falling not far from 43.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 100% solar absorption in the range of 300–1100 nm. We also demonstrate a MAPD of 37.8 mA/cm{sup 2} for a thinner silicon PhC slab of overall height H = 5 μm and lattice constant a = 1.9 μm. When H is further reduced to 3 μm, the optimal lattice constant for inverted pyramids reduces to a = 1.3 μm and provides the MAPD of 35.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. These wet-etched structures require more than double the volume of silicon, in comparison to the overall mathematically optimum PhC structure (consisting of slanted conical pores), to achieve the same degree of solar absorption. It is suggested these 3–10 μm thick structures are valuable alternatives to currently utilized 300 μm-thick textured solar cells and are suitable for large-scale fabrication by wet-etching.

  3. General method for simultaneous optimization of light trapping and carrier collection in an ultra-thin film organic photovoltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia, E-mail: ct2443@columbia.edu; Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Osgood, Richard M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Englund, Dirk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980 mA/cm{sup 2} for 30 nm and 45 nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30 nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45 nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.

  4. Central bank balance sheet concerns and credible optimal escape from the Liquidity trap

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Arthur Galego

    2001-01-01

    I show that when a central bank is financially independent from the treasury and has balance sheet concerns, an increase in the size or a change in the composition of the central bank's balance sheet (quantitative easing) can serve as a commitment device in a liquidity trap scenario. In particular, when the short-term interest rate is up against the zero lower bound, an open market operation by the central bank that involves purchases of long-term bonds can help mitigate the ...

  5. Optimal management of ecosystem services with pollution traps : The lake model revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, Aart; Grass, Dieter; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, optimal management of the lake model and common-property outcomes are reconsidered when the lake model is extended with the slowly changing variable. New optimal trajectories are found that were hidden in the simplified analysis. Furthermore, it is shown that two Nash equilibria may

  6. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, Claiborne O; Yu, Edward T; Hu, Dongzhi; Schaadt, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Sub-wavelength photonic structures and nanoscale materials have the potential to greatly improve the efficiencies of solar cells by enabling maximum absorption of sunlight. Semiconductor heterostructures provide versatile opportunities for improving absorption of infrared radiation in photovoltaic devices, which accounts for half of the power in the solar spectrum. These ideas can be combined in quantum-well solar cells and related structures in which sub-wavelength metal and dielectric scattering elements are integrated for light trapping. Measurements and simulations of GaAs solar cells with less than one micron of active material demonstrate the benefits of incorporating In(Ga)As quantum-wells and quantum-dots to improve their performance. Simulations that incorporate a realistic model of absorption in quantum-wells show that the use of broadband photonic structures with such devices can substantially improve the benefit of incorporating heterostructures, enabling meaningful improvements in their performance

  7. Optimal cooperation-trap strategies for the iterated rock-paper-scissors game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong Bi

    Full Text Available In an iterated non-cooperative game, if all the players act to maximize their individual accumulated payoff, the system as a whole usually converges to a Nash equilibrium that poorly benefits any player. Here we show that such an undesirable destiny is avoidable in an iterated Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS game involving two rational players, X and Y. Player X has the option of proactively adopting a cooperation-trap strategy, which enforces complete cooperation from the rational player Y and leads to a highly beneficial and maximally fair situation to both players. That maximal degree of cooperation is achievable in such a competitive system with cyclic dominance of actions may stimulate further theoretical and empirical studies on how to resolve conflicts and enhance cooperation in human societies.

  8. Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, M S; Millar, J G; Hoddle, C D; Zou, Y; McElfresh, J S; Lesch, S M

    2011-04-01

    The sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer was evaluated in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala to determine operational parameters, such as optimal lure type, trap height, trap density and estimates of the distances that male moths fly. Of four pheromone dispensers tested, gray and white rubber septa were of equal efficacy, whereas 1-ml low-density polyethylene vials and 2×3-cm polyethylene ziplock bags were least efficacious. The height at which wing traps were hung did not significantly affect the number of adult male S. catenifer captured. For monitoring S. catenifer, these data suggest that the pheromone should be dispensed from gray rubber septa in wing traps hung inside the tree canopy at 1.75 m, a height convenient for trap placement and monitoring. Mark-recapture studies of male S. catenifer indicated that, on average, males flew 67 m in one night. However, it is likely that this is an underestimate of the distance that male moths are capable of flying in a single night. Probabilistic modeling of S. catenifer capture data from different numbers of pheromone traps deployed in seven commercial avocado orchards of varying sizes and infestation levels suggested that 10-13 randomly deployed traps per orchard for a 7-day period are needed to detect at least one male S. catenifer with 90% confidence. These data provide sufficient information to develop effective protocols for using the S. catenifer pheromone to detect and monitor this pest in countries with endemic populations that are exporting fresh avocados, and for quarantine detection and incursion monitoring in countries receiving avocado imports from high risk areas.

  9. Optimization of the cold trap design for the KASOLA sodium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onea, Alexandru; Lux, Martin; Hering, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The KASOLA (KArlsruhe SOdium LAboratory) experimental facility is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The facility serves for research activities on thermal-hydraulics for liquid metal operated systems for transmutation (fast systems, normal operation, transient behaviour, testing of emergency cooling systems), accelerator target development, applications and development of free surface liquid metal targets for accelerators, as well as feasibility studies of liquid metals for solar applications. Supporting heat transfer studies regarding the development of turbulent liquid metal heat transfer models for CFD tools are also foreseen. In sodium operated facilities several impurities can be released during operation, e.g. argon, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon etc., with several adverse effects such as reducing the thermal performance and/or damaging structural materials. The major impurities monitored are sodium oxide Na 2 O and sodium hydride NaH. Hydrogen can diffuse through the steel pipes of the sodium-air heat exchanger or, in a worse case can be generated by a sodium-water reaction, denoting therefore a leak in the tubes of the heat exchanger. Oxygen may origin from the contact with air during maintenance or from the oxide layer of metallic structures initially exposed to sodium during set into operation procedures. The oxygen as an impurity leads to the corrosion of the steel surfaces, therefore values < 2 ppm have to be ensured, while for hydrogen the accepted amount is about 50 ppb (Hemanath et al.). The sodium purification is performed in a cold trap that allows the agglomeration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride on the large surface of a wire mesh. (orig.)

  10. Optimization of pheromone lure and trap design for monitoring the fire coneworm, Dioryctria abietivorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Strong; J. G. Millar; G. G. Grant; J. A. Moreira; J. M. Chong; C. Rodolph

    2008-01-01

    The major components of the sex pheromone of Dioryctria abietivorella (Groté) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were recently identified as (9Z,11E)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate (9Z,11E-14:Ac) and a polyunsaturated, long-chain hydrocarbon (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (C25 pentaene). The optimal ratio of these components and the role of potential minor components were not...

  11. Mass Spectrometry Parameters Optimization for the 46 Multiclass Pesticides Determination in Strawberries with Gas Chromatography Ion-Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Vera, Jose L.; Domingues, Valentina F.; Silva, Luís M. S.; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Multiclass analysis method was optimized in order to analyze pesticides traces by gas chromatography with ion-trap and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of some analytical parameters on pesticide signal response was explored. Five ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS) operating parameters, including isolation time (IT), excitation voltage (EV), excitation time (ET), maximum excitation energy or " q" value (q), and isolation mass window (IMW) were numerically tested in order to maximize the instrument analytical signal response. For this, multiple linear regression was used in data analysis to evaluate the influence of the five parameters on the analytical response in the ion trap mass spectrometer and to predict its response. The assessment of the five parameters based on the regression equations substantially increased the sensitivity of IT-MS/MS in the MS/MS mode. The results obtained show that for most of the pesticides, these parameters have a strong influence on both signal response and detection limit. Using the optimized method, a multiclass pesticide analysis was performed for 46 pesticides in a strawberry matrix. Levels higher than the limit established for strawberries by the European Union were found in some samples.

  12. Analytical characterization and optimization in the determination of trihalomethanes on drinking water by purge and trap coupled to a gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, Nelson Vicente da

    2010-01-01

    This work shows an analytical methodology developed and optimized to determine trihalomethanes level THMs, in drinking water samples, using purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography (GC-PT). THMs are byproducts water chlorination, these compounds must have a maximum of 100 μg.L -1 under Brazilian law, due these compounds be suspected human carcinogens base on studies in laboratory animals. The technique of purge and trap efficiently extracts these compounds from water, and the gas chromatograph separates the THMs. The GC uses a light polarity column and electron capture detector. This detector is selective and more sensitive in the detection of these compounds. The methodology was validated in terms of: linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, quantification limit, detection limit and robustness. The detection limit was less than 0,5 μg.L -1 . The accuracy and precision were adequate for testing the trace compounds. The drinking water samples were collected in the city of Suzano-SP, which belongs to 'Alto do Tiete', in this region lay 'Tiete' river with predominant vegetation. The THMs compound found in drinking water at higher concentrations was chloroform where the spread of values found between 15,9 to 111,0 μg.L -1 in drinking water. (author)

  13. ATRAP - Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzonka, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Lesage, D.; Levitt, B.; Speck, A.; Haensch, T.W.; Pittner, H.; Walz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom.Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen.For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP

  14. ATRAP Progress Towards Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trapping tests of charged particles within a combined magnetic/Penning trap have started at ATRAP.

  15. Trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, E., E-mail: eoin.butler@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only {approx}1 T ({approx}0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be 'born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10{sup 4} times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released-the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  16. Two-baffle trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, properties of two-baffle macroparticle traps were investigated. These properties are needed for designing and optimization of vacuum arc plasma filters. The dependencies between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations made allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators containing such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of two-baffle traps in filters of different builds are given

  17. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based syntheti...

  18. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-03-14

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states.

  19. Spin resonance with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E

    2003-01-01

    A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped 171 Yb + , we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states

  20. Ripple Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  1. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  2. Search for tsetse attractants : A structure-activity study on 1-octen-3-ol in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanNaters, WMVG; Bootsma, L; denOtter, CJ; Belemtougri, RG

    Trapping tsetse flies belonging to the palpalis group still relies totally upon luring by visual cues even though odor-baited trapping is used effectively against the morsitans-group species. Forty-three percent of the antennal olfactory cells of Glossina f. fuscipes, a member of the palpalis group,

  3. Globalisation Trapped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Caraça

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The promise of making society progress through the direct applications of science was finally fulfilled in the mid-20th century. Science progressed immensely, propelled by the effects of the two world wars. The first science-based technologies saw the daylight during the 1940s and their transformative power was such that neither the military, nor subsequently the markets, allowed science to return intact to its curiosity-driven nest. Technoscience was born then and (being progressively pulled away from curiosity-driven science was able to grow enormously, erecting a formidable structure of networks of institutions that impacted decisively on the economy. It is a paradox, or maybe a trap, that the fulfillment of science’s solemn promise of ‘transforming nature’ means seeing ourselves and our Western societies entangled in crises after crises with no clear outcome in view. A redistribution of geopolitical power is under way, along with the deployment of information and communication technologies, forcing dominant structures to oscillate, as knowledge about organization and methods, marketing, design, and software begins to challenge the role of technoscience as the main vector of economic growth and wealth accumulation. What ought to be done?

  4. Cryogenic surface ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, M.

    2015-01-01

    Microfabricated surface traps are a promising architecture to realize a scalable quantum computer based on trapped ions. In principle, hundreds or thousands of surface traps can be located on a single substrate in order to provide large arrays of interacting ions. To this end, trap designs and fabrication methods are required that provide scalable, stable and reproducible ion traps. This work presents a novel surface-trap design developed for cryogenic applications. Intrinsic silicon is used as the substrate material of the traps. The well-developed microfabrication and structuring methods of silicon are utilized to create simple and reproducible traps. The traps were tested and characterized in a cryogenic setup. Ions could be trapped and their life time and motional heating were investigated. Long ion lifetimes of several hours were observed and the measured heating rates were reproducibly low at around 1 phonon per second at a trap frequency of 1 MHz. (author) [de

  5. The LEBIT 9.4 T Penning trap system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringle, R.; Bollen, G.; Schury, P.; Sun, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Lawton, D.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The initial experimental program with the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility, or LEBIT, will concentrate on Penning trap mass measurements of rare isotopes, delivered by the Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) of the NSCL. The LEBIT Penning trap system has been optimized for high-accuracy mass measurements of very short-lived isotopes. (orig.)

  6. The LEBIT 9.4 T Penning trap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringle, R.; Bollen, G.; Schury, P.; Sun, T.; Lawton, D.; Schwarz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The initial experimental program with the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap Facility, or LEBIT, will concentrate on Penning trap mass measurements of rare isotopes, delivered by the Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) of the NSCL. The LEBIT Penning trap system has been optimized for high-accuracy mass measurements of very short-lived isotopes. (orig.)

  7. A Computer Model of Insect Traps in a Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Hall, Brian; Geib, Scott M.

    2014-11-01

    Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. We present a landscape-level, spatially explicit model of trap networks, focused on detection, that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. We describe the model and validate its behavior using field trap data on networks targeting two species, Ceratitis capitata and Anoplophora glabripennis. Our model will assist efforts to optimize trap networks by 1) introducing an accessible and realistic mathematical characterization of the operation of a single trap that lends itself easily to parametrization via field experiments and 2) allowing direct quantification and comparison of sensitivity between trap networks. Results from the two case studies indicate that the relationship between number of traps and their spatial distribution and capture probability under the model is qualitatively dependent on the attractiveness of the traps, a result with important practical consequences.

  8. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap......, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  9. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  10. Etching process optimization using NH{sub 4}Cl aqueous solution to texture ZnO:Al films for efficient light trapping in flexible thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S., E-mail: susanamaria.fernandez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM and Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Electronica, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J.J. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-04-02

    0.5 {mu}m-thick aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited at 100 Degree-Sign C on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by Radio Frequency magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited films were compact and dense, showing grain sizes of 32.0 {+-} 6.4 nm and resistivities of (8.5 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm. The average transmittance in the visible wavelength range of the structure ZnO:Al/PET was around 77%. The capability of a novel two-step chemical etching using diluted NH{sub 4}Cl aqueous solution to achieve efficient textured surfaces for light trapping was analyzed. The results indicated that both the aqueous solution and the etching method resulted appropriated to obtain etched surfaces with a surface roughness of 32 {+-} 5 nm, haze factors at 500 nm of 9% and light scattering at angles up to 50 Degree-Sign . To validate all these results, a commercially ITO coated PET substrate was used for comparison.

  11. Angular trap for macroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksyonov, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Properties of angular macroparticle traps were investigated in this work. These properties are required to design vacuum arc plasma filters. The correlation between trap geometry parameters and its ability to absorb macroparticles were found. Calculations allow one to predict the behaviour of filtering abilities of separators which contain such traps in their design. Recommendations regarding the use of angular traps in filters of different builds are given.

  12. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    variations of ion traps, including (1) the cylindrically symmetric 3D ring trap; (2) the linear trap with a combination of cavity QED; (#) the symmetric...concepts of quantum information. The major demonstration has been the test of a Bell inequality as demonstrated by Rowe et al. [50] and a decoherence...famous physics experiment [62]. Wolfgang Paul demonstrated a similar apparatus during his Nobel Prize speech [63]. This device is hyperbolic- parabolic

  13. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  14. Colored Sticky Traps to Selectively Survey Thrips in Cowpea Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L D; Zhao, H Y; Fu, B L; Han, Y; Liu, K; Wu, J H

    2016-02-01

    The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of legume crops in South China. Yellow, blue, or white sticky traps are currently recommended for monitoring and controlling thrips, but it is not known whether one is more efficient than the other or if selectivity could be optimized by trap color. We investigated the response of thrips and beneficial insects to different-colored sticky traps on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata. More thrips were caught on blue, light blue, white, and purple traps than on yellow, green, pink, gray, red, or black traps. There was a weak correlation on the number of thrips caught on yellow traps and survey from flowers (r = 0.139), whereas a strong correlation was found for blue traps and thrips' survey on flowers (r = 0.929). On commercially available sticky traps (Jiaduo®), two and five times more thrips were caught on blue traps than on white and yellow traps, respectively. Otherwise, capture of beneficial insects was 1.7 times higher on yellow than on blue traps. The major natural enemies were the predatory ladybird beetles (63%) and pirate bugs Orius spp. (29%), followed by a number of less representative predators and parasitoids (8%). We conclude the blue sticky trap was the best to monitor thrips on cowpea in South China.

  15. ATRAP on the way to trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Grzonka, D; Gabrielse, G; Goldenbaum, F; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Oelert, W; Pittner, H; Sefzick, T; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Walz, J; Zhang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aims for a test of the CPT invariance by a high precision comparison of the 1s‐2s transition in the hydrogen and the antihydrogen atom. Antihydrogen production is routinely operated at ATRAP and detailed studies have been performed in order to optimize the production efficiency of useful antihydrogen. The shape parameters of the antiproton and positron clouds, the n‐state distribution of the produced Rydberg antihydrogen atoms and the antihydrogen velocity have been studied. Furthermore an alternative method of laser controlled antihydrogen production was successfully applied. For high precision measurements of atomic transitions cold antihydrogen in the ground state is required which must be trapped due to the low number of available antihydrogen atoms compared to the cold hydrogen beam used for hydrogen spectroscopy. To ensure a reasonable antihydrogen trapping efficiency a magnetic trap has to be superposed the nested Penning trap. First trappi...

  16. Novel Ion Trap Design for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Márquez Seco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel ion trap design which facilitates the integration of an optical fiber cavity into the trap structure. The optical fibers are confined inside hollow electrodes in such a way that tight shielding and free movement of the fibers are simultaneously achievable. The latter enables in situ optimization of the overlap between the trapped ions and the cavity field. Through numerical simulations, we systematically analyze the effects of the electrode geometry on the trapping characteristics such as trap depths, secular frequencies and the optical access angle. Additionally, we simulate the effects of the presence of the fibers and confirm the robustness of the trapping potential. Based on these simulations and other technical considerations, we devise a practical trap configuration that isviable to achieve strong coupling of a single ion.

  17. Versatile electrostatic trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhoven, J.; Bethlem, H.L.; Schnell, M.; Meijer, G.

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole field. A cold packet of ND315 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to

  18. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  19. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  20. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  1. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  2. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  3. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  4. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Doret, S; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled dc electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on dc electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/elemental sequences via species-selective photoionization. The shapes of the aperture and radio-frequency electrodes are optimized to minimize perturbation of the trapping pseudopotential. Laboratory experiments verify simulated potentials and characterize trapping lifetimes, stray electric fields, and ion heating rates, while measurement and cancellation of spatially-varying stray electric fields permits the formation of nearly-equally spaced ion chains. (paper)

  5. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  6. Trapping and Probing Antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtele, Jonathan [UC Berkeley and LBNL

    2013-03-27

    Precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen is a promising path to sensitive tests of CPT symmetry. The most direct route to achieve this goal is to create and probe antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap. Antihydrogen has been synthesized and trapped for 1000s at CERN by the ALPHA Collaboration. Some of the challenges associated with achieving these milestones will be discussed, including mixing cryogenic positron and antiproton plasmas to synthesize antihydrogen with kinetic energy less than the trap potential of .5K. Recent experiments in which hyperfine transitions were resonantly induced with microwaves will be presented. The opportunity for gravitational measurements in traps based on detailed studies of antihydrogen dynamics will be described. The talk will conclude with a discussion future antihydrogen research that will use a new experimental apparatus, ALPHA-I.

  7. EBIT trapping program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Beck, B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Church, D.; DeWitt, D.; Knapp, D.K.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Schweikhard, L.

    1993-01-01

    The LLNL electron beam ion trap provides the world's only source of stationary highly charged ions up to bare U. This unique capability makes many new atomic and nuclear physics experiments possible. (orig.)

  8. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  9. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jorgensen, Lars V.; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  10. Evaluation method for acoustic trapping performance by tracking motion of trapped microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hae Gyun; Ham Kim, Hyung; Yoon, Changhan

    2018-05-01

    We report a method to evaluate the performances of a single-beam acoustic tweezer using a high-frequency ultrasound transducer. The motion of a microparticle trapped by a 45-MHz single-element transducer was captured and analyzed to deduce the magnitude of trapping force. In the proposed method, the motion of a trapped microparticle was analyzed from a series of microscopy images to compute trapping force; thus, no additional equipment such as microfluidics is required. The method could be used to estimate the effective trapping force in an acoustic tweezer experiment to assess cell membrane deformability by attaching a microbead to the surface of a cell and tracking the motion of the trapped bead, which is similar to a bead-based assay that uses optical tweezers. The results showed that the trapping force increased with increasing acoustic intensity and duty factor, but the force eventually reached a plateau at a higher acoustic intensity. They demonstrated that this method could be used as a simple tool to evaluate the performance and to optimize the operating conditions of acoustic tweezers.

  11. Parameter Screening in Microfluidics Based Hydrodynamic Single-Cell Trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic cell-based arraying technology is widely used in the field of single-cell analysis. However, among developed devices, there is a compromise between cellular loading efficiencies and trapped cell densities, which deserves further analysis and optimization. To address this issue, the cell trapping efficiency of a microfluidic device with two parallel micro channels interconnected with cellular trapping sites was studied in this paper. By regulating channel inlet and outlet status, the microfluidic trapping structure can mimic key functioning units of previously reported devices. Numerical simulations were used to model this cellular trapping structure, quantifying the effects of channel on/off status and trapping structure geometries on the cellular trapping efficiency. Furthermore, the microfluidic device was fabricated based on conventional microfabrication and the cellular trapping efficiency was quantified in experiments. Experimental results showed that, besides geometry parameters, cellular travelling velocities and sizes also affected the single-cell trapping efficiency. By fine tuning parameters, more than 95% of trapping sites were taken by individual cells. This study may lay foundation in further studies of single-cell positioning in microfluidics and push forward the study of single-cell analysis.

  12. Sampling bee communities using pan traps: alternative methods increase sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring of the status of bee populations and inventories of bee faunas require systematic sampling. Efficiency and ease of implementation has encouraged the use of pan traps to sample bees. Efforts to find an optimal standardized sampling method for pan traps have focused on pan trap color. Th...

  13. A Configurable Surface-Electrode Ion Trap Design for Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Ping-Xing; Wu Wei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a configurable surface-electrode ion trap design to alleviate the poor reusability of the existing traps. It can architecturally and electrically support 5 mainstream modes by design reuse, thus enhancing the trap reusability and reducing the experiment setup overhead. We also develop a corresponding simulation suite which can optimize trap geometries and calculate trap parameters to control the trapped ion's classic motion. According to our analytical and simulated results, the configurable design can serve as a unified platform for basic research of large-scale quantum information processing

  14. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  15. Physics with Trapped Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Michael

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade antihydrogen atoms have been formed by mixing antiprotons and positrons held in arrangements of charged particle (Penning) traps. More recently, magnetic minimum neutral atom traps have been superimposed upon the anti-atom production region, promoting the trapping of a small quantity of the antihydrogen yield. We will review these advances, and describe some of the first physics experiments performed on anrtihydrogen including the observation of the two-photon 1S-2S transition, invesigation of the charge neutrailty of the anti-atom and studies of the ground state hyperfine splitting. We will discuss the physics motivations for undertaking these experiments and describe some near-future initiatives.

  16. Ion trap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  17. Asymmetric ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  18. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface.

  19. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO 2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe

  20. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  1. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  2. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  3. [Trapping techniques for Solenopsis invicta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-song; Zhang, Qiang; Zhuang, Yiong-lin; Li, Gui-wen; Ji, Lin-peng; Wang, Jian-guo; Dai, Hua-guo

    2007-06-01

    A field study was made to investigate the trapping effects of different attractants, traps, and wind directions on Solenopsis invicta. The results showed that among the test attractants, TB1 (50 g fishmeal, 40 g peptone, 10 ml 10% sucrose water solution and 20 ml soybean oil) had the best effect, followed by TB2 (ham), TB6 (100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB4 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g sugarcane powder and 20 ml soybean oil), with a mean capture efficiency being 77.6, 58.7, 29 and 7.7 individuals per trap, respectively. No S. invicta was trapped with TB3 (10 ml 10% sucrose water solution, 100 g cornmeal and 20 ml soybean oil) and TB5 (honey). Tube trap was superior to dish trap, with a trapping efficiency of 75.2 and 35 individuals per trap, respectively. The attractants had better effects in leeward than in windward.

  4. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  5. Amphipol trapping of a functional CYP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tomas; Naur, Peter; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    backbone randomly grafted with hydrophobic side chains. An optimal ratio of 1:2 w/w of protein to APol (A8-35) was required for trapping the single transmembrane helices of CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and the electron partner cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP79A1 and POR retained their individual activity......In plants, some enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are thought to organize into transient dynamic metabolons to optimize the biosynthesis of bioactive natural products. Metabolon formation may facilitate efficient turnover of labile and toxic intermediates and prevent undesired...

  6. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  7. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  8. Sediment Trapping in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Ralston, David K.

    2018-01-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments. Here, we use a transport decomposition to present processes that lead to convergent SPM transport, and review trapping mechanisms that lead to ETMs at the landward limit of the salt intrusion, in the freshwater zone, at topographic transitions, and by lateral processes within the cross section. We use model simulations of example estuaries to demonstrate the complex concurrence of ETM formation mechanisms. We also discuss how changes in SPM trapping mechanisms, often caused by direct human interference, can lead to the generation of hyperturbid estuaries.

  9. Measurement and simulation of the pressure ratio between the two traps of double Penning trap mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidherr, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Ferrer, R.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Weber, C.

    2008-01-01

    Penning traps are ideal tools to perform high-precision mass measurements. For this purpose the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particles is measured. In case of on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides produced at radioactive beam facilities the ions get in general first prepared and cooled by buffer-gas collisions in a preparation trap to reduce their motional amplitudes and are then transported to a precision trap for the cyclotron frequency determination. In modern Penning trap mass spectrometers both traps are placed in the homogeneous region of one superconducting magnet to optimize the transport efficiency. Because the gas pressure inside the precision trap has to be very low in order to minimize the damping of the ion motion caused by collisions with rest gas molecules during the frequency determination, a pumping barrier is installed between both traps. To predict the pressure difference between the two traps in the region of molecular gas flow the motion of each particle can be simulated without consideration of the other particles. Thus, it is possible to calculate the transit probability through a tube of a given geometry. The results are compared with experimentally obtained pressure differences.

  10. Stable Trapping of Multielectron Helium Bubbles in a Paul Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. M.; Vadakkumbatt, V.; Pal, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-06-01

    In a recent experiment, we have used a linear Paul trap to store and study multielectron bubbles (MEBs) in liquid helium. MEBs have a charge-to-mass ratio (between 10^{-4} and 10^{-2} C/kg) which is several orders of magnitude smaller than ions (between 10^6 and 10^8 C/kg) studied in traditional ion traps. In addition, MEBs experience significant drag force while moving through the liquid. As a result, the experimental parameters for stable trapping of MEBs, such as magnitude and frequency of the applied electric fields, are very different from those used in typical ion trap experiments. The purpose of this paper is to model the motion of MEBs inside a linear Paul trap in liquid helium, determine the range of working parameters of the trap, and compare the results with experiments.

  11. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  12. Atom trap trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications

  13. Utilization of the ion traps by SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap is a device capable of confine particles, ions or atoms in a well-controlled environment isolated from any exterior perturbations. There are different traps. They are utilized to collect or stock ions, to cool them after in order to subject them to high precision measurement of masses, magnetic moments, hyperfine properties, beta decay properties, etc. Some dozen of traps are currently used all over the world to study stable or radioactive ions.. SPIRAL has been designed and built to produce radioactive ions starting from various heavy ion beams. SPIRAL has the advantage that the projectile parameters, the target and the energy can be chosen to optimize the production in various regions of the nuclear chart. Also, in SPIRAL it is possible to extract more rapidly the radioactive ions formed in the targets. In addition, in SPIRAL the multicharged ion production in a ECR source is possible. The utilization of multicharged ions is indeed very useful for fast mass measurements or for the study of the interaction between the nucleus and the electronic cloud. Finally, utilization of a ion trap on SPIRAL can be designed first at the level of production target by installing a low energy output line. Than, the trap system could be up-graded and brought to its full utilization behind of the recoil spectrometer. It must be capable of selecting and slowing down the ions produced in the reactions (fusion transfer, very inelastic collisions, etc.) induced by the radioactive ions accelerated in CIME. At present, the collaboration is debating on the most favored subject to study and the most suited experimental setups. The following subjects were selected: ion capture, purification and manipulation; isomers (separation and utilization); mass measurements; hyperfine interactions; lifetimes, nuclear electric cloud; β decays; study of the N = Z nuclei close to the proton drip line; physical and chemical properties of transuranium systems

  14. Magnetic traps with a sperical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1979-11-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphesis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasmas in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In additio, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is being described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps for the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (author)

  15. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregood, B.P.; Lehnert, B.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  16. Characteristics of trapped electrons and electron traps in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Potienko, G.; Box, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional carbohydrates are reported whose crystal structures trap electrons intermolecularly in single crystals x irradiated at low temperature, namely sucrose and rhamnose. Five carbohydrate and polyhydroxy compounds are now known which exhibit this phenomenon. The following characteristics of the phenomenon were investigated: (1) the hyperfine couplings of the electron with protons of the polarized hydroxy groups forming the trap; (2) the distances between these protons and the trapped electron; (3) the spin density of the electron at the protons and (4) the relative stabilities of the electron trapped in various crystal structures

  17. Calibration of optically trapped nanotools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carberry, D M; Simpson, S H; Grieve, J A; Hanna, S; Miles, M J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Y; Schaefer, H; Steinhart, M [Institute for Chemistry, University of Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Bowman, R; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J, E-mail: m.j.miles@bristol.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Science Road, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-30

    Holographically trapped nanotools can be used in a novel form of force microscopy. By measuring the displacement of the tool in the optical traps, the contact force experienced by the probe can be inferred. In the following paper we experimentally demonstrate the calibration of such a device and show that its behaviour is independent of small changes in the relative position of the optical traps. Furthermore, we explore more general aspects of the thermal motion of the tool.

  18. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  19. A live-trap and trapping technique for fossorial mammals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mammals. G.C. Hickman. An effective live-trap was designed for Cryptomys hottentotus .... that there is an animal in the burrow system, and to lessen the likelihood of the .... the further testing and modification of existing trap types. Not only is it ...

  20. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  1. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  2. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  3. Detection of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-02-01

    A landmark thesis describing the first ever trapping of antihydrogen atoms in CERN's ALPHA apparatus. Opens the way to crucial tests of fundamental theories. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the University of Calgary. In 2010, the ALPHA collaboration achieved a first for mankind: the stable, long-term storage of atomic antimatter, a project carried out a the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN. A crucial element of this observation was a dedicated silicon vertexing detector used to identify and analyze antihydrogen annihilations. This thesis reports the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the methods used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks and estimate the originating annihilation location are outlined. Finally, the experimental results demonstrating the first-ever magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms are presented. These results rely heavily on the silicon detector, and as such, the role of the annihilation vertex reconstruction is emphasized.

  4. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  6. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  7. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  8. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  9. Trapped surfaces in spherical stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, P.; Malec, E.; O'Murchadha, N.

    1988-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of trapped surfaces in spherically symmetric spacetimes. These conditions show that the formation of trapped surfaces depends on both the degree of concentration and the average flow of the matter. The result can be considered as a partial validation of the cosmic-censorship hypothesis

  10. Electrodynamically trapped Yb+ ions for quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer, Chr.; Braun, A.; Hannemann, T.; Wunderlich, Chr.; Paape, Chr.; Ettler, M.; Neuhauser, W.

    2006-01-01

    Highly efficient, nearly deterministic, and isotope selective generation of Yb + ions by one- and two-color photoionization is demonstrated. State preparation and state selective detection of hyperfine states in 171 Yb + is investigated in order to optimize the purity of the prepared state and to time-optimize the detection process. Linear laser-cooled Yb + ion crystals confined in a Paul trap are demonstrated. Advantageous features of different previous ion trap experiments are combined, while at the same time the number of possible error sources is reduced by using a comparatively simple experimental apparatus. This opens a new path toward quantum state manipulation of individual trapped ions, and in particular, to scalable quantum computing

  11. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfeng Si

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period.

  12. Robust quantum gates between trapped ions using shaped pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ping, E-mail: zouping@m.scnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhi-Ming, E-mail: zmzhang@scnu.edu.cn

    2015-12-18

    We improve two existing entangling gate schemes between trapped ion qubits immersed in a large linear crystal. Based on the existing two-qubit gate schemes by applying segmented forces on the individually addressed qubits, we present a systematic method to optimize the shapes of the forces to suppress the dominant source of infidelity. The spin-dependent forces in the scheme can be from periodic photon kicks or from continuous optical pulses. The entangling gates are fast, robust, and have high fidelity. They can be used to implement scalable quantum computation and quantum simulation. - Highlights: • We present a systematic method to optimize the shape of the pulses to decouple qubits from intermediary motional modes. • Our optimized scheme can be applied to both the ultrafast gate and fast gate. • Our optimized scheme can suppress the dominant source of infidelity to arbitrary order. • When the number of trapped ions increase, the number of needed segments increases slowly.

  13. Evaluation of capture techniques on lesser prairie-chicken trap injury and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Mitchell, Natasia R.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Haukos, David A.; Dixon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Ethical treatment of research animals is required under the Animal Welfare Act. This includes trapping methodologies that reduce unnecessary pain and duress. Traps used in research should optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the proposed research study. Several trapping techniques are used in the study of lesser prairie-chickens, despite lack of knowledge of trap injury caused by the various methods. From 2006 to 2012, we captured 217, 40, and 144 lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus using walk-in funnel traps, rocket nets, and drop nets, respectively, in New Mexico and Texas, to assess the effects of capture technique on injury and survival of the species. We monitored radiotagged, injured lesser prairie-chickens 7–65 d postcapture to assess survival rates of injured individuals. Injuries occurred disproportionately among trap type, injury type, and sex. The predominant injuries were superficial cuts to the extremities of males captured in walk-in funnel traps. However, we observed no mortalities due to trapping, postcapture survival rates of injured birds did not vary across trap types, and the daily survival probability of an injured and uninjured bird was ≥99%. Frequency and intensity of injuries in walk-in funnel traps are due to the passive nature of these traps (researcher cannot select specific individuals for capture) and incidental capture of individuals not needed for research. Comparatively, rocket nets and drop nets allow observers to target birds for capture and require immediate removal of captured individuals from the trap. Based on our results, trap injuries would be reduced if researchers monitor and immediately remove birds from walk-in funnels before they injure themselves; move traps to target specific birds and reduce recaptures; limit the number of consecutive trapping days on a lek; and use proper netting techniques that incorporate quick, efficient, trained handling procedures.

  14. Optimisation of Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Simon; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Kraft, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Vibratory bowl feeders (VBFs) are a widely used option for industrial part feeding, but their design is still largely manual. A subtask of VBF design is determining an optimal parameter set for the passive devices, called traps, which the VBF uses to ensure correct part orientation. This paper...

  15. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  16. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  17. Status of THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    THe-Trap (short for Tritium-{sup 3}He Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. The ratio is of relevance for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN), which aims to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass, by measuring the shape of the β-decay energy spectrum close to its endpoint. An independent measurement of the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass-ratio pins down this endpoint, and thus will help to determine the systematics of KATRIN. The trap setup consists of two Penning-traps: One trap for precision measurements, the other trap for ion storage. Ideally, the trap content will be periodically switched, which reduces the time between the measurements of the two ions' motional frequencies. In 2012, a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 14}N{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects of the traps. This measurement yielded a accuracy of 10{sup -9}. Further investigations revealed that a major reason for the modest accuracy is the large axial amplitude of ∼100 μm, compared to a ideal case of 3 μm at 4 K. In addition, relative magnetic fluctuations at a 3 x 10{sup -10} level on a 10 h timescale need to be significantly improved. In this contribution, the aforementioned findings and further systematic studies will be presented.

  18. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  19. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  20. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  1. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  2. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  3. Holes in magneto electrostatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1996-01-01

    We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)

  4. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  5. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  6. Status of THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketter, Jochen; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Originally developed at the University of Washington and relocated to the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in 2008, the Penning-trap spectrometer THe-Trap is specially tailored for a {sup 3}H/{sup 3}He mass-ratio measurement, from which the Q-value of the beta-decay of {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He can be derived. Improving the current best value by at least an order of magnitude will provide an important independent test parameter for the determination of the electron-antineutrino's mass by the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). However, Penning-trap mass spectrometry has to be pushed to its limits in a dedicated experiment for a sufficiently accurate mass-ratio measurement with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Unlike the closed-envelope, single-trap predecessor, the new spectrometer features an external ion source, owing to the radioactive nature of tritium, and two traps in order to speed up the measurement cycle. While the double-trap technique holds great promise, it also calls for more intricate procedures, such as ion transfer. Details about the recent progress of the experiment are given.

  7. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  8. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10 17  cm −3 to (2–5) × 10 14  cm −3 . The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10 13  cm −3 versus 2.9 × 10 16  cm −3 in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration

  9. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO 2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO 2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  10. Trapping, self-trapping and the polaron family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A M; Gavartin, J; Shluger, A L; Kimmel, A V; Ramo, D Munoz; Roennow, H M; Aeppli, G; Renner, C

    2007-01-01

    The earliest ideas of the polaron recognized that the coupling of an electron to ionic vibrations would affect its apparent mass and could effectively immobilize the carrier (self-trapping). We discuss how these basic ideas have been generalized to recognize new materials and new phenomena. First, there is an interplay between self-trapping and trapping associated with defects or with fluctuations in an amorphous solid. In high dielectric constant oxides, like HfO 2 , this leads to oxygen vacancies having as many as five charge states. In colossal magnetoresistance manganites, this interplay makes possible the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) observation of polarons. Second, excitons can self-trap and, by doing so, localize energy in ways that can modify the material properties. Third, new materials introduce new features, with polaron-related ideas emerging for uranium dioxide, gate dielectric oxides, Jahn-Teller systems, semiconducting polymers and biological systems. The phonon modes that initiate self-trapping can be quite different from the longitudinal optic modes usually assumed to dominate. Fourth, there are new phenomena, like possible magnetism in simple oxides, or with the evolution of short-lived polarons, like muons or excitons. The central idea remains that of a particle whose properties are modified by polarizing or deforming its host solid, sometimes profoundly. However, some of the simpler standard assumptions can give a limited, indeed misleading, description of real systems, with qualitative inconsistencies. We discuss representative cases for which theory and experiment can be compared in detail

  11. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  12. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Liang, Cai; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  13. Resistive cooling circuits for charged particle traps using crystal resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, T; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses a novel method to couple a signal from charged particles in a Penning trap to a high Q resonant circuit using a crystal resonator. Traditionally the trap capacity is converted into a resonator by means of an inductance. When normal conducting wires (e.g. copper) are applied to build up a coil, the unloaded Q value is limited to a value in the order of 1000. The tuned circuit’s Q factor is directly linked to the input impedance “seen” by the trapped particles at resonance frequency. This parallel resonance impedance is a measure of the efficiency of resistive cooling and thus it should be optimized. We propose here a commercially available crystal resonator since it exhibits a very high Q value and a parallel resonance impedance of several MOhm. The possibility to tune the parallel resonance frequency of the quartz results in filter behavior that allows covering a broad range of frequencies.

  14. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  15. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  16. Review of Plasma Techniques Used to Trap Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajans, Joel

    2011-10-01

    Recently, the ALPHA collaboration at CERN trapped antihydrogen atoms. To date, over three hundred antiatoms have been confined, some for as long as 1000s. This was the first time that antiatoms had ever been trapped. The ultimate goal of the ALPHA collaboration is to test CPT invariance by comparing the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen, and to measure the gravitational attraction between matter and antimatter. Such studies might resolve the baryogenesis problem: why is there very little antimatter in the Universe? The ALPHA experiment brought together techniques from many different fields of physics, but the crucial breakthroughs were in plasma physics. The essential problem is this: How does one combine two Malmberg-Penning trapped plasmas, one made from antiprotons, and the other positrons, which have opposite electrostatic potentials of nearly one volt, in such a manner that the antiprotons traverse the positrons with kinetic energies of less than 40 μeV, this latter being the depth of the superimposed neutral antihydrogen trap? The plasma techniques ALPHA developed to accomplish this include: Minimizing the effects of the neutral trap multipole fields on the positron and antiproton plasma confinement. Compressing antiprotons down to less than 0.5mm. Using autoresonance to inject antiprotons into the positrons with very little excess energy. Evaporative cooling of the electrons and antiprotons to record low temperatures. Development of charge, radial profile, temperature, and antiproton loss location diagnostics. Careful and lengthy manipulations to finesse the plasmas into the best states for optimal antihydrogen production and trapping. The plasma techniques necessary to trap antihydrogen will be reviewed in this talk. This work was supported by DOE and NSF, and is reported on behalf of the ALPHA collaboration.

  17. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkiouak, L; Tang, M J; Camp, J C J; McGregor, J; Watson, I M; Cox, R A; Kalberer, M; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

    2014-06-21

    The heterogeneous interactions of gas molecules on solid particles are crucial in many areas of science, engineering and technology. Such interactions play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and in heterogeneous catalysis, a key technology in the energy and chemical industries. Investigating heterogeneous interactions upon single levitated particles can provide significant insight into these important processes. Various methodologies exist for levitating micron sized particles including: optical, electrical and acoustic techniques. Prior to this study, the optical levitation of solid micron scale particles has proved difficult to achieve over timescales relevant to the above applications. In this work, a new vertically configured counter propagating dual beam optical trap was optimized to levitate a range of solid particles in air. Silica (SiO2), α-alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2) and polystyrene were stably trapped with a high trapping efficiency (Q = 0.42). The longest stable trapping experiment was conducted continuously for 24 hours, and there are no obvious constraints on trapping time beyond this period. Therefore, the methodology described in this paper should be of major benefit to various research communities. The strength of the new technique is demonstrated by the simultaneous levitation and spectroscopic interrogation of silica particles by Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the adsorption of water upon silica was investigated under controlled relative humidity environments. Furthermore, the collision and coagulation behaviour of silica particles with microdroplets of sulphuric acid was followed using both optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Deceleration and Trapping of Heavy Diatomic Molecules for Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J. E. Van Den; Turkesteen, S. N. Hoekman; Prinsen, E. B.; Hoekstra, S.

    2011-06-01

    We are setting up a novel type of Stark-decelerator optimized for the deceleration and trapping of heavy diatomic molecules. Aim of these experiments is to prepare a trapped sample of ultracold molecules for precision studies of fundamental symmetries. The decelerator uses ring-shaped electrodes to create a moving trapping potential, a prototype of which has been shown to work for CO molecules. Molecules can be decelerated and trapped in the weak-field seeking part of excited rotational states. The alkaline-earth monohalide molecules (currently we focus on the SrF molecule) are prime candidates for next generation parity violation and electron-EDM studies. We plan to combine the Stark deceleration with molecular laser cooling to create a trapped sample of molecules at a final temperature of ˜ 200 μK. A. Osterwalder, S. A. Meek, G. Hammer, H. Haak and G. Meijer Phys. Rev. A 81 (51401), 2010. T. A. Isaev, S. Hoekstra, R. Berger Phys. Rev. A 82 (52521), 2010

  19. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, O. O., E-mail: oscar.versolato@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.; Ullrich, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Schmidt, P. O. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Drewsen, M. [University of Aarhus, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Narrow optical transitions in highly charged ions (HCIs) are of particular interest for metrology and fundamental physics, exploiting the high sensitivity of HCIs to new physics. The highest sensitivity for a changing fine structure constant ever predicted for a stable atomic system is found in Ir{sup 17 + }. However, laser spectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large ({approx} 10{sup 6} K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by {sup 9}Be{sup + } ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies in Ir{sup 17 + }, enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI.

  20. Determination of antimony by using tungsten trap atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titretir, Serap [Department of Chemistry, Inoenue University, 44065 Malatya (Turkey); Kenduezler, Erdal [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, 40100 Kirsehir (Turkey); Arslan, Yasin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kula, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Mugla University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bakirdere, Sezgin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz. [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    An electrically heated tungsten coil was used as a trap in the determination of antimony. The technique consists of three steps. Initially, SbH{sub 3} is formed by hydride generation procedure; then the analyte species in vapor form are transported to W-coil trap heated at 370 deg. C. Following the preconcentration step, the trap is heated to 895 deg. C; analyte species are revolatilized and transported to the flame-heated quartz atom cell where atomization and the formation of signal take place. The experimental parameters were optimized both for trap and no-trap studies. The most important experimental parameters are concentrations of HCl and NaBH{sub 4} solutions, H{sub 2} and Ar gas flow rates, and collection and revolatilization temperatures of W-coil. Accuracy was tested using a certified reference material, waste water EU-L-1. Limit of detection for the system is 16 ng l{sup -1} using a sample of 36 ml collected in 4.0 min. Enhancement factor in sensitivity was 17.

  1. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear β decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left up to other presenters

  2. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  3. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  4. Field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, R; Green, P E; Brown, G W; Spradbery, J P; Tozer, R S; Mayer, D G; Tack Kan, Y

    2012-07-06

    The performance of newly developed trapping systems for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana has been determined in field trials on cattle farms in Malaysia. The efficacy of non-sticky traps and new attractants to trap C. bezziana and non-target flies was compared with the standard sticky trap and Swormlure. The optimal trap was a modified LuciTrap(®) with a new attractant mixture, Bezzilure-2. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 caught on average 3.1 times more C. bezziana than the sticky trap with Swormlure (PChrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies with factors of 5.9 and 6.4, respectively. The LuciTrap also discriminates with factors of 90 and 3.6 against Hemipyrellia sp. and sarcophagid flesh flies respectively, compared to the sticky trap. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 system is recommended for screwworm fly surveillance as it is more attractive and selective towards C. bezziana and provides flies of better quality for identification than the sticky trap. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  6. Open trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Zakajdakov, V.V.; Kishinevskij, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of numerical calculations on the behaviour of a thermonuclear plasma, allowing for α-particles in a trap with longitudinal confinement of the main ions by ambipolar electric fields are presented. This trap is formed by connecting two small-volume ''mirrortrons'' to an ordinary open trap. Into the extreme mirrortrons, approximately 1-MeV ions are introduced continuously by ionization of atomic beams on the plasma, and approximately 10-keV ions are similarly introduced into the main central region of the trap. By a suitable choice of injection currents, the plasma density established in the extreme mirrortrons is higher than in the central region. As a result of the quasi-neutrality condition, a longitudinal ambipolar field forming a potential well not only for electrons but also for the central ions is formed in the plasma. When the depth of the well for the central ions is much greater than their temperature, their life-time considerably exceeds the time of confinement by the magnetic mirrors. As a result, the plasma density is constant over the entire length of the central mirrortron, including the regions near the mirrors, and an ambipolar field is formed only in the extreme mirrortrons. The distribution of central ions and ambipolar potential in the extreme mirrortrons is uniquely determined by the density distribution of fast extreme ions. It is shown in the present study that an amplification coefficient Q as high as desired can, in principle, be reached in the trap under consideration, allowing for α-particles. However, this requires high magnetic fields in the mirrors and a sufficient length of the central mirrotron. It is shown that for moderate values of Q=3-8, it is desirable not to confine the central fast α-particles. To achieve a coefficient of Q=5, it is necessary to create fields of 250 kG in the mirrors, and the length of the trap must not be greater than 100 m. (author)

  7. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Ahmad Khalili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.

  8. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  9. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C 0 , where the change in characteristic mass, m 0 , can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E max , maximum enhancement factor; E t , enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E v , enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps

  10. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C{sub 0}, where the change in characteristic mass, m{sub 0}, can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E{sub max}, maximum enhancement factor; E{sub t}, enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E{sub v}, enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps.

  11. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  12. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A [Albuquerque, NM; Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM; Linker, Kevin L [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  13. In-trap decay spectroscopy for {beta}{beta} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from {beta} decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and {beta} detection with almost no {beta}-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in {beta}{beta} decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in {beta}{beta} decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10{sup -5} and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating {beta} background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge

  14. In-trap decay spectroscopy for ββ decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The presented work describes the implementation of a new technique to measure electron-capture (EC) branching ratios (BRs) of intermediate nuclei in ββ decays. This technique has been developed at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. It facilitates one of TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN), the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) that is used as a spectroscopy Penning trap. Radioactive ions, produced at the radioactive isotope facility ISAC, are injected and stored in the spectroscopy Penning trap while their decays are observed. A key feature of this technique is the use of a strong magnetic field, required for trapping. It radially confines electrons from β decays along the trap axis while X-rays, following an EC, are emitted isotropically. This provides spatial separation of X-ray and β detection with almost no β-induced background at the X-ray detector, allowing weak EC branches to be measured. Furthermore, the combination of several traps allows one to isobarically clean the sample prior to the in-trap decay spectroscopy measurement. This technique has been developed to measure ECBRs of transition nuclei in ββ decays. Detailed knowledge of these electron capture branches is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying nuclear physics in ββ decays. These branches are typically of the order of 10 -5 and therefore difficult to measure. Conventional measurements suffer from isobaric contamination and a dominating β background at theX-ray detector. Additionally, X-rays are attenuated by the material where the radioactive sample is implanted. To overcome these limitations, the technique of in-trap decay spectroscopy has been developed. In this work, the EBIT was connected to the TITAN beam line and has been commissioned. Using the developed beam diagnostics, ions were injected into the Penning trap and systematic studies on injection and storage optimization were performed. Furthermore, Ge detectors, for the detection of X-rays, were

  15. Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.

    2010-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.

  16. Indeterminacy, sunspots, and development traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-185 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : indeterminacy * development trap * stochastic stability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2003.04.011

  17. Efficiency of subaquatic light traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditrich, Tomáš; Čihák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2017), s. 171-184 ISSN 0165-0424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29857S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Heteroptera * Diptera * light trap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2016

  18. The rise of trapped populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April T Humble

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As border security increases and borders become less permeable, cross-border migration is becoming increasingly difficult, selective and dangerous. Growing numbers of people are becoming trapped in their own countries or in transit countries, or being forced to roam border areas, unable to access legal protection or basic social necessities.

  19. Magnetic trapping of Rydberg atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niestadt, D.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic trapping is a well-established technique for ground state atoms. We seek to extend this concept to Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms are important for current visions of quantum simulators that will be used in the near future to simulate and analyse quantum problems. Current efforts in Amsterdam

  20. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Roos, C.F.; Blatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computers hold the promise of solving certain computational tasks much more efficiently than classical computers. We review recent experimental advances towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme

  1. Superconducting multi-cell trapped mode deflecting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Andrei; Khabiboulline, Timergali; Gonin, Ivan; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav; Zholents, Alexander

    2017-10-10

    A method and system for beam deflection. The method and system for beam deflection comprises a compact superconducting RF cavity further comprising a waveguide comprising an open ended resonator volume configured to operate as a trapped dipole mode; a plurality of cells configured to provide a high operating gradient; at least two pairs of protrusions configured for lowering surface electric and magnetic fields; and a main power coupler positioned to optimize necessary coupling for an operating mode and damping lower dipole modes simultaneously.

  2. Computing the Partition Function for Kinetically Trapped RNA Secondary Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, William A.; Clote, Peter

    2011-01-01

    An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in time and space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1) the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures – indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2) the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3) the (modified) maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model) can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected accuracy. Web server

  3. Computing the partition function for kinetically trapped RNA secondary structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Lorenz

    Full Text Available An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in O(n3 time and O(n2 space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1 the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures--indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2 the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3 the (modified maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected

  4. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one or...

  5. Continuous-time quantum walk on an extended star graph: Trapping and superradiance transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalouz, Saad; Pouthier, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    A tight-binding model is introduced for describing the dynamics of an exciton on an extended star graph whose central node is occupied by a trap. On this graph, the exciton dynamics is governed by two kinds of eigenstates: many eigenstates are associated with degenerate real eigenvalues insensitive to the trap, whereas three decaying eigenstates characterized by complex energies contribute to the trapping process. It is shown that the excitonic population absorbed by the trap depends on the size of the graph, only. By contrast, both the size parameters and the absorption rate control the dynamics of the trapping. When these parameters are judiciously chosen, the efficiency of the transfer is optimized resulting in the minimization of the absorption time. Analysis of the eigenstates reveals that such a feature arises around the superradiance transition. Moreover, depending on the size of the network, two situations are highlighted where the transport efficiency is either superoptimized or suboptimized.

  6. A Penning trap for advanced studies with particles in extreme laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, M.; Quint, W.; Paulus, G.G.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Penning trap as a tool for advanced studies of particles in extreme laser fields. Particularly, trap-specific manipulation techniques allow control over the confined particles’ localization and spatial density by use of trap electrodes as ‘electrostatic tweezers’ and by application of a ‘rotating wall’, respectively. It is thereby possible to select and prepare well-defined ion ensembles and to optimize the laser–particle interaction. Non-destructive detection of reaction educts and products with up to single-ion sensitivity supports advanced studies by maintaining the products for further studies at extended confinement times of minutes and above. The trap features endcaps with conical openings for applications with strongly focused lasers. We show that such a modification of a cylindrical trap is possible while harmonicity and tunability are maintained.

  7. A Penning trap for advanced studies with particles in extreme laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Quint, W.; Paulus, G. G.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Penning trap as a tool for advanced studies of particles in extreme laser fields. Particularly, trap-specific manipulation techniques allow control over the confined particles' localization and spatial density by use of trap electrodes as 'electrostatic tweezers' and by application of a 'rotating wall', respectively. It is thereby possible to select and prepare well-defined ion ensembles and to optimize the laser-particle interaction. Non-destructive detection of reaction educts and products with up to single-ion sensitivity supports advanced studies by maintaining the products for further studies at extended confinement times of minutes and above. The trap features endcaps with conical openings for applications with strongly focused lasers. We show that such a modification of a cylindrical trap is possible while harmonicity and tunability are maintained.

  8. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  9. Servo control of an optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Kurt D; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    A versatile optical trap has been constructed to control the position of trapped objects and ultimately to apply specified forces using feedback control. While the design, development, and use of optical traps has been extensive and feedback control has played a critical role in pushing the state of the art, few comprehensive examinations of feedback control of optical traps have been undertaken. Furthermore, as the requirements are pushed to ever smaller distances and forces, the performance of optical traps reaches limits. It is well understood that feedback control can result in both positive and negative effects in controlled systems. We give an analysis of the trapping limits as well as introducing an optical trap with a feedback control scheme that dramatically improves an optical trap's sensitivity at low frequencies.

  10. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Morigi, Giovanna; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping

  11. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  12. Influence of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2013-03-07

    The trapping process in polymer systems constitutes a fundamental mechanism for various other dynamical processes taking place in these systems. In this paper, we study the trapping problem in two representative polymer networks, Cayley trees and Vicsek fractals, which separately model dendrimers and regular hyperbranched polymers. Our goal is to explore the impact of trap location on the efficiency of trapping in these two important polymer systems, with the efficiency being measured by the average trapping time (ATT) that is the average of source-to-trap mean first-passage time over every staring point in the whole networks. For Cayley trees, we derive an exact analytic formula for the ATT to an arbitrary trap node, based on which we further obtain the explicit expression of ATT for the case that the trap is uniformly distributed. For Vicsek fractals, we provide the closed-form solution for ATT to a peripheral node farthest from the central node, as well as the numerical solutions for the case when the trap is placed on other nodes. Moreover, we derive the exact formula for the ATT corresponding to the trapping problem when the trap has a uniform distribution over all nodes. Our results show that the influence of trap location on the trapping efficiency is completely different for the two polymer networks. In Cayley trees, the leading scaling of ATT increases with the shortest distance between the trap and the central node, implying that trap's position has an essential impact on the trapping efficiency; while in Vicsek fractals, the effect of location of the trap is negligible, since the dominant behavior of ATT is identical, respective of the location where the trap is placed. We also present that for all cases of trapping problems being studied, the trapping process is more efficient in Cayley trees than in Vicsek fractals. We demonstrate that all differences related to trapping in the two polymer systems are rooted in their underlying topological structures.

  13. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  14. Trapping and spectroscopy of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, Claudio Lenz

    1997-01-01

    I review the results and techniques used by the MIT H↑ group to achieve a fractional resolution of 2 parts in 10 12 in the 1S-2S transition in hydrogen [Cesar, D. Fried, T. Killian, A. Polcyn, J. Sandberg, I.A. Yu, T. Greytak, D. Kleppner and J. Doyle, Two-photon spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 255.] With some improvements, this system should deliver 100 times higher resolution with an improved signal count rate getting us closer to an old advertised goal of a precision of 1 part in 10 18 . While these developments are very important for the proposed test of the CPT theorem through the comparison with anti-hydrogen, some of the techniques used with hydrogen are not applicable to anti-hydrogen and I discuss some difficulties and alternatives for the trapping and spectroscopy of anti-hydrogen

  15. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  16. Centrifugal trapping in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Delcourt

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Particles leaving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E×B drift. This effect which we refer to as "centrifugal trapping" appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E×B drift speed plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.

  17. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  18. Optical trapping for analytical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C; Dholakia, Kishan

    2012-02-01

    We describe the exciting advances of using optical trapping in the field of analytical biotechnology. This technique has opened up opportunities to manipulate biological particles at the single cell or even at subcellular levels which has allowed an insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms of many biological processes. The ability of this technique to manipulate microparticles and measure pico-Newton forces has found several applications such as understanding the dynamics of biological macromolecules, cell-cell interactions and the micro-rheology of both cells and fluids. Furthermore we may probe and analyse the biological world when combining trapping with analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  20. Experimental investigation of the stability diagram for Paul traps in the case of praseodymium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koczorowski, W.; Szawiola, G.; Walaszyk, A.; Buczek, A.; Stefanska, D.; Stachowska, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes an investigation of non-linear resonances of praseodymium ion clouds stored in a Paul trap as a function of the storage parameters. These have been observed in traps with different ring electrode diameters. In these different traps the resonances occur for different values of the operating parameters. Discrepancies with the approximation model for one ion have been found. The intensity of the fluorescence signal and the Doppler half width have been recorded as a function of one of the storage parameters: q. We use our results to optimize the fluorescence signal of the stored ions, which is especially useful in the case of the double-resonance method.

  1. Investigation of SAGD steam trap control in two and three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, N. R. [Clearwater Engineering, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Steam trap production control has been traditionally recommended for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. This study examines the relationship between producing steam trap subcool settings and related parameters of interest such as fluid level, pressure, production rate, and profitability for a prototype Athabasca reservoir. Study results indicate that the steam trap dynamics are far more complex than hitherto imagined, that 3-D simulations predict significantly lower production rates than 2-D simulations, and that these variations have implications for all aspects of SAGD engineering, including process optimization, production operations and performance analysis. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Antihydrogen Formation, Dynamics and Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Charlton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Antihydrogen, the simplest pure-antimatter atomic system, holds the promise of direct tests of matter-antimatter equivalence and CPT invariance, two of the outstanding unanswered questions in modern physics. Antihydrogen is now routinely produced in charged-particle traps through the combination of plasmas of antiprotons and positrons, but the atoms escape and are destroyed in a minuscule fraction of a second. The focus of this work is the production of a sample of cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic atom trap. This poses an extreme challenge, because the state-of-the-art atom traps are only approximately 0.5 K deep for ground-state antihydrogen atoms, much shallower than the energies of particles stored in the plasmas. This thesis will outline the main parts of the ALPHA experiment, with an overview of the important physical processes at work. Antihydrogen production techniques will be described, and an analysis of the spatial annihilation distribution to give indications of the temperature and binding ene...

  3. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  4. Sognenavne, Albertslund Kommune (3 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2019-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Herstedvester, Herstedøster og Opstandelseskirkens Sogn...

  5. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  7. Trapping Dust to Form Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Growing a planet from a dust grain is hard work! A new study explores how vortices in protoplanetary disks can assist this process.When Dust Growth FailsTop: ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk of V1247 Orionis, with different emission components labeled. Bottom: Synthetic image constructed from the best-fit model. [Kraus et al. 2017]Gradual accretion onto a seed particle seems like a reasonable way to grow a planet from a grain of dust; after all, planetary embryos orbit within dusty protoplanetary disks, which provides them with plenty of fuel to accrete so they can grow. Theres a challenge to this picture, though: the radial drift problem.The radial drift problem acknowledges that, as growing dust grains orbit within the disk, the drag force on them continues to grow as well. For large enough dust grains perhaps around 1 millimeter the drag force will cause the grains orbits to decay, and the particles drift into the star before they are able to grow into planetesimals and planets.A Close-Up Look with ALMASo how do we overcome the radial drift problem in order to form planets? A commonly proposed mechanism is dust trapping, in which long-lived vortices in the disk trap the dust particles, preventing them from falling inwards. This allows the particles to persist for millions of years long enough to grow beyond the radial drift barrier.Observationally, these dust-trapping vortices should have signatures: we would expect to see, at millimeter wavelengths, specific bright, asymmetric structures where the trapping occurs in protoplanetary disks. Such disk structures have been difficult to spot with past instrumentation, but the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has made some new observations of the disk V1247 Orionis that might be just what were looking for.Schematic of the authors model for the disk of V1247 Orionis. [Kraus et al. 2017]Trapped in a Vortex?ALMAs observations of V1247 Orionis are reported by a team of scientists led by Stefan

  8. Trapped

    OpenAIRE

    Storvik, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the Muslim Sunni Women in the city of Tripoli- Lebanon perceive the the inequity in the rights of women in terms of those of men within the Personal Status codes practiced today in the Sunni Muslim Sharīʻa Courts in the country. Lebanese women and men in general are subject to an imbalanced patronage as a result of the patriarchal conditions dominating the Lebanese society and its various communities. This project further explores the factors that have led to the failu...

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Trapping Agents of Sulfur Drug Reactive Intermediates against Major Human Cytochrome P450 Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen K. Sodhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, the formation of reactive species from the metabolism of xenobiotics has been linked to toxicity and therefore it is imperative to detect potential bioactivation for candidate drugs during drug discovery. Reactive species can covalently bind to trapping agents in in vitro incubations of compound with human liver microsomes (HLM fortified with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, resulting in a stable conjugate of trapping agent and reactive species, thereby facilitating analytical detection and providing evidence of short-lived reactive metabolites. Since reactive metabolites are typically generated by cytochrome P450 (CYP oxidation, it is important to ensure high concentrations of trapping agents are not inhibiting the activities of CYP isoforms. Here we assessed the inhibitory properties of fourteen trapping agents against the major human CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A. Based on our findings, eleven trapping agents displayed inhibition, three of which had IC50 values less than 1 mM (2-mercaptoethanol, N-methylmaleimide and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM. Three trapping agents (dimedone, N-acetyl-lysine and arsenite did not inhibit CYP isoforms at concentrations tested. To illustrate effects of CYP inhibition by trapping agents on reactive intermediate trapping, an example drug (ticlopidine and trapping agent (NEM were chosen for further studies. For the same amount of ticlopidine (1 μM, increasing concentrations of the trapping agent NEM (0.007–40 mM resulted in a bell-shaped response curve of NEM-trapped ticlopidine S-oxide (TSO-NEM, due to CYP inhibition by NEM. Thus, trapping studies should be designed to include several concentrations of trapping agent to ensure optimal trapping of reactive metabolites.

  10. Status and outlook of CHIP-TRAP: The Central Michigan University high precision Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, M.; Bryce, R. A.; Hawks, P.; Gamage, N. D.; Hunt, C.; Kandegedara, R. M. E. B.; Ratnayake, I. S.; Sharp, L.

    2016-06-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP) that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m / q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  11. Discriminating between antihydrogen and mirror-trapped antiprotons in a minimum-B trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Kurchaninov, L; Jonsell, S; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    Recently, antihydrogen atoms were trapped at CERN in a magnetic minimum (minimum-B) trap formed by superconducting octupole and mirror magnet coils. The trapped antiatoms were detected by rapidly turning off these magnets, thereby eliminating the magnetic minimum and releasing any antiatoms contained in the trap. Once released, these antiatoms quickly hit the trap wall, whereupon the positrons and antiprotons in the antiatoms annihilated. The antiproton annihilations produce easily detected signals; we used these signals to prove that we trapped antihydrogen. However, our technique could be confounded by mirror-trapped antiprotons, which would produce seemingly-identical annihilation signals upon hitting the trap wall. In this paper, we discuss possible sources of mirror-trapped antiprotons and show that antihydrogen and antiprotons can be readily distinguished, often with the aid of applied electric fields, by analyzing the annihilation locations and times. We further discuss the general properties of antipr...

  12. Portable Pbars, traps that travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.

    1987-10-01

    The advent of antiproton research utilizing relatively small scale storage devices for very large numbers of these particles opens the possibility of transporting these devices to a research site removed from the accelerator center that produced the antiprotons. Such a portable source of antiprotons could open many new areas of research and make antiprotons available to a new research community. At present antiprotons are available at energies down to 1 MeV. From a portable source these particles can be made available at energies ranging from several tens of kilovolts down to a few millielectron volts. These low energies are in the domain of interest to the atomic and condensed matter physicist. In addition such a source can be used as an injector for an accelerator which could increase the energy domain even further. Moreover, the availability of such a source at a university will open research with antiprotons to a broader range of students than possible at a centralized research facility. This report focuses on the use of ion traps, in particular cylindrical traps, for the antiproton storage device. These devices store the charged antiprotons in a combination of electric and magnet fields. At high enough density and low enough temperature the charged cloud will be susceptible to plasma instabilities. Present day ion trap work is just starting to explore this domain. Our assessment of feasibility is based on what could be done with present day technology and what future technology could achieve. We conclude our report with a radiation safety study that shows that about 10 11 antiprotons can be transported safely, however the federal guidelines for this transport must be reviewed in detail. More antiprotons than this will require special transportation arrangements. 28 refs., 8 figs

  13. Trapping molecules in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, PW.H.; Junglen, T.; Rieger, T.; Rangwala, S.A.; Windpassinger, P.; Rempe, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Cold molecules offer a new testing ground for quantum-physical effects in nature. For example, producing slow beams of large molecules could push experiments studying the boundary between quantum interference and classical particles up towards ever heavier particles. Moreover, cold molecules, in particular YbF, seem an attractive way to narrow down the constraints on the value of the electron dipole moment and finally, quantum information processing using chains of cold polar molecules or vibrational states in molecules have been proposed. All these proposals rely on advanced production and trapping techniques, most of which are still under development. Therefore, novel production and trapping techniques for cold molecules could offer new possibilities not found in previous methods. Electric traps hold promise for deep trap potentials for neutral molecules. Recently we have demonstrated two-dimensional trapping of polar molecules in a four-wire guide using electrostatic and electrodynamic trapping techniques. Filled from a thermal effusive source, such a guide will deliver a beam of slow molecules, which is an ideal source for interferometry experiments with large molecules, for instance. Here we report about the extension of this work to three-dimensional trapping. Polar molecules with a positive Stark shift can be trapped in the minimum of an electrostatic field. We have successfully tested a large volume electrostatic trap for ND3 molecules. A special feature of this trap is that it can be loaded continuously from an electrostatic guide, at a temperature of a few hundred mK. (author)

  14. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  15. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, S.

    2016-04-01

    Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

  16. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  17. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  18. Wide-angle light-trapping electrode for photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail M; Simovski, Constantin R

    2017-10-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally show that a submicron layer of a transparent conducting oxide that may serve a top electrode of a photovoltaic cell based on amorphous silicon when properly patterned by notches becomes an efficient light-trapping structure. This is so for amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with properly chosen thicknesses of the active layers (p-i-n structure with optimal thicknesses of intrinsic and doped layers). The nanopatterned layer of transparent conducting oxide reduces both the light reflectance from the photovoltaic cell and transmittance through the photovoltaic layers for normal incidence and for all incidence angles. We explain the physical mechanism of our light-trapping effect, prove that this mechanism is realized in our structure, and show that the nanopatterning is achievable in a rather easy and affordable way that makes our method of solar cell enhancement attractive for industrial adaptations.

  19. Effect of light trapping in an amorphous silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftiquar, S.M.; Jung, Juyeon; Park, Hyeongsik; Cho, Jaehyun; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Jinjoo; Jung, Junhee; Bong, Sungjae; Kim, Sunbo; Yi, Junsin

    2015-01-01

    Light trapping in amorphous silicon based solar cell has been investigated theoretically. The substrate for these cells can be textured, including pyramidally textured c-Si wafer, to improve capture of incident light. A thin silver layer, deposited on the substrate of an n–i–p cell, ultimately goes at the back of the cell structure and can act a back reflector to improve light trapping. The two physical solar cells we investigated had open circuit voltages (V oc ) of 0.87, 0.90 V, short circuit current densities (J sc ) of 14.2, 15.36 mA/cm 2 respectively. The first cell was investigated for the effect on its performance while having and not having light trapping scheme (LT), when thickness of the active layer (d i ) was changed in the range of 100 nm to 800 nm. In both the approaches, for having or not having LT, the short circuit current density increases with d i while the V oc and fill factor, decreases steadily. However, maximum cell efficiency can be obtained when d i = 400 nm, and hence it was considered optimized thickness of the active layer, that was used for further investigation. With the introduction of light trapping to the second cell, it shows a further enhancement in J sc and red response of the external quantum efficiency to 16.6 mA/cm 2 and by 11.1% respectively. Considering multiple passages of light inside the cell, we obtained an improvement in cell efficiency from 9.7% to 10.6%. - Highlights: • A theoretical analysis of light trapping in p–i–n and n–i–p type solar cells • J sc increases and V oc decreases with the increase in i-layer thickness. • Observed optimized thickness of i-layer as 400 nm • J sc improved from 15.4 mA/cm 2 to 16.6 mA/cm 2 due to the light trapping. • Efficiency (η) improved from 9.7% to 10.6% due to better red response of the EQE

  20. Progress at THe-trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Schuh, Marc; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometry experiment that is currently being set up to measure the atomic mass ratio of tritium and helium-3 with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. In 2013, the experiment's first high-precision mass ratio measurement was performed on the ions {sup 12}C{sup 4+} and {sup 16}O{sup 5+}. The carbon-12/oxygen-16 mass ratio is one of the most precisely determined mass ratios and serves as a benchmark for the experiment. This measurement reached a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 . 10{sup -11} and was limited by systematic frequency shifts due to too high motional amplitudes. In the following service cycle, the experiment was modified to address the shortcomings that were discovered in the 2013 ratio measurements. This talk summarizes the results of the 2013 measurements and introduces the upgrades to the experiment, including a new amplifier, a modified ion source, and an improved vacuum system.

  1. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase......-encoded coherent light source. Two-dimensional input phase distributions corresponding to the trapping patterns are encoded using a computer-programmable spatial light modulator, enabling each trap to be shaped and moved arbitrarily within the plane of observation. We demonstrate the generation of multiple dark...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  2. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  3. Diffusion to finite-size traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The survival probability of a random-walking particle is derived for hopping in a random distribution of traps of arbitrary radius and concentration. The single-center approximation is shown to be valid for times of physical interest even when the fraction of volume occupied by traps approaches unity. The theory is based on computation of the number of different potential trap regions sampled in a random walk and is confirmed by simulations on a simple-cubic lattice

  4. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  5. Active stabilization of ion trap radiofrequency potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. G.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Restelli, A.; Landsman, K. A.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Monroe, C. [Joint Quantum Institute and University of Maryland Department of Physics, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a radiofrequency (rf) Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to be better than 10 Hz or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  6. How to detect trap cluster systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandowski, Arkadiusz

    2008-01-01

    Spatially correlated traps and recombination centres (trap-recombination centre pairs and larger clusters) are responsible for many anomalous phenomena that are difficult to explain in the framework of both classical models, i.e. model of localized transitions (LT) and the simple trap model (STM), even with a number of discrete energy levels. However, these 'anomalous' effects may provide a good platform for identifying trap cluster systems. This paper considers selected cluster-type effects, mainly relating to an anomalous dependence of TL on absorbed dose in the system of isolated clusters (ICs). Some consequences for interacting cluster (IAC) systems, involving both localized and delocalized transitions occurring simultaneously, are also discussed

  7. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  8. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julian; Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  9. High Optical Access Trap 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The High Optical Access (HOA) trap was designed in collaboration with the Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer (MUSIQC) team, funded along with Sandia National Laboratories through IARPA's Multi Qubit Coherent Operations (MQCO) program. The design of version 1 of the HOA trap was completed in September 2012 and initial devices were completed and packaged in February 2013. The second version of the High Optical Access Trap (HOA-2) was completed in September 2014 and is available at IARPA's disposal.

  10. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.

    1995-01-01

    The basic ideas of laser cooling and atom trapping will be discussed. These techniques have applications in spectroscopy, metrology, nuclear physics, biophysics, geophysics, and polymer science. (author)

  11. Temperature and phase-space density of a cold atom cloud in a quadrupole magnetic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S. P.; Mishra, S. R.; Tiwari, S. K.; Rawat, H. S. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

    2014-08-15

    We present studies on modifications in the temperature, number density and phase-space density when a laser-cooled atom cloud from optical molasses is trapped in a quadrupole magnetic trap. Theoretically, for a given temperature and size of the cloud from the molasses, the phase-space density in the magnetic trap is shown first to increase with increasing magnetic field gradient and then to decrease with it after attaining a maximum value at an optimum value of the magnetic-field gradient. The experimentally-measured variation in the phase-space density in the magnetic trap with changing magnetic field gradient is shown to exhibit a similar trend. However, the experimentally-measured values of the number density and the phase-space density are much lower than the theoretically-predicted values. This is attributed to the experimentally-observed temperature in the magnetic trap being higher than the theoretically-predicted temperature. Nevertheless, these studies can be useful for setting a higher phase-space density in the trap by establishing an optimal value of the field gradient for a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  12. Laser-cooling and electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Migdall, A.L.; Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently it has been impossible to confine and trap neutral atoms using electromagnetic fields. While many proposals for such traps exist, the small potential energy depth of the traps and the high kinetic energy of available atoms prevented trapping. We review various schemes for atom trapping, the advances in laser cooling of atomic beams which have now made trapping possible, and the successful magnetic trapping of cold sodium atoms

  13. Secretion Trap Tagging of Secreted and Membrane-Spanning Proteins Using Arabidopsis Gene Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Juana M. Arroyo; Cristina Yordan; W. Richard McCombie; Robert A. Martienssen

    2003-01-01

    Secreted and membrane-spanning proteins play fundamental roles in plant development but pose challenges for genetic identification and characterization. We describe a "secretion trap" screen for gene trap insertions in genes encoding proteins routed through the secretory pathway. The gene trap transposon encodes a ß-glucuronidase reporter enzyme...

  14. A Superconducting Magnet UCN Trap for Precise Neutron Lifetime Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, R; Altarev, I; Bröcker, J; Gutsmiedl, E; Hartmann, J; Müller, A; Paul, S; Schott, W; Trinks, U; Zimmer, O

    2005-01-01

    Finite-element methods along with Monte Carlo simulations were used to design a magnetic storage device for ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure their lifetime. A setup was determined which should make it possible to confine UCN with negligible losses and detect the protons emerging from β-decay with high efficiency: stacked superconducting solenoids create the magnetic storage field, an electrostatic extraction field inside the storage volume assures high proton collection efficiency. Alongside with the optimization of the magnetic and electrostatic design, the properties of the trap were investigated through extensive Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  16. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  17. Modes of oscillation in radiofrequency Paul traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landa, H.; Reznik, B.; Drewsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the time-dependent dynamics of ion crystals in radiofrequency traps. The problem of stable trapping of general threedimensional crystals is considered and the validity of the pseudopotential approximation is discussed. We analytically derive the micromotion amplitude of the ions...

  18. Spin polarized atom traps and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1994-10-01

    Plans are described to couple a neutral atom trap to an upgraded version of TRIUMF's TISOL on-line mass separator. The unique properties of trapped and cooled atoms promise improvements of some symmetry tests of the Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs

  19. Astroturf seed traps for studying hydrochory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M; Geertsema, J; Chang, ER; Veeneklaas, RM; Carey, PD; Bakker, JP

    1. Astroturf mats can effectively trap diaspores dispersed by tidal water. 2. Within four tidal inundations, up to 745 propagules per m(2) and between three and eight different species per astroturf mat were trapped. Overall, 15 different species were collected on the astroturf mats, 10 of which

  20. An Experimental Analysis of Social Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechner, Kevin C.

    1977-01-01

    Social traps, such as the overgrazing of pasturelands, overpopulation, and the extinction of species, are situations where individuals in a group respond for their own advantage in a manner damaging to the group. Alaboratory analog was devised to simulate conditions that produce social traps. The intent was to cause an immediate positive…

  1. Effect of trapping on transport coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Influence of a trap (sink) on an exciton transfer in molecular aggregates is investigated. Memory functions entering the generalized master equations are calculated. The presence of the sink changes their analytical form. We used the sink in trimer as example to show that for large trapping rate parameters the rest of the system is decoupled from the sink. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  2. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  3. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  4. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  5. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  6. Review of statistical analysis of trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    A review was conducted of trapped gas estimates in Hanford waste tanks. Tank waste levels were found to correlate with barometric pressure changes giving the possibility to infer amounts of trapped gas. Previous models of the tank waste level were extended to include other phenomena such as evaporation in a more complete description of tank level changes

  7. Influence of trap construction on mosquito capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 209-215 ISSN 1934-7391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : CDC miniature light traps * baited lard-can traps * mosquitoes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. Effect of trap position on the efficiency of trapping in treelike scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongzhi; Lin Yuan; Ma Youjun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that the role and impact of nodes on dynamical processes in scale-free networks are not homogenous, because of the presence of highly connected nodes at the tail of their power-law degree distribution. In this paper, we explore the influence of different nodes as traps on the trapping efficiency of the trapping problem taking place on scale-free networks. To this end, we study in detail the trapping problem in two families of deterministically growing scale-free networks with treelike structure: one family is non-fractal, the other is fractal. In the first part of this work, we attack a special case of random walks on the two network families with a perfect trap located at a hub, i.e. node with the highest degree. The second study addresses the case with trap distributed uniformly over all nodes in the networks. For these two cases, we compute analytically the mean trapping time (MTT), a quantitative indicator characterizing the trapping efficiency of the trapping process. We show that in the non-fractal scale-free networks the MTT for both cases follows different scalings with the network order (number of network nodes), implying that trap's position has a significant effect on the trapping efficiency. In contrast, it is presented that for both cases in the fractal scale-free networks, the two leading scalings exhibit the same dependence on the network order, suggesting that the location of trap has no essential impact on the trapping efficiency. We also show that for both cases of the trapping problem, the trapping efficiency is more efficient in the non-fractal scale-free networks than in their fractal counterparts.

  9. Evaporative cooling of cold atoms in a surface trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammes, M.; Rychtarik, D.; Grimm, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Trapping cold atom close to a surface is a promising route for attaining a two-dimensional quantum gas. We present our gravito-optical surface trap (LOST), which consists of a horizontal evanescent-wave atom mirror in combination with a blue-detuned hollow beam for transverse confinement. Optical pre-cooling based on inelastic reflections from the evanescent wave provides good starting conditions for subsequent evaporative cooling, which can be realized by ramping down the optical potentials of the trap. Already our preliminary experiments (performed at the MPI fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg) show a 100-fold increase in phase-space density and temperature reduction to 300 nK. Substantial further improvements can be expected in our greatly improved set-up after the recent transfer of the experiment to Innsbruck. By eliminating heating processes, optimizing the evaporation ramp, polarizing the atoms and by using an additional far red-detuned laser beam we expect to soon reach the conditions of quantum degeneracy and/or two-dimensionality. (author)

  10. Modified semiclassical approximation for trapped Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    A generalization of the semiclassical approximation is suggested allowing for an essential extension of its region of applicability. In particular, it becomes possible to describe Bose-Einstein condensation of a trapped gas in low-dimensional traps and in traps of low confining dimensions, for which the standard semiclassical approximation is not applicable. The result of the modified approach is shown to coincide with purely quantum-mechanical calculations for harmonic traps, including the one-dimensional harmonic trap. The advantage of the semiclassical approximation is in its simplicity and generality. Power-law potentials of arbitrary powers are considered. The effective thermodynamic limit is defined for any confining dimension. The behavior of the specific heat, isothermal compressibility, and density fluctuations is analyzed, with an emphasis on low confining dimensions, where the usual semiclassical method fails. The peculiarities of the thermodynamic characteristics in the effective thermodynamic limit are discussed

  11. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  12. Cold trap disposed within a tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability and the durability of cold traps by simplifying the structure and recycling liquid metals without using electromagnetic pumps. Constitution: The reactor container is partitioned by an intermediate container enhousing primary recycling pumps and cold traps. The inlet and the exit for the liquid metal of each cold trap are opened to the outside and the inside of the intermediate container respectively. In such a structure, the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the intermediate container is exerted on the cold traps due to the exhaust pressure of the recycling pumps in which the liquid metal flowing into the cold traps is purified through filters, cooled and then discharged from the exit to the cold plenum. In this way, liquid metal can be recycled without using an electromagnetic pump whose reliability has not yet been established. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...... Thesis (2008). [2] R.J. Hendricks, D.M. Grant, P.F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures, Applied Physics B, 88, 507 (2007)....

  14. The hidden traps in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J S; Keeney, R L; Raiffa, H

    1998-01-01

    Bad decisions can often be traced back to the way the decisions were made--the alternatives were not clearly defined, the right information was not collected, the costs and benefits were not accurately weighted. But sometimes the fault lies not in the decision-making process but rather in the mind of the decision maker. The way the human brain works can sabotage the choices we make. John Hammond, Ralph Keeney, and Howard Raiffa examine eight psychological traps that are particularly likely to affect the way we make business decisions: The anchoring trap leads us to give disproportionate weight to the first information we receive. The statusquo trap biases us toward maintaining the current situation--even when better alternatives exist. The sunk-cost trap inclines us to perpetuate the mistakes of the past. The confirming-evidence trap leads us to seek out information supporting an existing predilection and to discount opposing information. The framing trap occurs when we misstate a problem, undermining the entire decision-making process. The overconfidence trap makes us overestimate the accuracy of our forecasts. The prudence trap leads us to be overcautious when we make estimates about uncertain events. And the recallability trap leads us to give undue weight to recent, dramatic events. The best way to avoid all the traps is awareness--forewarned is forearmed. But executives can also take other simple steps to protect themselves and their organizations from the various kinds of mental lapses. The authors show how to take action to ensure that important business decisions are sound and reliable.

  15. Fast quantum logic by selective displacement of hot trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasura, Marek; Steane, Andrew M.

    2003-01-01

    The 'pushing gate' proposed by Cirac and Zoller for quantum logic in ion traps is discussed, in which a force is used to give a controlled push to a pair of trapped ions and thus realize a phase gate. The original proposal had a weakness in that it involved a hidden extreme sensitivity to the size of the force. Also, the physical origin of this force was not fully addressed. Here, we discuss the sensitivity and present a way to avoid it by choosing the spatial form of the pushing force in an optimal way. We also analyze the effect of imperfections in a pair of π pulses which are used to implement a 'spin echo' to cancel correlated errors. We present a physical model for the force, namely, the dipole force, and discuss the impact of unwanted photon scattering, and of finite temperature of the ions. The main effect of the temperature is to blur the phase of the gate owing to the ions exploring a range of values of the force. When the distance scale of the force profile is smaller than the ion separation, this effect is more important than the high-order terms in the Coulomb repulsion which were originally discussed. Overall, we find that whereas the pushing gate is not as resistant to imperfection as was supposed, it remains a significant candidate for ion trap quantum computing since it does not require ground-state cooling, and in some cases it does not require the Lamb-Dicke limit, while the gate rate is fast, close to (rather than small compared to) the trap vibrational frequency

  16. Development of a buffer gas trap for the confinement of positrons and study of positronium production in the GBAR experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2101248; van der Werf, Dirk

    The GBAR experiment relies on the production of antihydrogen positive ions to achieve its goal of measuring the gravitational acceleration of antimatter at rest. The ANTION project, included in the GBAR enterprise, is responsible for the production of these antimatter ions. Moreover, it also aims to measure the cross section of antihydrogen production throughout the collision of antiprotons and positronium atoms, as well as the matter cross sections of hydrogen and the hydrogen negative ion. These experiments imply the formation of a very dense positronium cloud, thus a large amount of positrons will be implanted on a positron/positronium converter material. This thesis reports the construction of a three stage buffer gas trap with the goal of trapping and accumulating positrons for the ANTION project. The combination of the Penning-type trap with a LINAC source constitutes a unique experimental setup. The trap was commissioned and optimized and is now fully operational. Trapping protocols were studied and...

  17. Spatio-temporal optimal law enforcement using Stackelberg games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naja, R.; Mouawad, N.; Ghandour, A.

    2017-01-01

    Every year, road accidents claim the lives of around 1.2 million worldwide (USDOT-NHTSA,2012). Deploying speed traps helps bounding vehicles speed and reducing collisions. Nevertheless, deterministic speed traps deployment in both spatial and temporal domains, allow drivers to learn and anticipate covered areas. In thispaper, we present a novel framework that provides randomized speed traps deployment schedule. It uses game theory in order to model drivers and law enforcers behavior. In this context, Stackelberg security game is used to derive best strategies to deploy. The game optimal solution maximizes law enforcer utility. This research work aims to optimize the deployment of speed traps on Lebanese highways according to the accidents probability input data. This work complements the near real time accident map provided by the Lebanese National Council for Scientific Research and designs an optimal speed trap map targeting Lebanese highways.(author)

  18. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  19. On opulence driven poverty traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractEndogenous population growth, i.e., making the rate of population growth dependent on society's opulence, causes parametric changes to have a larger impact and can cause multiplicity of steady states in a dynamic intertemporal optimization framework. This provides a simple explanation

  20. Laser trapping of radioactive francium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, G.D.; Orozco, L.A.; Simsarian, J.E.; Shi, W.; Zhao, W.Z.

    1997-01-01

    The difficult problem of quickly slowing and cooling nuclear reaction products so that they can be injected into a laser trap has been solved by several groups and there are now strong efforts to work with the trapped atoms. The atoms are confined in the trap to a small spatial volume of the order of 1 mm 3 , but more importantly, they are also confined in velocity, which makes them an ideal sample for spectroscopic measurements with other lasers. We have recently trapped radioactive francium and have embarked on a program to further study the francium atom as a prelude to a test of the Standard Model analogous to previous work with Cs. Our sample of 3 min 210 Fr now contains over 20 000 atoms, and is readily visible with an ordinary TV camera. We work on-line with the accelerator, and continuously load the trap to replace losses due to decay and collisions with background gas. We have maintained a sample of Fr atoms in the trap for over 10 hours, with occasional adjustment of the trapping laser frequency to account for drifts. The proposed test of the Standard Model will require accurate calculation of its atomic properties. We are currently testing these calculations by measuring other predicted quantities. (orig.)

  1. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  2. Single-molecule dynamics in nanofabricated traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) provides a means to immobilize a single fluorescent molecule in solution, without surface attachment chemistry. The ABEL trap works by tracking the Brownian motion of a single molecule, and applying feedback electric fields to induce an electrokinetic motion that approximately cancels the Brownian motion. We present a new design for the ABEL trap that allows smaller molecules to be trapped and more information to be extracted from the dynamics of a single molecule than was previously possible. In particular, we present strategies for extracting dynamically fluctuating mobilities and diffusion coefficients, as a means to probe dynamic changes in molecular charge and shape. If one trapped molecule is good, many trapped molecules are better. An array of single molecules in solution, each immobilized without surface attachment chemistry, provides an ideal test-bed for single-molecule analyses of intramolecular dynamics and intermolecular interactions. We present a technology for creating such an array, using a fused silica plate with nanofabricated dimples and a removable cover for sealing single molecules within the dimples. With this device one can watch the shape fluctuations of single molecules of DNA or study cooperative interactions in weakly associating protein complexes.

  3. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  4. Optical Trapping of Ion Coulomb Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Schmidt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions can be controlled and coherently coupled on the level of individual quanta. Assembling complex quantum systems ion by ion while keeping this unique level of control remains a challenging task. For many applications, linear chains of ions in conventional traps are ideally suited to address this problem. However, driven motion due to the magnetic or radio-frequency electric trapping fields sometimes limits the performance in one dimension and severely affects the extension to higher-dimensional systems. Here, we report on the trapping of multiple barium ions in a single-beam optical dipole trap without radio-frequency or additional magnetic fields. We study the persistence of order in ensembles of up to six ions within the optical trap, measure their temperature, and conclude that the ions form a linear chain, commonly called a one-dimensional Coulomb crystal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we access the collective motion and perform spectrometry of the normal modes in the optical trap. Our system provides a platform that is free of driven motion and combines advantages of optical trapping, such as state-dependent confinement and nanoscale potentials, with the desirable properties of crystals of trapped ions, such as long-range interactions featuring collective motion. Starting with small numbers of ions, it has been proposed that these properties would allow the experimental study of many-body physics and the onset of structural quantum phase transitions between one- and two-dimensional crystals.

  5. Laser trapping of 21Na atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive 21 Na (t l/2 = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped 21 Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of 21 Na → 21 Ne + Β + + v e , which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, 21 Na atoms were produced by bombarding 24 Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The 21 Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined

  6. Trapping of positrons in a Penning Malmberg trap in the view of accumulating them with the use of a pulsed beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, P.

    2011-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle, a fundament of Einstein general relativity, states that gravitational mass and inertial mass are equal whatever the body. This equivalence principle has never been directly tested with antimatter. The GBAR (Gravitational Behaviour of Antimatter at Rest) experiment intends to test it by measuring the acceleration of ultra cold anti-hydrogens in free fall. The production of such anti-atoms requires a pulse of about 10 10 positrons in a few tens of nanoseconds. This thesis focuses on the development of a new accumulation technique of positrons in a Penning-Malmberg trap in order to create this pulse. This new method is an improvement of the accumulation technique of Oshima et al.. This technique requires a non-neutral electron plasma to cool down positrons in the trap in order to confine them. A continuous beam delivers positrons and the trapping efficiency is about 0.4%. The new method needs a positron pulsed beam and the method efficiency is estimated at 80%. A part of this thesis was performed at Riken (Tokyo) on the trap of Oshima et al. to study the behavior of non-neutral plasmas in this type of trap and the first accumulation method. A theoretical model was developed to simulate the positron trapping efficiency. The description and the systematic study of the new accumulation technique with a pulsed positron beam are presented. They includes notably the optimization through simulation of the electromagnetic configuration of the trap and of the parameters of the used non-neutral plasmas. (author)

  7. Gas-partitioning tracer test to qualify trapped gas during recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Kip, Solomon D.; Perkins, Kim S.; Ellett, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved helium and bromide tracers were used to evaluate trapped gas during an infiltration pond experiment. Dissolved helium preferentially partitioned into trapped gas bubbles, or other pore air, because of its low solubility in water. This produced observed helium retardation factors of as much as 12 relative to bromide. Numerical simulations of helium breakthrough with both equilibrium and kinetically limited advection/dispersion/retardation did not match observed helium concentrations. However, better fits were obtained by including a decay term representing the diffusive loss of helium through interconnected, gas-filled pores. Calculations indicate that 7% to more than 26% of the porosity beneath the pond was filled with gas. Measurements of laboratory hydraulic properties indicate that a 10% decrease in saturation would reduce the hydraulic conductivity by at least one order of magnitude in the well-sorted sandstone, but less in the overlying soils. This is consistent with in situ measurements during the experiment, which show steeper hydraulic gradients in sandstone than in soil. Intrinsic permeability of the soil doubled during the first six months of the experiment, likely caused by a combination of dissolution and thermal contraction of trapped gas. Managers of artificial recharge basins may consider minimizing the amount of trapped gas by using wet, rather than dry, tilling to optimize infiltration rates, particularly in well-sorted porous media in which reintroduced trapped gas may cause substantial reductions in permeability. Trapped gas may also inhibit the amount of focused infiltration that occurs naturally during ephemeral flood events along washes and playas.

  8. Gas-partitioning tracer test to quantify trapped gas during recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Perkins, K.S.; Ellett, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved helium and bromide tracers were used to evaluate trapped gas during an infiltration pond experiment. Dissolved helium preferentially partitioned into trapped gas bubbles, or other pore air, because of its low solubility in water. This produced observed helium retardation factors of as much as 12 relative to bromide. Numerical simulations of helium breakthrough with both equilibrium and kinetically limited advection/dispersion/retardation did not match observed helium concentrations. However, better fits were obtained by including a decay term representing the diffusive loss of helium through interconnected, gas-filled pores. Calculations indicate that 7% to more than 26% of the porosity beneath the pond was filled with gas. Measurements of laboratory hydraulic properties indicate that a 10% decrease in saturation would reduce the hydraulic conductivity by at least one order of magnitude in the well-sorted sandstone, but less in the overlying soils. This is consistent with in situ measurements during the experiment, which show steeper hydraulic gradients in sandstone than in soil. Intrinsic permeability of the soil doubled during the first six months of the experiment, likely caused by a combination of dissolution and thermal contraction of trapped gas. Managers of artificial recharge basins may consider minimizing the amount of trapped gas by using wet, rather than dry, tilling to optimize infiltration rates, particularly in well-sorted porous media in which reintroduced trapped gas may cause substantial reductions in permeability. Trapped gas may also inhibit the amount of focused infiltration that occurs naturally during ephemeral flood events along washes and playas.

  9. Sideband cooling and coherent dynamics in a microchip multi-segmented ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Stephan A; Poschinger, Ulrich; Ziesel, Frank; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail: stephan.schulz@uni-ulm.de

    2008-04-15

    Miniaturized ion trap arrays with many trap segments present a promising architecture for scalable quantum information processing. The miniaturization of segmented linear Paul traps allows partitioning the microtrap into different storage and processing zones. The individual position control of many ions-each of them carrying qubit information in its long-lived electronic levels-by the external trap control voltages is important for the implementation of next generation large-scale quantum algorithms. We present a novel scalable microchip multi-segmented ion trap with two different adjacent zones, one for the storage and another dedicated to the processing of quantum information using single ions and linear ion crystals. A pair of radio-frequency-driven electrodes and 62 independently controlled dc electrodes allows shuttling of single ions or linear ion crystals with numerically designed axial potentials at axial and radial trap frequencies of a few megahertz. We characterize and optimize the microtrap using sideband spectroscopy on the narrow S{sub 1/2}{r_reversible}D{sub 5/2} qubit transition of the {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion, and demonstrate coherent single-qubit Rabi rotations and optical cooling methods. We determine the heating rate using sideband cooling measurements to the vibrational ground state, which is necessary for subsequent two-qubit quantum logic operations. The applicability for scalable quantum information processing is proved.

  10. Biases in Drosophila melanogaster protein trap screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Ilka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to localise or follow endogenous proteins in real time in vivo is of tremendous utility for cell biology or systems biology studies. Protein trap screens utilise the random genomic insertion of a transposon-borne artificial reporter exon (e.g. encoding the green fluorescent protein, GFP into an intron of an endogenous gene to generate a fluorescent fusion protein. Despite recent efforts aimed at achieving comprehensive coverage of the genes encoded in the Drosophila genome, the repertoire of genes that yield protein traps is still small. Results We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. The protein trap screens investigated here primarily used P-element vectors and thus exhibit some of the same positional biases associated with this transposon that are evident from the comprehensive Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. We further found that protein trap target genes usually exhibit broad and persistent expression during embryonic development, which is likely to facilitate better detection. In addition, we investigated the likely influence of the GFP exon on host protein structure and found that protein trap insertions have a significant bias for exon-exon boundaries that encode disordered protein regions. 38.8% of GFP insertions land in disordered protein regions compared with only 23.4% in the case of non-trapping P-element insertions landing in coding sequence introns (p -4. Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. Considering the various biases observed, we predict that less than one third of intron-containing genes are likely to be amenable to trapping by the existing methods. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the

  11. An atom trap relying on optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, P.; Lemonde, P.; Ben Dahan, M.; Michaud, A.; Salomon, C.; Dalibard, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a J g →J e = J g + 1 atomic transition with J g ≥1/2. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm J g = 4→J e = 5 resonance transition. The trap contained up to 3.10 7 atoms in a cloud of 1/√e radius of 330 μm. (orig.)

  12. Ultratrace determination of tin by hydride generation in-atomizer trapping atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Průša, Libor [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hlavova 8, Prague 2, CZ 128 43 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Dědina, Jiří [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kratzer, Jan, E-mail: jkratzer@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •In-atomizer trapping HG-AAS was optimized for Sn. •A compact quartz trap-and-atomizer device was employed. •Generation, preconcentration and atomization steps were investigated in detail. •Hundred percent preconcentration efficiency for tin was reached. •Routine analytical method was developed for Sn determination (LOD of 0.03 ng mL{sup −1} Sn). -- Abstract: A quartz multiatomizer with its inlet arm modified to serve as a trap (trap-and-atomizer device) was employed to trap tin hydride and subsequently to volatilize collected analyte species with atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Generation, atomization and preconcentration conditions were optimized and analytical figures of merit of both on-line atomization as well as preconcentration modes were quantified. Preconcentration efficiency of 95 ± 5% was found. The detection limits reached were 0.029 and 0.14 ng mL{sup −1} Sn, respectively, for 120 s preconcentration period and on-line atomization mode without any preconcentration. The interference extent of other hydride forming elements (As, Se, Sb and Bi) on tin determination was found negligible in both modes of operation. The applicability of the developed preconcentration method was verified by Sn determination in a certified reference material as well as by analysis of real samples.

  13. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  14. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  15. Medfly female attractant trapping studies in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronimo, F.; Rendon, P.; Villatoro, C.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted from 1994 - 1998 to test the attractiveness of combinations of food-based chemicals for C. capitata (medfly) in Guatemala. Most studies were done in coffee. The 1995 studies, using the FA-2 attractants (ammonium acetate and putrescine) showed that this combination was attractive for females and had potential for use in conjunction with a SIT program. The 1996 studies at three elevations demonstrated that, in general, these attractants, when used in either the Open Bottom Dry Trap (OBDT), Closed Bottom Dry Trap (CBDT), or International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT) performed better than the Jumbo McPhail trap (JMT) baited with NuLure and borax (NU+B) for capture of feral females. At the high elevation (1400 m), the IPMT with FA-2 and OBDT with FA-2 were best; at the middle elevation (1100 m), the ORDT, IPMT, and CBDT with FA-2 were best; and at low elevations (659 m), the IPMT with FA-2, JMT with NU+B and ORDT with FA-2 were equal in performance. At the middle elevation, using sterile flies, the OBDT with FA-2 worked best. When experiments were carried out in pear, the traps using the FA-2 attractants captured more female flies than the JMT, NU+B, but not significantly more. During the 1997 trials, a third component, trimethylamine was added to the two component lure (FA-3). This attractant was tested in a number of locally produced traps using 2 I soft drink bottles with different color bottoms. The dry versions of the traps contained a yellow sticky insert. All study sites were at low elevation 600 - 650 m, in coffee, testing both sterile and feral flies. With the feral flies during the first phase of the study at finca San Carlos, there were no significant differences between treatments, at finca San Luis, the clear local trap with sticky insert and the green local trap with sticky insert were best, and at finca Valapraiso, the green local trap with yellow sticky insert and yellow local trap with sticky insert captured more flies

  16. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: temple18@mail.ru; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  17. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  18. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility in irradiated power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupac, D.; Galloway, K.F.; Khosropour, P.; Anderson, S.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective approach to separating the effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge on mobility degradation in irradiated MOSFETs is demonstrated. It is based on analyzing mobility data sets which have different functional relationships between the radiation-induced-oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge. Separation of effects of oxide-trapped charge and interface-trapped charge is possible only if these two trapped charge components are not linearly dependent. A significant contribution of oxide-trapped charge to mobility degradation is demonstrated and quantified

  19. Radionuclide trap for liquid metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-10-01

    At liquid metal cooled reactor operating temperatures, radioactive corrosion product transport and deposition in the primary system will be sufficiently high to limit access time for maintenance of system components. A radionuclide trap has been developed to aid in controlling radioactivity transport. This is a device which is located above the reactor core and which acts as a getter, physically immobilizing radioactive corrosion products, particularly 54 Mn. Nickel is the getter material used. It is most effective at temperatures above 450 0 C and effectiveness increases with increasing temperature. Prototype traps have been tested in sodium loops for 40,000 hours at reactor primary temperatures and sodium velocities. Several possible in-reactor trap sites were considered but a location within the top of each driver assembly was chosen as the most convenient and effective. In this position the trap is changed each time fuel is changed

  20. Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Comments on 'Generation of Deccan Trap magmas' by Gautam Sen ... Department of Geology & Geophysics, School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology (SOEST), University of .... Mahoney J J, Sheth H C, Chandrasekharan D and Peng Z.

  1. AEgIS antihydrogen production trap

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    During technical stop 2017 the AEgIS experiment was open for upgrades and maintenance. We had the opportunity to take some 360 images from inside and see where antiprotons are ¨trapped¨ and anti-Hydrogen produced.

  2. Vapour trap development and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansing, W.; Kirchner, G.; Menck, J.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium aerosols have the unpleasant characteristic that they deposit at places with low temperature level. This effect can be utilized when sodium aerosols are to be trapped at places which are determined beforehand. Thus vapour traps were developed which can filter sodium vapour from the cover gas. By this means the necessity was eliminated to heat all gas lines and gas systems with trace heaters just as all sodium lines are heated. It was of special interest for the INTERATOM to develop vapour traps which must not be changed or cleaned after a certain limited operating period. The vapour traps were supposed to enable maintenance free operation, i.e. they were to operate 'self cleaning'

  3. Defect trapping of deuterium implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Y.; Kakeno, M.; Yamada, K.; Hioki, T.; Kawamoto, J.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of deuterium implanted in Al was studied by the D( 3 He,p) 4 He and the D(d,p)T nuclear reactions. Changes of the depth profiles of the deuterium after heat treatments indicated that the implanted deuterium was trapped by the defect produced during the deuterium implantation and the release probability of the trapped deuterium increased as the specimen temperature was raised. Assuming a thermal equilibrium locally in the region of high defect concentration, the trapping energy of deuterium in Al was determined to be 0.12eV. Since the release probability for the single crystal was considerably larger than that for the polycrystal specimens, the deuterium was considered to be strongly trapped in the grain boundaries. Distributions of displaced Al atoms and the recovery of the lattice damage by annealing were measured by the channelling technique. (author)

  4. Curious behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, C.; Walker, T.; Sesko, D.; Monroe, C.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the behavior of clouds of neutral atoms contained in a spontaneous force optical trap. Because of the low temperatures of the atoms ( 5 atoms. These include the expansion of the cloud as the number is increased and dramatic changes in the distribution of the atoms at higher numbers. We can explain much of the collective behavior using a simple model that includes a 1/r 2 force between the atoms arising from the multiple scattering of photons. Finally, we discuss the optical trapping of atoms directly from a low pressure vapor in a small glass cell. We have used these optically trapped atoms to load a magnetostatic trap in the same cell. This provided a high density sample of atoms with a temperature of less than 2 μK

  5. Whistler wave trapping in a density crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, H.; Niki, H.; Inutake, M.; Takeda, S.

    1979-11-01

    The linear trapping process of whistler waves in a field-aligned density crest is investigated theoretically and experimentally below ω = ωsub(c)/2 (half gyrofrequency). The conditions of the crest trapping are derived in terms of the frequency ω/ωsub(c), the incident wave-normal angle theta sub(i), and the density ratio n sub(i)/n sub(o), where n sub(i) and n sub(o) denote the density at the incident point and that at the ridge, respectively. The oscillation length of the trapped ray path is calculated for a parabolic density profile. The experiment on antenna-excited whistler wave has been performed in a large magnetized plasma with the density crest. The phase and amplitude profile of the whistler wave is measured along and across the crest. The measurement has verified characteristic behaviors of the crest trapping. (author)

  6. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  7. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  8. Traps in Zirconium Alloys Oxide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxide films long-time grown on tubes of three types of zirconium alloys in water and in steam were investigated, by analysing I-V characteristic measured at constant voltages with various temperatures. Using theoretical concepts of Rose [3] and Gould [5], ZryNbSn(Fe proved to have an exponential distribution of trapping centers below the conduction band edge, wheras Zr1Nb and IMP Zry-4 proved to have single energy trap levels.

  9. Coherent states approach to Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    By using a matrix technique, which allows us to identify directly the ladder operators, the Penning trap coherent states are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. These states are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator. The associated wavefunctions and mean values for some relevant operators in these states are also evaluated. It turns out that the Penning trap coherent states minimize the Heisenberg uncertainty relation

  10. The ALPHA Experiment a Cold Antihydrogen Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D; Gomberoff, K; Grote, D P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jenkins, M; Jørgensen, L V; Madsen, N; Miranda, D; Nolan, P; Ochanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Posada, L G C; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Telle, H H; Vay, J L; Wurtele, J; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2005-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment aims to trap antihydrogen as the next crucial step towards a precise CPT test, by a spectroscopic comparison of antihydrogen with hydrogen. The experiment will retain the salient techniques developed by the ATHENA collaboration during the previous phase of antihydrogen experiments at the antiproton decelerator (AD) at CERN. The collaboration has identified the key problems in adding a neutral antiatom trap to the previously developed experimental configuration. The solutions identified by ALPHA are described in this paper.

  11. Deuterium transport and trapping in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deuterium permeation studies for polycrystalline tungsten foil have been conducted to provide data for estimating tritium transport and trapping in tungsten-clad divertors proposed for advanced fusion-reactor concepts. Based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization of the specimen material and on analyses of permeation data measured at temperatures ranging form 610 to 823 K for unannealed and annealed tungsten foil (25 μm thick), the authors note the following key results: deuterium transport in tungsten foil is dominated by extensive trapping that varies inversely with prior anneal temperatures of the foil material, the reduction in the trapped fraction correlates with a corresponding elimination of a high density of dislocations in cell-wall structures introduced during the foil fabrication process, trapping behavior in these foils can be modelled using trap energies between 1.3 eV and 1.5 eV and trap densities ranging from 1 x 10 -5 atom fraction

  12. The Use of Camera Traps in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uçarlı

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are increasingly used in the abundance and density estimates of wildlife species. Camera traps are very good alternative for direct observation in case, particularly, steep terrain, dense vegetation covered areas or nocturnal species. The main reason for the use of camera traps is eliminated that the economic, personnel and time loss in a continuous manner at the same time in different points. Camera traps, motion and heat sensitive, can take a photo or video according to the models. Crossover points and feeding or mating areas of the focal species are addressed as a priority camera trap set locations. The population size can be finding out by the images combined with Capture-Recapture methods. The population density came out the population size divided to effective sampling area size. Mating and breeding season, habitat choice, group structures and survival rates of the focal species can be achieved from the images. Camera traps are very useful to obtain the necessary data about the particularly mysterious species with economically in planning and conservation efforts.

  13. The Electronic McPhail Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Certain insects affect cultivations in a detrimental way. A notable case is the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi)), that in Europe alone causes billions of euros in crop-loss/per year. Pests can be controlled with aerial and ground bait pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time and location of insect infestations as early as possible. The inspection of traps is currently carried out manually. Automatic monitoring traps can enhance efficient monitoring of flying pests by identifying and counting targeted pests as they enter the trap. This work deals with the hardware setup of an insect trap with an embedded optoelectronic sensor that automatically records insects as they fly in the trap. The sensor responsible for detecting the insect is an array of phototransistors receiving light from an infrared LED. The wing-beat recording is based on the interruption of the emitted light due to the partial occlusion from insect's wings as they fly in the trap. We show that the recordings are of high quality paving the way for automatic recognition and transmission of insect detections from the field to a smartphone. This work emphasizes the hardware implementation of the sensor and the detection/counting module giving all necessary implementation details needed to construct it. PMID:25429412

  14. The Electronic McPhail Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain insects affect cultivations in a detrimental way. A notable case is the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, that in Europe alone causes billions of euros in crop-loss/per year. Pests can be controlled with aerial and ground bait pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time and location of insect infestations as early as possible. The inspection of traps is currently carried out manually. Automatic monitoring traps can enhance efficient monitoring of flying pests by identifying and counting targeted pests as they enter the trap. This work deals with the hardware setup of an insect trap with an embedded optoelectronic sensor that automatically records insects as they fly in the trap. The sensor responsible for detecting the insect is an array of phototransistors receiving light from an infrared LED. The wing-beat recording is based on the interruption of the emitted light due to the partial occlusion from insect’s wings as they fly in the trap. We show that the recordings are of high quality paving the way for automatic recognition and transmission of insect detections from the field to a smartphone. This work emphasizes the hardware implementation of the sensor and the detection/counting module giving all necessary implementation details needed to construct it.

  15. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  16. Achieving Translationally Invariant Trapped Ion Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Erik; Li, Hao-Kun; Noel, Crystal; Hemmerling, Boerge; Zhang, Xiang; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    We present the design and implementation of a novel surface ion trap design in a ring configuration. By eliminating the need for wire bonds through the use of electrical vias and using a rotationally invariant electrode configuration, we have realized a trap that is able to trap up to 20 ions in a ring geometry 45um in diameter, 400um above the trap surface. This large trapping height to ring diameter ratio allows for global addressing of the ring with both lasers and electric fields in the chamber, thereby increasing our ability to control the ring as a whole. Applying compensating electric fields, we measure very low tangential trap frequencies (less than 20kHz) corresponding to rotational barriers down to 4mK. This measurement is currently limited by the temperature of the ions but extrapolation indicates the barrier can be reduced much further with more advanced cooling techniques. Finally, we show that we are able to reduce this energy barrier sufficiently such that the ions are able to overcome it either through thermal motion or rotational motion and delocalize over the full extent of the ring. This work was funded by the Keck Foundation and the NSF.

  17. On-chip particle trapping and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Kaelyn Danielle

    The ability to control and manipulate the world around us is human nature. Humans and our ancestors have used tools for millions of years. Only in recent years have we been able to control objects at such small levels. In order to understand the world around us it is frequently necessary to interact with the biological world. Optical trapping and manipulation offer a non-invasive way to move, sort and interact with particles and cells to see how they react to the world around them. Optical tweezers are ideal in their abilities but they require large, non-portable, and expensive setups limiting how and where we can use them. A cheap portable platform is required in order to have optical manipulation reach its full potential. On-chip technology offers a great solution to this challenge. We focused on the Liquid-Core Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (liquid-core ARROW) for our work. The ARROW is an ideal platform, which has anti-resonant layers which allow light to be guided in liquids, allowing for particles to easily be manipulated. It is manufactured using standard silicon manufacturing techniques making it easy to produce. The planner design makes it easy to integrate with other technologies. Initially I worked to improve the ARROW chip by reducing the intersection losses and by reducing the fluorescence and background on the ARROW chip. The ARROW chip has already been used to trap and push particles along its channel but here I introduce several new methods of particle trapping and manipulation on the ARROW chip. Traditional two beam traps use two counter propagating beams. A trapping scheme that uses two orthogonal beams which counter to first instinct allow for trapping at their intersection is introduced. This scheme is thoroughly predicted and analyzed using realistic conditions. Simulations of this method were done using a program which looks at both the fluidics and optical sources to model complex situations. These simulations were also used to

  18. Bait preference in basket trap fishing operation and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bait preference of basket traps fishing operation and heavy metal contamination in the trap catches from Lagos Lagoon were carried out between January and June 2011. Sixty baskets traps were used for the fishing operation, twenty basket traps were baited each with soap, coconut and maize. Clibanarius africanus ...

  19. Evaluation of Sediment Trap Efficiency in an Estuarine Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoddard, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    .... A second trap of same dimensions was also incorporated 420 m upstream. Trap efficiency was calculated as a sediment removal ratio, or the percentage by which influent sediment load to the trap is reduced in the effluent load from the trap...

  20. Description of the IMR Standard Light Trap and the Vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The construction of different versions of a cheap, robust, and easy to operate light trap for catching various aquatic organisms is shown. The trap can be used to > 300 m depth and meets a number of criteria. Small-scale vertical distribution of decapod larvae was investigated during trap trials. The traps (6-10) were set for 24 ...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...

  2. Deuterium trapping in carbon fiber composites under high fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetov, A.A.; Begrambekov, L.B.; Kuzmin, A.A.; Shigin, P.A.; Zakharov, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of deuterium trapping in CFC, dance graphite MPG-8 and pyrolytic graphite (PG) under plasma ion- and electron irradiation. Number of specific features of deuterium trapping and retention under plasma ion and electron irradiation is presented and discussed. In particular it is shown that 1) deuterium trapping takes place even when energy of impinging ions approaches zero; 2) deuterium is trapped under irradiation by plasma electrons; 3) under irradiation at equal fluences deuterium trapping is higher, when ion flux is smaller. High energy ion penetrating the surfaces are trapped in the traps created at the expense of their kinetic energy. The process may be named 'kinetic trapping'. Under low energy (smaller than 200 eV) electron and/or ion irradiation the energy of inelastic interaction on the surface provides creation of active centers, which initiate dissociation of deuterium sorbed on the surface, penetration of deuterium atoms into graphite and their trapping in specific low energy traps. The term 'potential trapping' is proposed for this type of trapping. Under high energy irradiation such atoms can fill the traps formed through kinetic mechanism. Origination of moveable deuterium atoms from the layer of surface sorption seems to be time dependent process and it is a reason of increase of trapping along with irradiation time. New features of deuterium trapping and retention in graphite evaluated in this study offer new opportunities for analysis and correct estimation of hydrogen isotope trapping and retention in tokamaks having graphite tiles. (authors)

  3. Tightly confined atoms in optical dipole traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.

    2002-12-01

    This thesis reports on the design and setup of a new atom trap apparatus, which is developed to confine few rubidium atoms in ultrahigh vacuum and make them available for controlled manipulations. To maintain low background pressure, atoms of a vapour cell are transferred into a cold atomic beam by laser cooling techniques, and accumulated by a magneto-optic trap (MOT) in a separate part of the vacuum system. The laser cooled atoms are then transferred into dipole traps made of focused far-off-resonant laser fields in single- or crossed-beam geometry, which are superimposed with the center of the MOT. Gaussian as well as hollow Laguerre-Gaussian (LG$ ( 01)$) beam profiles are used with red-detuned or blue-detuned light, respectively. Microfabricated dielectric phase objects allow efficient and robust mode conversion of Gaussian into Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams. Trap geometries can easily be changed due to the highly flexible experimental setup. The dipole trap laser beams are focused to below 10 microns at a power of several hundred milliwatts. Typical trap parameters, at a detuning of several ten nanometers from the atomic resonance, are trag depths of few millikelvin, trap frequencies near 30-kHz, trap light scattering rates of few hundred photons per atom and second, and lifetimes of several seconds. The number of dipole-trapped atoms ranges from more than ten thousand to below ten. The dipole-trapped atoms are detected either by a photon counting system with very efficient straylight discrimination, or by recapture into the MOT, which is imaged onto a sensitive photodiode and a CCD-camera. Due to the strong AC-Stark shift imposed by the high intensity trapping light, energy-selective resonant excitation and detection of the atoms is possible. The measured energy distribution is consistent with a harmonic potential shape and allows the determination of temperatures and heating rates. In first measurements, the thermal energy is found to be about 10 % of the

  4. (Anti)hydrogen recombination studies in a nested Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, W.; Kaiser, R.; Hall, D.; Gabrielse, G.

    1993-01-01

    Extremely cold antiprotons, stored in Penning trap at 4 K, open the way toward the production and study of cold antihydrogen. We have begun experimentally investigating the possibility to recombine cold positrons and antiprotons within nested Penning traps. Trap potentials are adjusted to allow cold trapped protons (and positive helium ions) to pass through cold trapped electrons. Electrons, protons and ions are counted by ejecting them to a cold channel plate and by nondestructive radiofrequency techniques. The effect of the space charge of one trapped species upon another trapped species passing through is clearly observed. (orig.)

  5. Flux trapping and shielding in irreversible superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, D.J.

    1978-05-01

    Flux trappings and shielding experiments were carried out on Pb, Nb, Pb-Bi, Nb-Sn, and Nb-Ti samples of various shapes. Movable Hall probes were used to measure fields near or inside the samples as a function of position and of applied field. The trapping of transverse multipole magnetic fields in tubular samples was accomplished by cooling the samples in an applied field and then smoothly reducing the applied field to zero. Transverse quadrupole and sextupole fields with gradients of over 2000 G/cm were trapped with typical fidelity to the original impressed field of a few percent. Transverse dipole fields of up to 17 kG were also trapped with similar fidelity. Shielding experiments were carried out by cooling the samples in zero field and then gradually applying an external field. Flux trapping and shielding abilities were found to be limited by two factors, the pinning strength of the material, and the susceptibility of a sample to flux jumping. The trapping and shielding behavior of flat disk samples in axial fields and thin-walled tubular samples in transverse fields was modeled. The models, which were based on the concept of the critical state, allowed a connection to be made between the pinning strength and critical current level, and the flux trapping and shielding abilities. Adiabatic and dynamic stability theories are discussed and applied to the materials tested. Good qualitative, but limited quantitative agreement was obtained between the predictions of the theoretical stability criteria and the observed flux jumping behavior

  6. Quantum information processing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Haensel, W.; Rapol, U.; Koerber, T.; Benhelm, J.; Riebe, M.; Chek-al-Kar, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Becher, C.; Roos, C.; Blatt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Single Ca + ions and crystals of Ca + ions are confined in a linear Paul trap and are investigated for quantum information processing. Here we report on recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with such a system. Laser-cooled trapped ions are ideally suited systems for the investigation and implementation of quantum information processing as one can gain almost complete control over their internal and external degrees of freedom. The combination of a Paul type ion trap with laser cooling leads to unique properties of trapped cold ions, such as control of the motional state down to the zero-point of the trapping potential, a high degree of isolation from the environment and thus a very long time available for manipulations and interactions at the quantum level. The very same properties make single trapped atoms and ions well suited for storing quantum information in long lived internal states, e.g. by encoding a quantum bit (qubit) of information within the coherent superposition of the S 1/2 ground state and the metastable D 5/2 excited state of Ca + . Recently we have achieved the implementation of simple algorithms with up to 3 qubits on an ion-trap quantum computer. We will report on methods to implement single qubit rotations, the realization of a two-qubit universal quantum gate (Cirac-Zoller CNOT-gate), the deterministic generation of multi-particle entangled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)

  7. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y. de F.; de Aquino, G. A.; Filho, J. G. D.

    2010-08-01

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through "air trap valves". In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the "air trap valves". The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where "air trap valves" are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test "air trap valves". The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  8. Experimental apparatus to test air trap valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos De Lucca, Y de F [CTH-DAEE-USP/FAAP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Aquino, G A de [SABESP/UNICAMP (Brazil); Filho, J G D, E-mail: yvone.lucca@gmail.co [Water Resources Department, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitaria-Barao Geraldo-Campinas, S.P., 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    It is known that the presence of trapped air within water distribution pipes can lead to irregular operation or even damage to the distribution systems and their components. The presence of trapped air may occur while the pipes are being filled with water, or while the pumping systems are in operation. The formation of large air pockets can produce the water hammer phenomenon, the instability and the loss of pressure in the water distribution networks. As a result, it can overload the pumps, increase the consumption of electricity, and damage the pumping system. In order to avoid its formation, all of the trapped air should be removed through 'air trap valves'. In Brazil, manufacturers frequently have unreliable sizing charts, which cause malfunctioning of the 'air trap valves'. The result of these malfunctions causes accidents of substantial damage. The construction of a test facility will provide a foundation of technical information that will be used to help make decisions when designing a system of pipelines where 'air trap valves' are used. To achieve this, all of the valve characteristics (geometric, mechanic, hydraulic and dynamic) should be determined. This paper aims to describe and analyze the experimental apparatus and test procedure to be used to test 'air trap valves'. The experimental apparatus and test facility will be located at the University of Campinas, Brazil at the College of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urbanism in the Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics laboratory. The experimental apparatus will be comprised of various components (pumps, steel pipes, butterfly valves to control the discharge, flow meter and reservoirs) and instrumentation (pressure transducers, anemometer and proximity sensor). It should be emphasized that all theoretical and experimental procedures should be defined while taking into consideration flow parameters and fluid properties that influence the tests.

  9. Structure and dynamics of ion clusters in linear octupole traps: Phase diagrams, chirality, and melting mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.

  10. Improved light trapping in polymer solar cells by light diffusion ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiang; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Ching-Yi; Li, Husan-De; Zhan, Fu-Min; Huang, Yu-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Light trapping is an important issue for solar cells to increase optical path length and optical absorption. In this work, a light trapping structure was realized for polymer solar cells by utilizing light diffusion ink which is conventionally used in display backlighting. The light scattering particles in the ink cause the deflection of light, and the number of these particles coated on a glass substrate determines the light transmission and scattering characteristics. It was observed that the short-circuit current density did not decrease with decreasing transmittance, but it increased to a highest value at an optimized transmittance. This behaviour is attributed to the trapping of scattered light in the photoactive layer. (paper)

  11. Photoionization of radiation-induced traps in quartz and alkali feldspars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütt, G; Jaek, I; Vasilchenko, V

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of luminescence dating and dosimetry techniques on the basis of the optically stimulated luminescence, the stimulation spectra of quartz and alkali feldspars were measured in the spectral region of 250-1100 nm using optically stimulated afterglow. Optically stimulated luminescence in all studied spectral regions is induced by the same kind of deep traps, that produce thermoluminescence in the regions of palaeodosimetric peaks for both minerals. The mechanism for photoionization of deep traps was proposed as being due to delocalization of the excited state of the corresponding lattice defects. The excited state overlaps the zone states; i.e. is situated in the conduction band. Because of the high quantum yield of deep electron trap ionization in the UV spectral region, the present aim was to study the possibility of using UV-stimulation for palaeodose reconstruction.

  12. Photoionization of radiation-induced traps in quartz and alkali feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, G.; Jaek, I.; Vasilchenko, V.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of luminescence dating and dosimetry techniques on the basis of the optically stimulated luminescence, the stimulation spectra of quartz and alkali feldspars were measured in the spectral region of 250-1100 nm using optically stimulated afterglow. Optically stimulated luminescence in all studied spectral regions is induced by the same kind of deep traps, that produce thermoluminescence in the regions of palaeodosimetric peaks for both minerals. The mechanism for photoionization of deep traps was proposed as being due to delocalization of the excited state of the corresponding lattice defects. The excited state overlaps the zone states; i.e. is situated in the conduction band. Because of the high quantum yield of deep electron trap ionization in the UV spectral region, the present aim was to study the possibility of using UV-stimulation for palaeodose reconstruction

  13. Photoionization of radiation-induced traps in quartz and alkali feldspars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huett, G. E-mail: hutt@pdos.gi.ee; Jaek, I.; Vasilchenko, V

    2001-01-15

    For the optimization of luminescence dating and dosimetry techniques on the basis of the optically stimulated luminescence, the stimulation spectra of quartz and alkali feldspars were measured in the spectral region of 250-1100 nm using optically stimulated afterglow. Optically stimulated luminescence in all studied spectral regions is induced by the same kind of deep traps, that produce thermoluminescence in the regions of palaeodosimetric peaks for both minerals. The mechanism for photoionization of deep traps was proposed as being due to delocalization of the excited state of the corresponding lattice defects. The excited state overlaps the zone states; i.e. is situated in the conduction band. Because of the high quantum yield of deep electron trap ionization in the UV spectral region, the present aim was to study the possibility of using UV-stimulation for palaeodose reconstruction.

  14. Trapping and dark current in plasma-based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping of thermal electrons in a nonlinear plasma wave of arbitrary phase velocity is investigated. The threshold plasma wave amplitude for trapping plasma electrons is calculated, thereby determining the fraction trapped and the expected dark current in a plasma-based accelerator. It is shown that the presence of a laser field (e.g., trapping in the self-modulated regime of the laser wakefield accelerator) increases the trapping threshold. Implications for experimental and numerical laser-plasma studies are discussed

  15. Trapping and Evolution Dynamics of Ultracold Two-Component Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-H.; Knuffman, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Povilus, A. P.; Raithel, G.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping of a strongly magnetized, quasineutral ultracold plasma in a nested Penning trap with a background field of 2.9 T. Electrons remain trapped in this system for several milliseconds. Early in the evolution, the dynamics are driven by a breathing-mode oscillation in the ionic charge distribution, which modulates the electron trap depth. Over longer times scales, the electronic component undergoes cooling. Trap loss resulting from ExB drift is characterized

  16. Dynamic analysis of trapping and escaping in dual beam optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqiang; Hu, Huizhu; Su, Heming; Li, Zhenggang; Shen, Yu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we simulate the dynamic movement of a dielectric sphere in optical trap. This dynamic analysis can be used to calibrate optical forces, increase trapping efficiency and measure viscous coefficient of surrounding medium. Since an accurate dynamic analysis is based on a detailed force calculation, we calculate all forces a sphere receives. We get the forces of dual-beam gradient radiation pressure on a micron-sized dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime and utilize Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck to deal with its Brownian motion forces. Hydrodynamic viscous force also exists when the sphere moves in liquid. Forces from buoyance and gravity are also taken into consideration. Then we simulate trajectory of a sphere when it is subject to all these forces in a dual optical trap. From our dynamic analysis, the sphere can be trapped at an equilibrium point in static water, although it permanently fluctuates around the equilibrium point due to thermal effects. We go a step further to analyze the effects of misalignment of two optical traps. Trapping and escaping phenomena of the sphere in flowing water are also simulated. In flowing water, the sphere is dragged away from the equilibrium point. This dragging distance increases with the decrease of optical power, which results in escaping of the sphere with optical power below a threshold. In both trapping and escaping process we calculate the forces and position of the sphere. Finally, we analyze a trapping region in dual optical tweezers.

  17. Spatial mismatch between sea lamprey behaviour and trap location explains low success at trapping for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; McLean, Adrienne R.; Barber, Jessica; Bravener, Gale; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Imre, Istvan; Pratt, Thomas C.; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of invasive species is understanding space use and the environmental features affecting space use. Improved understanding of space use by invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) could help researchers discern why trap success in large rivers is lower than needed for effective control. We tested whether manipulating discharge nightly could increase trap success at a hydroelectric generating station on the St. Marys River. We quantified numbers of acoustically tagged sea lampreys migrating up to, and their space use at, the hydroelectric generating station. In 2011 and 2012, 78% and 68%, respectively, of tagged sea lampreys reached the generating station. Sea lampreys were active along the face, but more likely to occur at the bottom and away from the traps near the surface, especially when discharge was high. Our findings suggest that a low probability of encountering traps was due to spatial (vertical) mismatch between space use by sea lamprey and trap locations and that increasing discharge did not alter space use in ways that increased trap encounter. Understanding space use by invasive species can help managers assess the efficacy of trapping and ways of improving trapping success.

  18. Trapping for invasive crayfish: comparisons of efficacy and selectivity of baited traps versus novel artificial refuge traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native crayfish can dominate the invertebrate biomass of invaded freshwaters, with their high ecological impacts resulting in their populations being controlled by numerous methods, especially trapping. Although baited funnel traps (BTs are commonly used, they tend to be selective in mainly catching large-bodied males. Here, the efficacy and selectivity of BTs were tested against an alternative trapping method based on artificial refuges (ARTs that comprised of a metal base with several tubes (refuges attached. The target species was signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in an upland river in southwest England. Trapping was completed in April to October over two consecutive years. In total, 5897 crayfish were captured, with 87% captured in ARTs. Comparison of the catch per unit effort (CPUE between the trapping methods in the same 24 hour periods revealed significantly higher CPUE in ARTs than of BTs. ARTs fished for 6 consecutive days had higher catches than both methods over 24 hours. Whilst catches in BTs were significantly dominated by males (1.49M:1F, the sex ratio of catches in ARTs was 0.99M:1F. The mean carapace length of crayfish was also significantly larger in BTs (43.2 ± 0.6 mm than in ARTs (33.6 ± 0.2 mm. Thus, ARTs had higher CPUE over 24 hour and 6 day periods versus BTs and also captured a greater proportion of smaller and female individuals. These results indicate that when trapping methods are deployed for managing invasions, the use of ARTs removes substantial numbers of crayfish of both sexes and of varying body sizes.

  19. Microfabricated Microwave-Integrated Surface Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Blain, Matthew G.; Haltli, Raymond A.; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Nordquist, Christopher D.; Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Quantum information processing holds the key to solving computational problems that are intractable with classical computers. Trapped ions are a physical realization of a quantum information system in which qubits are encoded in hyperfine energy states. Coupling the qubit states to ion motion, as needed for two-qubit gates, is typically accomplished using Raman laser beams. Alternatively, this coupling can be achieved with strong microwave gradient fields. While microwave radiation is easier to control than a laser, it is challenging to precisely engineer the radiated microwave field. Taking advantage of Sandia's microfabrication techniques, we created a surface ion trap with integrated microwave electrodes with sub-wavelength dimensions. This multi-layered device permits co-location of the microwave antennae and the ion trap electrodes to create localized microwave gradient fields and necessary trapping fields. Here, we characterize the trap design and present simulated microwave performance with progress towards experimental results. This research was funded, in part, by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  20. Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)

  1. Electron scattering by trapped fermionic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Jhe, Wonho

    2002-01-01

    Considering the Fermi gases of alkali-metal atoms that are trapped in a harmonic potential, we study theoretically the elastic and inelastic scattering of the electrons by the trapped Fermi atoms and present the corresponding differential cross sections. We also obtain the stopping power for the cases that the electronic state as well as the center-of-mass state are excited both separately and simultaneously. It is shown that the elastic scattering process is no longer coherent in contrast to the electron scattering by the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). For the inelastic scattering process, on the other hand, the differential cross section is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the number of the trapped atoms. In particular, the trapped fermionic atoms display the effect of ''Fermi surface,'' that is, only the energy levels near the Fermi energy have dominant contributions to the scattering process. Moreover, it is found that the stopping power scales as the 7/6 power of the atomic number. These results are fundamentally different from those of the electron scattering by the atomic BEC, mainly due to the different statistics obeyed by the trapped atomic systems

  2. Geomagnetically trapped carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogro-Campero, A.

    1972-01-01

    Results of measurements carried out with the University of Chicago nuclear composition telescope on the Ogo 5 satellite, establishing the presence of 13- to 33-MeV/nucleon geomagnetically trapped C and O nuclei, with some evidence for N nuclei. These trapped nuclei were found at L less than or equal to 5 and near the geomagnetic equator. The data cover the period from Mar. 3, 1968, to Dec. 31, 1969. The distribution of CNO flux as a function of L is given. No change in the intensity of the average trapped CNO flux was detected by comparing data for 1968 and 1969. The results reported set a new value for the observed high energy limit of trapping as described by the critical adiabaticity parameter. The penetration of solar flare CNO up to L = 4 was observed twice in 1968, in disagreement with Stormer theory predictions. The effects of these results on some models for the origin of the trapped radiation are discussed.

  3. Two-species mixing in a nested Penning trap for antihydrogen trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C. A.; Weathers, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an international quest to trap neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen for scientific study. One method that is being developed for trapping antihydrogen employs a nested Penning trap. Such a trap serves to mix positrons and antiprotons so as to produce low energy antihydrogen atoms. Mixing is achieved when the confinement volumes of the two species overlap one another. In the work presented here, a theoretical understanding of the mixing process is developed by analyzing a mixing scheme that was recently reported [G. Gabrielse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113001 (2008)]. The results indicate that positron space charge or collisions among antiprotons may substantially reduce the fraction of antiprotons that have an energy suitable for antihydrogen trapping

  4. Trap array configuration influences estimates and precision of black bear density and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay M Wilton

    Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture (SCR models have advanced our ability to estimate population density for wide ranging animals by explicitly incorporating individual movement. Though these models are more robust to various spatial sampling designs, few studies have empirically tested different large-scale trap configurations using SCR models. We investigated how extent of trap coverage and trap spacing affects precision and accuracy of SCR parameters, implementing models using the R package secr. We tested two trapping scenarios, one spatially extensive and one intensive, using black bear (Ursus americanus DNA data from hair snare arrays in south-central Missouri, USA. We also examined the influence that adding a second, lower barbed-wire strand to snares had on quantity and spatial distribution of detections. We simulated trapping data to test bias in density estimates of each configuration under a range of density and detection parameter values. Field data showed that using multiple arrays with intensive snare coverage produced more detections of more individuals than extensive coverage. Consequently, density and detection parameters were more precise for the intensive design. Density was estimated as 1.7 bears per 100 km2 and was 5.5 times greater than that under extensive sampling. Abundance was 279 (95% CI = 193-406 bears in the 16,812 km2 study area. Excluding detections from the lower strand resulted in the loss of 35 detections, 14 unique bears, and the largest recorded movement between snares. All simulations showed low bias for density under both configurations. Results demonstrated that in low density populations with non-uniform distribution of population density, optimizing the tradeoff among snare spacing, coverage, and sample size is of critical importance to estimating parameters with high precision and accuracy. With limited resources, allocating available traps to multiple arrays with intensive trap spacing increased the amount of

  5. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  6. Trapping, focusing, and sorting of microparticles through bubble streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating microbubbles can set up vigorous steady streaming flows around the bubbles. In contrast to previous work, we make use of the interaction between the bubble streaming and the streaming induced around mobile particles close to the bubble. Our experiment superimposes a unidirectional Poiseuille flow containing a well-mixed suspension of neutrally buoyant particles with the bubble streaming. The particle-size dependence of the particle-bubble interaction selects which particles are transported and which particles are trapped near the bubbles. The sizes selected for can be far smaller than any scale imposed by the device geometry, and the selection mechanism is purely passive. Changing the amplitude and frequency of ultrasound driving, we can further control focusing and sorting of the trapped particles, leading to the emergence of sharply defined monodisperse particle streams within a much wider channel. Optimizing parameters for focusing and sorting are presented. The technique is applicable in important fields like cell sorting and drug delivery.

  7. Quasi-conical centrifugal ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Solov'ev, K.V.; Grigor'ev, D.V.; Flegontova, E.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new excellent ion trap that principally differs from the classic hyperbolic one by its action. The action is based on the axisymmetric electrostatic quasi-conical field with the following potential type: F=F 0 [ln r - r 2 /2+z 2 ], where r, z are cylindrical dimensionless coordinates. The radial potential run (f=ln r-r 2 /2), in this case, is exactly presented by the approximation function f a =ar 2 +b/r 2 +c. In addition, there are some ranges of r (for example, 0.6< r<0.35), in which the concurrence accuracy value is above 0.5%. The paper presents the theory of particles dynamics in the centrifugal trap. Basic correlation for resolution ratios and sensitivity values are developed. Recommendations on the centrifugal trap design implementation, including the recording system, are given

  8. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  9. Trapping cold ground state argon atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, P D; Barker, P F

    2014-10-31

    We trap cold, ground state argon atoms in a deep optical dipole trap produced by a buildup cavity. The atoms, which are a general source for the sympathetic cooling of molecules, are loaded in the trap by quenching them from a cloud of laser-cooled metastable argon atoms. Although the ground state atoms cannot be directly probed, we detect them by observing the collisional loss of cotrapped metastable argon atoms and determine an elastic cross section. Using a type of parametric loss spectroscopy we also determine the polarizability of the metastable 4s[3/2](2) state to be (7.3±1.1)×10(-39)  C m(2)/V. Finally, Penning and associative losses of metastable atoms in the absence of light assisted collisions, are determined to be (3.3±0.8)×10(-10)  cm(3) s(-1).

  10. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  11. Highly charged ion trapping and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, B. R.; Church, D. A.; Gruber, L.; Holder, J. P.; Schneider, D.; Steiger, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP) has been operational at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combination of RETRAP and EBIT provides a unique possibility of producing and re-trapping highly charged ions and cooling them to very low temperatures. Due to the high Coulomb potentials in such an ensemble of cold highly charged ions the Coulomb coupling parameter (the ratio of Coulomb potential to the thermal energy) can easily reach values of 172 and more. To study such systems is not only of interest in astrophysics to simulate White Dwarf star interiors but opens up new possibilities in a variety of areas (e.g. laser spectroscopy), cold highly charged ion beams

  12. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 5711 different proteins with proteomics. The abundance of the proteins calprotectin and lactotransferrin in the tissue correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation as determined by histology. However, fecal calprotectin did...... not correlate. Forty-six proteins were measured with a statistically significant differences in abundances between the UC colon tissue and controls. Eleven of the proteins with increased abundances in the UC biopsies were associated with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps. The findings were...... validated by microscopy, where an increased abundance of neutrophils and the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps by extracellular DNA present in the UC colon tissue were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils, induced neutrophil extracellular traps, and several proteins that play a part in innate...

  13. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  14. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  15. Particle confinement in penning traps an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of Penning traps and related experimental techniques. It serves both as a primer for those entering the field, and as a quick reference for those working in it. The book is motivated by the observation that often a vast number of different resources have to be explored to gain a good overview of Penning trap principles. This is especially true for students who experience additional difficulty due to the different styles of presentation and notation. This volume provides a broad introductory overview in unified notation.

  16. Towards Antihydrogen Trapping and Spectroscopy at ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Ashkezari, Mohammad.D.; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D.; Bray, Crystal C.; Cesar, Claudio L.; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C.; Gill, David R.; Hangst, Jeffrey S.; Hardy, Walter N.; Hayano, Ruyugo S.; Hayden, Michael E.; Humphries, Andrew J.; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M.; So, Chukman; Storey, James W.; Thompson, Robert I.; van der Werf, Dirk P.; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopy of antihydrogen has the potential to yield high-precision tests of the CPT theorem and shed light on the matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe. The ALPHA antihydrogen trap at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator aims to prepare a sample of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole-based Ioffe trap and to measure the frequency of several atomic transitions. We describe our techniques to directly measure the antiproton temperature and a new technique to cool them to below 10 K. We also show how our unique position-sensitive annihilation detector provides us with a highly sensitive method of identifying antiproton annihilations and effectively rejecting the cosmic-ray background.

  17. DIRECT TUNNELLING AND MOSFET BORDER TRAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Drach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The border traps, in particular slow border traps, are being investigated in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, utilizing n-channel MOSFET as a test sample. The industrial process technology of test samples manufacturing is described. The automated experimental setup is discussed, the implementation of the experimental setup had made it possible to complete the entire set of measurements. The schematic diagram of automated experimental setup is shown. The charging time characteristic of the ID-VG shift reveals that the charging process is a direct tunnelling process and highly bias dependent.

  18. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Köszali, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the f......We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency...

  19. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, M.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Ashkezari, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which...... is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed....... Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed....

  20. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Humphries, A J [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Hangst, J S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M D; Hayden, M E [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bray, C C; Chapman, S; Fajans, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Cesar, C L [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Friesen, T; Hydomako, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hardy, W N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayano, R S, E-mail: M.Charlton@Swansea.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.

  1. Multipole traps for non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiouririne, T.N.; Turner, L.; Lau, A.W.C.

    1994-01-01

    A multipolar generalization of the Penning trap is presented. The case of l=1 is that of standard Penning trap. For the case of a quadrupolar magnetic field, analytic solutions are presented for cold, confined, one-species plasmas with spheroidal or spherical boundaries; for higher l values analytic solutions are given only for spherically bounded plasmas. By virtue of the sheared flow present for solutions with l>1, the classical Brillouin ratio (stored rest energy of particles/stored magnetic energy) of unity is exceeded and attains a global limit of 2 at infinitely high l

  2. Liquidity Traps with Global Taylor Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe; Martin Uribe

    2000-01-01

    A key result of a recent literature that focuses on the global consequences of Taylor-type interest rate feedback rules is that such rules, in combination with the zero-bound on nominal interest rates, can lead to unintended liquidity traps. An immediate question posed by this result is whether the government could avoid liquidity traps by ignoring the zero-bound, that is, by threatening to set the nominal interest rate at a negative value should the inflation rate fall below a certain thresh...

  3. Pairing fluctuations in trapped Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viverit, Luciano; Bruun, Georg M.; Minguzzi, Anna; Fazio, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    We examine the contribution of pairing fluctuations to the superfluid order parameter for harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gases in the BCS regime. In the limit of small systems we consider, both analytically and numerically, their space and temperature dependence. We predict a parity effect, i.e., that pairing fluctuations show a maximum or a minimum at the center of the trap, depending on the value of the last occupied shell being even or odd. We propose to detect pairing fluctuations by measuring the density-density correlation function after a ballistic expansion of the gas

  4. The NSSDC trapped radiation model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, J.D. Jr.; Bilitza, D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of the particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength B for either solar maximum or solar minimum. The most recent versions of the series of models, which have been developed and continuously improved over several decades by Dr. James Vette and coworkers at NSSDC, are AE-8 for electrons and AP-8 for protons. The present status of the NSSDC trapped particle models is discussed. The limits of validity of the models are described. 17 refs

  5. Trapped particles at a magnetic discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    At a tangential discontinuity between two constant magnetic fields a layer of trapped particles can exist, this work examines the conditions under which the current carried by such particles tends to maintain the discontinuity. Three cases are examined. If the discontinuity separates aligned vacuum fields, the only requirement is that they be antiparallel. With arbitrary relative orientations, the field must have equal intensities on both sides. Finally, with a guiding center plasma on both sides, the condition reduces to a relation which is also derivable from hydromagnetic theory. Arguments are presented for the occurrence of such trapped modes in the magnetopause and for the non-existence of specular particle reflection.

  6. Effects of neutrino trapping on supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Mariko; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    Effects of neutrino trapping on the mass ejection from the stellar cores are investigated with the aid of a simplified equation of state under the assumption of adiabatic collapse. It is found that mass ejection becomes violent only if the ratio of the trapped leptons to baryons, Y sub(L), lies in an appropriate range. If the value of Y sub(L) lies out of this range, mass ejection is difficult. It is also shown that as the thermal stiffness of the shocked matter increases, the range necessary for the violent mass ejection becomes wider. Possibilities of supernova explosion are discussed on the basis of these results. (author)

  7. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  8. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Nicholas D.; Fallek, Spencer D.; Stevens, Kelly E.; Brown, K. R.; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.; Amini, Jason M.; Higashi, Robert E.; Lu, Son Thai; Chanhvongsak, Helen M.; Nguyen, Thi A.; Marcus, Matthew S.; Ohnstein, Thomas R.; Youngner, Daniel W.

    2015-05-01

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with 40Ca+ ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with 171Yb+ ions in a second BGA trap.

  9. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guise, Nicholas D.; Fallek, Spencer D.; Stevens, Kelly E.; Brown, K. R.; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.; Amini, Jason M.; Higashi, Robert E.; Lu, Son Thai; Chanhvongsak, Helen M.; Nguyen, Thi A.; Marcus, Matthew S.; Ohnstein, Thomas R.; Youngner, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with 40 Ca + ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with 171 Yb + ions in a second BGA trap

  10. A circularly polarized optical dipole trap and other developments in laser trapping of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Kristan Lee

    Several innovations in laser trapping and cooling of alkali atoms are described. These topics share a common motivation to develop techniques for efficiently manipulating cold atoms. Such advances facilitate sensitive precision measurements such as parity non- conservation and 8-decay asymmetry in large trapped samples, even when only small quantities of the desired species are available. First, a cold, bright beam of Rb atoms is extracted from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using a very simple technique. This beam has a flux of 5 × 109 atoms/s and a velocity of 14 m/s, and up to 70% of the atoms in the MOT were transferred to the atomic beam. Next, a highly efficient MOT for radioactive atoms is described, in which more than 50% of 221Fr atoms contained in a vapor cell are loaded into a MOT. Measurements were also made of the 221Fr 7 2P1/2 and 7 2P3/2 energies and hyperfine constants. To perform these experiments, two schemes for stabilizing the frequency of the light from a diode laser were developed and are described in detail. Finally, a new type of trap is described and a powerful cooling technique is demonstrated. The circularly polarized optical dipole trap provides large samples of highly spin-polarized atoms, suitable for many applications. Physical processes that govern the transfer of large numbers of atoms into the trap are described, and spin-polarization is measured to be 98(1)%. In addition, the trap breaks the degeneracy of the atomic spin states much like a magnetic trap does. This allows for RF and microwave cooling via both forced evaporation and a Sisyphus mechanism. Preliminary application of these techniques to the atoms in the circularly polarized dipole trap has successfully decreased the temperature by a factor of 4 while simultaneously increasing phase space density.

  11. Formation of Deep Electron Trap by Yb3+ Codoping Leads into Super-Long Persistent Luminescence in Ce3+-doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Jumpei; Miyano, Shun; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2018-05-23

    The Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ -Cr 3+ compound is one of the brightest persistent phosphors, but its persistent luminescence (PersL) duration is not so long due to the relatively shallow Cr 3+ electron trap. Comparing the vacuum referred binding energy of the electron trapping state by Cr 3+ and those by lanthanide ions, we selected Yb 3+ as a deeper electron trapping center. The Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ -Yb 3+ phosphors show Ce 3+ :5d→4f green persistent luminescence after ceasing blue light excitation. The formation of Yb 2+ was confirmed by the increased intensity of absorption at 585 nm during the charging process. This result indicates that the Yb 3+ ions act as electron traps by capturing an electron. From the thermoluminescence glow curves, it was found the Yb 3+ trap makes much deeper electron trap with 1.01 eV depth than the Cr 3+ electron trap with 0.81 eV depth. This deeper Yb 3+ trap provides much slower detrapping rate of filled electron traps than the Cr 3+ -codoped persistent phosphor. In addition, by preparing transparent ceramics and optimizing Ce 3+ and Yb 3+ concentrations, the Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ (0.2%)-Yb 3+ (0.1%) as-made transparent ceramic phosphor showed super long persistent luminescence for over 138.8 hours after ceasing blue light charging.

  12. The LPCTrap facility for in-trap decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Duval, F.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    The LPCTrap facility is coupled to the low-energy beam line LIRAT of the SPIRAL source at GANIL (France). The facility comprises an RFQ trap for beam preparation and a transparent Paul trap for in-trap decay studies. The system has been tested for several ion species. The Paul trap has been fully characterized for 6 Li + and 23 Na + ions. This characterization together with GEANT4 simulations of the in-trap decay setup (Paul trap and detection system) has permitted to predict the effect of the size of the ion cloud on the decay study of 6 He + .

  13. Investigation of two-frequency Paul traps for antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leefer, Nathan; Krimmel, Kai, E-mail: kkrimmel@students.uni-mainz.de [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Bertsche, William [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Budker, Dmitry [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Fajans, Joel [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Folman, Ron [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics (Israel); Häffner, Hartmut [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Radio-frequency (rf) Paul traps operated with multifrequency rf trapping potentials provide the ability to independently confine charged particle species with widely different charge-to-mass ratios. In particular, these traps may find use in the field of antihydrogen recombination, allowing antiproton and positron clouds to be trapped and confined in the same volume without the use of large superconducting magnets. We explore the stability regions of two-frequency Paul traps and perform numerical simulations of small samples of multispecies charged-particle mixtures of up to twelve particles that indicate the promise of these traps for antihydrogen recombination.

  14. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  15. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  16. Soil conservation through sediment trapping: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, M.M.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the off-site effects of soil erosion is an essential part of good catchment management. Most efforts are in the form of on-site soil and water conservation measures. However, sediment trapping can be an alternative (additional) measure to prevent the negative off-site effects of soil

  17. Brilliant glyconanocapsules for trapping of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xibo; Sivignon, Adeline; Alcouffe, Pierre; Burdin, Béatrice; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Barnich, Nicolas; Fleury, Etienne; Ganachaud, François; Bernard, Julien

    2015-08-28

    Nanoprecipitation of miglyol into droplets surrounded by a functional glycopolymer generates nanocapsules of biointerest. Fluorophores are trapped in situ or post-grafted onto the crosslinked polymer shell for efficient imaging. The resulting colloids induce aggregation of bacteria through strong specific interactions and promote their facile removal.

  18. Brilliant glyconanocapsules for trapping of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xibo; Sivignon, Adeline; Alcouffe, Pierre; Burdin, Béatrice; Favre-Bonté, Sabine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Barnich, Nicolas; Fleury, Etienne; Ganachaud, François; Bernard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Nanoprecipitation of miglyol into droplets surrounded by a functional glycopolymer generates nanocapsules of biointerest. Fluorophores are trapped in situ or post-grafted onto the crosslinked polymer shell for efficient imaging. The resulting colloids induce aggregation of bacteria through strong specific interactions and promote their facile removal.

  19. Microwave quantum logic gates for trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospelkaus, C; Warring, U; Colombe, Y; Brown, K R; Amini, J M; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2011-08-10

    Control over physical systems at the quantum level is important in fields as diverse as metrology, information processing, simulation and chemistry. For trapped atomic ions, the quantized motional and internal degrees of freedom can be coherently manipulated with laser light. Similar control is difficult to achieve with radio-frequency or microwave radiation: the essential coupling between internal degrees of freedom and motion requires significant field changes over the extent of the atoms' motion, but such changes are negligible at these frequencies for freely propagating fields. An exception is in the near field of microwave currents in structures smaller than the free-space wavelength, where stronger gradients can be generated. Here we first manipulate coherently (on timescales of 20 nanoseconds) the internal quantum states of ions held in a microfabricated trap. The controlling magnetic fields are generated by microwave currents in electrodes that are integrated into the trap structure. We also generate entanglement between the internal degrees of freedom of two atoms with a gate operation suitable for general quantum computation; the entangled state has a fidelity of 0.76(3), where the uncertainty denotes standard error of the mean. Our approach, which involves integrating the quantum control mechanism into the trapping device in a scalable manner, could be applied to quantum information processing, simulation and spectroscopy.

  20. Self-trapped states in proteins?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, R. H.; Xie, A. H.; van der Meer, L.; Shinn, M.; Neil, G.

    2003-01-01

    We show here that the temperature dependence of the amide I band of myoglobin shows evidence for a low-lying S-elf-trapped state at 6.15 mum. We have conducted a careful set of picosecond pump-probe experiments providing results as a function of temperature. and wavelength and show that this

  1. Photoluminescence, trap states and thermoluminescence decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Photoluminescence, trap states and thermoluminescence decay process study of Ca2MgSi2O7 : Eu. 2+. , Dy. 3+ phosphor. RAVI SHRIVASTAVA*, JAGJEET KAUR, VIKAS DUBEY and BEENA JAYKUMAR. Govt. VYT PG Autonomous College, Durg 491 001, (C.G.) India. MS received 9 July 2013; revised 5 December 2013.

  2. Sawtooth stabilization by energetic trapped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Colestock, P.; Bussac, M.N.

    1988-03-01

    Recent experiments involving high power radio-frequency heating of a tokamak plasma show strong suppression of the sawtooth oscillation. A high energy trapped particle population is shown to have a strong stabilizing effect on the internal resistive kink mode. Numerical calculations are in reasonable agreement with experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs

  3. Dissipative Solitons that Cannot be Trapped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Rosa; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-01-01

    We show that dissipative solitons in systems with high-order nonlinear dissipation cannot survive in the presence of trapping potentials of the rigid wall or asymptotically increasing type. Solitons in such systems can survive in the presence of a weak potential but only with energies out of the interval of existence of linear quantum mechanical stationary states

  4. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trapped fermions; local density approximation; spectral intensity distribution function. ... Thus, cold atomic systems allow us to study interesting ... In fermions, synthetic non-Abelian gauge ... energy eigenstates of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [26–28]. ... d i=1. (ni + 1. 2. )ω0. In calculating the SIDF exactly these eigenfunc-.

  5. Low temperature delayed recombinationand trap tunneling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Schulman, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2015), 1-8 ISSN 0953-8984 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101212 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * tunneling * traps Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2015

  6. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate fromation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field efects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  7. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate formation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field effects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  8. Iodide-trapping defect of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannall, P.R.; Steyn, A.F.; Van Reenen, O.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a grossly hypothyroid 50-year-old woman, mentally retarded since birth. On the basis of her history of recurrent goitre, absence of 131 I neck uptake and a low saliva/plasma 131 I ratio, congenital hypothyroidism due to a defect of the iodide-trapping mechanism was diagnosed. Other family members studied did not have the defect

  9. Hydrogen and deuterium trapping in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H H; Lin, R W

    1981-02-01

    The research described is directed at present almost exclusively to hydrogen transport, including both chemical and physical trapping, in iron and iron-base alloys. Some attention is directed to isotope effects. Efforts are made to clarify and understand hydrogen-related phenomena which are believed to be of direct importance to practical performance.

  10. Superfluorescence with cold trapped neon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachorowski, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    A method for observation of superfluorescence in a cloud of cold metastable Ne atoms is proposed. Means of achieving a cold sample of trapped metastable atoms are discussed. The feasibility of obtaining conditions for a superfluorescence pulse is studied. The paper also discusses the prospects for obtaining intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet radiation

  11. Trapped or Spurred by the Home Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    for goods and technology, thereby enhancing firms’ involvement in those foreign markets. When potential social capital reaches a certain threshold, it may work to trap firms into operating only within their home regions, thus reducing involvement in foreign markets. We conjecture that firms’ research...

  12. A naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, J.; Morita, N.; Ito, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium is the first instance of a naturally occurring trap for antimatter in ordinary matter. Recent studies of this effect at CERN are summarized, and plans are described for laser excitation experiments to test its interpretation in terms of metastable exotic helium atom formation. (author)

  13. Colloquium: Quantum Networks with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    observed be- tween two ions held in the same trap Eichmann et al., 1993; DeVoe and Brewer, 1996. Type-II links have the advantage of being less sensitive...Childress, E. Jiang, J. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, 2007, Science 316, 1312. Eichmann , U., J. C. Bergquist

  14. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  15. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture given on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The history of the discovery of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is described. An explanation of this phenomenon is presented and the author's personal contribution to the discovery is highlighted. The article is completed by Dr. Phillips' autobiography. (Z.J.)

  16. Traps for antimatter and antihydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Even though positrons have been captured and stored in ion traps for precision measurements, the recent trapping and cooling of antiprotons may be considered as the beginning of a new era in antimatter research. For the first time all the ingredients to produce the first atom of the antimatter world, the antihydrogen atom, are at hand, and several groups have entered an active discussion on the feasibility of producing antihydrogen as well as on the possibility to perform precision tests on CPT and gravity. At the same time, the trapping of reasonable large numbers of antiprotons has opened up the way for a variety of exciting physics with ultra-low energy antiprotons, ranging from atomic physics issues to nuclear physics and medical applications. I will describe the current status of the work on trapping antiprotons and positrons, discuss possible physics applications of this technique, and describe the two most promising routes to produce antihydrogen for precision spectroscopy. Towards the end a few comments on storing the produced antihydrogen and on utilizing antihydrogen for gravity measurements and for CPT tests are given

  17. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High trapped fields in bulk YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Günter; Gruss, Stefan; Krabbes, Gernot; Schätzle, Peter; Verges, Peter; Müller, Karl-Hartmut; Fink, Jörg; Schultz, Ludwig

    The trapped field properties of bulk melt-textured YBCO material were investigated at different temperatures. In the temperature range of liquid nitrogen, maximum trapped fields of 1.1 T were found at 77 K by doping of YBCO with small amounts of zinc. The improved pinning of zinc-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) results in a pronounced peak effect in the field dependence of the critical current density. the trapped field at lower temperatures increases due to the increasing critical current density, however, at temperatures around 50 K cracking of the material is observed which is exposed to considerably tensile stresses due to Lorentz forces. Very high trapped fields up to 14.4 T were achieved at 22.5 K for a YBCO disk pair by the addition of silver improving the tensile strength of YBCO and by using a bandage made of a steel tube. The steel tube produces a compressive stress on YBCO after cooling down from 300 K to the measuring temperature, which is due to the higher coeeficient of thermal expansion of steel compared with that of YBCO in the a,b plane. The application of superconducting permanent magnets with trapped fields of 10 T and more in superconducting bearings would allow to obtain very high levitation pressures up to 2500 N/cm2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than the levitation pressure achievable in superconducting bearings with conventional permanent magnets. The most important problem for the application of superconducting permanent magnets is the magnetizing procedure of the YBCO material. Results of magnetizing YBCO disks by using of pulsed magnetic fields will be presented.

  19. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  20. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  1. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, G. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, 14 C, Kr, Xe, I and 3 H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and 14 C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for 3 H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system

  2. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, G. H.; Yang, M. S

    2005-05-15

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, {sup 14}C, Kr, Xe, I and {sup 3}H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and {sup 14}C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for {sup 3}H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system.

  3. A study of sodium oxide crystallization mechanisms and kinetics in cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latge, C.

    1984-04-01

    After showing up the present lack of data on crystallization mechanisms and kinetics, a number of tests were conducted on a sodium test loop equipped with two experimental cold traps. The effects of several geometric and thermohydraulic parameters on purification efficiency were also studied. The test results were used to develop a simulation model. An optimization code based on the model can be used to determine the nucleation and growth kinetics

  4. LGR adult trap data - Operation of the adult trap at Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) - funded project pays for NOAA staff to operate the adult salmon trap located in the fish ladder at Lower Granite Dam. The...

  5. Malaysian skills development and the middle-income trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy......Education, human resource training, middle-income trap and the way towards a more knowledge-based economy...

  6. Design of a marine sediment trap and accessories

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janakiraman, G.; Fernando, V.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajaraman, V.S.

    The marine sediment trap and the mooring accessories were developed indigenously and were used successfully for the collection of settling sediments in the Arabian Sea The experience gained in using sediment trap and further improvements...

  7. Trap-induced photoconductivity in singlet fission pentacene diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Xianfeng, E-mail: qiaoxianfeng@hotmail.com; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Bingbing; Luan, Lin [WuHan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wu Han 430074 (China)

    2014-07-21

    This paper reports a trap-induced photoconductivity in ITO/pentacene/Al diodes by using current-voltage and magneto-conductance measurements. The comparison of photoconductivity between pentacene diodes with and without trap clearly shows that the traps play a critical role in generating photoconductivity. It shows that no observable photoconductivity is detected for trap-free pentacene diodes, while significant photoconductivity is observed in diodes with trap. This is because the initial photogenerated singlet excitons in pentacene can rapidly split into triplet excitons with higher binding energy prior to dissociating into free charge carriers. The generated triplet excitons react with trapped charges to release charge-carriers from traps, leading to a trap-induced photoconductivity in the single-layer pentacene diodes. Our studies elucidated the formation mechanisms of photoconductivity in pentacene diodes with extremely fast singlet fission rate.

  8. Continuous Arsine Detection Using a Peltier-Effect Cryogenic Trap To Selectively Trap Methylated Arsines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoying; Lai, Bunhong; Mao, Xuefei; Chen, Tuanwei; Chen, Miaomiao

    2017-09-05

    Hydride generation (HG) is an effective technique that eliminates interfering matrix species and enables hydride separation. Arsenic speciation analysis can be fulfilled by cryogenic trapping (CT) based on boiling points of resulting arsines using liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) as a coolant. In this work, LN 2 was replaced by the thermoelectric effect using a cryogenic trap that consisted of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) body sandwiched by two Peltier modules. After the trap was precooled, the arsines flew along a zigzag channel in the body and reached a sorbent bed of 0.2 g of 15% OV-3 on Chromosorb W-AW-DMCS imbedded near the exit of the trap. CH 3 AsH 2 and (CH 3 ) 2 AsH were trapped, while AsH 3 , that passed the trap unaffected, was detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Continuous operation led to enhanced throughput. For inorganic As, the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.1 ng/g and recovery was 101.0 ± 1.1%. Monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid did not interfere with 0.2 ± 1.2% and -0.3 ± 0.5% recoveries, respectively.

  9. Possibilities for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping using a nested Penning trap and a magnetic well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.; Dolliver, D.D.; Chang Yongbin; Correa, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented regarding some possibilities for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping using a nested Penning trap and a magnetic well. The work reported consists of a review, an extension, and applications of the relevant knowledge base. A nested Penning trap produces a magnetic field, which provides plasma confinement perpendicular to the magnetic field, and an electric field associated with a nested-well potential profile. The nested-well potential profile provides plasma confinement parallel to the magnetic field for oppositely signed plasma species that can have overlapping confinement regions. A configuration is considered in which the electric field is applied in two regions of uniform magnetic field that reside on opposite sides of a magnetic well region. The electric field confines overlapping positron and antiproton plasmas, which thread the magnetic well region. The magnetic well region would serve to trap a fraction of any antihydrogen atoms that are formed. Two different methods are considered for achieving overlap of positron and antiproton plasmas. For each, a set of conditions is predicted for achieving antihydrogen recombination and trapping. Although the study reported specifically considers simultaneous confinement of positron and antiproton plasmas in nested Penning traps, much of the information presented is also relevant to the prospect of merging other pairs of oppositely signed plasmas (e.g., electron and positron plasmas)

  10. Sognenavne, Lemvig Kommune (18 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2017-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Bøvling, Dybe, Engbjerg, Fabjerg, Ferring, Fjaltring, Flynder, Gudum, Heldum, Hygum, Lomborg, Møborg, Nees, Nørlem, Rom, Trans, Tørring og Vandborg......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Bøvling, Dybe, Engbjerg, Fabjerg, Ferring, Fjaltring, Flynder, Gudum, Heldum, Hygum, Lomborg, Møborg, Nees, Nørlem, Rom, Trans, Tørring og Vandborg...

  11. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  12. Production of cold antihydrogen in a nested trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    The ATHENA experiment at CERN produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms. Antiprotons and positrons are mixed in a double Penning trap, known as a nested trap. The production of antihydrogen atoms was identified by detecting their annihilations signatures at trap wall. With the ATHENA results subsequently confirmed by another CERN experiment, ATRAP, cold antihydrogen research is entering an exciting era. (author)

  13. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  14. Calculated trapping curves of D in C and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.

    1980-10-01

    The trapping of deuterium in solids is investigated with the Monte Carlo program TRIM. The amount of deuterium trapped in amorphous carbon and silicon exposed to a plasma is calculated as a function of incident fluence and plasma temperature. These data can be used to obtain plasma parameters from measured trapping curves on probes exposed to a plasma. (orig.)

  15. 3D-Printed external light traps for solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, L.; Paetzold, U.W.; Blab, Gerhard; Marcus, E.A.P.; Oostra, A.J.; van de Groep, J.; Polman, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Di Vece, M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a universally applicable 3D-printed external light trap for solar cells. We placed a macroscopic external light trap made of smoothened, silver coated plastic at the sun-facing surface of different types of solar cells. The trap consists of a reflective parabolic concentrator on top

  16. Characterization of a magnetic trap by polarization dependent Zeeman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Vandel; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Thorseth, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a detailed experimental study of our cloverleaf magnetic trap for sodium atoms. By using polarization dependent Zeeman spectroscopy of our atomic beam, passing the magnetic trap region, we have determined important trap parameters such as gradients, their curvatures...

  17. Loading of mass spectrometry ion trap with Th ions by laser ablation for nuclear frequency standard application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Petr V; Derevyashkin, Sergey P; Khabarova, Ksenia Y; Kolachevsky, Nikolay N; Lebedinsky, Yury Y; Poteshin, Sergey S; Sysoev, Alexey A; Tkalya, Evgeny V; Tregubov, Dmitry O; Troyan, Viktor I; Vasiliev, Oleg S; Yakovlev, Valery P; Yudin, Valery I

    2017-08-01

    We describe an original multisectional quadrupole ion trap aimed to realize nuclear frequency standard based on the unique isomer transition in thorium nucleus. It is shown that the system effectively operates on Th + , Th 2+ and Th 3+ ions produced by laser ablation of metallic thorium-232 target. Laser intensity used for ablation is about 6 GW/cm 2 . Via applying a bias potential to every control voltage including the RF one, we are able not only to manipulate ions within the energy range as wide as 1-500 eV but to specially adjust trap potentials in order to work mainly with ions that belong to energy distribution maximum and therefore to effectively enhance the number of trapped ions. Measurement of energy distributions of 232 Th + , 232 Th 2+ , 232 Th 3+ ions obtained by laser ablation allows us to define optimal potential values for trapping process. Observed number of ions inside trap in dependence on trapping time is found to obey an unusually slow - logarithmic decay law that needs more careful study.

  18. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  19. Towards antihydrogen trapping and spectroscopy at ALPHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopy of antihydrogen has the potential to yield high-precision tests of the CPT theorem and shed light on the matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe. The ALPHA antihydrogen trap at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator aims to prepare a sample of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole-based Ioffe trap and to measure the frequency of several atomic transitions. We describe our techniques to directly measure the antiproton temperature and a new technique to cool them to below 10 K. We also show how our unique position-sensitive annihilation detector provides us with a highly sensitive method of identifying antiproton annihilations and effectively rejecting the cosmic-ray background.

  20. Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Xu

    2014-11-13

    We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.

  1. Volume traps - a new retrospective radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-11-01

    A new method to trace back average radon concentrations in dwellings over several decades in time has been developed. This retrospective radon monitor is based on the measurement of the alpha activity of 210 Po deposited in volume traps, for example spongy materials used for mattresses and cushions. Polyester samples with different densities have been exposed to radon-laden air. The exposures correspond to characteristic radon concentrations between 390 Bq/m 3 and 3.9 Bq/m 3 over a 20 years period. The precision in converting the 210 Po signal to the radon exposure has been improved by more than one order of magnitude compared to other common techniques. It is shown that this very sensitive method may be applied to almost all types of volume traps used in households

  2. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  3. Nonlinear PIC simulation in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, G.; Delzanno, G.L.; Finn, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids

  4. Scalable quantum search using trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S. S.; Ivanov, P. A.; Linington, I. E.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scalable implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm in a trapped-ion quantum information processor. The system is initialized in an entangled Dicke state by using adiabatic techniques. The inversion-about-average and oracle operators take the form of single off-resonant laser pulses. This is made possible by utilizing the physical symmetries of the trapped-ion linear crystal. The physical realization of the algorithm represents a dramatic simplification: each logical iteration (oracle and inversion about average) requires only two physical interaction steps, in contrast to the large number of concatenated gates required by previous approaches. This not only facilitates the implementation but also increases the overall fidelity of the algorithm.

  5. Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; Chen, Ze-Guo; Zheng, Li-Yang; Xu, Ye-Long; Nayar, Priyanka; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.

  6. Ripple induced trapped particle loss in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    The threshold for stochastic transport of high energy trapped particles in a tokamak due to toroidal field ripple is calculated by explicit construction of primary resonances, and a numerical examination of the route to chaos. Critical field ripple amplitude is determined for loss. The expression is given in magnetic coordinates and makes no assumptions regarding shape or up-down symmetry. An algorithm is developed including the effects of prompt axisymmetric orbit loss, ripple trapping, convective banana flow, and stochastic ripple loss, which gives accurate ripple loss predictions for representative Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor equilibria. The algorithm is extended to include the effects of collisions and drag, allowing rapid estimation of alpha particle loss in tokamaks

  7. Trapping of light by metal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardikov, Vyacheslav V.; Iarko, Ekaterina O.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2010-04-01

    The problem of the near-IR light reflection from and transmittance through a planar 2D periodic metal-dielectric structure with a square periodic cell of two complex-shaped asymmetric metal elements has been solved. Conditions of the light confinement by excitation of the trapped mode resonances in certain structures, both polarization-sensitive and polarization-insensitive, were studied. For the first time, the existence of a high-order trapped mode resonance with the greater quality factor than that of the lowest one has been shown. It was ascertained that the Babinet principle provides a good prediction of the resonance properties of the complementary structures, despite the very high Joule losses in the metal strips in near-IR, a finite thickness of the metal elements and the presence of a dielectric substrate.

  8. Trapping of light by metal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khardikov, Vyacheslav V; Iarko, Ekaterina O; Prosvirnin, Sergey L

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the near-IR light reflection from and transmittance through a planar 2D periodic metal–dielectric structure with a square periodic cell of two complex-shaped asymmetric metal elements has been solved. Conditions of the light confinement by excitation of the trapped mode resonances in certain structures, both polarization-sensitive and polarization-insensitive, were studied. For the first time, the existence of a high-order trapped mode resonance with the greater quality factor than that of the lowest one has been shown. It was ascertained that the Babinet principle provides a good prediction of the resonance properties of the complementary structures, despite the very high Joule losses in the metal strips in near-IR, a finite thickness of the metal elements and the presence of a dielectric substrate

  9. Improving the Optical Trapping Efficiency in the 225Ra Electric Dipole Moment Experiment via Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to study and improve the optical trapping efficiency of the 225Ra Electric Dipole Moment experiment, a fully parallelized Monte Carlo simulation of the laser cooling and trapping apparatus was created at Argonne National Laboratory and now maintained and upgraded at Michigan State University. The simulation allows us to study optimizations and upgrades without having to use limited quantities of 225Ra (15 day half-life) in experiment's apparatus. It predicts a trapping efficiency that differs from the observed value in the experiment by approximately a factor of thirty. The effects of varying oven geometry, background gas interactions, laboratory magnetic fields, MOT laser beam configurations and laser frequency noise were studied and ruled out as causes of the discrepancy between measured and predicted values of the overall trapping efficiency. Presently, the simulation is being used to help optimize a planned blue slower laser upgrade in the experiment's apparatus, which will increase the overall trapping efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. This work is supported by Michigan State University, the Director's Research Scholars Program at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. Progress towards microwave spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision comparisons of hyperfine intervals in atomic hydrogen and antihydrogen are expected to yield experimental tests of the CPT theorem. The CERN-based ALPHA collaboration has initiated a program of study focused on microwave spectroscopy of trapped ground-state antihydrogen atoms. This paper outlines some of the proposed experiments, and summarizes measurements that characterize microwave fields that have been injected into the ALPHA apparatus.

  11. Progress towards microwave spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkezari, Mohammad D., E-mail: mdehghan@cern.ch [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Andresen, Gorm B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, Wil [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, Paul D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, Eoin [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, Claudio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, Steve [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, Michael; Deller, Adam; Eriksson, Stefan [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, Joel [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, Dave R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, Andrea [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, Jeffrey S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, Walter N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, Ryugo S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, Michael E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision comparisons of hyperfine intervals in atomic hydrogen and antihydrogen are expected to yield experimental tests of the CPT theorem. The CERN-based ALPHA collaboration has initiated a program of study focused on microwave spectroscopy of trapped ground-state antihydrogen atoms. This paper outlines some of the proposed experiments, and summarizes measurements that characterize microwave fields that have been injected into the ALPHA apparatus.

  12. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, M.D.; Schaetz, T.; Chiaverini, J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Itano, W.M.; Jost, J.D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D.J.; Knill, E.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize two experiments on the creation and manipulation of multi-particle entangled states of trapped atomic ions - quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation. The techniques used in these experiments constitute an important step toward performing large-scale quantum information processing. The techniques also have application in other areas of physics, providing improvement in quantum-limited measurement and fundamental tests of quantum mechanical principles, for example

  13. Designing of a Quadrupole Paul Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Abouzar; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Zirak, A. R.

    2011-08-01

    The ion motion equation in a Paul ion trap known as Mathieu differential equation has been solved for the first time by using Runge-Kutta methods with 4th, 6th, and 8th orders. The first stability regions in az - qz plane and the corresponding qmax values were determined and compared. Also, the first stability regions of , , , ions in the Vdc - Vac plane were drown, and the threshold voltages for the ion separation was investigated.

  14. Liquidity Trap and Stability of Taylor Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Le Riche , Antoine; Magris , Francesco; Parent , Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We study a productive economy with fractional cash-in-advance constraint on consumption expenditures. Government issues safe bonds and levies taxes to finance public expenditures, while the Central Bank follows a feedback Taylor rules by pegging the nominal interest rate. We show that when the nominal interest rate is bound to be non-negative, under active policy rules a Liquidity Trap steady state does emerge besides the Leeper (1991) equilibrium. The stability of the two steady states depen...

  15. An EPR study of positive hole transfer and trapping in irradiated frozen solutions containing aromatic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.V.; Zezin, A.A.; Feldman, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Processes of positive hole migration and trapping are of basic significance for understanding of the primary events in the radiation chemistry of solid molecular systems. Specific interest is concerned with the case, when ionization energies of 'hole traps' are rather close, so one may expect 'fine tuning' effects resulting from variations in conformation, weak interactions, molecular packing, etc. In this contribution we report the results of EPR study of formation of radical cations in irradiated frozen halocarbon solutions containing aromatic molecules of different structure. Using the 'two-trap' model made it possible to obtain an evidence for efficient long-range trap-to-trap positive hole transfer between alkyl benzene molecules with close ionization energies distributed in the matrices with high ionization potentials. The distance of transfer was found to be 2-4 nm. In the case of frozen solutions containing ethylbenzene and toluene, it was found that the efficiency and direction of hole transfer was controlled by the conformation of ethylbenzene radical cation. The study of positive hole localization in 'bridged' diphenyls of Ph(CH 2 ) n Ph type revealed that the structure of radical cations of these species was affected by local environment (type of halocarbon matrix) and the conformational flexibility of 'bridge'. In summary, we may conclude that migration and localization of positive hole in rigid systems containing aromatic 'traps' is quite sensitive to rather subtle effects. This conclusion may be of common significance for the radiation chemistry of systems with physical dispersion of the traps of similar chemical structure (e.g. macromolecules, adsorbed molecules, etc.)

  16. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap (''vortex'' confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of ''vortex'' confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  17. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I V; Razin, S V; Sidorov, A V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Prikhodko, V V

    2012-02-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap ("vortex" confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of "vortex" confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  18. Selective particle trapping using an oscillating microbubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla; Neild, Adrian

    2011-11-07

    The ability to isolate and sort analytes within complex microfluidic volumes is essential to the success of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. In this study, acoustically-excited oscillating bubbles are used to selectively trap particles, with the selectivity being a function of both particle size and density. The operating principle is based on the interplay between the strong microstreaming-induced drag force and the attractive secondary Bjerknes force. Depending upon the size of the bubble, and thus its resonant frequency, it is possible to cause one force to dominate over the other, resulting in either particle attraction or repulsion. A theoretical analysis reveals the extent of the contribution of each force for a given particle size; in close agreement with experimental findings. Density-based trapping is also demonstrated, highlighting that denser particles experience a larger secondary Bjerknes force resulting in their attraction. This study showcases the excellent applicability and versatility of using oscillating bubbles as a trapping and sorting mechanism within LOC devices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Trapped particle stability for the kinetic stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, H. L.; Pratt, J.

    2011-08-01

    A kinetically stabilized axially symmetric tandem mirror (KSTM) uses the momentum flux of low-energy, unconfined particles that sample only the outer end-regions of the mirror plugs, where large favourable field-line curvature exists. The window of operation is determined for achieving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability with tolerable energy drain from the kinetic stabilizer. Then MHD stable systems are analysed for stability of the trapped particle mode. This mode is characterized by the detachment of the central-cell plasma from the kinetic-stabilizer region without inducing field-line bending. Stability of the trapped particle mode is sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and the end plug. It is found that the stability condition for the trapped particle mode is more constraining than the stability condition for the MHD mode, and it is challenging to satisfy the required power constraint. Furthermore, a severe power drain may arise from the necessary connection of low-energy electrons in the kinetic stabilizer to the central region.

  20. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40 Ca + and 88 Sr + ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40 Ca + is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10 -15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40 Ca + ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  1. Protein unfolding with a steric trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Tracy M; Hong, Heedeok; Kim, Tae H; Bowie, James U

    2009-10-07

    The study of protein folding requires a method to drive unfolding, which is typically accomplished by altering solution conditions to favor the denatured state. This has the undesirable consequence that the molecular forces responsible for configuring the polypeptide chain are also changed. It would therefore be useful to develop methods that can drive unfolding without the need for destabilizing solvent conditions. Here we introduce a new method to accomplish this goal, which we call steric trapping. In the steric trap method, the target protein is labeled with two biotin tags placed close in space so that both biotin tags can only be bound by streptavidin when the protein unfolds. Thus, binding of the second streptavidin is energetically coupled to unfolding of the target protein. Testing the method on a model protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), we find that streptavidin binding can drive unfolding and that the apparent binding affinity reports on changes in DHFR stability. Finally, by employing the slow off-rate of wild-type streptavidin, we find that DHFR can be locked in the unfolded state. The steric trap method provides a simple method for studying aspects of protein folding and stability in native solvent conditions, could be used to specifically unfold selected domains, and could be applicable to membrane proteins.

  2. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  3. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    129 I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10 7 years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of 129 I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous 129 I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing 129 I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping 129 I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling

  4. Impurity Trapping of Positive Muons in Metals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Polarized positive muons are implanted into metal samples. In an applied magnetic field the muon spin precession is studied. The line width in the precession frequency spectrum gives information about the static and dynamic properties of muons in a metal lattice. At temperatures where the muon is immobile within its lifetime the line width gives information about the site of location. At temperatures where the muon is mobile, the line width gives information on the diffusion process. It is known from experiments on quasi-elastic neutron scattering on hydrogen in niobium that interstitial impurities like nitrogen tend to act as traps for hydrogen. These trapping effects have now been studied systematically for muons in both f.c.c. metals (aluminium and copper) and b.c.c. metals (mainly niobium). Direct information on the trapping rates and the nature of the diffusion processes can be obtained since the muonic lifetime covers a time range where many of these processes occur.\\\\ \\\\ Mathematical models are set up ...

  5. Free radicals trapped in polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, S.; Maeda, M.; Hori, Y.; Kashiwabara, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of alkyl radicals were found to be trapped in irradiated crystals grown from polyethylene solution. One of them corresponds to the broad sextet pattern of the e.s.r. spectrum and the other corresponds to the sharp sextet pattern. The free radicals attributed to the broad sextet began to disappear at a lower temperature than the temperature at which the free radicals attributed to the sharp sextet disappeared. When butadiene molecules were brought into contact with the specimen, the decay of the free radicals corresponding to the broad sextet was accelerated. When the specimen was subjected to fuming nitric acid treatment, no broad sextet was observed. The mat of the crystals was aligned so that the c-axes of its crystallites were perpendicular to its surface. The broad sextet showed no anisotropy when the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and that of the c-axis of the crystallite was varied. On the other hand, the sharp component of the spectrum showed apparent anisotropy. It can be concluded that the broad component comes from the free radicals trapped in the lamellar surface and the sharp component is attributed to the free radicals trapped in the inner part of the crystallite. (author)

  6. SURVEY OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA THROUGH LUMINOUS TRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Andrade Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for forest-based raw materials for energy, construction, paper pulp and the pressure to comply with legal requirements concerning environmental legislation, for example, the replacement of the permanent preservation area, legal reserve and recovery of degraded area, leads to encourage the production of healthy seedlings in a health status to do not compromise their future production. The present study aimed to survey the entomofauna population using the “Luiz de Queiroz” model of luminous trap, with white and red fluorescent lamps. The experiment was conducted at the nursery “Flora Sinop” in Sinop – MT. The survey was conducted weekly between the months of April to July 2010, totaling 4 months sand, 32 samples collected. The orders Hemiptera and Coleoptera showed the highest number of individuals captured, either in attraction with white or red light. It was captured 10.089 individuals, 9.339 collected under the influence of white light, representing 92,56%, and 750 with red light, only 7,44% of the total. The white light luminous trap possessed greater efficiency in the attraction of insects when compared with the red light trap.

  7. Magnetic field stabilization in THe-Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian; Eronen, Tommi; Hoecker, Martin; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Van Dyck, Robert S. Jr. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    THe-Trap is a Penning trap mass spectrometer dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio aiming to a relative mass uncertainty better than 10{sup -11}. The most vital prerequisite for this measurement is a stable magnetic field: The relative temporal fluctuations during a measurement cycle of typically 1 hour, should be better than 10{sup -11}. The 5.26 T field is provided by a superconducting magnet. Unfortunately, the materials within the cryostat have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which necessitates a temperature stabilization. The stabilization is achieved by controlling the liquid helium level above the traps, and by keeping the pressure of the liquid helium constant. An important part of the system is the pressure reference, which is stable at a 0.04 Pa level. In addition to the stabilization of the field fluctuations within the cryostat itself, a system to cancel external fluctuations is set up consisting of a passive coil with a shielding factor of up to 180 build into the cryostat. Furthermore, a Helmholtz coil pair is placed around the cryostat. The compensation signal is provided by a custom-built flux-gate magnetometer. Technical details about the stabilization systems are given.

  8. Positron-trapping mechanism at dislocations in Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Carlos; Linderoth, Søren; Diego, Nieves de

    1987-01-01

    the average lifetime and the intensity of the long component decrease with increasing temperature. The experimental results are very well described in terms of a generalized trapping model where it is assumed that positrons become trapped in deep traps (jogs) via shallow traps (dislocation lines......). The temperature dependence of the positron-lifetime spectra below 120 K is attributed to the temperature dependence of the trapping rate to the dislocation line. The experimental results have demonstrated that detrapping processes from the dislocation line take place above 120 K. The positron binding energy...

  9. A Rotating-Bears Optical Dipole Trap for Cold Aatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, N.; Ozeri, R.; Khaykovich, L.; Davidson, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, several optical dipole traps for cold atoms were demonstrated and used to study cold atomic collisions, long atomic coherence times and quantum collective effects. Blue-detuned dipole traps, where repulsive light forces confines atoms mostly in dark, offer long storage, and photon-scattering times, combined with strong confinement forces. Unfortunately, such blue-detuned dipole traps involve complicated light intensity distributions that require either multiple laser beams or complicated phase elements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel configuration for a single-beam blue-detuned dipole trap, which enables larger trapping volume, and fast temporal changes in the trap size and shape. Our trap consists of a tightly-focused laser beam which is rapidly rotated (with rotation frequency up to 400 khz) with two orthogonal acousto optical scanners. For very high rotation frequencies the atoms feel a time-averaged static dipole potential. Therefore, when the radius of rotation is larger than the beam size, a dark volume which is completely surrounded by light is obtained around the focal region. By changing the rotation radius and the trapping laser intensity and detuning, the trap dimensions and oscillation frequency could be changed over a large parameter range. In particular trap diameters were changed between 50 to 220 microns and trap length was changed between 3.5 to 16 mm. ∼10 6 atoms were loaded into the rotating-beam dipole trap from a magneto optical trap. The density of the trapped atoms was 4x10 10 atoms/cm 3 ,their temperature was -6 pK. and the trap (1/e) lifetime was 0.65 sec, limited by collisions with background atoms. When the rotation frequency was decreased below the oscillation frequency of the atoms in the trap, the trap became unstable, and a sharp reduction of the trap lifetime was observed, in agreement with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we demonstrated adiabatic compression of atoms in the trap by decreasing

  10. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-09-01

    We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.

  11. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)

  12. Systematic Review of Treatment for Trapped Thrombus in Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won-Woo; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Park, Dae-Gyun; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Oh, Dong-Jin

    2017-09-01

    Trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare complication of pulmonary embolism that may lead to tragic clinical events. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal treatment for different clinical situations in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO by conducting a literature review. A PubMed database search was conducted from 1991 through 2015, and 194 patients (185 articles) with trapped thrombus in a PFO were identified. Patient characteristics, paradoxical embolic events, and factors affecting 60-day mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Among all patients, 112 (57.7%) were treated with surgery, 28 with thrombolysis, and 54 with anticoagulation alone. Dyspnea (79.4%), chest pain (33.0%), and syncope (17.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Pretreatment embolism was found in 37.6% of cases, and stroke (24.7%) was the most common event. Surgery was associated with fewer post-treatment embolic events than were other treatment options (p=0.044). In the multivariate analysis, initial shock or arrest, and thrombolysis were independent predictors of 60-day mortality. Thrombolysis was related with higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery in patients who had no initial shock or arrest. This systematic review showed that surgery was associated with a lower overall incidence of post-treatment embolic events and a lower 60-day mortality in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO. In patients without initial shock or arrest, thrombolysis was related with a higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery.

  13. Determination of antimony by using a quartz atom trap and electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlioglu, Ipek; Korkmaz, Deniz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2007-01-15

    The analytical performance of a miniature quartz trap coupled with electrochemical hydride generator for antimony determination is described. A portion of the inlet arm of the conventional quartz tube atomizer was used as an integrated trap medium for on-line preconcentration of electrochemically generated hydrides. This configuration minimizes transfer lines and connections. A thin-layer of electrochemical flow through cell was constructed. Lead and platinum foils were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. Experimental operation conditions for hydride generation as well as the collection and revolatilization conditions for the generated hydrides in the inlet arm of the quartz tube atomizer were optimized. Interferences of copper, nickel, iron, cobalt, arsenic, selenium, lead and tin were examined both with and without the trap. 3{sigma} limit of detection was estimated as 0.053 {mu}g l{sup -1} for a sample size of 6.0 ml collected in 120 s. The trap has provided 18 fold sensitivity improvement as compared to electrochemical hydride generation alone. The accuracy of the proposed technique was evaluated with two standard reference materials; Trace Metals in Drinking Water, Cat CRM-TMDW and Metals on Soil/Sediment 4, IRM-008.

  14. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  15. Advanced methods for light trapping in optically thin silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, James Richard

    2011-12-01

    The field of light trapping is the study of how best to absorb light in a thin film of material when most light either reflects away at the surface or transmits straight through to the other side. This has tremendous application to the field of photovoltaics where thin silicon films can be manufactured cheaply, but also fail to capture all of the available photons in the solar spectrum. Advancements in light trapping therefore bring us closer to the day when photovoltaic devices may reach grid parity with traditional fossil fuels on the electrical energy market. This dissertation advances our understanding of light trapping by first modeling the effects of loss in planar dielectric waveguides. The mathematical framework developed here can be used to model any arbitrary three-layer structure with mixed gain or loss and then extract the total field solution for the guided modes. It is found that lossy waveguides possess a greater number of eigenmodes than their lossless counterparts, and that these "loss guided" modes attenuate much more rapidly than conventional modes. Another contribution from this dissertation is the exploration of light trapping through the use of dielectric nanospheres embedded directly within the active layer of a thin silicon film. The primary benefit to this approach is that the device can utilize a surface nitride layer serving as an antireflective coating while still retaining the benefits of light trapping within the film. The end result is that light trapping and light injection are effectively decoupled from each other and may be independently optimized within a single photovoltaic device. The final contribution from this work is a direct numerical comparison between multiple light trapping schemes. This allows us to quantify the relative performances of various design techniques against one another and objectively determine which ideas tend to capture the most light. Using numerical simulation, this work directly compares the absorption

  16. Electron trapping during irradiation in reoxidized nitrided oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, A.; Vasi, J.; Chandorkar, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Isochronal detrapping experiments have been performed following irradiation under different gate biases in reoxidized nitrided oxide (RNO) MOS capacitors. These show electron trapping by the nitridation-induced electron traps at low oxide fields during irradiation. A difference in the detrapping behavior of trapped holes and electrons is observed, with trapped holes being detrapped at relatively lower temperatures compared to trapped electrons. Electron trapping shows a strong dependence on tile magnitude of the applied gate bias during irradiation but is independent of its polarity. Conventional oxide devices, as expected, do not show any electron trapping during irradiation by the native electron traps. Finally, a comparison of the isochronal detrapping behavior following irradiation and following avalanche injection of electrons has been made to estimate the extent of electron trapping. The results show that electron trapping by the nitridation-induced electron traps does not play the dominant role in improving radiation performance of RNO, though its contribution cannot be completely neglected for low oxide field irradiations

  17. High-fidelity operations in microfabricated surface ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Trapped ion systems can be used to implement quantum computation as well as quantum simulation. To scale these systems to the number of qubits required to solve interesting problems in quantum chemistry or solid state physics, the use of large multi-zone ion traps has been proposed. Microfabrication enables the realization of surface electrode ion traps with complex electrode structures. While these traps may enable the scaling of trapped ion quantum information processing (QIP), microfabricated ion traps also pose several technical challenges. Here, we present Sandia's trap fabrication capabilities and characterize trap properties and shuttling operations in our most recent high optical access trap (HOA-2). To demonstrate the viability of Sandia's microfabricated ion traps for QIP we realize robust single and two-qubit gates and characterize them using gate set tomography (GST). In this way we are able to demonstrate the first single qubit gates with a diamond norm of less than 1 . 7 ×10-4 , below a rigorous fault tolerance threshold for general noise of 6 . 7 ×10-4. Furthermore, we realize Mølmer-Sørensen two qubit gates with a process fidelity of 99 . 58(6) % also characterized by GST. These results demonstrate the viability of microfabricated surface traps for state of the art quantum information processing demonstrations. This research was funded, in part, by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  18. Fast and slow border traps in MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent lines of evidence are reviewed which show that near-interfacial oxide traps (border traps) that exchange charge with the Si can strongly affect the performance, radiation response, and long-term reliability of MOS devices. Observable effects of border traps include capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis, enhanced l/f noise, compensation of trapped holes, and increased thermally stimulated current in MOS capacitors. Effects of faster (switching times between ∼10 -6 s and ∼1 s) and slower (switching times greater than ∼1 s) border traps have been resolved via a dual-transistor technique. In conjunction with studies of MOS electrical response, electron paramagnetic resonance and spin dependent recombination studies suggest that E' defects (trivalent Si centers in SiO 2 associated with O vacancies) can function as border traps in MOS devices exposed to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. Hydrogen-related centers may also be border traps

  19. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula snap traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional–morphological and biomimetic context.

  20. Antimatter Plasmas in a Multipole Trap for Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  1. HPLC-ESR techniques for detection of complex trapped radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Lin Nianyun; Xie Leidong; Liu Rengzhong

    1992-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ESR combined examination of radical species is an advanced techniques for separation and identification of complex radical species. At SRCL, Waters 990 HPLC has been used to separate the complex trapped radicals and Varian E-112 ESR spectrometer to record the spectra of single trapped radicals after HPLC separation. The advantages of the combined techniques are described as bellow: HPLC is used to separate the long-lived complex trapped radicals derived from reaction of short-lived radicals with spin trap. ESR spectra from single trapped radicals, obtained following HPLC separation of complex trapped radicals, are recorded one by one and well resolved. The structures of short-lived radicals can be inferred from the ESR spectra of the long-lived trapped radicals

  2. Antimatter plasmas in a multipole trap for antihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-12

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  3. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2017-06-08

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  4. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Alshammari, Fwzah H.; Salama, Khaled N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  5. Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Soo Jin

    2013-03-14

    The efficiency of today’s most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

  6. Trapped ion depletion by anomalous diffusion due to the dissipative trapped ion instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1975-07-01

    At high temperatures the KADOMTSEV-POGUTSE diffusion in tokamaks can become so large as to cause depletion of trapped ions if these are replaced with free ions by means of collisions rather than being directly recycled or injected. Modified KADOMTSEV-POGUTSE diffusion formulas are employed in order to estimate this effect in the cases of classical and anomalous collisions. The maximum trapped-ion depletion is estimated from the PENROSE stability condition. For anomalous collisions a BOHM-type diffusion is derived. Numerical examples are given for JET-like parameters (JET = Joint European Torus). Depletion is found to reduce diffusion by factors of up to 10 and more. (orig.) [de

  7. Stability of trapped electrons in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Flament, O.; Leray, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Electron trapping near the Si/SiO 2 interface plays a crucial role in mitigating the response of MOS devices to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. These electrons offset positive charge due to trapped holes, and can be present at densities exceeding 10 12 cm -2 in the presence of a similar density of trapped positive charge. The nature of the defects that serve as hosts for trapped electrons in the near-interfacial SiO 2 is presently unknown, although there is compelling evidence that these defects are often intimately associated with trapped holes. This association is depicted most directly in the model of Lelis et al., which suggests that trapped electrons and holes occupy opposite sides of a compensated E center in SiO 2 . Charge exchange between electron traps and the Si can occur over a wide range of time scales, depending on the trap depth and location relative to the Si/SiO 2 interface. Here the authors report a detailed study of the stability of electron traps associated with trapped holes near the Si/SiO 2 interface

  8. A small trapped-ion quantum register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, D

    2003-01-01

    We review experiments performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology on entanglement, Bell's inequality and decoherence-free subspaces (DFSs) in a quantum register of trapped 9 Be + ions. The group of Dr David Wineland has demonstrated entanglement of up to four ions using the technique of Molmer and Sorensen. This method produces the state (|↓↓> + |↑↑>)/√2 for two ions and the state (|↓↓↓↓> + |↑↑↑↑>)/√2 for four ions. The entanglement was generated deterministically in each shot of the experiment. Measurements on the two-ion entangled state violate Bell's inequality at the 8σ level. Because of the high detector efficiency of the apparatus, this experiment closes the detector loophole for Bell's inequality measurements for the first time. This measurement is also the first violation of Bell's inequality by massive particles that does not implicitly assume results from quantum mechanics. The group also demonstrated measurement of an interferometric phase with precision better than the shot-noise limit using a two-ion entangled state. A large-scale version of this scheme could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of atomic clocks by orders of magnitude. Further experiments demonstrated reversible encoding of an arbitrary qubit, originally contained in one ion, into a DFS of two ions. The DFS-encoded qubit resists applied collective dephasing noise and retains coherence under ambient conditions 3.6 times longer than does an unencoded qubit. The encoding method, which uses single-ion gates and the two-ion entangling gate, demonstrates all the elements required for two-qubit universal quantum logic. Finally, we describe an architecture for a large-scale ion trap quantum computer. By performing logic gates on small numbers of ions trapped in separate regions of the array, we take advantage of existing techniques for manipulating small trapped-ion quantum registers while enabling massively parallel gate operation. Encoding the

  9. Solute trapping: Comparison of theory with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.J.; Tsao, J.Y.; Thompson, M.O.; Peercy, P.S.; White, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the nonequilibrium partition coefficient k of Bi in Si upon solidification velocity v has been measured with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between proposed solute-trapping mechanisms. For the range of measured velocities, 2--14 m/s, we observe a much more gradual increase in k with increasing v than those previously reported and no evidence for a ''saturation'' effect, i.e., dk/dv→0 at k<1. The continuous-growth model of Aziz fits the data quite well; the Aziz stepwise-growth model and the two-level Baker model yield values of dk/dv that are too high

  10. Quasiparticle trapping and the quasiparticle multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Superconductors and in particular superconducting tunnel junctions can be used to detect phonons, electromagnetic radiation, x rays, and nuclear particles by the mechanism of Cooper-pair breaking to produce excess quasiparticles and phonons. We show that the sensitivity can be increased by a factor of 100 or more by trapping the quasiparticles in another superconductor of lower gap in the region of the tunnel junction. Moreover, if the ratio of the gap energies is >3 a multiplication process can occur due to the interaction of the relaxation phonons. This leads to the concept of the quasiparticle multiplier, a device which could have wider applications than the Gray effect transistor or the quiteron

  11. Sawteeth stabilization by energetic trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.; Edery, D.; Garbet, X.; Roubin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of a possible stabilization of sawteeth by a population of energetic ions is performed by using the Lagrangian of the electromagnetic perturbation. It is shown that the trapped component of such a population has a small influence compared to that of the passing component. The stabilization threshold is calculated assuming a non linear regime in the q=1 resonant layer. The energetic population must create a stable tearing structure if the average curvature effect on thermal particles in the layer is small. However, this effect decreases the actual threshold

  12. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wasilenko, L; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Fujiwara, M C

    2008-01-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  13. Are there Traps in Quantum Control Landscapes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechen, Alexander N.; Tannor, David J.

    2011-01-01

    There has been great interest in recent years in quantum control landscapes. Given an objective J that depends on a control field ε the dynamical landscape is defined by the properties of the Hessian δ 2 J/δε 2 at the critical points δJ/δε=0. We show that contrary to recent claims in the literature the dynamical control landscape can exhibit trapping behavior due to the existence of special critical points and illustrate this finding with an example of a 3-level Λ system. This observation can have profound implications for both theoretical and experimental quantum control studies.

  14. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps

    OpenAIRE

    Sliney, David H.; Gilbert, David W.; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315?400?nm), ?black-light,? electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV ?Black-light? ILTs were measured at...

  15. Neutron generator based on adiabatic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Panov, D.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Shatalov, G.E.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility of 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) production on the basis of axial-symmetric adiabatic trap with MHD cusped armature for the testing of materials and elements of the DT reactor first wall and blanket structure is discussed. General requirements to NG are formulated. It is shown that the NG variant discussed meets the requirements formulated. Approximate calculation of the NG parameters has shown that total energy consumption by the generator does not exceed 220 MW at neutron flux specific capacity of 2.5 MW/m 2 and radiation test area of 5-6 m 2

  16. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  17. Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2236 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name McLaren1_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 JT2A.34.pdf Optics in the Life... Sciences Congress Technical Digest © 2013 The Optical Society (OSA) Optical trapping with Super-Gaussian beams Melanie McLaren, Thulile Khanyile, Patience Mthunzi and Andrew Forbes* National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  18. Energy transfer in a mechanically trapped exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Jeremy K; Iwamura, Munetaka; Tahara, Tahei; Fujita, Makoto

    2009-07-15

    Host-guest complexes involving M(6)L(4) coordination cages can display unusual photoreactivity, and enclathration of the very large fluorophore bisanthracene resulted in an emissive, mechanically trapped intramolecular exciplex. Mechanically linked intramolecular exciplexes are important for understanding the dependence of energy transfer on donor-acceptor distance, orientation, and electronic coupling but are relatively unexplored. Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements have revealed that selective excitation of the encapsulated guest fluorophore results in efficient energy transfer from the excited guest to an emissive host-guest exciplex state.

  19. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews selected...... examples of radical formation on proteins....

  20. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  1. Applications of laser cooling and trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasevich, M.; Moler, K.; Riis, E.; Sunderman, E.; Weiss, D.; Chu, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work done at Stanford in the manipulation of atoms and particles is summarized. Techniques to further increase our control of neutral particles such as atomic fountains, funnels, and trampolines have been demonstrated. These techniques are now being combined with a new type of velocity selection in order to study atom/surface interactions and to improve the limit on the charge neutrality of atoms. Trapping techniques have also allowed us to manipulate single molecules of DNA in aqueous solution while observing the molecules in fluorescence

  2. Efficient light trapping in silicon inclined nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Can; Tan, Xinyu; Jiang, Lihua; Tu, Yiteng; Ye, Mao; Yi, Yasha

    2018-01-01

    Structural design with high light absorption is the key challenge for thin film solar cells because of its poor absorption. In this paper, the light-trapping performance of silicon inclined nanohole arrays is systematically studied. The finite difference time domain method is used to calculate the optical absorption of different inclination angles in different periods and diameters. The results indicate that the inclined nanoholes with inclination angles between 5° and 45° demonstrate greater light-trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanoholes, and they also show that by choosing the optimal parameters for the inclined nanoholes, a 31.2 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density could be achieved, which is 10.25% higher than the best vertical nanohole system and 105.26% higher than bare silicon with a thickness of 2330 nm. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline for choosing reasonable parameters in the application of solar cells.

  3. Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-01-01

    Antihydrogen production in a neutral atom trap formed by an octupole-based magnetic field minimum is demonstrated using field-ionization of weakly bound anti-atoms. Using our unique annihilation imaging detector, we correlate antihydrogen detection by imaging and by field-ionization for the first time. We further establish how field-ionization causes radial redistribution of the antiprotons during antihydrogen formation and use this effect for the first simultaneous measurements of strongly and weakly bound antihydrogen atoms. Distinguishing between these provides critical information needed in the process of optimizing for trappable antihydrogen. These observations are of crucial importance to the ultimate goal of performing CPT tests involving antihydrogen, which likely depends upon trapping the anti-atom.

  4. Graded-index fiber tip optical tweezers: numerical simulation and trapping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuan; Ye, Ai-Yan; Wu, Yu; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yao, Yao; Xiao, Song

    2013-07-01

    Optical fiber tweezers based on a graded-index multimode fiber (GIMMF) tip is proposed. Light propagation characteristics and gradient force distribution near the GIMMF tip are numerically investigated, which are further compared with that of optical fiber tips based on conventional single mode fibers. The simulated results indicated that by selecting optimal GIMMF length, the gradient force of the GIMMF tip tweezers is about 4 times higher than that of the SMF tip tweezers with a same shape. To prove the feasibility of such a new concept, optical trapping of yeast cells with a diameter of ~5 μm using the chemically-etched GIMMF tip is experimentally demonstrated and the trapping force is also calculated.

  5. Parameters Optimization and Application to Glutamate Fermentation Model Using SVM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiangsheng; Pan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at the parameters optimization in support vector machine (SVM) for glutamate fermentation modelling, a new method is developed. It optimizes the SVM parameters via an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm which has better global searching ability. The algorithm includes detecting and handling the local convergence and exhibits strong ability to avoid being trapped in local minima. The material step of the method was shown. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effective...

  6. Parameters Optimization and Application to Glutamate Fermentation Model Using SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the parameters optimization in support vector machine (SVM for glutamate fermentation modelling, a new method is developed. It optimizes the SVM parameters via an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm which has better global searching ability. The algorithm includes detecting and handling the local convergence and exhibits strong ability to avoid being trapped in local minima. The material step of the method was shown. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Spatio-temporal optimization of sampling for bluetongue vectors (Culicoides) near grazing livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating the abundance of Culicoides using light traps is influenced by a large variation in abundance in time and place. This study investigates the optimal trapping strategy to estimate the abundance or presence/absence of Culicoides on a field with grazing animals. We used 45 light...... absence of vectors on the field. The variation in the estimated abundance decreased steeply when using up to six traps, and was less pronounced when using more traps, although no clear cutoff was found. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spatial clustering in vector abundance, we found no effect of increasing...... monitoring programmes on fields with grazing animals....

  8. A New Hybrid Whale Optimizer Algorithm with Mean Strategy of Grey Wolf Optimizer for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for an efficient nature-inspired optimization technique has continued over the last few decades. In this paper, a hybrid nature-inspired optimization technique has been proposed. The hybrid algorithm has been constructed using Mean Grey Wolf Optimizer (MGWO and Whale Optimizer Algorithm (WOA. We have utilized the spiral equation of Whale Optimizer Algorithm for two procedures in the Hybrid Approach GWO (HAGWO algorithm: (i firstly, we used the spiral equation in Grey Wolf Optimizer algorithm for balance between the exploitation and the exploration process in the new hybrid approach; and (ii secondly, we also applied this equation in the whole population in order to refrain from the premature convergence and trapping in local minima. The feasibility and effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm have been tested by solving some standard benchmarks, XOR, Baloon, Iris, Breast Cancer, Welded Beam Design, Pressure Vessel Design problems and comparing the results with those obtained through other metaheuristics. The solutions prove that the newly existing hybrid variant has higher stronger stability, faster convergence rate and computational accuracy than other nature-inspired metaheuristics on the maximum number of problems and can successfully resolve the function of constrained nonlinear optimization in reality.

  9. Launch and capture of a single particle in a pulse-laser-assisted dual-beam fiber-optic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenhai; She, Xuan; Li, Nan; Hu, Huizhu

    2018-06-01

    The rapid loading and manipulation of microspheres in optical trap is important for its applications in optomechanics and precision force sensing. We investigate the microsphere behavior under coaction of a dual-beam fiber-optic trap and a pulse laser beam, which reveals a launched microsphere can be effectively captured in a spatial region. A suitable order of pulse duration for launch is derived according to the calculated detachment energy threshold of pulse laser. Furthermore, we illustrate the effect of structural parameters on the launching process, including the spot size of pulse laser, the vertical displacement of beam waist and the initial position of microsphere. Our result will be instructive in the optimal design of the pulse-laser-assisted optical tweezers for controllable loading mechanism of optical trap.

  10. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  11. Precision mass measurements at THe-trap and the FSU trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, Martin Juergen

    2016-07-26

    THe-Trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometer at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, that aims to measure the T/{sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of 10{sup -11}. Improvements of the measurement technique, in particular the measurement of systematic shifts, enabled measurements of mass ratios with relative uncertainties of 7.10{sup -11}, as demonstrated by a cyclotron frequency ratio determination on {sup 12}C{sup 4+}/{sup 16}O{sup 5+}. This uncertainty was limited by the lineshape. An improved theoretical model based on a rotating wave approximation can be used to describe dynamical interactions between the detection system and the ion, in order to better understand the lineshape and to further reduce the uncertainty. The Florida State University trap is a Penning-trap mass spectrometer located in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). In the context of this thesis, three mass ratios were measured, and further 20 mass ratio measurements analyzed, which resulted in the publication of the masses of {sup 82,83}Kr, {sup 131,134}Xe, {sup 86-88}Sr, and {sup 170-174,176}Yb with relative uncertainties between (0.9 - 1.3).10{sup -10}. These masses serve as reference masses for other experiments and have applications in the determination of the fine-structure constant alpha via the photon-recoil method.

  12. Growth rate and trapping efficacy of nematode-trapping fungi under constant and fluctuating temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Wolstrup, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of temperature on radial growth and predatory activity of different isolates of nematode-trapping fungi was assessed. Four isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans and one isolate of Arthrobotrys oligospora were inoculated on petri dishes containing either cornmeal agar (CMA) or faecal agar...

  13. TRAP230/ARC240 and TRAP240/ARC250 Mediator subunits are functionally conserved through evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Camilla O; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator, a subgroup of proteins (Srb8, Srb9, Srb10, and Srb11) form a module, which is involved in negative regulation of transcription. Homologues of Srb10 and Srb11 are found in some mammalian Mediator preparations, whereas no clear homologues have been reported...... for Srb8 and Srb9. Here, we identify a TRAP240/ARC250 homologue in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate that this protein, spTrap240, is stably associated with a larger form of Mediator, which also contains conserved homologues of Srb8, Srb10, and Srb11. We find that spTrap240 and Sch. pombe Srb8 (sp......Srb8) regulate the same distinct subset of genes and have indistinguishable phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, Mediator containing the spSrb8/spTrap240/spSrb10/spSrb11 subunits is isolated only in free form, devoid of RNA polymerase II. In contrast, Mediator lacking this module associates...

  14. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  15. Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.

  16. Vortex trapping by tilted columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladie, I.; Buzdin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation of high-T c superconductors by inclined heavy-ion beam can create columnar defects (CD's) practically at any angle towards the crystal c axis. We calculate the energy of a tilted vortex trapped on an inclined columnar defect within the framework of an electromagnetic model. Under a weak perpendicular magnetic field, and if the CD radius is larger than the superconducting coherence length, vortices always prefer to be on a tilted CD than to be aligned along the external field. We calculate also the interaction energy between two tilted vortices and find that large attractive regions appear. In particular, in the plane defined by c axis and the CD axis, tilted vortices attract each other at long distances, leading to the formation of vortex chains. The equilibrium distance between vortices in a chain is of the order of the magnitude of the in-plane London penetration depth. The existence of the inclined trapped vortices could be revealed by torque measurements, and could also lead to the anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity and the critical current

  17. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k τ ρ bi much-lt 1, where ρ bi is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented

  18. Landau damping in trapped Bose condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, B; Zaremba, E [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    We study Landau damping in dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases in both spherical and prolate ellipsoidal harmonic traps. We solve the Bogoliubov equations for the mode spectrum in both of these cases, and calculate the damping by summing over transitions between excited quasiparticle states. The results for the spherical case are compared to those obtained in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, where the excitations take on a single-particle character, and excellent agreement between the two approaches is found. We have also taken the semiclassical limit of the HF approximation and obtain a novel expression for the Landau damping rate involving the time-dependent self-diffusion function of the thermal cloud. As a final approach, we study the decay of a condensate mode by making use of dynamical simulations in which both the condensate and thermal cloud are evolved explicitly as a function of time. A detailed comparison of all these methods over a wide range of sample sizes and trap geometries is presented.

  19. An optical trap for relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Saleh, Ned; Chen Shouyuan; Sheng Zhengming; Umstadter, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The first optical trap capable of confining relativistic electrons, with kinetic energy ≤350 keV was created by the interference of spatially and temporally overlapping terawatt power, 400 fs duration laser pulses (≤2.4x10 18 W/cm 2 ) in plasma. Analysis and computer simulation predicted that the plasma density was greatly modulated, reaching a peak density up to 10 times the background density (n e /n 0 ∼10) at the interference minima. Associated with this charge displacement, a direct-current electrostatic field of strength of ∼2x10 11 eV/m was excited. These predictions were confirmed experimentally by Thomson and Raman scattering diagnostics. Also confirmed were predictions that the electron density grating acted as a multi-layer mirror to transfer energy between the crossed laser beams, resulting in the power of the weaker laser beam being nearly 50% increased. Furthermore, it was predicted that the optical trap acted to heat electrons, increasing their temperature by two orders of magnitude. The experimental results showed that the number of high energy electrons accelerated along the direction of one of the laser beams was enhanced by a factor of 3 and electron temperature was increased ∼100 keV as compared with single-beam illumination

  20. Dynamic Trap Formation and Elimination in Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, O.

    2013-03-21

    Using first-principles simulations on PbS and CdSe colloidal quantum dots, we find that surface defects form in response to electronic doping and charging of the nanoparticles. We show that electronic trap states in nanocrystals are dynamic entities, in contrast with the conventional picture wherein traps are viewed as stable electronic states that can be filled or emptied, but not created or destroyed. These traps arise from the formation or breaking of atomic dimers at the nanoparticle surface. The dimers\\' energy levels can reside within the bandgap, in which case a trap is formed. Fortunately, we are also able to identify a number of shallow-electron-affinity cations that stabilize the surface, working to counter dynamic trap formation and allowing for trap-free doping. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Experiments on cold trap regeneration by NaH decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Skladzien, S.B.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Cold trap regeneration may be very important in future LMFBRs because of the expected high hydrogen source from the steam generators. This hydrogen precipitates as NaH in the cold trap and may fill the trap within one year of operation. Several methods of cold trap regeneration were considered, but the simplest and least expensive appears to be decomposition of NaH under vacuum at elevated temperatures. Experiments were done to assess the feasibility of this method for cold trap regeneration. Small-scale simulated cold traps (SCT) were located with NaH and NaH plus Na 2 O, and were heated both under vacuum and under a sweep gas at 100 kPa. The evolved hydrogen was converted to water by a CuO bed and collected in a weighting tube

  2. Dynamic Trap Formation and Elimination in Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, O.; Thon, S. M.; Ip, A. H.; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Using first-principles simulations on PbS and CdSe colloidal quantum dots, we find that surface defects form in response to electronic doping and charging of the nanoparticles. We show that electronic trap states in nanocrystals are dynamic entities, in contrast with the conventional picture wherein traps are viewed as stable electronic states that can be filled or emptied, but not created or destroyed. These traps arise from the formation or breaking of atomic dimers at the nanoparticle surface. The dimers' energy levels can reside within the bandgap, in which case a trap is formed. Fortunately, we are also able to identify a number of shallow-electron-affinity cations that stabilize the surface, working to counter dynamic trap formation and allowing for trap-free doping. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Metastable self-trapping of positrons in MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, M. A.; Pareja, R.; González, R.; Chen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Low-temperature positron annihilation measurements have been performed on MgO single crystals containing either cation or anion vacancies. The temperature dependence of the S parameter is explained in terms of metastable self-trapped positrons which thermally hop through the crystal lattice. The experimental results are analyzed using a three-state trapping model assuming transitions from both delocalized and self-trapped states to deep trapped states at vacancies. The energy level of the self-trapped state was determined to be (62+/-5) meV above the delocalized state. The activation enthalpy for the hopping process of self-trapped positrons appears to depend on the kind of defect present in the crystals.

  4. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  5. Stability of Trapped Electrons in SiO(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Thermally stimulated current and capacitance voltage methods are used to investigate the thermal stability of trapped electrons associated with radiation-induced trapped positive charge in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The density of deeply trapped electrons in radiation-hardened 45 nm oxides exceeds that of shallow electrons by a factor of ∼3 after radiation exposure, and by up to a factor of 10 or more during biased annealing. Shallow electron traps anneal faster than deep traps, and seem to be at least qualitatively consistent with the model of Lelis et al. Deeper traps maybe part of a fundamentally distinct dipole complex, and/or have shifted energy levels that inhibit charge exchange with the Si

  6. Nonlinear optimal filter technique for analyzing energy depositions in TES sensors driven into saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs connected to quasiparticle (qp traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

  7. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  8. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    Different traps and lures have been developed and used over decades to survey fruit fly populations. The first attractant for male fruit flies was methyl eugenol (ME) (for Bactrocera zonata, Howlett, 1912) followed by kerosene for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, (medfly), Severin and Severin, 1913. In 1956, Angelica seed oil was used to trap medfly (Steiner et al, 1957). Beroza et al. (1961) discovered trimedlure (TML) to be effective for the same purpose. Beroza and Green, 1963, demonstrated cuelure to be an effective attractant for Bactrocera cucurbitae. Food baits based on protein solutions, fermenting sugar solutions, fruit juices, and vinegar have been used since 1918 for the capture of females of several species. The McPhail trap was the first device to be used with protein baits (McPhail, 1929). Steiner traps were developed in 1957 (Steiner et al., 1957) and Jackson traps in 1971 for TML (Harris et al., 1971). These traps are currently used in various countries for fruit fly surveys in support of control activities and eradication campaigns. The combination of a McPhail trap with a protein attractant, Jackson trap with TML, and the Steiner trap with ME or cuelure (CUE), has remained unchanged for several decades. Global trends in increasing food quality, revenue sources, and fruit and vegetable trade, has resulted in an increased worldwide movement of fruit fly species and requires refinement of survey systems. After years of validating trapping technology through coordinated research programmes (CRP's) and extensive technical assistance to member countries, the Joint Division FAO/IAEA proposes the use of proven technologies in improving trap sensitivity in area-wide fruit fly control programmes (IAEA 1996 and IAEA 1998). These proven technologies include the use of synthetic food lures such as female attractants that can be used for several species of Anastrepha, Bactrocera and Ceratitis. Other citations of information on these developments are

  9. Magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' experimental trap with ambipolar mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, G.I.; Lysyanskij, P.B.; Tadber, M.V.; Timoshin, I.Ya.; Shrajner, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    A magnet system of the ''AMBAL'' ambipolar trap under construction is described. The trap magnetic field configuration, geometry of the main coils and diagram of the whole device magnet system are outlined. Drift surface cross sections in the equatorial plane of the ring mirror device, in the median plane and at different distances from the trap median plane are presented. The magnet system design is described in brief

  10. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor...

  11. Magnetic trapping of NH molecules with 20 s lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsikata, E; Campbell, W C; Hummon, M T; Lu, H-I; Doyle, J M, E-mail: tsikata@fas.harvard.ed [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Buffer gas cooling is used to trap NH molecules with 1/e lifetimes exceeding 20 s. Helium vapor generated by laser desorption of a helium film is employed to thermalize 10{sup 5} molecules at a temperature of 500 mK in a 3.9 T magnetic trap. Long molecule trapping times are attained through rapid pumpout of residual buffer gas. Molecules experience a helium background gas density below 1x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.

  12. A nonlinear bounce kinetic equation for trapped electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, F.Y.

    1990-03-01

    A nonlinear bounce averaged drift kinetic equation for trapped electrons is derived. This equation enables one to compute the nonlinear response of the trapped electron distribution function in terms of the field-line projection of a potential fluctuation left-angle e -inqθ φ n right-angle b . It is useful for both analytical and computational studies of the nonlinear evolution of short wavelength (n much-gt 1) trapped electron mode-driven turbulence. 7 refs

  13. Is There a Fiscal Free Lunch in a Liquidity Trap?

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Linde; Christopher J. Erceg

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a DSGE model to examine the effects of an expansion in government spending in a liquidity trap. If the liquidity trap is very prolonged, the spending multiplier can be much larger than in normal circumstances, and the budgetary costs minimal. But given this "fiscal free lunch," it is unclear why policymakers would want to limit the size of fiscal expansion. Our paper addresses this question in a model environment in which the duration of the liquidity trap is determined endoge...

  14. An improved analytical model of 4H-SiC MESFET incorporating bulk and interface trapping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema Lata Rao, M.; Narasimha Murty, N. V. L.

    2015-01-01

    An improved analytical model for the current—voltage (I-V) characteristics of the 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on a high purity semi-insulating (HPSI) substrate with trapping and thermal effects is presented. The 4H-SiC MESFET structure includes a stack of HPSI substrates and a uniformly doped channel layer. The trapping effects include both the effect of multiple deep-level traps in the substrate and surface traps between the gate to source/drain. The self-heating effects are also incorporated to obtain the accurate and realistic nature of the analytical model. The importance of the proposed model is emphasised through the inclusion of the recent and exact nature of the traps in the 4H-SiC HPSI substrate responsible for substrate compensation. The analytical model is used to exhibit DC I-V characteristics of the device with and without trapping and thermal effects. From the results, the current degradation is observed due to the surface and substrate trapping effects and the negative conductance introduced by the self-heating effect at a high drain voltage. The calculated results are compared with reported experimental and two-dimensional simulations (Silvaco®-TCAD). The proposed model also illustrates the effectiveness of the gate—source distance scaling effect compared to the gate—drain scaling effect in optimizing 4H-SiC MESFET performance. Results demonstrate that the proposed I-V model of 4H-SiC MESFET is suitable for realizing SiC based monolithic circuits (MMICs) on HPSI substrates.

  15. An improved analytical model of 4H-SiC MESFET incorporating bulk and interface trapping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M. Hema Lata; Murty, N. V. L. Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    An improved analytical model for the current—voltage (I–V) characteristics of the 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on a high purity semi-insulating (HPSI) substrate with trapping and thermal effects is presented. The 4H-SiC MESFET structure includes a stack of HPSI substrates and a uniformly doped channel layer. The trapping effects include both the effect of multiple deep-level traps in the substrate and surface traps between the gate to source/drain. The self-heating effects are also incorporated to obtain the accurate and realistic nature of the analytical model. The importance of the proposed model is emphasised through the inclusion of the recent and exact nature of the traps in the 4H-SiC HPSI substrate responsible for substrate compensation. The analytical model is used to exhibit DC I–V characteristics of the device with and without trapping and thermal effects. From the results, the current degradation is observed due to the surface and substrate trapping effects and the negative conductance introduced by the self-heating effect at a high drain voltage. The calculated results are compared with reported experimental and two-dimensional simulations (Silvaco®-TCAD). The proposed model also illustrates the effectiveness of the gate—source distance scaling effect compared to the gate—drain scaling effect in optimizing 4H-SiC MESFET performance. Results demonstrate that the proposed I–V model of 4H-SiC MESFET is suitable for realizing SiC based monolithic circuits (MMICs) on HPSI substrates. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Sodium removal and requalification of secondary loop cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.; Veerasamy, R.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, K.K.; Kale, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The secondary loop cold trap of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor got plugged prematurely and was not removing impurities from the sodium. This cold trap was taken up for cleaning and modification of the internals. The cleaning operation was carried out successfully by hydride decomposition and vacuum distillation followed by steam cleaning method. Without dismantling, the cold trap internals were washed by circulating water. Subsequently the wire mesh was removed, examined and replaced, the internal modifications were carried (nit and the cold trap way qualified for reuse. The procedures followed and the experience gained are discussed. (author)

  17. Camera Traps Can Be Heard and Seen by Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Paul D.; Ballard, Guy-Anthony; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Schaefer, Michael; Williams, Warwick; Falzon, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps are electrical instruments that emit sounds and light. In recent decades they have become a tool of choice in wildlife research and monitoring. The variability between camera trap models and the methods used are considerable, and little is known about how animals respond to camera trap emissions. It has been reported that some animals show a response to camera traps, and in research this is often undesirable so it is important to understand why the animals are disturbed. We conducted laboratory based investigations to test the audio and infrared optical outputs of 12 camera trap models. Camera traps were measured for audio outputs in an anechoic chamber; we also measured ultrasonic (n = 5) and infrared illumination outputs (n = 7) of a subset of the camera trap models. We then compared the perceptive hearing range (n = 21) and assessed the vision ranges (n = 3) of mammals species (where data existed) to determine if animals can see and hear camera traps. We report that camera traps produce sounds that are well within the perceptive range of most mammals’ hearing and produce illumination that can be seen by many species. PMID:25354356

  18. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  19. Cooling and trapping neutral atoms with radiative forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Castro, J.C.; Li, M.S.; Zilio, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques to slow and trap neutral atoms at high densities with radiative forces are discussed in this review articles. Among several methods of laser cooling, it is emphasized Zeeman Tuning of the electronic levels and frequency-sweeping techniques. Trapping of neutral atoms and recent results obtained in light and magnetic traps are discussed. Techniques to further cool atoms inside traps are presented and the future of laser cooling of neutral atoms by means of radiation pressure is discussed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Sognenavne, Aabenraa Kommune (16 artikler). trap.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kællerød, Lars-Jakob Harding

    2019-01-01

    Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Bjolderup, Burkal, Bylderup, Egvad, Ensted, Genner, Hellevad, Hjordkær, Holbøl, Kliplev, Løjt, Ravsted, Rise, Uge, Varnæs og Øster Løgum......Artikler til Trap Danmarks netpublikation trap.dk Sognenavnene Bjolderup, Burkal, Bylderup, Egvad, Ensted, Genner, Hellevad, Hjordkær, Holbøl, Kliplev, Løjt, Ravsted, Rise, Uge, Varnæs og Øster Løgum...

  1. Controlling spin flips of molecules in an electromagnetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reens, David; Wu, Hao; Langen, Tim; Ye, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Doubly dipolar molecules exhibit complex internal spin dynamics when electric and magnetic fields are both applied. Near magnetic trap minima, these spin dynamics lead to enhancements in Majorana spin-flip transitions by many orders of magnitude relative to atoms and are thus an important obstacle for progress in molecule trapping and cooling. We conclusively demonstrate and address this with OH molecules in a trap geometry where spin-flip losses can be tuned from over 200 s-1 to below our 2 s-1 vacuum-limited loss rate with only a simple external bias coil and with minimal impact on trap depth and gradient.

  2. Fueling profile sensitivities of trapped particle mode transport to TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    A key factor in the plasma thermal behavior is the anticipated existence of dissipative trapped particle modes. A possible scheme for controlling the strength of these modes was found. The scheme involves varying the cold fueling profile. A one dimensional multifluid transport code was used to simulate plasma behavior. A multiregime model for particle and energy transport was incorporated based on pseudoclassical, trapped electron, and trapped ion regimes used elsewhere in simulation of large tokamaks. Fueling profiles peaked toward the plasma edge may provide a means for reducing density-gradient-driven trapped particle modes, thus reducing diffusion and conduction losses

  3. Acoustic trapping in bubble-bounded micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, P.; McDougall, C.; Glynne-Jones, P.; MacDonald, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for controllably producing longitudinal acoustic trapping sites inside microfluidic channels. Air bubbles are injected into a micro-capillary to create bubble-bounded `micro-cavities'. A cavity mode is formed that shows controlled longitudinal acoustic trapping between the two air/water interfaces along with the levitation to the centre of the channel that one would expect from a lower order lateral mode. 7 μm and 10 μm microspheres are trapped at the discrete acoustic trapping sites in these micro-cavities.We show this for several lengths of micro-cavity.

  4. Electron Cooling of Protons in a Nested Penning Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.S.; Gabrielse, G.

    1996-01-01

    Trapped protons cool via collisions with trapped electrons at 4 K.This first demonstration of sympathetic cooling by trapped species of opposite sign of charge utilizes a nested Penning trap. The demonstrated interaction of electrons and protons at very low relative velocities, where recombination is predicted to be most rapid, indicates that this may be a route towards the study of low temperature recombination. The production of cold antihydrogen is of particular interest, and electron cooling of highly stripped ions may also be possible. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Camera traps can be heard and seen by animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Meek

    Full Text Available Camera traps are electrical instruments that emit sounds and light. In recent decades they have become a tool of choice in wildlife research and monitoring. The variability between camera trap models and the methods used are considerable, and little is known about how animals respond to camera trap emissions. It has been reported that some animals show a response to camera traps, and in research this is often undesirable so it is important to understand why the animals are disturbed. We conducted laboratory based investigations to test the audio and infrared optical outputs of 12 camera trap models. Camera traps were measured for audio outputs in an anechoic chamber; we also measured ultrasonic (n = 5 and infrared illumination outputs (n = 7 of a subset of the camera trap models. We then compared the perceptive hearing range (n = 21 and assessed the vision ranges (n = 3 of mammals species (where data existed to determine if animals can see and hear camera traps. We report that camera traps produce sounds that are well within the perceptive range of most mammals' hearing and produce illumination that can be seen by many species.

  6. Simple atom trap in a conical hollow mirror: Numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, K. I.; Nha, H.; Noh, H. R.; Yoo, S. H.; Jhe, W

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the trap dynamic in a conical hollow (axicon) mirror system. Atom's trajectory is ring shaped if we move the coil (magnetic field) axis off the mirror axis and if we overlap these two axes trap cloud is ball shaped and it is consistent with experiment. We also make a simple comparison between 6-beam MOT and axicon MOT in the ball shaped case, and it shows that at low velocity limit the axicon MOT and typical 6-beam MOT have nearly same trap properties. The axicon trap may be useful as precooled atom source for many other atomic physics experiments such as cold atomic beam, atom funnel, and atom waveguide.

  7. Nucleases from Prevotella intermedia can degrade neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, M; Fukamachi, H; Morisaki, H; Arimoto, T; Kataoka, H; Kuwata, H

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by periodontal bacteria in subgingival plaque. These bacteria are able to colonize the periodontal region by evading the host immune response. Neutrophils, the host's first line of defense against infection, use various strategies to kill invading pathogens, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular net-like fibers comprising DNA and antimicrobial components such as histones, LL-37, defensins, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase from neutrophils that disarm and kill bacteria extracellularly. Bacterial nuclease degrades the NETs to escape NET killing. It has now been shown that extracellular nucleases enable bacteria to evade this host antimicrobial mechanism, leading to increased pathogenicity. Here, we compared the DNA degradation activity of major Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We found that Pr. intermedia showed the highest DNA degradation activity. A genome search of Pr. intermedia revealed the presence of two genes, nucA and nucD, putatively encoding secreted nucleases, although their enzymatic and biological activities are unknown. We cloned nucA- and nucD-encoding nucleases from Pr. intermedia ATCC 25611 and characterized their gene products. Recombinant NucA and NucD digested DNA and RNA, which required both Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ for optimal activity. In addition, NucA and NucD were able to degrade the DNA matrix comprising NETs. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Oral Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Commissioning of the double Penning trap system MLLTRAP and first studies on mass-dependent systematic uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Kevin; Weber, Christine; Thirolf, Peter G.; Szerypo, Jerzy; Gartzke, Eva; Habs, Dietrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Kolhinen, Veli [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    The cylindrical double Penning trap system MLLTRAP in its commissioning phase at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) Tandem accelerator in Garching is designed to perform high-accuracy mass measurements on fusion-reaction products. As the mass uncertainty is inversely proportional to the ionic charge state, the ions of interest will be charge bred prior to injection into the Penning trap system. In the future setup, both traps are foreseen to be operated as measurement traps with a relative homogeneity of the magnetic field at the trapping sites of {delta}B/B{<=}0.3 ppm. In the commissioning phase, an offline surface ionization source is used for iterative optimization of the apparatus and studies on mass-dependent systematic uncertainties. Mass measurements via the time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance method (TOF-ICR) of reference ions with well-known masses ({sup 85}Rb, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 39}K, {sup 133}Cs) were carried out to analyze mass-dependent systematic effects. Together with previous studies on the uncertainty due to magnetic-field fluctuations the current status with respect to the limits of mass accuracy of the apparatus is presented.

  9. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  10. An energy signature scheme for steam trap assessment and flow rate estimation using pipe-induced acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Teja P.; Lake, Joe E.

    2012-06-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

  11. Trapped particle confinement studies in L = 2 torsatrons for additional helical coils, radial electric field and finite beta effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Wakatani, M.

    1990-07-01

    L = 2 torsatrons are studied to improve the high energy trapped particle confinement with additional l = 1 and/or l = 3 helical coils. The winding laws are selected in two ways. One is to realize 'σ - optimization' by the additional helical coils, but this approach loses magnetic well region. The other selection is to produce or deepen the magnetic well by the additional helical coils. L=3 helical coils are usable to this end. In this case the improvement of the trapped particle confinement depends on magnetic axis position. Radial electric field producing sheared rotational motion is also considered to improve the trapped particle confinement in a standard l = 2 torsatron. By excluding cancellation between E x B and ΔB drift motion occurred for the parabolic potential profiles, all deeply trapped particles can be confined in the central region. Degradation of the trapped particle confinement by the Shafranov shift is mitigated by shifting the magnetic axis inside in the vacuum configuration. (author)

  12. Identification of nitrogen- and host-related deep-level traps in n-type GaNAs and their evolution upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Kudrawiec, R.; Henini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep level traps in as-grown and annealed n-GaNAs layers (doped with Si) of various nitrogen concentrations (N = 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.2%) were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. In addition, optical properties of GaNAs layers were studied by photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance. The identification of N- and host-related traps has been performed on the basis of band gap diagram [Kudrawiec, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 082109 (2012)], which assumes that the activation energy of electron traps of the same microscopic nature decreases with the rise of nitrogen concentration in accordance with the N-related shift of the conduction band towards trap levels. The application of this diagram has allowed to investigate the evolution of donor traps in GaNAs upon annealing. In general, it was observed that the concentration of N- and host-related traps decreases after annealing and PL improves very significantly. However, it was also observed that some traps are generated due to annealing. It explains why the annealing conditions have to be carefully optimized for this material system.

  13. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  14. Characteristics of single-atom trapping in a magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient

  15. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  16. Synthesizing optimal waste blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, V.; Diwekar, W.M.; Hoza, M.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification of tank wastes to form glass is a technique that will be used for the disposal of high-level waste at Hanford. Process and storage economics show that minimizing the total number of glass logs produced is the key to keeping cost as low as possible. The amount of glass produced can be reduced by blending of the wastes. The optimal way to combine the tanks to minimize the vole of glass can be determined from a discrete blend calculation. However, this problem results in a combinatorial explosion as the number of tanks increases. Moreover, the property constraints make this problem highly nonconvex where many algorithms get trapped in local minima. In this paper the authors examine the use of different combinatorial optimization approaches to solve this problem. A two-stage approach using a combination of simulated annealing and nonlinear programming (NLP) is developed. The results of different methods such as the heuristics approach based on human knowledge and judgment, the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach with GAMS, and branch and bound with lower bound derived from the structure of the given blending problem are compared with this coupled simulated annealing and NLP approach

  17. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Ariefiandy

    Full Text Available Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψand varied detection probabilities (p according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site, p (site survey; ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  18. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  19. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site*survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species. PMID:23527027

  20. Vortices trapped in discrete Josephson rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zanta, H.S.J.; Orlando, T.P.; Watanabe, Shinya; Strogatz, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first measurements of current- (I-V) characteristics of discrete rings of Josephson junctions. As I is increased, resonant steps appear in the I-V curve, due to phase-locking between a propagating, trapped vortex and the linear waves excited in its wake. Unexpectedly, the phase velocity of the linear waves, not the group velocity, is the physically important quantity and mode numbers outside the Brillouin zone are relevant. Our measurements show that away from the resonant steps, a single vortex can move in an environment with very little damping, making the discrete one-dimensional ring a well-defined model system for the study of ballistic and quantum vortex experiments. ((orig.))