WorldWideScience

Sample records for optimizing dam operations

  1. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Water quantity and quality optimization modeling of dams operation based on SWAT in Wenyu River Catchment, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Minghua

    2011-02-01

    Water quantity and quality joint operation is a new mode in the present dams' operation research. It has become a hot topic in governmental efforts toward integrated basin improvement. This paper coupled a water quantity and quality joint operation model (QCmode) and genetic algorithm with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Together, these tools were used to explore a reasonable operation of dams and floodgates at the basin scale. Wenyu River Catchment, a key area in Beijing, was selected as the case study. Results showed that the coupled water quantity and quality model of Wenyu River Catchment more realistically simulates the process of water quantity and quality control by dams and floodgates. This integrated model provides the foundation for research of water quantity and quality optimization on dam operation in Wenyu River Catchment. The results of this modeling also suggest that current water quality of Wenyu River will improve following the implementation of the optimized operation of the main dams and floodgates. By pollution control and water quantity and quality joint operation of dams and floodgates, water quality of Wenyu river will change significantly, and the available water resources will increase by 134%, 32%, 17%, and 82% at the downstream sites of Sha River Reservoir, Lutong Floodgate, Xinpu Floodgate, and Weigou Floodgate, respectively. The water quantity and quality joint operation of dams will play an active role in improving water quality and water use efficiency in Wenyu River Basin. The research will provide the technical support for water pollution control and ecological restoration in Wenyu River Catchment and could be applied to other basins with large number of dams. Its application to the Wenyu River Catchment has a great significance for the sustainable economic development of Beijing City.

  3. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  5. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Richter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  6. Derivation of Operation Rule for Ilisu Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-Sahib Mohammed Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tigris River water that comes from Turkey represents the main water resource of this river in Iraq. The expansion in water river implementations has formed a source of trouble for the workers in the water resources management field in Iraqi. Unfortunately, there is no agreement between Iraq and Turkey till now to share the water of this international river. Consequently, the optimal operation of water resources systems, particularly a multi-objective, multi-reservoir, is of the most necessity at the present time. In this research two approaches, were used the dynamic programming (DP approach and simulation model to find the optimal monthly operation of Ilisu Dam (from an Iraqi point of view through a computer program (in Q. Basic language to find the optimum monthly release and storage by adopting an objective function that minimizes the release and storage losses (penalty. The historical inflow data of 588 months from (Oct. 1961 to Sep. 2009 formed the input data to the optimization models. Storage rule curves for the reservoir at (lower, mean, upper of (10%, 50%, and 90%, respectively, were found according to the results of the optimized operation. A simulation model was developed to operate the system using these rule curves.

  7. Development of probabilistic operating rules for Hluhluwe Dam, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiritu, J.; Odiyo, J.; Makungo, R.; Mwaka, B.; Mthethwa, N.; Ntuli, C.; Andanje, A.

    2017-08-01

    Hluhluwe Dam, with a 30 million m3 reservoir that supplies water for irrigation and Hluhluwe municipality in Kwa-Zulu Natal Province, South Africa, was consistently experiencing low storage levels over several non-drought years since 2001. The dam was operated by rules of thumb and there were no records of water releases for irrigation - the main user of the dam. This paper describes an assessment of the historic behaviour of the reservoir since its completion in 1964 and the development of operating rules that accounted for: i) the multiple and different levels of reliability at which municipal and irrigation demands need to be supplied, and ii) inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of climate and inflows into the dam. The assessment of the behaviour of the reservoir was done by simulation assuming trigonometric rule curves that were optimized to maximize both yield and storage state using the SCE-UA method. The resulting reservoir behaviour matched the observed historic trajectory reasonably well and indicated that the dam has mainly been operated at a demand of 10 million m3/year until 2000 when the demand suddenly rose to 25 million m3/year. Operating rules were developed from a statistical analysis of the base yields from 500 simulations of the reservoir each using 5 year-long stochastically generated sequences of inflows, rainfall and evaporation. After the implementation of the operating rules in 2009, the storage state of the dam improved and matched those of other reservoirs in the region that had established operating rules.

  8. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  9. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  10. Trading river services: optimizing dam decisions at the basin scale to improve socio-ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Gold, A.; Uchida, E.; McGreavy, B.; Smith, S. M.; Wilson, K.; Blachly, B.; Newcomb, A.; Hart, D.; Gardner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Dam removal has become a cornerstone of environmental restoration practice in the United States. One outcome of dam removal that has received positive attention is restored access to historic habitat for sea-run fisheries, providing a crucial gain in ecosystem resilience. But dams also provide stakeholders with valuable services, and uncertain socio-ecological outcomes can arise if there is not careful consideration of the basin scale trade offs caused by dam removal. In addition to fisheries, dam removals can significantly affect landscape nutrient flux, municipal water storage, recreational use of lakes and rivers, property values, hydroelectricity generation, the cultural meaning of dams, and many other river-based ecosystem services. We use a production possibility frontiers approach to explore dam decision scenarios and opportunities for trading between ecosystem services that are positively or negatively affected by dam removal in New England. Scenarios that provide efficient trade off potentials are identified using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. Our results suggest that for many river systems, there is a significant potential to increase the value of fisheries and other ecosystem services with minimal dam removals, and further increases are possible by including decisions related to dam operations and physical modifications. Run-of-river dams located near the head of tide are often found to be optimal for removal due to low hydroelectric capacity and high impact on fisheries. Conversely, dams with large impoundments near a river's headwaters can be less optimal for dam removal because their value as nitrogen sinks often outweighs the potential value for fisheries. Hydropower capacity is negatively impacted by dam removal but there are opportunities to meet or exceed lost capacity by upgrading preserved hydropower dams. Improving fish passage facilities for dams that are critical for safety or water storage can also reduce impacts on fisheries. Our

  11. Olympic Dam operations - environmental management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the 3rd Annual Report pertaining to the Olympic Dam Operations Environmental Management Programme and covers the period 1st March, 1989 to 28th February, 1990. The monitoring programe has provided detailed assessment of meteorological data, vegetation, fauna, soil stability, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well-fields both inside and outside the operations area. Mine site rehabilitation is considered to be progressing satisfactorily. Out of the 851 drill pad sites 72% have been rehabilitated to the stage where natural soil stability and plant cover has been achieved. Drill pad sites that have received good rainfall within one year of being ripped have rehabilitated very succesfully. Sites that receive no significant rainfall for more than two years, particularly on dune slopes may require re-ripping before successful regeneration can occur. To improve the drill pad site rehabilitation monitoring programme it is recommended that 200 drill sites be analysed each year. Air emission and solid waste data are also presented. This program is considered to be particularly successful in relation to SO 2 assessment. 90 tabs., 63 figs., ills

  12. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  13. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  14. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  15. Rule Optimization monthly reservoir operation Salvajina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Garcia, Maria Clemencia; Santacruz Salazar, Santiago; Ramirez Callejas, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study a model was designed for the optimization of the rule for monthly operation of the Salvajina dam (Colombia) based in the technology) of dynamic programming. The model maximizes the benefits for electric power generation, ensuring at the same time flood regulation in winter and pollution relief during the summer. For the optimization of the rule of operation, it was necessary to define the levels and volumes of reserve and holding required for the control of flood zones in the Cauca river and to provide an effluent minimal flow and assure a daily flow at the Juanchito station (located 141 km downstream from the dam) of the Cauca river, 90 % of the time during the most critical summer periods.

  16. Modeling the ecological impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.; Cho, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah, US, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage during a day. These changes can, in turn, affect ecological resources below the dam, including riparian vegetation, trout, and endangered fish. Four hydropower operational scenarios featuring varying degrees of hydropower-induced flow fluctuation were evaluated with hydrologic models and multispectral aerial videography of the river. Year-round high fluctuations would support the least amount of stable spawning habitat for trout and nursery habitat for endangered fish, and would have the greatest potential for reducing growth and over winter survival of fish. Seasonally, adjusted moderate fluctuation and seasonally adjusted steady flow scenarios could increase food production and over winter survival and would provide the greatest amount of spawning and nursery habitat for fish. The year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation scenarios would result in a 5% decrease in upper riparian zone habitat. the seasonally adjusted steady flow scenario would result in an 8% increase in upper riparian zone habitat. Lower riparian zone habitat would increase by about 17% for year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenarios but decrease by about 24% and 69% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating and steady flow scenarios, respectively

  17. Application of genetic programming in shape optimization of concrete gravity dams by metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Baghlani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravity dam maintains its stability against the external loads by its massive size. Hence, minimization of the weight of the dam can remarkably reduce the construction costs. In this paper, a procedure for finding optimal shape of concrete gravity dams with a computationally efficient approach is introduced. Genetic programming (GP in conjunction with metaheuristics is used for this purpose. As a case study, shape optimization of the Bluestone dam is presented. Pseudo-dynamic analysis is carried out on a total number of 322 models in order to establish a database of the results. This database is then used to find appropriate relations based on GP for design criteria of the dam. This procedure eliminates the necessity of the time-consuming process of structural analyses in evolutionary optimization methods. The method is hybridized with three different metaheuristics, including particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm (FA, and teaching–learning-based optimization, and a comparison is made. The results show that although all algorithms are very suitable, FA is slightly superior to other two algorithms in finding a lighter structure in less number of iterations. The proposed method reduces the weight of dam up to 14.6% with very low computational effort.

  18. Technical Condition of Earthen Dams at Nizhegorodskaya HPP After 60 Years of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V. S., E-mail: kuznetsovVS@vniig.ru; Ladenko, S. Yu., E-mail: ladenko@yandex.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russian Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (JSC) (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The complex of hydraulic engineering installations includes five earthen dams. All facilities are of Class I. The diagnostic parameters of dam operation and technical condition monitored via in-situ observation for seepage mode, seepage strength, settlement, static stability, etc. generally meet design assumptions and safety criteria. Despite individual defects and signs of “aging” identified over the period of earthen dam operation, these are currently in a satisfactory and operable state. The long, 60-year operating period of the dams with no serious overhauls or emergencies has demonstrated the high reliability of the facilities, the correctness of the design and technological solutions adopted and implemented in the construction, and the high professional level of their operation in close cooperation with science.

  19. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  20. Climate change impact on operation of dams and hydroelectricity generation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We are using a large-scale, high-resolution, fully integrated hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model to investigate the impact of climate change on the operation of 11037 dams and generation of electricity from 375 hydroelectric power plants in the Northeastern United States. Moreover, we estimate the hydropower potential of the region by energizing the existing non-powered dams and then studying the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. We show that climate change increases the impact of dams on the hydrology of the region. Warmer temperatures produce shorter frozen periods, earlier snowmelt and elevated evapotranspiration rates, which when combined with changes in precipitation, are projected to increase water availability in winter but reduce it during summer. As a result, the water that is stored by dams will be more than ever a necessary part of the routine water systems operations to compensate for these seasonal imbalances. The function of dams as emergency water storage for creating drought resiliency will mostly diminish in the future. Building more dams to cope with the local impacts of climate change on water resources and to offset the increased drought vulnerability may thus be inevitable. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Twh. Our estimate of the annual hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. Climate change may reduce hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential may increase in winter months and decline in months of summer and fall. These changes call for recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.

  1. Methodology for Risk Analysis of Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment Using Fault Tree Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patev, Robert C; Putcha, Chandra; Foltz, Stuart D

    2005-01-01

    .... This report summarizes research on methodologies to assist in quantifying risks related to dam gates and associated operating equipment, and how those risks relate to overall spillway failure risk...

  2. LGR adult trap data - Operation of the adult trap at Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) - funded project pays for NOAA staff to operate the adult salmon trap located in the fish ladder at Lower Granite Dam. The...

  3. Changes in engineering-geological conditions in the foundation of the Bratsk hydroelectric powerplant dam during 15 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, G K; Savinskaya, M K; Tizdel, R R; Sotnikova, N P

    1978-04-01

    Field observations of the rock foundation beneath the Bratsk Hydropower Dam have been conducted continuously and carefully, beginning during the period of construction. The dam is a concrete gravity dam with expanded seams, 125 m in height and 924 m in length. The head is 106 m. The dam was constructed in 42 column sections which were subsequently cemented together. The anchor of the dam is up to 15 m deep. Two rows of drainage wells 30 m deep and 3 m apart were drilled into the foundation beneath the dam. The observations indicate that the status of the foundation and the stability of the channel and left bank earth dam are quite satisfactory. The changes in engineering and geological conditions that are unavoidable upon construction of a large dam have apparently been completed, and the new conditions in the foundation of the dam have stabilized. The drainage devices are operating normally. However, observations should be continued at full volume.

  4. Investigation of changes to the operation of Keenleyside Dam to reduce supersaturation of dissolved gases downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, J.O.H.; Fidler, L.E.; Northcott, P.

    1993-01-01

    Keenlyside Dam is located on the Columbia River in southeast British Columbia. It impounds Arrow Lakes Reservoir, which has a live storage of 8.8 billion m 3 . The dam is used for flood control and to increase power generation in the USA. Recent field measurements have shown that the current operation of the dam often creates high levels of total gas pressure (TGP) downstream of the dam, with supersaturation levels occasionally reaching as high as 140%. It appeared that these increased levels were associated with the use of the spillway. High levels of dissolved gases may have adverse effects on aquatic life. Therefore, a comprehensive study was initiated to investigate ways of reducing TGP levels. The discharge facilities at the dam are described, along with the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on fish. Current studies include measurement of field TGP levels, development of a model to predict TGP levels for different modes of operation of the discharge facilities, assessing the effects of TGP on different fish species at different life stages, field testing of the discharge facilities, and assessment of long-term impacts of various operating alternatives on the dam structures and equipment. Preliminary results indicate that the north low-level ports of the spillway increase the TGP level significantly less than the other two components of the discharge facilities. Current operating practice therefore maximizes use of the north ports within current operating limits. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Dam! Dam! Dam!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCully, P.

    1997-01-01

    The author of ''Silenced Rivers'' a book questioning the desirability of dam building and hydroelectric power generation argues the main themes of his book in this paper. Despite being hailed by politicians as good solutions to power generation problems, and enthusiastically pursued in China, the U.S.A., the former Soviet Union, India and Japan, dams have far-reaching ecological and human consequences. The ecosystems lost to flooding, and the agricultural land use lost, the human cost in terms of homes and employment lost to reservoirs, disease from water-borne infections such as malaria, and the hazards of dams overflowing or breaking are all factors which are against the case for dam construction. The author argues the hydroelectric power may be renewable, but the social, agricultural and ecological costs are too high to justify it as a method of first choice. (UK)

  6. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    achievement of downstream temperature goals requires that releases of warm water near the surface of the lake and cold water below the thermocline are both possible with the available dam outlets during spring, summer, and autumn. This constraint can be met to some extent with existing outlets, but only if access to the spillway is extended into autumn by keeping the lake level higher than called for by the current rule curve (the typical target water-surface elevation throughout the year). If new outlets are considered, a variable-elevation outlet such as a sliding gate structure, or a floating outlet in combination with a fixed-elevation outlet at sufficient depth to access cold water, is likely to work well in terms of accessing a range of water temperatures and achieving downstream temperature targets. Furthermore, model results indicate that it is important to release warm water from near the lake surface during midsummer. If not released downstream, the warm water will build up at the top of the lake as a result of solar energy inputs and the thermocline will deepen, potentially causing warm water to reach the depth of deeper fixed-elevation outlets in autumn, particularly when the lake level is drawn down to make room for flood storage. Delaying the drawdown in autumn can help to keep the thermocline above such outlets and preserve access to cold water. Although it is important to generate hydropower at Detroit Dam, minimum power-production requirements limit the ability of dam operators to meet downstream temperature targets with existing outlet structures. The location of the power penstocks below the thermocline in spring and most of summer causes the release of more cool water during summer than is optimal. Reducing the power-production constraint allows the temperature target to be met more frequently, but at the cost of less power generation. Finally, running the Detroit Dam, Big Cliff Dam, and North Santiam and Santiam River models in series allows dam operators

  7. Effects on the upstream flood inundation caused from the operation of Chao Phraya Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Visutimeteegorn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries is 0.030-0.035 in the main channels and 0.050-0.070 in the flood plain areas. The backwater due to the operation of the Chao Praya dam affects as far as 110 kilometers upstream. New methods of water diversion can mitigate the flood inundation without the effect on the floating rice fields. The construction of reservoirs in the Upper Sakaekang River Basin and the Upper Yom River Basin will mitigate the flood not only in their own basins but also in the Lower Chao Phraya River Basin. The coordinated operation of the Chao Phraya Dam, the regulators and the upper basin reservoirs will efficiently mitigate the flood inundation.

  8. Optimization of power system operation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the latest applications of new technologies topower system operation and analysis, including new and importantareas that are not covered in the previous edition. Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional andmodern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady-statesecurity region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch,multi-area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal powerflow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimalreconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertaintyanalysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchicalprocess, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm,evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, amongothers. New topics such as the wheeling model, multi-areawheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multipleareas, are also addressed. The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers andac demics with a complete picture of the optimization of techn...

  9. Integrated Flood Forecast and Virtual Dam Operation System for Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Ikoma, Eiji; Lawford, Peter; Oyanagi, Misa; Kanauchi, Shizu; Koudelova, Petra; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    While availability of hydrological- and hydrometeorological data shows growing tendency and advanced modeling techniques are emerging, such newly available data and advanced models may not always be applied in the field of decision-making. In this study we present an integrated system of ensemble streamflow forecast (ESP) and virtual dam simulator, which is designed to support river and dam manager's decision making. The system consists of three main functions: real time hydrological model, ESP model, and dam simulator model. In the real time model, the system simulates current condition of river basins, such as soil moisture and river discharges, using LSM coupled distributed hydrological model. The ESP model takes initial condition from the real time model's output and generates ESP, based on numerical weather prediction. The dam simulator model provides virtual dam operation and users can experience impact of dam control on remaining reservoir volume and downstream flood under the anticipated flood forecast. Thus the river and dam managers shall be able to evaluate benefit of priori dam release and flood risk reduction at the same time, on real time basis. Furthermore the system has been developed under the concept of data and models integration, and it is coupled with Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) - a Japanese national project for integrating and analyzing massive amount of observational and model data. Therefore it has advantage in direct use of miscellaneous data from point/radar-derived observation, numerical weather prediction output, to satellite imagery stored in data archive. Output of the system is accessible over the web interface, making information available with relative ease, e.g. from ordinary PC to mobile devices. We have been applying the system to the Upper Tone region, located northwest from Tokyo metropolitan area, and we show application example of the system in recent flood events caused by typhoons.

  10. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-26

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir.

  11. Chinese engineers and scientists urge leadership to change Three Gorges Dam operating plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    An appeal to the Chinese Leadership by a group of senior engineers, water management experts and academics about the dire consequences of filling the Three Gorges reservoir on the Yangtze River to 175 metres, is reported. Originally, the plan was to keep water levels behind the Three Gorges Dam at 156 metres for the first ten years of operation, in order to allow for resettlement of people displaced by building the dam, and to evaluate the impact of silt deposits on navigation and ports at the upper end of the reservoir. Plans have changed in 1997; the water level is now scheduled to rise to 175 metres in the sixth year of the dam's operation in order to maximize the dam's power output. The appeal by 53 experts warned the Chinese Government that the filling of the reservoir to 175 metres would displace 1.13 million people and raise the water level in the Yangtze River more than 10 metres at Chongqing City, submerging drainage outlets and backing up the city's sewage, as well as increase silt deposits, blocking shipping traffic along the Yangtze River. A parallel is drawn with the Sanmenxia Dam on the Yellow River. It was completed in 1960; it has proven to be useless for controlling floods while producing only one-third of its expected output due to massive silt build-up in the reservoir

  12. Oldman river dam mitigation program downstream vegetation project report, Volume II: The potential effects of an operating plan for the Oldman River dam on Riparian cottonwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive cottonwood (poplar) forests exist in the Oldman River valley downstream of the Oldman River dam. Studies of similar forests in nearby river valleys and elsewhere on the western prairies have found significant declines of some riparian forests following river damming. This investigation was initiated to determine the causes of cottonwood forest decline downstream from existing dams in southern Alberta; inventory the existing river valley forests in the Oldman Basin; establish study sites in the Oldman River forests to monitor changes in forest status following commissioning of the Oldman River dam, and evaluate the probable impact of proposed operating plans for the Oldman River dam and associated water control structures on downstream forests. This report summarizes the progress made in the analyses of the probable effects on the survival of the forests, including a discussion of the hydrological conditions essential for cottonwood forest regeneration and an explanation of the effects of altering these characteristics on riparian forests; the hydrological alterations expected along various river reaches in the Oldman Basin with the implementation of the proposed OD05 Oldman Dam operating plan; and preliminary analyses of the problem impacts of the OD05 operating plan on the cottonwood forests along these reaches.

  13. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon-Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in western Oregon had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species. In this U.S. Geological Survey study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, an existing calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of Detroit Lake (the impounded waterbody behind Detroit Dam) was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  14. Efficient ecologic and economic operational rules for dammed systems by means of nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niayifar, A.; Perona, P.

    2015-12-01

    River impoundment by dams is known to strongly affect the natural flow regime and in turn the river attributes and the related ecosystem biodiversity. Making hydropower sustainable implies to seek for innovative operational policies able to generate dynamic environmental flows while maintaining economic efficiency. For dammed systems, we build the ecological and economical efficiency plot for non-proportional flow redistribution operational rules compared to minimal flow operational. As for the case of small hydropower plants (e.g., see the companion paper by Gorla et al., this session), we use a four parameters Fermi-Dirac statistical distribution to mathematically formulate non-proportional redistribution rules. These rules allocate a fraction of water to the riverine environment depending on current reservoir inflows and storage. Riverine ecological benefits associated to dynamic environmental flows are computed by integrating the Weighted Usable Area (WUA) for fishes with Richter's hydrological indicators. Then, we apply nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to an ensemble of non-proportional and minimal flow redistribution rules in order to generate the Pareto frontier showing the system performances in the ecologic and economic space. This fast and elitist multiobjective optimization method is eventually applied to a case study. It is found that non-proportional dynamic flow releases ensure maximal power production on the one hand, while conciliating ecological sustainability on the other hand. Much of the improvement in the environmental indicator is seen to arise from a better use of the reservoir storage dynamics, which allows to capture, and laminate flood events while recovering part of them for energy production. In conclusion, adopting such new operational policies would unravel a spectrum of globally-efficient performances of the dammed system when compared with those resulting from policies based on constant minimum flow releases.

  15. Back Analysis of the Permeability Coefficient of a High Core Rockfill Dam Based on a RBF Neural Network Optimized Using the PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the seepage field parameters of a high core rockfill dam using the seepage data obtained during operation. For the Nuozhadu high core rockfill dam, a back analysis model is proposed using the radial basis function neural network optimized using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-RBFNN and the technology of finite element analysis for solving the saturated-unsaturated seepage field. The recorded osmotic pressure curves of osmometers, which are distributed in the maximum cross section, are applied to this back analysis. The permeability coefficients of the dam materials are retrieved using the measured seepage pressure values while the steady state seepage condition exists; that is, the water lever remains unchanged. Meanwhile, the parameters are tested using the unstable saturated-unsaturated seepage field while the water level rises. The results show that the permeability coefficients are reasonable and can be used to study the real behavior of a seepage field of a high core rockfill dam during its operation period.

  16. High volume fly ash RCC for dams - I : mixture optimization and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, S. [PEAB Construction Co., Oslo (Norway); Lahus, O. [Norwegian Building Research Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Roller compacted concretes (RCC) were developed for the Norwegian Skjerka hydropower project. RCCs were developed to have a high-volume fly ash content to address environmental issues, including the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions associated with dam construction. They also makes good use of waste product and conserve natural resources. This study examined a series of mixtures to determine the appropriateness of using RCC as a competing alternative to the traditional rock fill dam proposed for the Skjerka hydropower project. The main advantage of RCC is speed, allowing a relatively large dam to be constructed in just one summer season, saving financial costs and providing early return on the investment. In addition, fly ash can be used in the structure, using clean and renewable energy. Several procedures to proportion RCC mixtures were proposed, including the optimal paste volume method which is based on the assumption that an optimal RCC should have just enough paste to fill the space between particles when the granular skeleton has reached its maximum density under compaction. With this assumption, RCC tests began in 1998 in the laboratories of the Norwegian Building Research Institute. An ordinary portland cement was used and combined with ordinary low lime fly ash. Both coarse and fine aggregate were used. The tests determined the optimum paste-mortar ratio, the content of coarse aggregates and the production of specimens for test on hardened and fresh concrete. The study showed that the compressive strength of RCC increased with increasing cement/(cement + fly ash) ratio. The permeability coefficient decreased with increasing cement-content and increasing cement/(cement + fly ash) ratio due to the slow pozzolanic reaction of fly ash making a more open pore structure. It was concluded that an optimized mixture can result in a high performance RCC in terms of fresh and hardened concrete properties. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  17. A prediction of Power Duration Curve from the Optimal Operation of the Multi Reservoirs System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Younis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available  This study aims of predication Power Duration Curves(PDC resulting from the optimal operation of the multi reservoirs system which comprises the reservoirs of Bakhma dam,Dokan dam and Makhool dam for the division of years over 30 years.Discrete Differential Dynamic Programming(DDDP has been employed to find the optimal operation of the said reservoirs.    PDC representing the relationship between the generated hydroelectric power and percentage of operation time equaled or exceeded . The importance of these curves lies in knowing the volume of electric power available for that percentage of operation time. The results have shown that the sum of yearly hydroelectric power for average Release and for the single operation was 5410,1604,2929(Mwfor the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, Makhool dams, which resulted from the application of independent DDDP technology. Also, the hydroelectric power whose generation can be guranteed for 90% of the time is 344.91,107.7,188.15 (Mw for the single operation and 309.1,134.08,140.7 (Mw for the operation as a one system for the reservoirs of Bakhma, Dokan, and Makhool dams respectively.

  18. Probabilistic-Multiobjective Comparison of User-Defined Operating Rules. Case Study: Hydropower Dam in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bianucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful tool is proposed in this paper to assist dam managers in comparing and selecting suitable operating rules. This procedure is based on well-known multiobjective and probabilistic methodologies, which were jointly applied here to assess and compare flood control strategies in hydropower reservoirs. The procedure consisted of evaluating the operating rules’ performance using a simulation fed by a representative and sufficiently large flood event series. These flood events were obtained from a synthetic rainfall series stochastically generated by using the RainSimV3 model coupled with a deterministic hydrological model. The performance of the assessed strategies was characterized using probabilistic variables. Finally, evaluation and comparison were conducted by analyzing objective functions which synthesize different aspects of the rules’ performance. These objectives were probabilistically defined in terms of risk and expected values. To assess the applicability and flexibility of the tool, it was implemented in a hydropower dam located in Galicia (Northern Spain. This procedure allowed alternative operating rule to be derived which provided a reasonable trade-off between dam safety, flood control, operability and energy production.

  19. Influences of Dam Operations in Groundwater-Surface Water Mixing Zones: Towards Multiscale Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, J.; Scheibe, T. D.; Chen, X.; Huang, M.; Arntzen, E.; Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Graham, E.; Johnson, T. C.; Strickland, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The installation and operation of dams have myriad influences on ecosystems, from direct effects on hydrographs to indirect effects on marine biogeochemistry and terrestrial food webs. With > 50000 existing and > 3700 planned large dams world-wide there is a pressing need for holistic understanding of dam impacts. Such understanding is likely to reveal unrecognized opportunities to modify dam operations towards beneficial outcomes. One of the most dramatic influences of daily dam operations is the creation of `artificial intertidal zones' that emerge from short-term increases and decreases in discharge due to hydroelectric power demands; known as hydropeaking. There is a long history of studying the influences of hydropeaking on macrofauna such as fish and invertebrates, but only recently has significant attention been paid to the hydrobiogeochemical effects of hydropeaking. Our aim here is to develop an integrated conceptual model of the hydrobiogeochemical influences of hydropeaking. To do so we reviewed available literature focusing on hydrologic and/or biogeochemical influences of hydropeaking. Results from these studies were collated into a single conceptual model that integrates key physical (e.g., sediment transport, hydromorphology) and biological (e.g., timescale of microbiome response) processes. This conceptual model highlights non-intuitive impacts of hydropeaking, the presence of critical thresholds, and strong interactions among processes. When examined individually these features suggest context dependency, but when viewed through an integrated conceptual model, common themes emerge. We will further discuss a critical next step, which is the local to regional to global evaluation of this conceptual model, to enable multiscale understanding. We specifically propose a global `hydropeaking network' of researchers using common methods, data standards, and analysis techniques to quantify the hydrobiogeochemical effects of hydropeaking across biomes. We

  20. METHOD OF OPTIMAL OPERATION OF SMALL DAM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... Their application in Arab countries a semiarid climate must be the subject of a ... Pi - Precipitation of the previous month i ; ... *P = 100% for zero risk, that correspond with the minimum value of precipitation guarantees. 100% ...

  1. Seasonal variation of water quality in a lateral hyporheic zone with response to dam operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic environment of lateral hyporheic zone in a regulated river were investigated seasonally under fluctuated water levels induced by dam operations. Groundwater levels variations in preassembled wells and changes in electronic conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, water temperature and pH in the hyporheic zone were examined as environmental performance indicators for the water quality. Groundwater tables in wells were highly related to the river water levels that showed a hysteresis pattern, and the lag time is associated with the distances from wells to the river bank. The distribution of DO and EC were strongly related to the water temperature, indicating that the cold water released from up-reservoir could determine the biochemistry process in the hyporheic zone. Results also showed that the hyporheic water was weakly alkaline in the study area but had a more or less uniform spatial distribution. Dam release-storage cycles were the dominant factor in changing lateral hyporheic flow and water quality.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of an arch dam shape under static loads using an evolutionary game method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Cheong, Kang Hao; Bao, Wei; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Wang, Lu; Xie, Neng-gang

    2018-06-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the safety and economic performance of an arch dam under the action of static loads. The geometric description of a crown cantilever section and the horizontal arch ring is presented. A three-objective optimization model of arch dam shape is established based on the arch dam volume, maximum principal tensile stress and total strain energy. The evolutionary game method is then applied to obtain the optimal solution. In the evolutionary game technique, a novel and more efficient exploration method of the game players' strategy space, named the 'sorting partition method under the threshold limit', is presented, with the game profit functions constructed according to both competitive and cooperative behaviour. By way of example, three optimization goals have all shown improvements over the initial solutions. In particular, the evolutionary game method has potentially faster convergence. This demonstrates the preliminary proof of principle of the evolutionary game method.

  3. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  4. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  5. Quantifying the robustness of optimal reservoir operation for the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang Reservoir Cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, E.; Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we investigate the robustness of the common implicit stochastic optimization (ISO) method for dam reoperation. As a case study, we focus on the Xinanjiang-Fuchunjiang reservoir cascade in eastern China, for which adapted operating rules were proposed as a means to reduce the impact

  6. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  7. Optimizing Reservoir Operation to Adapt to the Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, S.; Jung, I.; Moradkhani, H.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change and upcoming variation in flood timing necessitates the adaptation of current rule curves developed for operation of water reservoirs as to reduce the potential damage from either flood or draught events. This study attempts to optimize the current rule curves of Cougar Dam on McKenzie River in Oregon addressing some possible climate conditions in 21th century. The objective is to minimize the failure of operation to meet either designated demands or flood limit at a downstream checkpoint. A simulation/optimization model including the standard operation policy and a global optimization method, tunes the current rule curve upon 8 GCMs and 2 greenhouse gases emission scenarios. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used as the hydrology model to project the streamflow for the period of 2000-2100 using downscaled precipitation and temperature forcing from 8 GCMs and two emission scenarios. An ensemble of rule curves, each associated with an individual scenario, is obtained by optimizing the reservoir operation. The simulation of reservoir operation, for all the scenarios and the expected value of the ensemble, is conducted and performance assessment using statistical indices including reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability is made.

  8. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL SCHEME FOR ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAMS BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  10. Water temperature effects from simulated changes to dam operations and structures in the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.

    2017-05-31

    Green Peter and Foster Dams on the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon, have altered the annual downstream water temperature profile (cycle). Operation of the dams has resulted in cooler summer releases and warmer autumn releases relative to pre-dam conditions, and that alteration can hinder recovery of various life stages of threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss). Lake level management and the use of multiple outlets from varying depths at the dams can enable the maintenance of a temperature regime more closely resembling that in which the fish evolved by releasing warm surface water during summer and cooler, deeper water in the autumn. At Green Peter and Foster Dams, the outlet configuration is such that temperature control is often limited by hydropower production at the dams. Previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 water temperature models of Green Peter and Foster Lakes were used to simulate the downstream thermal effects from hypothetical structures and modified operations at the dams. Scenarios with no minimum power production requirements allowed some releases through shallower and deeper outlets (summer and autumn) to achieve better temperature control throughout the year and less year-to-year variability in autumn release temperatures. Scenarios including a hypothetical outlet floating 1 meter below the lake surface resulted in greater ability to release warm water during summer compared to existing structures. Later in Autumn (October 15–December 31), a limited amount of temperature control was realized downstream from Foster Dam by scenarios limited to operational changes with existing structures, resulting in 15-day averages within 1.0 degree Celsius of current operations.

  11. Estimating the Optimal Capacity for Reservoir Dam based on Reliability Level for Meeting Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Taghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the practical and classic problems in the water resource studies is estimation of the optimal reservoir capacity to satisfy demands. However, full supplying demands for total periods need a very high dam to supply demands during severe drought conditions. That means a major part of reservoir capacity and costs is only usable for a short period of the reservoir lifetime, which would be unjustified in economic analysis. Thus, in the proposed method and model, the full meeting demand is only possible for a percent time of the statistical period that is according to reliability constraint. In the general methods, although this concept apparently seems simple, there is a necessity to add binary variables for meeting or not meeting demands in the linear programming model structures. Thus, with many binary variables, solving the problem will be time consuming and difficult. Another way to solve the problem is the application of the yield model. This model includes some simpler assumptions and that is so difficult to consider details of the water resource system. The applicationof evolutionary algorithms, for the problems have many constraints, is also very complicated. Therefore, this study pursues another solution. Materials and Methods: In this study, for development and improvement the usual methods, instead of mix integer linear programming (MILP and the above methods, a simulation model including flow network linear programming is used coupled with an interface manual code in Matlab to account the reliability based on output file of the simulation model. The acre reservoir simulation program (ARSP has been utilized as a simulation model. A major advantage of the ARSP is its inherent flexibility in defining the operating policies through a penalty structure specified by the user. The ARSP utilizes network flow optimization techniques to handle a subset of general linear programming (LP problems for individual time intervals

  12. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries

  13. Ex post power economic analysis of record of decision operational restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-07-31

    On October 9, 1996, Bruce Babbitt, then-Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior signed the Record of Decision (ROD) on operating criteria for the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD). Criteria selected were based on the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) Alternative as described in the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam, Colorado River Storage Project, Arizona, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (Reclamation 1995). These restrictions reduced the operating flexibility of the hydroelectric power plant and therefore its economic value. The EIS provided impact information to support the ROD, including an analysis of operating criteria alternatives on power system economics. This ex post study reevaluates ROD power economic impacts and compares these results to the economic analysis performed prior (ex ante) to the ROD for the MLFF Alternative. On the basis of the methodology used in the ex ante analysis, anticipated annual economic impacts of the ROD were estimated to range from approximately $15.1 million to $44.2 million in terms of 1991 dollars ($1991). This ex post analysis incorporates historical events that took place between 1997 and 2005, including the evolution of power markets in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council as reflected in market prices for capacity and energy. Prompted by ROD operational restrictions, this analysis also incorporates a decision made by the Western Area Power Administration to modify commitments that it made to its customers. Simulated operations of GCD were based on the premise that hourly production patterns would maximize the economic value of the hydropower resource. On the basis of this assumption, it was estimated that economic impacts were on average $26.3 million in $1991, or $39 million in $2009.

  14. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  15. Lost opportunities and future avenues to reconcile hydropower and sediment transport in the Mekong Basin through optimal sequencing of dam portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Dams are essential to meet growing water and energy demands. While dams cumulatively impact downstream rivers on network-scales, dam development is mostly based on ad-hoc economic and environmental assessments of single dams. Here, we provide evidence that replacing this ad-hoc approach with early strategic planning of entire dam portfolios can greatly reduce conflicts between economic and environmental objectives of dams. In the Mekong Basin (800,000km2), 123 major dam sites (status-quo: 56 built and under construction) could generate 280,000 GWh/yr of hydropower. Cumulatively, dams risk interrupting the basin's sediment dynamics with severe impacts on livelihoods and eco-systems. To evaluate cumulative impacts and benefits of the ad-hoc planned status-quo portfolio, we combine the CASCADE sediment connectivity model with data on hydropower production and sediment trapping at each dam site. We couple CASCADE to a multi-objective genetic algorithm (BORG) identifying a) portfolios resulting in an optimal trade-off between cumulative sediment trapping and hydropower production and b) an optimal development sequence for each portfolio. We perform this analysis first for the pristine basin (i.e., without pre-existing dams) and then starting from the status-quo portfolio, deriving policy recommendations for which dams should be prioritized in the near future. The status-quo portfolio creates a sub-optimal trade-off between hydropower and sediment trapping, exploiting 50 % of the basin's hydro-electric potential and trapping 60 % of the sediment load. Alternative optimal portfolios could have produced equivalent hydropower for 30 % sediment trapping. Imminent development of mega-dams in the lower basin will increase hydropower production by 20 % but increase sediment trapping to >90 %. In contrast, following an optimal development sequence can still increase hydropower by 30 % with limited additional sediment trapping by prioritizing dams in upper parts of the basin. Our

  16. Release of airborne radionuclides from Olympic Dam operations and exposure assessment for members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, F.F.; Chandler, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Olympic Dam Operations, a copper, uranium, silver and gold producing project, is situated in a semi-arid area 550 km north of Adelaide. Airborne dispersal is the major transport pathway of operation-related radionuclides to members of the public, and as such has become the focus of a major environmental monitoring program. Major emissions consist of radon and its associated daughters and radionuclides in dust that originate from mine, metallurgical plant, ore and mullock stockpiles and the tailings retention system. Dispersion modelling and measured ground level concentrations have been utilised to calculate the effective dose equivalent for three critical groups. All critical groups exposures are less than 0.2 mSv by the most conservative calculation and are well below the legislative limit of 1 mSv applicable to members of the public. 12 refs., 5 gabs., 12 figs

  17. Dam operations may improve aquatic habitat and offset negative effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; McKean, James A; Sohrabi, Mohammad M; Chen, Quiwen; Vidergar, Dmitri

    2018-05-01

    Dam operation impacts on stream hydraulics and ecological processes are well documented, but their effect depends on geographical regions and varies spatially and temporally. Many studies have quantified their effects on aquatic ecosystem based mostly on flow hydraulics overlooking stream water temperature and climatic conditions. Here, we used an integrated modeling framework, an ecohydraulics virtual watershed, that links catchment hydrology, hydraulics, stream water temperature and aquatic habitat models to test the hypothesis that reservoir management may help to mitigate some impacts caused by climate change on downstream flows and temperature. To address this hypothesis we applied the model to analyze the impact of reservoir operation (regulated flows) on Bull Trout, a cold water obligate salmonid, habitat, against unregulated flows for dry, average, and wet climatic conditions in the South Fork Boise River (SFBR), Idaho, USA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Hydropower Generation Potential of a Dam Using Optimization Techniques: Application to Doma Dam, Nassarawa, in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adebayo Wahab

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models have been developed to maximize annual energy generation from the Doma dam, subject to the constraint of releases for irrigation, ecological purposes, the water supply, the maximum yield from the reservoir and reservoir storage. The model was solved with LINGO software for various mean annual inflow exceedence probabilities. Two scenarios of hydropower retrofitting were considered. Scenario 1, with the reservoir inflows at 50%, 75%, and 90% probabilities of exceedence, gives the total annual hydropower as 0.531 MW, 0.450 MW and 0.291 MW, respectively. The corresponding values for scenario 2 were 0.615 MW, 0.507 MW, and 0.346 MW respectively. The study also considered increasing the reservoir’s live storage to 32.63Mm3 by taking part of the flood storage so that the maximum draft increases to 7 Mm3. With this upper limit of storage and draft with reservoir inflows of 50%, 75% and 90% probabilities of exceedence, the hydropower generated increased to 0.609 MW, 0.540 MW, and 0.347 MW respectively for the scenario 1 arrangement, while those of scenario 2 increased to 0.699 MW, 0.579MW and 0.406 MW respectively. The results indicate that the Doma Dam is suitable for the production of hydroelectric power and that its generation potential is between 0.61 MW and 0.70 MW.

  19. Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. López-Querol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction. Coupled finite element numerical codes are a useful tool to assess the safety of these dams. In this paper the application of a fully coupled numerical model, previously developed and validated by the authors, to a set of theoretical cross sections of earthfill dams with impervious core, is presented. All these dams are same height and have the same volume of impervious material at the core. The influence of the core location inside the dam on its response against seismic loading is numerically explored. The dams are designed as strictly stable under static loads. As a result of this research, a design recommendation on the location of the impervious core is obtained for this type of earth dams, on the basis of the criteria of minor liquefaction risk, minor soil degradation during the earthquake and minor crest settlement.

  20. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  1. Flood management of Dongting Lake after operation of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-jun Lai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Full operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD reduces flood risk of the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze River Basin. However, Dongting Lake, which is located in the Yangtze River Basin, is still at high risk for potentially severe flooding in the future. The effects of the TGD on flood processes were investigated using a hydrodynamic model. The 1998 and 2010 flood events before and after the operation of the TGD, respectively, were analyzed. The numerical results show that the operation of the TGD changes flood processes, including the timing and magnitude of flood peaks in Dongting Lake. The TGD can effectively reduce the flood level in Dongting Lake, which is mainly caused by the flood water from the upper reach of the Yangtze River. This is not the case, however, for floods mainly induced by flood water from four main rivers in the catchment. In view of this, a comprehensive strategy for flood management in Dongting Lake is required. Non-engineering measures, such as warning systems and combined operation of the TGD and other reservoirs in the catchment, as well as traditional engineering measures, should be further improved. Meanwhile, a sustainable philosophy for flood control, including natural flood management and lake restoration, is recommended to reduce the flood risk.

  2. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  3. Operator assisted optimization of sludge dewatering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1991-01-01

    by the operator. By graphical presentation and an advisory service these data are used to support the operator in his dewatering operations and to secure a running optimization of the sludge dewatering. Evaluations show that this system is a useful tool for data collection and presentation and that the data...

  4. Effects of dam operation on the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis, related to mesohabitats, microhabitat availability and water temperature regime, in the river Cabriel (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Costa, Rui; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Diego Alcaraz-Hernandez, Juan; Hernandez-Mascarell, Aina

    2010-05-01

    The presence of large dams affects habitat availability, often regarded as the primary factor that limits population and community recovery in rivers. Physical habitat is often targeted in restoration, but there is often a paucity of useful information. Habitat degradation has reduced the complexity and connectivity of the Mediterranean streams in Spain. These changes have diminished the historical range of the endangered Júcar nase, Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner, 1866), isolated the populations of this species, and probably contributed to its risk of extinction. In the Júcar River basin (Spain), where this fish is endemic, the populations are mainly restricted to the river Cabriel, which is fragmented in two segments by the large dam of Contreras. In this river, 3 main lines of research were developed from 2006 to 2008, i.e., microhabitat suitability, mesohabitat suitability, and water temperature, in order to relate such kind of variables with the flow regime. The main goal of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, was to detect the main reasons of the species decline, and to propose dam operation improvements to contribute to the recovery of the species. The flow and water temperature regimes were also studied in the river Cabriel, upstream and downstream the large dam of Contreras. During the three years of study, below the dam it was observed a small and not significant variation in the proportions of slow and fast habitats; the regulated flow regime was pointed out as the main reason of such variations. At the microhabitat scale, optimal ranges for average depth and velocity were defined; these data allowed us to develop an estimation of weighted useable area under natural and regulated conditions. The Júcar nase were found majorly at depths no greater than 1,15 meters with slow water velocities. It was possible to observe a clear alteration of the flow and water temperature regime below the dam, due to the cold

  5. Seepage safety monitoring model for an earth rock dam under influence of high-impact typhoons based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrological events induced by typhoons in reservoir areas have presented severe challenges to the safe operation of hydraulic structures. Based on analysis of the seepage characteristics of an earth rock dam, a novel seepage safety monitoring model was constructed in this study. The nonlinear influence processes of the antecedent reservoir water level and rainfall were assumed to follow normal distributions. The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm was used to optimize the model parameters so as to raise the fitting accuracy. In addition, a mutation factor was introduced to simulate the sudden increase in the piezometric level induced by short-duration heavy rainfall and the possible historical extreme reservoir water level during a typhoon. In order to verify the efficacy of this model, the earth rock dam of the Siminghu Reservoir was used as an example. The piezometric level at the SW1-2 measuring point during Typhoon Fitow in 2013 was fitted with the present model, and a corresponding theoretical expression was established. Comparison of fitting results of the piezometric level obtained from the present statistical model and traditional statistical model with monitored values during the typhoon shows that the present model has a higher fitting accuracy and can simulate the uprush feature of the seepage pressure during the typhoon perfectly.

  6. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control

  7. Effects of hydropower operations on recreational use and nonuse values at Glen Canyon and Flaming Gorge Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    Increases in streamflows are generally positively related to the use values of angling and white-water boating, and constant flows tend to increase the use values more than fluctuating flows. In most instances, however, increases in streamflows beyond some threshold level cause the use values to decrease. Expenditures related to angling and white-water boating account for about $24 million of activity in the local economy around Glen Canyon Dam and $24.8 million in the local economy around flaming Gorge Dam. The range of operational scenarios being considered in the Western Area Power Administration`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, when use rates are held constant, could change the combined use value of angling and white-water boating below Glen Canyon Dam, increasing it by as much as 50%, depending on prevailing hydrological conditions. Changes in the combined use value below Flaming Gorge Dam could range from a decrease of 9% to an increase of 26%. Nonuse values, such as existence and bequest values, could also make a significant contribution to the total value of each site included in this study; however, methodological and data limitations prevented estimating how each operational scenario could change nonuse values.

  8. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control.

  9. Optimal mode of operation for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian; Mulder, P.

    2002-01-01

    The rate of biomass production is optimised for a predefined feed exhaustion using the residue ratio as a degree of freedom. Three modes of operation are considered: continuous, repeated batch, and repeated fed-batch operation. By means of the Production Curve, the transition points of the optimal

  10. Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

  11. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation

  12. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  13. Simulation of environmental change in response to operation of dams in Huaihe Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model simulation of a portion of the Huaihe Basin upstream of the river mouth at Hongze Lake, with an area of 130 520 km2. The MIKE 11 modeling system was used to assess the flows and water quality in the Huaihe, Shayinghe, Honghe, Guohe, and Pihe rivers. The hydraulic part of the model was used to study the propagation of flows in the Huaihe River, which was calibrated with data from 2002–2003 and verified with data from 2004–2005. In general, there was agreement between measured and simulated discharges at all the hydrological stations. Except for some places close to large gates, there was reasonable agreement between measured and simulated water levels in the simulated rivers. The MIKE 11 WQ (water quality model was used to study general sanitary parameters describing the river water quality in areas influenced by human activities. The water quality model simulated dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N. The difference between the simulated and observed concentrations was within the range that could be expected from water quality modeling, taking into account uncertainties such as pollution loads, and monitoring and sampling frequency. This model setup was also suitable for the subsequent scenario modeling of periods of water project operation. In the simulation of the Pihe River, increasing the discharge at Hengpaitou Dam was shown to cause a significant improvement in water quality downstream of Lu'an City. In the Shayinghe and Huaihe rivers, the effect was less visible. This suggests that the poor water quality in the Huaihe Basin is mainly caused by extensive discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater.

  14. Optimization of ejector design and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmenko Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation aims at optimization of gas ejector operation. The goal consists in the improvement of the inflator design so that to enable 50 liters of gas inflation within ~30 milliseconds. For that, an experimental facility was developed and fabricated together with the measurement system to study pressure patterns in the inflator path.

  15. Optimization of the bank's operating portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, S. M.; Medvedev, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of efficient portfolios developed by Markowitz is used to optimize the structure of the types of financial operations of a bank (bank portfolio) in order to increase the profit and reduce the risk. The focus of this paper is to check the stability of the model to errors in the original data.

  16. Assessment of Short Term Flood Operation Strategies Using Numerical Weather Prediction Data in YUVACΙK DAM Reservoir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Yavuz, O.; Sensoy, A.; Sorman, A.; Akgun, T.; Gezgin, T.

    2011-12-01

    Yuvacik Dam Reservoir Basin, located in the Marmara region of Turkey with 248 km2 drainage area, has steep topography, mild and rainy climate thus induces high flood potential with fast flow response, especially to early spring and fall precipitation events. Moreover, the basin provides considerable snowmelt contribution to the streamflow during melt season since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. The long term strategies are based on supplying annual demand of 142 hm3 water despite a relatively small reservoir capacity of 51 hm3. This situation makes short term release decisions as the challenging task regarding the constrained downstream safe channel capacity especially in times of floods. Providing the demand of 1.5 million populated city of Kocaeli is the highest priority issue in terms of reservoir management but risk optimization is also required due to flood regulation. Although, the spillway capacity is 1560 m3/s, the maximum amount of water to be released is set as 100 m3/s by the regional water authority taking into consideration the downstream channel capacity which passes through industrial region of the city. The reservoir is a controlled one and it is possible to hold back the 15 hm3 additional water by keeping the gates closed. Flood regulation is set to achieve the maximum possible flood attenuation by using the full flood-control zone capacity in the reservoir before making releases in excess of the downstream safe-channel capacity. However, the operators still need to exceed flood regulation zones to take precautions for drought summer periods in order to supply water without any shortage that increases the risk in times of flood. Regarding to this circumstances, a hydrological model integrated reservoir modeling system, is applied to account for the physical behavior of the system. Hence, this reservoir modeling is carried out to analyze both previous decisions and also the future scenarios as a decision support tool for operators. In the

  17. 78 FR 34258 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History and Information On April 18, 2013... 3, 2013 the Coast Guard established an RNA on the Illinois River from the gates of the Dresden Lock and Dam at Mile Marker 271.4 to Mile Marker 240.0 (USCG-2013-0344). This RNA was established to ensure...

  18. Optimizing Dam Operations for Power and for Fish: an Overview of the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers ADvanced Turbine Development R&D. A Pre-Conference Workshop at HydroVision 2006, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon July 31, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-08-01

    This booklet contains abstracts of presentations made at a preconference workshop on the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers hydroturbine programs. The workshop was held in conjunction with Hydrovision 2006 July 31, 2006 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland Oregon. The workshop was organized by the Corps of Engineers, PNNL, and the DOE Wind and Hydropower Program. Presenters gave overviews of the Corps' Turbine Survival Program and the history of the DOE Advanced Turbine Development Program. They also spoke on physical hydraulic models, biocriteria for safe fish passage, pressure investigations using the Sensor Fish Device, blade strike models, optimization of power plant operations, bioindex testing of turbine performance, approaches to measuring fish survival, a systems view of turbine performance, and the Turbine Survival Program design approach.

  19. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  20. [Effects of cascading hydropower dams operation on the structure and distribution pattern of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in Manwan Reservoir, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Peng; Dong, Shi Kui; Peng, Ming Chun; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Fang; Yu, Yin

    2017-12-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are one of the biological groups in aquatic ecosystem most sensitive to the habitat change and degradation, and can be a biological indicator for the aquatic ecosystem change and succession in cascading hydropower dam reservoir. The middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River are key spot for international biodiversity conservation and ecological studies on the effects of cascading hydropower dam exploitation. In this study, the reservoir of Manwan hydropower dam, the first dam in Lancang-Mekong river main stream, was selected as the study site. The benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled in 2011 and 2016 respectively. Meanwhile, the survey data before impounding (natural river, 1996) and early stage of single dam (1997) were collected to conduct the overall analysis for structure, distribution pattern and evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. The results showed that the dominant biological group was gradually changed from the Oligochaeta and Insecta to the Mollusca. Along the longitudinal gradient, the density and biomass of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were remarkably increased in reservoir, especially in the lacustrine zone. As for the functional feeding group, the predator and gatherer-collector changed into filter-collector predominantly in lacustrine zone. With the cascading dams operation, the biotic index indicated that the water quality of reservoir in 2016 was better than in 2011. The evolution of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Manwan Reservoir was related to the operation of Xiaowan dam in the upper reach, the hydrological regime and siltation in the reservoir, and would continue with dynamic changes with the operation of the cascading hydropower dam.

  1. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  3. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  4. A multi-year analysis of spillway survival for juvenile salmonids as a function of spill bay operations at McNary Dam, Washington and Oregon, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Hansel, Hal C.; Perry, Russell W.; Evans, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004-09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to examine how spill bay operations affect survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the spillway at McNary Dam. We also examined the relations between spill bay operations and survival through the juvenile fish bypass in an attempt to determine if survival through the bypass is influenced by spill bay operations. We used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model (CJS model) to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to spill bay operations. Results of these analyses, while not designed to yield predictive models, can be used to help develop dam-operation strategies that optimize juvenile salmonid survival. For example, increasing total discharge typically had a positive effect on both spillway and bypass survival for all species except sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Likewise, an increase in spill bay discharge improved spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and an increase in spillway discharge positively affected spillway survival for juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The strong linear relation between increased spill and increased survival indicates that increasing the amount of water through the spillway is one strategy that could be used to improve spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. However, increased spill did not improve spillway survival for subyearling Chinook salmon and sockeye salmon. Our results indicate that a uniform spill pattern would provide the highest spillway survival and bypass survival for subyearling Chinook salmon. Conversely, a predominantly south spill pattern provided the highest spillway survival for yearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead. Although spill pattern was not a factor for spillway survival of sockeye salmon, spill bay operations that optimize passage through the north and south spill bays maximized

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2006 annual conference: dams: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed particular technical challenges regarding the operation of dams with particular focus on best practices for improving dam management and safety. It featured 4 workshops and a technical program led by experts on dams and tailings facilities that addressed topics such as dam construction, design and rehabilitation; dam management in a hydrological uncertainty context; monitoring, instrumentation and maintenance; dam behaviour; dam safety, dam failure and practical approaches to emergency preparedness planning for dam owners; historical aspects and environmental issues and conflicting water use. Recent developments in dam construction were reviewed along with discharge and debris management, tailings dam issues, asset management, seismic issues, public safety, seepage monitoring, flow control, dam rehabilitation, concrete testing, hydrotechnical issues, risk assessment methodology, and dam safety guidelines for extreme flood analyses and their applications. All 80 presentations from this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  7. Forecasting analysis of runoff for reservoir regulation of dams and weirs in terms of hydro power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradjieva, Mariana; Nikolov, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of Hydropower Plant (HPP) production new algorithms and software were developed for daily, seasonal, annual and long-term control of the runoff for the design of dam and weirs. This control is carried out for monitored periods from 20 to 50 years. The control depends on economic considerations, namely that the accepted probability of required water power is 90%, i.e. concerning the runoff and in this way for the useful volume of water dams. The research is accomplished by a design with the observations. First the hydrometric stations are selected at the available analogy with the building project and then the correlative connection is found assessed by general and true correlative coefficients. The transferring to the project of the observations for the average annual and average monthly water discharges is made with the coefficient of the analogy. The theoretical probability curves are chosen with a minimum dispersion. By the last curves the average monthly distributions are settled with probability from 2% to 90% by statistical method. During the investigated period of the regulation the volumes of discharge, overflow and shortage are calculated as and the determination for the accepted volume of the reservoir if the normative probability of the need is executed. As well the power output of the HPP and its participation in the coverage of the charge diagram on the peak load, under peak load, daily and nightly part are determined in separate observed or forecasting periods. The upper problems about the design and the operation of HPP, water output, reservoir volume and coverage of the charge diagram are solved by iterations. Practical examples are given for the runoff and for the time forecasting system.

  8. Smolt monitoring at the head of lower granite reservoir and lower Granite Dam, annual report 1999 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    2001-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris

  9. Smolt monitoring at the head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, annual report 1997 operations.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris

  10. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  11. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  12. Modeling and optimization of laser cutting operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadallah Mohamed Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beam cutting is one important nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of laser beam cutting parameters of stainless steel (316L considering the effect of input parameters such as power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments is carried in three different levels and process responses such as average kerf taper (Ta, surface roughness (Ra and heat affected zones are measured accordingly. A response surface model is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27OA are employed to search for an optimal combination to achieve desired process yield. Response Surface Models (RSMs are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective optimization problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and optimized using Matlab developed environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results. As such, practicing engineers have means to model, analyze and optimize nontraditional machining processes. Validation experiments are carried to verify the developed models with success.

  13. Comparison of Heuristic Methods Applied for Optimal Operation of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Borhani Dariane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water resources optimization problems are usually complex and hard to solve using the ordinary optimization methods, or they are at least  not economically efficient. A great number of studies have been conducted in quest of suitable methods capable of handling such problems. In recent years, some new heuristic methods such as genetic and ant algorithms have been introduced in systems engineering. Preliminary applications of these methods in water resources problems have shown that some of them are powerful tools, capable of solving complex problems. In this paper, the application of such heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO have been studied for optimizing reservoir operation. The Dez Dam reservoir inIranwas chosen for a case study. The methods were applied and compared using short-term (one year and long-term models. Comparison of the results showed that GA outperforms both DP and ACO in finding true global optimum solutions and operating rules.

  14. Changes of Vegetation Distribution in the East Dongting Lake After the Operation of the Three Gorges Dam, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yu Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water regime is regarded as the primary factor influencing the vegetation distribution in natural wetland ecosystems. However, the effect of water regime change induced by large-scale hydraulic engineering on vegetation distribution is still unclear. In this study, multi-temporal TM/ETM+/OLI images and hydrological data from 1995 to 2015 were used to elucidate how the change in water regime influenced the vegetation distribution in the East Dongting Lake (EDTL, especially after the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. Using unsupervised and supervised classification methods, three types of land cover were identified in the study area: Water and Mudflat, Grass, and Reed and Forest. Results showed that the total vegetation area in EDTL increased by approximately 78 km2 during 1995–2015. The areas of Reed and Forest and Grass exhibited a contrasting trend, dramatic increase in Reed and Forest but sharp decrease in Grass, particularly after the operation of TGD. The lowest distribution elevations of Grass and Reed and Forest decreased by 0.61 and 0.52 m, respectively. As a result of water level variation, submergence duration increased at 20–21 m and 28 m elevations (1–13 days, but significantly decreased at 22–27 m and 29–30 m elevations (-3 to -31 days. The submergence duration of Grass and Reed and Forest was 246 and 177 days, respectively. This study indicated that wetland vegetation pattern significantly changed after the operation of TGD, mainly as a result of changes in submergence condition. Submergence duration might be an effective indicator to predict the shift of vegetation distribution in EDTL, and which could provide scientific guidance for vegetation restoration and wetland management in this lake.

  15. Optimal processor for malfunction detection in operating nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1990-01-01

    An optimal processor for diagnosing operational transients in a nuclear reactor is described. Basic design of the processor involves real-time processing of noise signal obtained from a particular in core sensor and the optimality is based on minimum alarm failure in contrast to minimum false alarm criterion from the safe and reliable plant operation viewpoint

  16. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  17. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  18. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Future xenon system operational parameter optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Any atmospheric monitoring network will have practical limitations in the density of its sampling stations. The classical approach to network optimization has been to have 12 or 24-h integration of air samples at the highest station density possible to improve minimum detectable concentrations. The authors present here considerations on optimizing sampler integration time to make the best use of any network and maximize the likelihood of collecting quality samples at any given location. In particular, this work makes the case that shorter duration sample integration (i.e. <12 h) enhances critical isotopic information and improves the source location capability of a radionuclide network, or even just one station. (author)

  20. Optimization Criteria of Power Transformer Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gonchar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that minimum losses in active power of a power transformer do not correspond to its maximum efficiency. For a transformer being operated there are no so called «zones of its economical operation». In this case strictly specified value of active power losses corresponds to a particular current of the winding.

  1. The Improvement of Particle Swarm Optimization: a Case Study of Optimal Operation in Goupitan Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Qin, Tao; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Xiaohui; Wu, Wenhui

    2018-02-01

    Due to the weakness in holding diversity and reaching global optimum, the standard particle swarm optimization has not performed well in reservoir optimal operation. To solve this problem, this paper introduces downhill simplex method to work together with the standard particle swarm optimization. The application of this approach in Goupitan reservoir optimal operation proves that the improved method had better accuracy and higher reliability with small investment.

  2. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rader, David J

    2013-01-01

    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  3. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  4. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  5. GLUE Analysis and Optimal Operation for Diyala River Basin in Iraq Using Variable Infiltration Capacity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, S., Sr.; Ramirez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainty in both hydrologic behavior and model characterization is a concern for current and future water resource system planning, operation, and management. To develop optimal dam operation schemes under future uncertainty, the sensitivity of the precipitation-runoff response to changes in hydro-climatic forcing must be quantified. To achieve this purpose, accurate (observational and modeled) data should be implemented. Herein, many data sources were compared to representative hydrologic datasets. Due to limited availability of observed daily data, a random temporal cascade method was used to downscale the monthly precipitation into daily. Then, four interpolation methods were compared to transform the point into gridded data. Furthermore, a regression technique coupled with Kriging method was developed. The method is based on regressing modeled data (from VIC dataset) with the observed gridded temperature by relating the regression to the geometry of each grid. The sensitivity and identifiability of the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) for the Diyala River basin in Iraq were evaluated using GLUE technique. Diyala River is a Tigris River tributary in eastern Iraq. Its total length and basin area are about 216.5 km and 16,763.7 km2, respectively. Seven candidate parameters of VIC model (b_infilt, Ds, Ws, Dsmax, and depths of soil layer 1, 2, and 3) associated with the infiltration and surface runoff production processes are examined for 14000 random sets. The comparison between the different data showed that neither the observations from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission nor the VIC modeled data is accurate for gridded precipitation; therefore, a downscaling technique was applied. Moreover, the comparison between four different interpolation techniques revealed that the Kriging method is the most accurate. The optimal model performance was found to be 0.731 NSCE. Also, the GLUE analysis results implied that the depth of the second soil layer depth

  6. UMTS network planning, optimization, and inter-operation with GSM

    CERN Document Server

    Rahnema, Moe

    2008-01-01

    UMTS Network Planning, Optimization, and Inter-Operation with GSM is an accessible, one-stop reference to help engineers effectively reduce the time and costs involved in UMTS deployment and optimization. Rahnema includes detailed coverage from both a theoretical and practical perspective on the planning and optimization aspects of UMTS, and a number of other new techniques to help operators get the most out of their networks. Provides an end-to-end perspective, from network design to optimizationIncorporates the hands-on experiences of numerous researchersSingle

  7. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  8. In-operation learning of optimal wind farm operation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva Gratacós, Joan

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, power losses due to wind turbine wake effects can be up to 30-40% under certain conditions. As the global installed wind power capacity increases, the mitigation of wake effects in wind farms is gaining more importance. Following a conventional control strategy, each individual turbine maximizes its own power production without taking into consideration its effects on the performance of downstream turbines. Therefore, this control scheme results in operation con...

  9. The mathematics of dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, R. [Osterreichische Gesellschaft fuer Geomechanik, Salzburg (Austria)

    1997-05-01

    The safety of a dam is determined by its design, construction and supervision during operation. High arch dam failures have dropped dramatically since the early part of this century. An essential part of the success story relates to improved measurement techniques that can detect earlier unexpected behaviour that may lead to failure. (UK)

  10. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  11. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  12. SIMULTANEOUS SCHEDULING AND OPERATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPRODUCT, CYCLIC CONTINUOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alle A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of scheduling and optimization of operational conditions in multistage, multiproduct continuous plants with intermediate storage are simultaneously addressed. An MINLP model, called TSPFLOW, which is based on the TSP formulation for product sequencing, is proposed to schedule the operation of such plants. TSPFLOW yields a one-order-of-magnitude CPU time reduction as well as the solution of instances larger than those formerly reported (Pinto and Grossmann, 1994. Secondly, processing rates and yields are introduced as additional optimization variables in order to state the simultaneous problem of scheduling with operational optimization. Results show that trade-offs are very complex and that the development of a straightforward (rule of thumb method to optimally schedule the operation is less effective than the proposed approach.

  13. Optimal scope of supply chain network & operations design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, N.

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly complex supply chain networks and operations call for the development of decision support systems and optimization techniques that take a holistic view of supply chain issues and provide support for integrated decision-making. The economic impacts of optimized supply chain are

  14. Concrete Plant Operations Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Lu, Ming; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for concrete plant operations optimization by combining a ready mixed concrete (RMC) production simulation tool (called HKCONSIM) with a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. A revamped HKCONSIM computer system can be used to automate the simulation

  15. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  16. Optimal Operation of Radial Distribution Systems Using Extended Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Juan Camilo; Vergara, Pedro P.; Lyra, Christiano

    2018-01-01

    An extended dynamic programming (EDP) approach is developed to optimize the ac steady-state operation of radial electrical distribution systems (EDS). Based on the optimality principle of the recursive Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the proposed EDP approach determines the optimal operation o...... approach is illustrated using real-scale systems and comparisons with commercial programming solvers. Finally, generalizations to consider other EDS operation problems are also discussed.......An extended dynamic programming (EDP) approach is developed to optimize the ac steady-state operation of radial electrical distribution systems (EDS). Based on the optimality principle of the recursive Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, the proposed EDP approach determines the optimal operation...... of the EDS by setting the values of the controllable variables at each time period. A suitable definition for the stages of the problem makes it possible to represent the optimal ac power flow of radial EDS as a dynamic programming problem, wherein the 'curse of dimensionality' is a minor concern, since...

  17. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Hedging Model for reservoir Operation Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sadegh sadeghitabas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective problems rarely ever provide a single optimal solution, rather they yield an optimal set of outputs (Pareto fronts. Solving these problems was previously accomplished by using some simplifier methods such as the weighting coefficient method used for converting a multi-objective problem to a single objective function. However, such robust tools as multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithms have been recently developed for solving these problems. The hedging model is one of the classic problems for reservoir operation that is generally employed for mitigating drought impacts in water resources management. According to this method, although it is possible to supply the total planned demands, only portions of the demands are met to save water by allowing small deficits in the current conditions in order to avoid or reduce severe deficits in future. The approach heavily depends on economic and social considerations. In the present study, the meta-heuristic algorithms of NSGA-II, MOPSO, SPEA-II, and AMALGAM are used toward the multi-objective optimization of the hedging model. For this purpose, the rationing factors involved in Taleghan dam operation are optimized over a 35-year statistical period of inflow. There are two objective functions: a minimizing the modified shortage index, and b maximizing the reliability index (i.e., two opposite objectives. The results show that the above algorithms are applicable to a wide range of optimal solutions. Among the algorithms, AMALGAM is found to produce a better Pareto front for the values of the objective function, indicating its more satisfactory performance.

  18. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  19. Attitude Control Optimization for ROCSAT-2 Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Wu, A.-M.

    one revolution. The purpose of this paper is to present the attitude control design optimization such that the maximum solar energy is ingested while minimum maneuvering energy is dissipated. The strategy includes the maneuvering sequence design, the minimization of angular path, the sizing of three magnetic torquers, and the trade-off of the size, number and orientations arrangement of momentum wheels.

  20. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into four different industries (i.e., e-commerce industry, consumer service industry, public sector, and fashion industry and four various SOs features (i.e., advertising, channel coordination, pricing, and inventory. Moreover, we conduct the technical review on the stylish industries/topics and typical optimization models. The classical optimization approaches for SOs management in supply chain are presented. The managerial implications of SOs in supply chain are discussed.

  1. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  3. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  4. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of manufacturing systems can be significantly increased through diligent application of control based on mathematical models thereby enabling more tight integration of decision making with systems operation. In the present paper analysis of optimal operation of an energy integrated...

  5. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  6. Development of Optimal Stressor Scenarios for New Operational Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    OPTIMAL STRESSOR SCENARIOS FOR NEW OPERATIONAL ENERGY SYSTEMS by Geoffrey E. Fastabend December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Alejandro S... ENERGY SYSTEMS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey E. Fastabend 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...developed and tested simulation model for operational energy related systems in order to develop better stressor scenarios for acceptance testing

  7. Hierarchical Control for Optimal and Distributed Operation of Microgrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan

    manages the power flow with external grids, while the economic and optimal operation of MGs is not guaranteed by applying the existing schemes. Accordingly, this project dedicates to the study of real-time optimization methods for MGs, including the review of optimization algorithms, system level...... mathematical modeling, and the implementation of real-time optimization into existing hierarchical control schemes. Efficiency enhancement in DC MGs and optimal unbalance compensation in AC MGs are taken as the optimization objectives in this project. Necessary system dynamic modeling and stability analysis......, a discrete-time domain modeling method is proposed to establish an accurate system level model. Taking into account the different sampling times of real world plant, digital controller and communication devices, the system is modeled with these three parts separately, and with full consideration...

  8. Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2013-06-01

    Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

  9. Reservoir Operating Rule Optimization for California's Sacramento Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss1art6Reservoir operating rules for water resource systems are typically developed by combining intuition, professional discussion, and simulation modeling. This paper describes a joint optimization–simulation approach to develop preliminary economically-based operating rules for major reservoirs in California’s Sacramento Valley, based on optimized results from CALVIN, a hydro-economic optimization model. We infer strategic operating rules from the optimization model results, including storage allocation rules to balance storage among multiple reservoirs, and reservoir release rules to determine monthly release for individual reservoirs. Results show the potential utility of considering previous year type on water availability and various system and sub-system storage conditions, in addition to normal consideration of local reservoir storage, season, and current inflows. We create a simple simulation to further refine and test the derived operating rules. Optimization model results show particular insights for balancing the allocation of water storage among Shasta, Trinity, and Oroville reservoirs over drawdown and refill seasons, as well as some insights for release rules at major reservoirs in the Sacramento Valley. We also discuss the applicability and limitations of developing reservoir operation rules from optimization model results.

  10. Operation optimization of distributed generation using artificial intelligent techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud H. Elkazaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Future smart grids will require an observable, controllable and flexible network architecture for reliable and efficient energy delivery. The use of artificial intelligence and advanced communication technologies is essential in building a fully automated system. This paper introduces a new technique for online optimal operation of distributed generation (DG resources, i.e. a hybrid fuel cell (FC and photovoltaic (PV system for residential applications. The proposed technique aims to minimize the total daily operating cost of a group of residential homes by managing the operation of embedded DG units remotely from a control centre. The target is formed as an objective function that is solved using genetic algorithm (GA optimization technique. The optimal settings of the DG units obtained from the optimization process are sent to each DG unit through a fully automated system. The results show that the proposed technique succeeded in defining the optimal operating points of the DGs that affect directly the total operating cost of the entire system.

  11. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  12. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  13. Comparison of operation optimization methods in energy system modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In areas with large shares of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production, significant introduction of intermittent renewable power production may lead to an increased number of operational constraints. As the operation pattern of each utility plant is determined by optimization of economics......, possibilities for decoupling production constraints may be valuable. Introduction of heat pumps in the district heating network may pose this ability. In order to evaluate if the introduction of heat pumps is economically viable, we develop calculation methods for the operation patterns of each of the used...... energy technologies. In the paper, three frequently used operation optimization methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined technologies. One of the investigated approaches utilises linear programming for optimisation, one uses linear programming with binary...

  14. Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.

  15. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  16. Optimal day-ahead operational planning of microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinnezhad, Vahid; Rafiee, Mansour; Ahmadian, Mohammad; Siano, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new multi-objective model for optimal day-ahead operational planning of microgrids is proposed. • A new concept called seamlessness is introduced to control the sustainability of microgrid. • A new method is developed to manage the load and renewable energy resources estimation errors. • A new solution based on a combination of numerical and evolutionary approaches is proposed. - Abstract: Providing a cost-efficient, eco-friendly and sustainable energy is one of the main issues in modern societies. In response to this demand, new features of microgrid technology have provided huge potentials while distributing electricity more effectively, economically and securely. Accordingly, this paper presents a new multi-objective generation management model for optimal day-ahead operational planning of medium voltage microgrids. The proposed model optimizes both pollutant emission and operating cost of a microgrid by using multi-objective optimization. Besides, a seamlessness-selective algorithm is integrated into the model, which can be adopted to achieve the desired self-sufficiency level for microgrids along a specified planning horizon. Furthermore, the model is characterized by a reserve-assessment strategy developed to handle the load and renewable energy resources estimation errors. The introduced model is solved using a combination of numerical and evolutionary methods of species-based quantum particle swarm optimization to find the optimal scheduling scheme and minos-based optimal power flow to optimize the operating cost and emission. In addition, the suggested solution approach also incorporates an efficient mechanism for considering energy storage systems and coding the candidate solutions in the evolutionary algorithm. The proposed model is implemented on a test microgrid and is investigated through simulations to study the different aspects of the problem. The results show significant improvements and benefits which are obtained by

  17. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  18. Examples of radiation protection optimization in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Palacios, E.; Curti, A.; Agatiello, O.; Majchrzak, J.

    1982-01-01

    The practical use of the requirement of optimization of radiological protection is presented. Application examples for designing ventilation systems and for maintenance operations of nuclear plants are given. A method is developed for the application of the optimization requirement to the design of ventilation systems in contaminated environments. Representative values of the main parameters are presented and their relevant features are discussed. A practical example shows actual results for a radioisotope production plant. Causes influencing collective doses incurred by the workers during maintenance operations are analyzed. A method is presented for the optimization of both the level of training of personnel and the apportionment of individual doses. As an example, this methodology is applied to the maintenance operations in a nuclear power plant. (author)

  19. Operational optimization in the downstream; Otimizacao operacional no downstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberman, Luis; Cunha, Filipe Silveira Ramos da [Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    On the present competitive down stream's market, there is a great necessity of optimization aiming to guarantee the best price and quality of our clients. Our goal is to attend these expectations while we guarantee an efficient operation. The greatest question is how far we are from the ideal model. This way, a lot of projects have been executed during the last years aiming the operational optimization of all our activities. We divide the projects in 4 areas: Logistic (new modals distribution), Transport (transport optimization - quality and more deliveries with less trucks), Client Support (Internet Ipiranga and Support Center), Distribution Terminals Productivity (automation and environment). This work intend to present our ideal, perfect and complete Downstream Operation model. We will talk about how close we are of this ideal model and we will present the projects that we had already developed and implanted on the automation of the terminals and the logistics area. (author)

  20. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  1. Extreme Learning Machine and Particle Swarm Optimization in optimizing CNC turning operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janahiraman, Tiagrajah V.; Ahmad, Nooraziah; Hani Nordin, Farah

    2018-04-01

    The CNC machine is controlled by manipulating cutting parameters that could directly influence the process performance. Many optimization methods has been applied to obtain the optimal cutting parameters for the desired performance function. Nonetheless, the industry still uses the traditional technique to obtain those values. Lack of knowledge on optimization techniques is the main reason for this issue to be prolonged. Therefore, the simple yet easy to implement, Optimal Cutting Parameters Selection System is introduced to help the manufacturer to easily understand and determine the best optimal parameters for their turning operation. This new system consists of two stages which are modelling and optimization. In modelling of input-output and in-process parameters, the hybrid of Extreme Learning Machine and Particle Swarm Optimization is applied. This modelling technique tend to converge faster than other artificial intelligent technique and give accurate result. For the optimization stage, again the Particle Swarm Optimization is used to get the optimal cutting parameters based on the performance function preferred by the manufacturer. Overall, the system can reduce the gap between academic world and the industry by introducing a simple yet easy to implement optimization technique. This novel optimization technique can give accurate result besides being the fastest technique.

  2. Multi-Objective Sustainable Operation of the Three Gorges Cascaded Hydropower System Using Multi-Swarm Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of hydropower reservoir systems often needs to optimize multiple conflicting objectives simultaneously. The conflicting objectives result in a Pareto front, which is a set of non-dominated solutions. Non-dominated solutions cannot outperform each other on all the objectives. An optimization framework based on the multi-swarm comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the multi-objective operation of hydropower reservoir systems. Through adopting search techniques such as decomposition, mutation and differential evolution, the algorithm tries to derive multiple non-dominated solutions reasonably distributed over the true Pareto front in one single run, thereby facilitating determining the final tradeoff. The long-term sustainable planning of the Three Gorges cascaded hydropower system consisting of the Three Gorges Dam and Gezhouba Dam located on the Yangtze River in China is studied. Two conflicting objectives, i.e., maximizing hydropower generation and minimizing deviation from the outflow lower target to realize the system’s economic, environmental and social benefits during the drought season, are optimized simultaneously. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization framework helps to robustly derive multiple feasible non-dominated solutions with satisfactory convergence, diversity and extremity in one single run for the case studied.

  3. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  4. Simulation and OR (operations research) in combination for practical optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.; van der Sluis, E.; Haijema, R.; Al-Ibrahim, A.; van der Wal, J.; Kuhl, M.E.; Steiger, N.M.; Armstrong, F.B.; Joines, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Should we pool capacities or not? This is a question that one can regularly be confronted with in operations and service management. It is a question that necessarily requires a combination of queueing (as OR discipline) and simulation (as evaluative tool) and further steps for optimization. It will

  5. Optimization Methods in Operations Research and Systems Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Optimization Methods in Operations Research and Systems Analysis. V G Tikekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Positive-operator-valued measure optimization of classical correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Kobes, R; Zaraket, H

    We study the problem of optimization over positive-operator-valued measures to extract classical correlation in a bipartite quantum system. The proposed method is applied to binary states only. Moreover, to illustrate this method, an explicit example is studied in detail.

  7. Operator support through modern optimal estimation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdick, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Modern Optimal Estimation and Control Theories are late in coming to the nuclear industry. Some features of the theories that might be exploited in nuclear systems applications are described. Activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory relating to operator support using those theories are identified and some implementation challenges are discussed

  8. Optimal Design and Operation of Permanent Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Gideon; Walker, Wynn R.

    1981-01-01

    Solid-set pressurized irrigation system design and operation are studied with optimization techniques to determine the minimum cost distribution system. The principle of the analysis is to divide the irrigation system into subunits in such a manner that the trade-offs among energy, piping, and equipment costs are selected at the minimum cost point. The optimization procedure involves a nonlinear, mixed integer approach capable of achieving a variety of optimal solutions leading to significant conclusions with regard to the design and operation of the system. Factors investigated include field geometry, the effect of the pressure head, consumptive use rates, a smaller flow rate in the pipe system, and outlet (sprinkler or emitter) discharge.

  9. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  10. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  11. Valorization of mud from Fergoug dam in manufacturing mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laoufi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of calcined mud, with pozzolanic properties, from the large quantities of sediments dredged from Algerian dams, could be a good opportunity for the formulation of high performance mortars and pozzolanic concretes, with lower costs and less greenhouse gas (CO2 emissions. The optimal temperatures selected for calcination were 750, 850 and 950 °C. The burning operation was continuous over a period of 3 h. Therefore, a series of physical, chemical, mechanical and microstructural analyses were conducted on sediment samples, collected from the waters of Fergoug dam. The results obtained from the analyses of the calcined mud, from the dam, allowed saying that mortars with different percentages of that mud represent a potential source of high reactivity pozzolanic materials.

  12. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a Catalytic naphtha reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Lid

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending components to high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function as the producer of hydrogen to the refinery hydrotreaters. A process model based on a unit model structure, is used for estimation of the process condition using data reconciliation. Measurements are classified as redundant or non redundant and the model variables are classified as observable, barely observable or unobservable. The computed uncertainty of the measured and unmeasured variables shows that even if a variable is observable it may have a very large uncertainty and may thereby be practically unobservable. The process condition at 21 data points, sampled from two years of operation, was reconciled and used to optimize the process operation. There are large seasonal variations in the reformer product price and two operational cases are studied. In case 1, the product price is high and throughput is maximized with respect to process and product quality constraints. In case 2, the product price is low and the throughput is minimized with respect to a low constraint on the hydrogen production. Based on the characteristics of the optimal operation, a "self optimizing" control structure is suggested for each of the two operational cases.

  13. Optimal Operations and Resilient Investments in Steam Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungener, Stéphane L., E-mail: stephane.bungener@a3.epfl.ch [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Van Eetvelde, Greet [Environmental and Spatial Management, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maréchal, François [Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-01-20

    Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors) should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand. First, this paper proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programing formulation to optimize the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero), through the introduction of load shedding. Optimization of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation. Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact on steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network’s resilience. The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  14. Optimal Operations and Resilient Investments in Steam Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungener, Stéphane L.; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Steam is a key energy vector for industrial sites, most commonly used for process heating and cooling, cogeneration of heat and mechanical power as a motive fluid or for stripping. Steam networks are used to carry steam from producers to consumers and between pressure levels through letdowns and steam turbines. The steam producers (boilers, heat and power cogeneration units, heat exchangers, chemical reactors) should be sized to supply the consumers at nominal operating conditions as well as peak demand. First, this paper proposes an Mixed Integer Linear Programing formulation to optimize the operations of steam networks in normal operating conditions and exceptional demand (when operating reserves fall to zero), through the introduction of load shedding. Optimization of investments based on operational and investment costs are included in the formulation. Though rare, boiler failures can have a heavy impact on steam network operations and costs, leading to undercapacity and unit shutdowns. A method is therefore proposed to simulate steam network operations when facing boiler failures. Key performance indicators are introduced to quantify the network’s resilience. The proposed methods are applied and demonstrated in an industrial case study using industrial data. The results indicate the importance of oversizing key steam producing equipments and the value of industrial symbiosis to increase industrial site resilience.

  15. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Site utility system optimization with operation adjustment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Gai, Limei; Smith, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors. • Multi-period operation and recourses deal with uncertainty implementation. • Operation scheduling are specified at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. • Steam mains superheating affects steam distribution and power generation in the system. - Abstract: Utility systems must satisfy process energy and power demands under varying conditions. The system performance is decided by the system configuration and individual equipment operating load for boilers, gas turbines, steam turbines, condensers, and let down valves. Steam mains conditions in terms of steam pressures and steam superheating also play important roles on steam distribution in the system and power generation by steam expansion in steam turbines, and should be included in the system optimization. Uncertainties such as process steam power demand changes and electricity price fluctuations should be included in the system optimization to eliminate as much as possible the production loss caused by steam power deficits due to uncertainties. In this paper, uncertain factors are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors, and operation scheduling containing multi-period equipment load sharing, redundant equipment start up, and electricity import to compensate for power deficits, have been presented to deal with the happens of uncertainties, and are formulated as a multi-period item and a recourse item in the optimization model. There are two case studies in this paper. One case illustrates the system design to determine system configuration, equipment selection, and system operation scheduling at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. The other case provides operational optimization scenarios for an existing system, especially when the steam superheating varies. The proposed method can provide practical guidance to system energy efficiency improvement.

  17. The effect of pre-operative optimization on post-operative outcome in Crohn's disease resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Iesalnieks, Igors; Horesh, Nir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The timing of surgical intervention in Crohn's disease (CD) may depend on pre-operative optimization (PO) which includes different interventions to decrease the risk for unfavourable post-operative outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multi-model PO on...

  18. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  19. OPF-Based Optimal Location of Two Systems Two Terminal HVDC to Power System Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abolfazli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a suitable mathematical model of the two terminal HVDC system is provided for optimal power flow (OPF and optimal location based on OPF such power injection model. The ability of voltage source converter (VSC-based HVDC to independently control active and reactive power is well represented by the model. The model is used to develop an OPF-based optimal location algorithm of two systems two terminal HVDC to minimize the total fuel cost and active power losses as objective function. The optimization framework is modeled as non-linear programming (NLP and solved by Matlab and GAMS softwares. The proposed algorithm is implemented on the IEEE 14- and 30-bus test systems. The simulation results show ability of two systems two terminal HVDC in improving the power system operation. Furthermore, two systems two terminal HVDC is compared by PST and OUPFC in the power system operation from economical and technical aspects.

  20. Optimization of the Brillouin operator on the KNL architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    Experiences with optimizing the matrix-times-vector application of the Brillouin operator on the Intel KNL processor are reported. Without adjustments to the memory layout, performance figures of 360 Gflop/s in single and 270 Gflop/s in double precision are observed. This is with Nc = 3 colors, Nv = 12 right-hand-sides, Nthr = 256 threads, on lattices of size 323 × 64, using exclusively OMP pragmas. Interestingly, the same routine performs quite well on Intel Core i7 architectures, too. Some observations on the much harderWilson fermion matrix-times-vector optimization problem are added.

  1. Optimal operation of hybrid-SITs under a SBO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Seop; Heo, Sun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation strategy of hybrid-SIT (H-SIT) in station blackout (SBO) is developed. • There are five main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of the operation strategy. • Optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically and then through thermal-hydraulic analysis using computer code. • The optimum operation strategy is suggested based on the optimal value of the main factors. - Abstract: A hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT) is designed to enhance the capability of pressurized water reactors against high-pressure accidents which might be caused by the combined accidents accompanied by station blackout (SBO), and is suggested as a useful alternative to electricity-driven motor injection pumps. The main purpose of the H-SIT is to provide coolant to the core so that core safety can be maintained for a longer period. As H-SITs have a limited inventory, their efficient use in cooling down the core is paramount to maximize the available time for long-term cooling component restoration. Therefore, an optimum operation strategy must be developed to support the operators for the most efficient H-SIT use. In this study, the main factors which have to be carefully treated in the development of an operation strategy are first identified. Then the optimal value of each main factor is investigated analytically, a process useful to get the basis of the global optimum points. Based on these analytical optimum points, a thermal-hydraulic analysis using MARS code is performed to get more accurate values and to verify the results of the analytical study. The available time for long-term cooling component restoration is also estimated. Finally, an integrated optimum operation strategy for H-SITs in SBO is suggested.

  2. Optimizing capital and time expenditures for drilling service operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazovskiy, F Ya; Soltysyak, T I

    1980-01-01

    The operational efficiency of drilling services operations management are examined. The structure of time expenditure is analyzed for repair operations according to equipment type employed by the Ivano-Frankovsk Drilling Management under the Ukrneft' enterprise during 1977. The results of this analysis are weighed against a series of service operations carried out at industrial enterprises and connected with technical disruptions. Some of the cases examined include service competion operations outside of the industrial units when technical processes are disrupted only for the change of equipment which has outlived its usefulness and is no longer in series production. First of all, time expended for repair work can be reduced to zero during the drilling of shallow wells which do not require extensive drilling time. The actual savings, both in time and money, as far as repair work is concerned, hinges on the actual time factor for total oil depetion. An equation is provided for optimal time expenditure necessary for repair work and equipment replacement. An actual example is given from the Dolinsk UBR (Drillin Management) under the Ukrneft' enterprise where time spent on actual service operations has appeared to be less than the optimal figure cited in the above material. This is possible because of increased capital expenditures.

  3. Multiobjective Optimization Modeling Approach for Multipurpose Single Reservoir Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosvany Recio Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources planning and management discipline recognizes the importance of a reservoir’s carryover storage. However, mathematical models for reservoir operation that include carryover storage are scarce. This paper presents a novel multiobjective optimization modeling framework that uses the constraint-ε method and genetic algorithms as optimization techniques for the operation of multipurpose simple reservoirs, including carryover storage. The carryover storage was conceived by modifying Kritsky and Menkel’s method for reservoir design at the operational stage. The main objective function minimizes the cost of the total annual water shortage for irrigation areas connected to a reservoir, while the secondary one maximizes its energy production. The model includes operational constraints for the reservoir, Kritsky and Menkel’s method, irrigation areas, and the hydropower plant. The study is applied to Carlos Manuel de Céspedes reservoir, establishing a 12-month planning horizon and an annual reliability of 75%. The results highly demonstrate the applicability of the model, obtaining monthly releases from the reservoir that include the carryover storage, degree of reservoir inflow regulation, water shortages in irrigation areas, and the energy generated by the hydroelectric plant. The main product is an operational graph that includes zones as well as rule and guide curves, which are used as triggers for long-term reservoir operation.

  4. Modified Chaos Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Optimized Operation Model for Stand-Alone CCHP Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimized dispatch of different distributed generations (DGs in stand-alone microgrid (MG is of great significance to the operation’s reliability and economy, especially for energy crisis and environmental pollution. Based on controllable load (CL and combined cooling-heating-power (CCHP model of micro-gas turbine (MT, a multi-objective optimization model with relevant constraints to optimize the generation cost, load cut compensation and environmental benefit is proposed in this paper. The MG studied in this paper consists of photovoltaic (PV, wind turbine (WT, fuel cell (FC, diesel engine (DE, MT and energy storage (ES. Four typical scenarios were designed according to different day types (work day or weekend and weather conditions (sunny or rainy in view of the uncertainty of renewable energy in variable situations and load fluctuation. A modified dispatch strategy for CCHP is presented to further improve the operation economy without reducing the consumers’ comfort feeling. Chaotic optimization and elite retention strategy are introduced into basic particle swarm optimization (PSO to propose modified chaos particle swarm optimization (MCPSO whose search capability and convergence speed are improved greatly. Simulation results validate the correctness of the proposed model and the effectiveness of MCPSO algorithm in the optimized operation application of stand-alone MG.

  5. An assessment of long-term overtopping risk and optimal termination time of dam under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bau-Shian; You, Gene Jiing-Yun

    2013-05-30

    Reservoir management faces a wide range of new challenges resulting from the impact of climate change. One set of challenges arises from the non-stationary nature of hydrological conditions. Another crucial issue is watershed sedimentation, which can significantly influence the sustainability and safety of reservoirs. To address these concerns, this study developed a framework for the management of reservoir risk. An analytical conceptual model coupling physical governing relationships and economic tools was proposed, which was then applied to the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. We adopted a statistical representation of future hydrologic conditions with the assumption of time-variant moments and focused on evaluating the impact of an increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events caused by climate change and used a stochastic approach to quantify the risk factors. Our results confirm that this approach can be used to identify reservoir-related risks and generate appropriate options for strategy and policy. We determined that the major source of risk is the hydrological conditions, especially the extreme events. More severe intra-annual climatic change is much more dominant in the risk compared to inter-year trends. The influence of reservoir characteristics on risk is associated mainly with the availability of flood control capacity, but limited due to the limitation of its volume and potential to regulate the flow. Engineering may provide an option for mitigating the risk, but integrated, watershed-level approaches, such as providing systematic detention or land use management, are better suited to reducing the storm peak from a long-term perspective. With a critical increase in the risk of overtopping, a high probability of dam failure and corresponding losses may precipitate the need to retire or remove the facility. However, because the benefits and costs are both huge, the decision may be biased by a conservative attitude. The outcome of small

  6. Data driven approaches for diagnostics and optimization of NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliska, J.; Machat, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and heat rate is an important indicator of both the health of the power plant equipment and the quality of power plant operation. To achieve this challenges powerful tool is a statistical data processing of large data sets which are stored in data historians. These large data sets contain useful information about process quality and equipment and sensor health. The paper discusses data-driven approaches for model building of main power plant equipment such as condenser, cooling tower and the overall thermal cycle as well using multivariate regression techniques based on so called a regression triplet - data, model and method. Regression models comprise a base for diagnostics and optimization tasks. Diagnostics and optimization tasks are demonstrated on practical cases - diagnostics of main power plant equipment to early identify equipment fault, and optimization task of cooling circuit by cooling water flow control to achieve for a given boundary conditions the highest power output. (authors)

  7. Development of Inventory Optimization System for Operation Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Se-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyuk; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Guk [Korea Electric Power Research Institutes, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. This is why inventory management systems such as manufacturing resources planning(MRP) and enterprise resource planning(ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations. Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. We developed the inventory optimization system for Operation Nuclear Plants to resolve these problems. In this paper, we report a data flow process, data load and inventory calculation process. The main contribution of this paper is development of inventory optimization system which can be used in domestic power plants.

  8. A database structure for radiological optimization analyses of decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Van de Walle, B.

    1995-09-01

    The structure of a database for decommissioning experiences is described. Radiological optimization is a major radiation protection principle in practices and interventions, involving radiological protection factors, economic costs, social factors. An important lack of knowledge with respect to these factors exists in the domain of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, due to the low number of decommissioning operations already performed. Moreover, decommissioning takes place only once for a installation. Tasks, techniques, and procedures are in most cases rather specific, limiting the use of past experiences in the radiological optimization analyses of new decommissioning operations. Therefore, it is important that relevant data or information be acquired from decommissioning experiences. These data have to be stored in a database in a way they can be used efficiently in ALARA analyses of future decommissioning activities

  9. Development of Inventory Optimization System for Operation Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Se-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyuk; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Guk

    2006-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. This is why inventory management systems such as manufacturing resources planning(MRP) and enterprise resource planning(ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations. Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. We developed the inventory optimization system for Operation Nuclear Plants to resolve these problems. In this paper, we report a data flow process, data load and inventory calculation process. The main contribution of this paper is development of inventory optimization system which can be used in domestic power plants

  10. Optimal Operation of a Josephson Parametric Amplifier for Vacuum Squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2018-04-01

    A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) can create squeezed states of microwave light, lowering the noise associated with certain quantum measurements. We experimentally study how the JPA's pump influences the phase-sensitive amplification and deamplification of a coherent tone's amplitude when that amplitude is commensurate with vacuum fluctuations. We predict and demonstrate that, by operating the JPA with a single current pump whose power is greater than the value that maximizes gain, the amplifier distortion is reduced and, consequently, squeezing is improved. Optimizing the singly pumped JPA's operation in this fashion, we directly observe 3.87 ±0.03 dB of vacuum squeezing over a bandwidth of 30 MHz.

  11. Optimization of operation cycles in BWRs using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo, A.; Alejandro P, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first results of a system for the optimization of operation cycles in boiling water reactors by means of a multi state recurrent neural network are present in this work. The neural network finds the best combination of fuel cells; fuel reloads and control bars patterns previously designed, according to an energy function that qualifies the performance of the three partial solutions for the solution of the whole problem. The partial solutions are designed by means of optimization systems non couple among them and that can use any optimization technique. The phase of the fuel axial design is not made and the size of the axial areas is fixed during the optimization process. The methodology was applied to design a balance cycle of 18 months for the reactors of the nuclear power station of Laguna Verde. The results show that is possible to find combinations of partial solutions that in set represent good solutions to the complete design problem of an operation cycle of a nuclear reactor. The results are compared with others obtained previously by other techniques. This system was developed in platform Li nux and programmed in Fortran 95 taking advantage of the 8 nuclei of a work station Dell Precision T7400. (Author)

  12. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, K Yu [Moscow State Aviation Technological University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  13. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  14. Optimal Intermittent Operation of Water Distribution Networks under Water Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Solgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to exercise water consumption management practices in water distribution networks (WDN. Intermittent supply of water is one such practice that makes it possible to supply consumption nodal demands with the required pressure via water cutoff to some consumers during certain hours of the day. One of the most important issues that must be observed in this management practice is the equitable and uniform water distribution among the consumers. In the present study, uniformity in water distribution and minimum supply of water to all consumers are defined as justice and equity, respectively. Also, an optimization model has been developed to find an optimal intermittent supply schedule that ensures maximum number of demand nodes are supplied with water while the constraints on the operation of water distribution networks are also observed. To show the efficiency of the proposed model, it has been used in the Two-Loop distribution network under several different scenarios of water shortage. The optimization model has been solved using the honey bee mating optimization algorithm (HBMO linked to the hydraulic simulator EPANET. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed model in achieving an optimal intermittent supply schedule. Moreover, the model is found capable of distributing the available water in an equitable and just manner among all the consumers even under severe water shoratges.

  15. An adaptive immune optimization algorithm with dynamic lattice searching operation for fast optimization of atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Genhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A high efficient method for optimization of atomic clusters is developed. • Its performance is studied by optimizing Lennard-Jones clusters and Ag clusters. • The method is proved to be quite efficient. • A new Ag 61 cluster with stacking-fault face-centered cubic motif is found. - Abstract: Geometrical optimization of atomic clusters is performed by a development of adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA) with dynamic lattice searching (DLS) operation (AIOA-DLS method). By a cycle of construction and searching of the dynamic lattice (DL), DLS algorithm rapidly makes the clusters more regular and greatly reduces the potential energy. DLS can thus be used as an operation acting on the new individuals after mutation operation in AIOA to improve the performance of the AIOA. The AIOA-DLS method combines the merit of evolutionary algorithm and idea of dynamic lattice. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the optimization of Lennard-Jones clusters within 250 atoms and silver clusters described by many-body Gupta potential within 150 atoms. Results reported in the literature are reproduced, and the motif of Ag 61 cluster is found to be stacking-fault face-centered cubic, whose energy is lower than that of previously obtained icosahedron

  16. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  17. Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiche, C.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  18. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

  19. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  20. Optimal reservoir operation policies using novel nested algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Jonoski, Andreja; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Historically, the two most widely practiced methods for optimal reservoir operation have been dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP). These two methods suffer from the so called "dual curse" which prevents them to be used in reasonably complex water systems. The first one is the "curse of dimensionality" that denotes an exponential growth of the computational complexity with the state - decision space dimension. The second one is the "curse of modelling" that requires an explicit model of each component of the water system to anticipate the effect of each system's transition. We address the problem of optimal reservoir operation concerning multiple objectives that are related to 1) reservoir releases to satisfy several downstream users competing for water with dynamically varying demands, 2) deviations from the target minimum and maximum reservoir water levels and 3) hydropower production that is a combination of the reservoir water level and the reservoir releases. Addressing such a problem with classical methods (DP and SDP) requires a reasonably high level of discretization of the reservoir storage volume, which in combination with the required releases discretization for meeting the demands of downstream users leads to computationally expensive formulations and causes the curse of dimensionality. We present a novel approach, named "nested" that is implemented in DP, SDP and reinforcement learning (RL) and correspondingly three new algorithms are developed named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP) and nested RL (nRL). The nested algorithms are composed from two algorithms: 1) DP, SDP or RL and 2) nested optimization algorithm. Depending on the way we formulate the objective function related to deficits in the allocation problem in the nested optimization, two methods are implemented: 1) Simplex for linear allocation problems, and 2) quadratic Knapsack method in the case of nonlinear problems. The novel idea is to include the nested

  1. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  2. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  3. A systemic approach for optimal cooling tower operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortinovis, Giorgia F.; Paiva, Jose L.; Song, Tah W.; Pinto, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performance of a cooling tower and its cooling water system is critical for industrial plants, and small deviations from the design conditions may cause severe instability in the operation and economics of the process. External disturbances such as variation in the thermal demand of the process or oscillations in atmospheric conditions may be suppressed in multiple ways. Nevertheless, such alternatives are hardly ever implemented in the industrial operation due to the poor coordination between the utility and process sectors. The complexity of the operation increases because of the strong interaction among the process variables. In the present work, an integrated model for the minimization of the operating costs of a cooling water system is developed. The system is composed of a cooling tower as well as a network of heat exchangers. After the model is verified, several cases are studied with the objective of determining the optimal operation. It is observed that the most important operational resources to mitigate disturbances in the thermal demand of the process are, in this order: the increase in recycle water flow rate, the increase in air flow rate and finally the forced removal of a portion of the water flow rate that enters the cooling tower with the corresponding make-up flow rate.

  4. Optimization of operating regime of mass-diffusion cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuzhinov, V.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Nikolaev, B.I.; Sulaberidze, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This work deals with questions of the optimization of mass diffusion elements (columns or pumps) in cascades. Since the establishment and operation of real diffusion plants involves substantial outlays of material resources and energy, cascade optimization should be conducted in accordance with the criterion of the possibility of realizing further economies on the method and diffusion process. One of these indicators is the cost of the end product. Formulas are given for calculating the basic expenditures required for the production of an isotope in a cascade, and an analytical formula is obtained for assessing the cost of an enriched isotope mixture. Calculations are made of the influence of the steam flow rate on the cost of 99% 13 CH 4 and its constitutents, taking into account capital and power outlay on the construction and operation of the installation. It is demonstrated that as the result of a discrepancy between optimum power and capital outlays, the steam flow rate corresponding to the minimum cost is less than that corresponding to the maximum fractionating capacity of the column. In each specific case, optimization parameters should be selected having regard to the special features of the fractionating method and the fractionating apparatus. The results may be used in calculations of mass-diffusion fractionating installations, and also in comparisons of the effectiveness of the various methods used in the separation of these and other isotopes. (author)

  5. Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.

  6. Nonlinear Burn Control and Operating Point Optimization in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Schuster, Eugenio

    2013-10-01

    Control of the fusion power through regulation of the plasma density and temperature will be essential for achieving and maintaining desired operating points in fusion reactors and burning plasma experiments like ITER. In this work, a volume averaged model for the evolution of the density of energy, deuterium and tritium fuel ions, alpha-particles, and impurity ions is used to synthesize a multi-input multi-output nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing and modulating the burn condition. Adaptive control techniques are used to account for uncertainty in model parameters, including particle confinement times and recycling rates. The control approach makes use of the different possible methods for altering the fusion power, including adjusting the temperature through auxiliary heating, modulating the density and isotopic mix through fueling, and altering the impurity density through impurity injection. Furthermore, a model-based optimization scheme is proposed to drive the system as close as possible to desired fusion power and temperature references. Constraints are considered in the optimization scheme to ensure that, for example, density and beta limits are avoided, and that optimal operation is achieved even when actuators reach saturation. Supported by the NSF CAREER award program (ECCS-0645086).

  7. Optimization of Multipurpose Reservoir Operation with Application Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Fallah Mehdipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of multipurpose reservoirs is one of the complex and sometimes nonlinear problems in the field of multi-objective optimization. Evolutionary algorithms are optimization tools that search decision space using simulation of natural biological evolution and present a set of points as the optimum solutions of problem. In this research, application of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO in optimal operation of Bazoft reservoir with different objectives, including generating hydropower energy, supplying downstream demands (drinking, industry and agriculture, recreation and flood control have been considered. In this regard, solution sets of the MOPSO algorithm in bi-combination of objectives and compromise programming (CP using different weighting and power coefficients have been first compared that the MOPSO algorithm in all combinations of objectives is more capable than the CP to find solution with appropriate distribution and these solutions have dominated the CP solutions. Then, ending points of solution set from the MOPSO algorithm and nonlinear programming (NLP results have been compared. Results showed that the MOPSO algorithm with 0.3 percent difference from the NLP results has more capability to present optimum solutions in the ending points of solution set.

  8. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  9. A quantum particle swarm optimizer with chaotic mutation operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Leandro dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based swarm intelligence algorithm that shares many similarities with evolutionary computation techniques. However, the PSO is driven by the simulation of a social psychological metaphor motivated by collective behaviors of bird and other social organisms instead of the survival of the fittest individual. Inspired by the classical PSO method and quantum mechanics theories, this work presents a novel Quantum-behaved PSO (QPSO) using chaotic mutation operator. The application of chaotic sequences based on chaotic Zaslavskii map instead of random sequences in QPSO is a powerful strategy to diversify the QPSO population and improve the QPSO's performance in preventing premature convergence to local minima. The simulation results demonstrate good performance of the QPSO in solving a well-studied continuous optimization problem of mechanical engineering design

  10. [Numerical simulation and operation optimization of biological filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zong-Sen; Shi, Han-Chang; Chen, Xiang-Qiang; Xie, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-01

    BioWin software and two sensitivity analysis methods were used to simulate the Denitrification Biological Filter (DNBF) + Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process in Yuandang Wastewater Treatment Plant. Based on the BioWin model of DNBF + BAF process, the operation data of September 2013 were used for sensitivity analysis and model calibration, and the operation data of October 2013 were used for model validation. The results indicated that the calibrated model could accurately simulate practical DNBF + BAF processes, and the most sensitive parameters were the parameters related to biofilm, OHOs and aeration. After the validation and calibration of model, it was used for process optimization with simulating operation results under different conditions. The results showed that, the best operation condition for discharge standard B was: reflux ratio = 50%, ceasing methanol addition, influent C/N = 4.43; while the best operation condition for discharge standard A was: reflux ratio = 50%, influent COD = 155 mg x L(-1) after methanol addition, influent C/N = 5.10.

  11. Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemmestad, Bjoern

    1997-12-31

    Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  13. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs

  14. Cooperative Optimal Operation of Wind-Storage Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    investment cost. We suggest benefitting the storage unit as a regulation service provider beside its normal operation for mitigating wind power imbalances. This idea comes from the fact that storage units have a fast ramping capability which is necessary to meet close to real-time regulation needs......As the penetration of wind power increases in power systems across the world, wind forecast errors become an emerging problem. Storage units are reliable tools to be used in cooperation with wind farms to mitigate imbalance penalties. Nevertheless they are not still economically viable due to huge....... In this paper a framework is proposed to formulate the optimal design of storage unit’s operation under different scenarios. These scenarios include whether the wind farm is actually generating more or less than the scheduled level submitted to day-ahead market. The results emphasize that the deployment...

  15. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-01-01

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems

  16. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  17. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  18. The Effects of Dams on Downstream Channel Characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland: Assessing the Potential Consequences of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K. J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Jenkins, P.

    2003-12-01

    The potential downstream effects of dam removal were assessed on fifteen sites of varying dam size and characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The dams ranged in size from a 30 cm high fish weir to a water supply dam 57 m high. Stream order ranged from 1 to 4. The dams are located in watersheds with varying degrees of human disturbance and urbanization. The dams are also operated differently, with significant consequences for hydraulic residence time and downstream flow variability. Most streams were alluvial, but 6 of the reaches were clearly bedrock channels. We hypothesize that the channel upstream, which is unaffected by the dam, will provide an accurate model for the channel downstream of the dam long after dam removal. Therefore, reaches upstream and downstream of the dam were compared to determine the effects of the dam as well as the condition of the stream that will ultimately develop decades after dam removal. Surprisingly, the dams had no consistent influence on channel morphology. However, the percentage of sand is significantly lower downstream than upstream: the mean % sand downstream is 11.47%, while the mean % sand upstream is 21.39%. The coarser fractions of the bed, as represented by the 84th percentile grain diameter, are unaffected by the presence of the dam. These results imply that decades after dam removal, the percentage of sand on the bed will increase, but the coarse fraction of the bed will remain relatively unchanged.

  19. Multi-objective optimal operation of smart reconfigurable distribution grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Kavousi-Fard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration is a valuable technique that can support the distribution grid from different aspects such as operation cost and loss reduction, reliability improvement, and voltage stability enhancement. An intelligent and efficient optimization framework, however, is required to reach the desired efficiency through the reconfiguration strategy. This paper proposes a new multi-objective optimization model to make use of the reconfiguration strategy for minimizing the power losses, improving the voltage profile, and enhancing the load balance in distribution grids. The proposed model employs the min-max fuzzy approach to find the most satisfying solution from a set of nondominated solutions in the problem space. Due to the high complexity and the discrete nature of the proposed model, a new optimization method based on harmony search (HS algorithm is further proposed. Moreover, a new modification method is suggested to increase the harmony memory diversity in the improvisation stage and increase the convergence ability of the algorithm. The feasibility and satisfying performance of the proposed model are examined on the IEEE 32-bus distribution system.

  20. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  1. Workforce Optimization for Bank Operation Centers: A Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefik Ilkin Serengil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Online Banking Systems evolved and improved in recent years with the use of mobile and online technologies, performing money transfer transactions on these channels can be done without delay and human interaction, however commercial customers still tend to transfer money on bank branches due to several concerns. Bank Operation Centers serve to reduce the operational workload of branches. Centralized management also offers personalized service by appointed expert employees in these centers. Inherently, workload volume of money transfer transactions changes dramatically in hours. Therefore, work-force should be planned instantly or early to save labor force and increase operational efficiency. This paper introduces a hybrid multi stage approach for workforce planning in bank operation centers by the application of supervised and unsu-pervised learning algorithms. Expected workload would be predicted as supervised learning whereas employees are clus-tered into different skill groups as unsupervised learning to match transactions and proper employees. Finally, workforce optimization is analyzed for proposed approach on production data.

  2. Operational characteristics optimization of human-computer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulquernain Mallick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer operational parameters are having vital influence on the operators efficiency from readability viewpoint. Four parameters namely font, text/background color, viewing angle and viewing distance are analyzed. The text reading task, in the form of English text, was presented on the computer screen to the participating subjects and their performance, measured in terms of number of words read per minute (NWRPM, was recorded. For the purpose of optimization, the Taguchi method is used to find the optimal parameters to maximize operators’ efficiency for performing readability task. Two levels of each parameter have been considered in this study. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed to investigate the operators’ performance/efficiency. Results showed that Times Roman font, black text on white background, 40 degree viewing angle and 60 cm viewing distance, the subjects were quite comfortable, efficient and read maximum number of words per minute. Text/background color was dominant parameter with a percentage contribution of 76.18% towards the laid down objective followed by font type at 18.17%, viewing distance 7.04% and viewing angle 0.58%. Experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Dams, Hydrology and Risk in Future River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Across America there are over 80,000 large to medium dams and globally the number is in excess of 800,000. Currently there are over 1,400 dams and diversion structures being planned or under construction globally. In addition to these documented dams there are thousands of small dams populating watersheds. Governments, agencies, native tribes, private owners and regulators all have a common interest in safe dams. Often dam safety is characterized as reducing structural risk while providing for maximum operational flexibility. In the 1970's there were a number of large and small dam failures in the United States. These failures prompted the federal government to issue voluntary dam safety guidelines. These guidelines were based on historic information incorporated into a risk assessment process to analyze, evaluate and manage risk with the goal to improve the quality of and support of dam management and safety decisions. We conclude that historic and new risks need to be integrated into dam management to insure adequate safety and operational flexibility. A recent assessment of the future role of dams in the United States premises that future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life have not been factored into the long-term operations or relicensing of dams. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure, multiple dams within watersheds and uncertainty in demands policy revisions and an updated strategic approach to dam safety. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water planning and management. Leaders in Congress and in the states need to implement a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. A research and national policy agenda is proposed to assess future impacts and the design, operation, and management of watersheds and dams.

  4. Optimal Operation of Interdependent Power Systems and Electrified Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hadi Amini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrified transportation and power systems are mutually coupled networks. In this paper, a novel framework is developed for interdependent power and transportation networks. Our approach constitutes solving an iterative least cost vehicle routing process, which utilizes the communication of electrified vehicles (EVs with competing charging stations, to exchange data such as electricity price, energy demand, and time of arrival. The EV routing problem is solved to minimize the total cost of travel using the Dijkstra algorithm with the input from EVs battery management system, electricity price from charging stations, powertrain component efficiencies and transportation network traffic conditions. Through the bidirectional communication of EVs with competing charging stations, EVs’ charging demand estimation is done much more accurately. Then the optimal power flow problem is solved for the power system, to find the locational marginal price at load buses where charging stations are connected. Finally, the electricity prices were communicated from the charging stations to the EVs, and the loop is closed. Locational electricity price acts as the shared parameter between the two optimization problems, i.e., optimal power flow and optimal routing problem. Electricity price depends on the power demand, which is affected by the charging of EVs. On the other hand, location of EV charging stations and their different pricing strategies might affect the routing decisions of the EVs. Our novel approach that combines the electrified transportation with power system operation, holds tremendous potential for solving electrified transportation issues and reducing energy costs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using Shanghai transportation network and IEEE 9-bus test system. The results verify the cost-savings for both power system and transportation networks.

  5. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1984-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This report covers the 1983-84 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance and reproductive success in the upper Flathead River system. This report also addresses the projected recovery of the main stem kokanee run under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation and Bonneville Power Administration in 1982. An estimated 58,775 kokanee reached spawning grounds in the Flathead River System in 1983. The 1983 spawning run was composed of 92% age III + fish, as compared to an average of 80% from 1972-1983. A total of 6883 kokanee redds were enumerated in the main stem Flathead River in 1983. A total of 2366 man-days of angling pressure was estimated during the 1983 kokanee lure fishery in the Flathead River system. Estimated numbers of fry emigrating from McDonald Creek, the Whitefish River and Brenneman's Slough were 13,100,000, 66,254 and 37,198, yielding egg to fry survival rates of 76%, 10.4% and 19.2%.

  6. An Optimization of ASI Operation Band in KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.O.; Um, K.S.; Lee, J.I.; Choi, T.S.; Yoo, J.S.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.J.; Ryu, S.H.; Choi, J.D.; Kwon, J.T.; Lee, C.C.; Kim, J.I.; Suh, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    A power level dependent ASI LCO (Limiting Condition for Operation) is developed for the Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant to improve the plant operability in the low power range and to gain the additional thermal margin in the high power range. The ASI LCO for COLSS (Core Operating Limit Supervisory System) in the low power range between 20% and 40% is relaxed to ±0.57 from ±0.27 so as to enhance the plant operability especially during the fast return-to-power maneuvering after trip. In contrast, the ASI LCO in the high power range between 80% and 100% is tightened to ±0.17 from ±0.27 to recover unnecessarily eroded thermal margin that could otherwise be easily utilized for enhancing capacity factor like the power up-rating. In addition to the COLSS ASI optimization, the CPC ASI range trip set point is expanded from ±0.5 to ±0.7 to allow the COLSS LCO change and to enhance the plant operability for power range below 20% by virtually eliminating the possibility of ASI range trip. Safety evaluations for the limiting accidents of concern have been carried out to demonstrate that the power dependent ASI LCO does not cause any un-compliance with safety criteria and provides considerable thermal margin gain in the high power range. Thermal margin evaluation to date indicates that ±0.1 ASI reduction near full power level can lead to ∼2% overpower margin gain and more than 85 K gain in LOCA PCT. (authors)

  7. Design Optimization of Mechanical Components Using an Enhanced Teaching-Learning Based Optimization Algorithm with Differential Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thamaraikannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail the background and implementation of a teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO algorithm with differential operator for optimization task of a few mechanical components, which are essential for most of the mechanical engineering applications. Like most of the other heuristic techniques, TLBO is also a population-based method and uses a population of solutions to proceed to the global solution. A differential operator is incorporated into the TLBO for effective search of better solutions. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, three typical optimization problems are considered in this research: firstly, to optimize the weight in a belt-pulley drive, secondly, to optimize the volume in a closed coil helical spring, and finally to optimize the weight in a hollow shaft. have been demonstrated. Simulation result on the optimization (mechanical components problems reveals the ability of the proposed methodology to find better optimal solutions compared to other optimization algorithms.

  8. Electricity pricing: optimal operation and investment by industrial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outhred, H.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Sutanto, D.; Manimaran, R.; Bannister, C.H.; Lee, Y.B.

    1988-08-01

    Ongoing research in the areas of economically efficient electricity pricing and industrial consumer response is described. A new electricity pricing theory is described that incorporates future uncertainty and intertemporal linkages between decisions. It indicates that electricity prices should contain two terms - short-run marginal cost plus a term that reflects how each particular decision is likely to affect future global welfare. A practical implementation using spot prices and forward contracts plus financial instruments for risk sharing and decision coordination is explored, and a procedure for developing long-term pricing policy is considered. The operation of industrial plant has been investigated and models developed to optimize plant behaviour in response to spot prices and forward contracts for electricity. These models are described and results of simulation studies discussed. The economic efficiency and risk sharing advantages of this advanced tariff structure compared with a conventional time-of-use tariff are illustrated.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF OPERATION PARAMETERS OF 80-KEV ELECTRON GUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEONG DONG KIM

    2014-06-01

    As a first step, the electron generator of an 80-keV electron gun was manufactured. In order to produce the high beam power from electron linear accelerator, a proper beam current is required form the electron generator. In this study, the beam current was measured by evaluating the performance of the electron generator. The beam current was determined by five parameters: high voltage at the electron gun, cathode voltage, pulse width, pulse amplitude, and bias voltage at the grid. From the experimental results under optimal conditions, the high voltage was determined to be 80 kV, the pulse width was 500 ns, and the cathode voltage was from 4.2 V to 4.6 V. The beam current was measured as 1.9 A at maximum. These results satisfy the beam current required for the operation of an electron linear accelerator.

  10. Optimizing wellfield operation in a variable power price regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Schneider, Raphael; Davidsen, Claus

    Wellfield management is a multi-objective optimization problem. One important management objective has been energy efficiency in terms of minimizing the energy footprint (EFP) of delivered water (MWh/m3). However, power systems in most countries are moving in the direction of deregulated power...... use itself. We estimated energy footprint as a function of wellfield pumping rate (EFP-Q relationship) for a wellfield in Denmark using a coupled well and pipe network model. This EFP-Q relationship was subsequently used in a stochastic dynamic programming framework to minimize total cost of operating...... the combined wellfield-storage-demand system over the course of a 2-year planning period based on a time series of observed price on the Danish power market and a deterministic, time-varying hourly water demand. In the SDP setup, hourly pumping rates are the decision variables. Constraints include storage...

  11. Optimizing Wellfield Operation in a Variable Power Price Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Schneider, Raphael; Davidsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Wellfield management is a multiobjective optimization problem. One important objective has been energy efficiency in terms of minimizing the energy footprint (EFP) of delivered water (MWh/m3). However, power systems in most countries are moving in the direction of deregulated markets and price...... itself. We estimated EFP of pumped water as a function of wellfield pumping rate (EFP-Q relationship) for a wellfield in Denmark using a coupled well and pipe network model. This EFP-Q relationship was subsequently used in a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) framework to minimize total cost...... of operating the combined wellfield-storage-demand system over the course of a 2-year planning period based on a time series of observed price on the Danish power market and a deterministic, time-varying hourly water demand. In the SDP setup, hourly pumping rates are the decision variables. Constraints include...

  12. What SCADA systems can offer to optimize field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology developed by Kenomic Controls Ltd. of Calgary was designed to solve some of the problems associated with producing gas wells with high gas to liquids ratios. The rationale and the system architecture of the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system were described. The most common application of SCADA is the Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) installation using a solar or thermo-electric generator as a power source for the local electronics. Benefits that the SCADA system can provide to producing fields such as increased revenue, decreased operating costs, decreased fixed capital and working capital requirements, the planning and implementation strategies for SCADA were outlined. A case history of a gas well production optimization system in the Pierceland area of northwest Saskatchewan was provided as an illustrative example. 9 figs

  13. Energetic optimization of the chilled water systems operation at hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reineris Montero Laurencio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hotel exploitation, while continuing to satisfy the customers, needs to decrease the requests of electric power as the principal energy carrier. Solving issues regarding the occupation of a hotel integrally, taking the air conditioning as center of attention, which demands the bigger consumptions of electricity, results in a complex task. To solve this issue, a procedure was implemented to optimize the operation of the water-chilled systems. The procedure integrates an energy model with a strategy of low occupation following energetic criteria based on combinatorial-evolutionary criteria. To classify the information, the formulation of the tasks and the synthesis of the solutions, a methodology of analysis and synthesis of engineering is used. The energetic model considers the variability of the local climatology and the occupation of the selected rooms, and includes: the thermal model of the building obtained by means of artificial neural networks, the hydraulic model and the model of the compression work. These elements allow to find the variable of decision occupation, performing intermediate calculations to obtain the velocity of rotation in the centrifugal pump and the output temperature of the cooler water, minimizing the requirements of electric power in the water-chilled systems. To evaluate the states of the system, a combinatorial optimization is used through the following methods: simple exhaustive, stepped exhaustive or genetic algorithm depending on the quantity of variants of occupation. All calculation tasks and algorithms of the procedure were automated through a computer application.

  14. Installation and first operation of the negative ion optimization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Muri, Michela; Cavenago, Marco; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Bigi, Marco; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Barbisan, Marco; Recchia, Mauro; Zaniol, Barbara; Kulevoy, Timour; Petrenko, Sergey; Baseggio, Lucio; Cervaro, Vannino; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Franchin, Luca; Laterza, Bruno; Minarello, Alessandro; Rossetto, Federico; Sattin, Manuele; Zucchetti, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Negative ion sources are key components of the neutral beam injectors. • The NIO1 experiment is a RF ion source, 60 kV–135 mA hydrogen negative ion beam. • NIO1 can contribute to beam extraction and optics thanks to quick replacement and upgrading of parts. • This work presents installation, status and first experiments results of NIO1. - Abstract: Negative ion sources are key components of the neutral beam injectors for thermonuclear fusion experiments. The NIO1 experiment is a radio frequency ion source generating a 60 kV–135 mA hydrogen negative ion beam. The beam is composed of nine beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm"2. This experiment is jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, with the purpose of providing and optimizing a test ion source, capable of working in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the ITER neutral beam injectors. At present research and development activities on these ion sources still address several important issues related to beam extraction and optics optimization, to which the NIO1 test facility can contribute thanks to its modular design, which allows for quick replacement and upgrading of components. This contribution presents the installation phases, the status of the test facility and the results of the first experiments, which have demonstrated that the source can operate in continuous mode.

  15. Optimization of bridging agents size distribution for drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, Alex; Andrade, Alex Rodrigues de; Pires Junior, Idvard Jose; Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: awaldmann@petrobras.com.br; andradear.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; idvard.gorceix@petrobras.com.br; aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The conventional drilling technique is based on positive hydrostatic pressure against well walls to prevent inflows of native fluids into the well. Such inflows can cause security problems for the team well and to probe. As the differential pressure of the well to reservoir is always positive, the filtrate of the fluid tends to invade the reservoir rock. Minimize the invasion of drilling fluid is a relevant theme in the oil wells drilling operations. In the design of drilling fluid, a common practice in the industry is the addition of bridging agents in the composition of the fluid to form a cake of low permeability at well walls and hence restrict the invasive process. The choice of drilling fluid requires the optimization of the concentration, shape and size distribution of particles. The ability of the fluid to prevent the invasion is usually evaluated in laboratory tests through filtration in porous media consolidated. This paper presents a description of the methods available in the literature for optimization of the formulation of bridging agents to drill-in fluids, predicting the pore throat from data psychotherapy, and a sensitivity analysis of the main operational parameters. The analysis is based on experimental results of the impact of the size distribution and concentration of bridging agents in the filtration process of drill-in fluids through porous media submitted to various different differential of pressure. The final objective is to develop a software for use of PETROBRAS, which may relate different types and concentrations of bridging agents with the properties of the reservoir to minimize the invasion. (author)

  16. A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimal Operating Parameters of VMI Systems in a Two-Echelon Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue-Ann, Goh; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    This paper focuses on the operational issues of a Two-echelon Single-Vendor-Multiple-Buyers Supply chain (TSVMBSC) under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode of operation. To determine the optimal sales quantity for each buyer in TSVMBC, a mathematical model is formulated. Based on the optimal sales quantity can be obtained and the optimal sales price that will determine the optimal channel profit and contract price between the vendor and buyer. All this parameters depends upon the understanding of the revenue sharing between the vendor and buyers. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for this problem. Solutions obtained from PSO is compared with the best known results reported in literature.

  17. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  18. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations. PMID:28771185

  19. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ridolfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  20. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2017-08-03

    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  1. Optimal Protection Coordination for Microgrid under Different Operating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant consequences result when a microgrid is connected to a distribution system. This study discusses the impacts of bolted three-phase faults and bolted single line-to-ground faults on the protection coordination of a distribution system connected by a microgrid which operates in utility-only mode or in grid-connected mode. The power system simulation software is used to build the test system. The linear programming method is applied to optimize the coordination of relays, and the relays coordination simulation software is used to verify if the coordination time intervals (CTIs of the primary/backup relay pairs are adequate. In addition, this study also proposes a relays protection coordination strategy when the microgrid operates in islanding mode during a utility power outage. Because conventional CO/LCO relays are not capable of detecting high impedance fault, intelligent electrical device (IED combined with wavelet transformer and neural network is proposed to accurately detect high impedance fault and identify the fault phase.

  2. Optimizing Multireservoir System Operating Policies Using Exogenous Hydrologic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Jasson; Tilmant, Amaury; Côté, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few available algorithms to optimize the operating policies of large-scale hydropower systems. This paper presents a variant, called SDDPX, in which exogenous hydrologic variables, such as snow water equivalent and/or sea surface temperature, are included in the state space vector together with the traditional (endogenous) variables, i.e., past inflows. A reoptimization procedure is also proposed in which SDDPX-derived benefit-to-go functions are employed within a simulation carried out over the historical record of both the endogenous and exogenous hydrologic variables. In SDDPX, release policies are now a function of storages, past inflows, and relevant exogenous variables that potentially capture more complex hydrological processes than those found in traditional SDDP formulations. To illustrate the potential gain associated with the use of exogenous variables when operating a multireservoir system, the 3,137 MW hydropower system of Rio Tinto (RT) located in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean River Basin in Quebec (Canada) is used as a case study. The performance of the system is assessed for various combinations of hydrologic state variables, ranging from the simple lag-one autoregressive model to more complex formulations involving past inflows, snow water equivalent, and winter precipitation.

  3. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  4. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  6. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  7. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed

  8. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  9. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  10. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.E.; Ahlgren, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scott Dam is owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) as part of the Potter Valley Project. Although it is an unimpressive concrete gravity dam [233 m (765 ft) long with maximum water surface 33.4 m (110 ft) above tail water], the dam has unusually complex and weak foundation rocks; thick condition caused design changes during construction, numerous subsequent special investigations, and several corrections and additions. A main stumbling block to clarification of the dam safety issue for Scott Dam has always been difficulty in characterizing the foundation material. This paper discusses an approach to this problem as well s how the safety of the dam was subsequently confirmed. Following a comprehensive program of research, investigations, and analysis from 1991 to 1997

  11. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  12. Optimizing Wellfield Operation in a Variable Power Price Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Schneider, Raphael; Davidsen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Wellfield management is a multiobjective optimization problem. One important objective has been energy efficiency in terms of minimizing the energy footprint (EFP) of delivered water (MWh/m(3) ). However, power systems in most countries are moving in the direction of deregulated markets and price variability is increasing in many markets because of increased penetration of intermittent renewable power sources. In this context the relevant management objective becomes minimizing the cost of electric energy used for pumping and distribution of groundwater from wells rather than minimizing energy use itself. We estimated EFP of pumped water as a function of wellfield pumping rate (EFP-Q relationship) for a wellfield in Denmark using a coupled well and pipe network model. This EFP-Q relationship was subsequently used in a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) framework to minimize total cost of operating the combined wellfield-storage-demand system over the course of a 2-year planning period based on a time series of observed price on the Danish power market and a deterministic, time-varying hourly water demand. In the SDP setup, hourly pumping rates are the decision variables. Constraints include storage capacity and hourly water demand fulfilment. The SDP was solved for a baseline situation and for five scenario runs representing different EFP-Q relationships and different maximum wellfield pumping rates. Savings were quantified as differences in total cost between the scenario and a constant-rate pumping benchmark. Minor savings up to 10% were found in the baseline scenario, while the scenario with constant EFP and unlimited pumping rate resulted in savings up to 40%. Key factors determining potential cost savings obtained by flexible wellfield operation under a variable power price regime are the shape of the EFP-Q relationship, the maximum feasible pumping rate and the capacity of available storage facilities. © 2015 The Authors. Groundwater published by Wiley

  13. Dams designed to fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penman, A. [Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Harpenden (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    New developments in geotechnical engineering have led to methods for designing and constructing safe embankment dams. Failed dams can be categorized as those designed to fail, and those that have failed unexpectedly. This presentation outlined 3 dam failures: the 61 m high Malpasset Dam in France in 1959 which killed 421; the 71 m high Baldwin Hills Dam in the United States in 1963 which killed 5; and, the Vajont Dam in Italy in 1963 which killed 2,600 people. Following these incidents, the International Commission for Large Dams (ICOLD) reviewed regulations on reservoir safety. The 3 dams were found to have inadequate spillways and their failures were due to faults in their design. Fuse plug spillways, which address this problem, are designed to fail if an existing spillway proves inadequate. They allow additional discharge to prevent overtopping of the embankment dam. This solution can only be used if there is an adjacent valley to take the additional discharge. Examples of fuse gates were presented along with their effect on dam safety. A research program is currently underway in Norway in which high embankment dams are being studied for overtopping failure and failure due to internal erosion. Internal erosion has been the main reason why dams have failed unexpectedly. To prevent failures, designers suggested the use of a clay blanket placed under the upstream shoulder. However, for dams with soft clay cores, these underblankets could provide a route for a slip surface and that could lead to failure of the upstream shoulder. It was concluded that a safe arrangement for embankment dams includes the use of tipping gates or overturning gates which always fail at a required flood water level. Many have been installed in old and new dams around the world. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  14. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Optimized operation of dielectric laser accelerators: Single bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hanuka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a general approach to determine the optimal charge, efficiency and gradient for laser driven accelerators in a self-consistent way. We propose a way to enhance the operational gradient of dielectric laser accelerators by leverage of beam-loading effect. While the latter may be detrimental from the perspective of the effective gradient experienced by the particles, it can be beneficial as the effective field experienced by the accelerating structure, is weaker. As a result, the constraint imposed by the damage threshold fluence is accordingly weakened and our self-consistent approach predicts permissible gradients of ∼10  GV/m, one order of magnitude higher than previously reported experimental results—with unbunched pulse of electrons. Our approach leads to maximum efficiency to occur for higher gradients as compared with a scenario in which the beam-loading effect on the material is ignored. In any case, maximum gradient does not occur for the same conditions that maximum efficiency does—a trade-off set of parameters is suggested.

  16. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  17. Mechanics of slide dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A [Engineering, Agbabian-Jacobsen Associates, Los Angeles (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  18. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Optimal Control of Micro Grid Operation Mode Seamless Switching Based on Radau Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Wang, Gang

    2017-05-01

    The seamless switching process of micro grid operation mode directly affects the safety and stability of its operation. According to the switching process from island mode to grid-connected mode of micro grid, we establish a dynamic optimization model based on two grid-connected inverters. We use Radau allocation method to discretize the model, and use Newton iteration method to obtain the optimal solution. Finally, we implement the optimization mode in MATLAB and get the optimal control trajectory of the inverters.

  20. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  1. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  2. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  3. Modeling and operation optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system for maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In-Su; Park, Sang-Kyun; Chung, Chang-Bock

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system is operationally optimized. • A constrained optimization problem is formulated to maximize fuel cell efficiency. • Empirical and semi-empirical models for most system components are developed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to elucidate the effects of major operating variables. • The optimization results are verified by comparison with actual operation data. - Abstract: This paper presents an operation optimization method and demonstrates its application to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. A constrained optimization problem was formulated to maximize the efficiency of a fuel cell system by incorporating practical models derived from actual operations of the system. Empirical and semi-empirical models for most of the system components were developed based on artificial neural networks and semi-empirical equations. Prior to system optimizations, the developed models were validated by comparing simulation results with the measured ones. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were performed to elucidate the effects of major operating variables on the system efficiency under practical operating constraints. Then, the optimal operating conditions were sought at various system power loads. The optimization results revealed that the efficiency gaps between the worst and best operation conditions of the system could reach 1.2–5.5% depending on the power output range. To verify the optimization results, the optimal operating conditions were applied to the fuel cell system, and the measured results were compared with the expected optimal values. The discrepancies between the measured and expected values were found to be trivial, indicating that the proposed operation optimization method was quite successful for a substantial increase in the efficiency of the fuel cell system.

  4. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  5. Optimal Design and Operation of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Stochastic Cost Optimization Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, U.; Parker, J.; Borden, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been applied at many dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminated sites. A stirred reactor-type model was developed that considers DNAPL dissolution using a field-scale mass transfer function, instantaneous reaction of oxidant with aqueous and adsorbed contaminant and with readily oxidizable natural oxygen demand ("fast NOD"), and second-order kinetic reactions with "slow NOD." DNAPL dissolution enhancement as a function of oxidant concentration and inhibition due to manganese dioxide precipitation during permanganate injection are included in the model. The DNAPL source area is divided into multiple treatment zones with different areas, depths, and contaminant masses based on site characterization data. The performance model is coupled with a cost module that involves a set of unit costs representing specific fixed and operating costs. Monitoring of groundwater and/or soil concentrations in each treatment zone is employed to assess ISCO performance and make real-time decisions on oxidant reinjection or ISCO termination. Key ISCO design variables include the oxidant concentration to be injected, time to begin performance monitoring, groundwater and/or soil contaminant concentrations to trigger reinjection or terminate ISCO, number of monitoring wells or geoprobe locations per treatment zone, number of samples per sampling event and location, and monitoring frequency. Design variables for each treatment zone may be optimized to minimize expected cost over a set of Monte Carlo simulations that consider uncertainty in site parameters. The model is incorporated in the Stochastic Cost Optimization Toolkit (SCOToolkit) program, which couples the ISCO model with a dissolved plume transport model and with modules for other remediation strategies. An example problem is presented that illustrates design tradeoffs required to deal with characterization and monitoring uncertainty. Monitoring soil concentration changes during ISCO

  6. Screening of natural substrates and optimization of operating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Eritrea Institute of Technology, Eritrea, North-East Africa. ... The work involves optimizing various parameters like substrate ... of application in food industries (Brawman, 1981; Phutela.

  7. Refrigerator Optimal Scheduling to Minimise the Cost of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Roland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost optimal scheduling of a household refrigerator is presented in this work. The fundamental approach is the model predictive control methodology applied to the piecewise affine model of the refrigerator.

  8. Coordinated Optimal Operation Method of the Regional Energy Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishang Long

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the energy internet has become one of the key ways to solve the energy crisis. This paper studies the system architecture, energy flow characteristics and coordinated optimization method of the regional energy internet. Considering the heat-to-electric ratio of a combined cooling, heating and power unit, energy storage life and real-time electricity price, a double-layer optimal scheduling model is proposed, which includes economic and environmental benefit in the upper layer and energy efficiency in the lower layer. A particle swarm optimizer–individual variation ant colony optimization algorithm is used to solve the computational efficiency and accuracy. Through the calculation and simulation of the simulated system, the energy savings, level of environmental protection and economic optimal dispatching scheme are realized.

  9. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  10. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, M.D. [Tonkin and Taylor International Ltd., Auckland, (New Zealand)

    1999-07-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs.

  12. The role of dams in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, C.

    2001-01-01

    Although the amounts of water resources are enough for the entire world, the distribution of them in time and space shows uneven pattern. The water need is increasing with heavy industrial and agricultural requirements, while available water in the world remains as a fixed source. Economic growth, socio-cultural, and environmental developments are being realized following these changes. In order to achieve sustainable management of water resources, these changes have to be taken into consideration in water-related development projects. Demand for water is steadily increasing through out the world, even though the fresh water resources are limited and unevenly distributed, during the past three centuries, the amount of water withdrawn from fresh water resources has increased by a factor of 35, whereas world population by a factor 8. The engineering of dams, which provides regular water from reservoirs of dams to be used in case of demand pattern, is a vital part of the civilization. Dams have played a key rote in the development since the third millennium B C when the first great civilizations evolved on major rivers, such as Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile and the Indus. From these early times dams were built for flood control, water supply, irrigation and navigation. Dams also had been built to produce motive power and electricity since the industrial revolution. Development priorities changed, experience accumulated with the construction and operation of dams. Although the importance of water is well known in the human life and civilization around the world, still various groups argue that expected economic benefits are not being produced and that major environmental, economic and social costs are not being taken into account. By the end of 20th century, there were 45000 large dams in over 150 countries. According to the same classification there are 625 large dams in Turkey. All over the world, 50 % of the large dams were built mainly for irrigation. It is estimated

  13. Design and development of bio-inspired framework for reservoir operation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvini, M. Sakthi; Amudha, T.

    2017-12-01

    Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

  14. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations...... are also discussed in the paper. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The optimal operation strategy of the PEV and the optimal load response may have significant effects on the distribution power system......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...

  15. Supporting the Maritime Information Dominance: Optimizing Tactical Network for Biometric Data Sharing in Maritime Interdiction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    biometric data collection. Capture role- player mock biometric data including finger prints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. (MOC training...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS by Adam R. Sinsel...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam R

  16. Nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation and their embedding in a decision support platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delipetrev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Reservoir operation is a multi-objective optimization problem traditionally solved with dynamic programming (DP) and stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithms. The thesis presents novel algorithms for optimal reservoir operation named nested DP (nDP), nested SDP (nSDP), nested reinforcement

  17. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  18. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yusheng; Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

  19. Optimizing Warehouse Logistics Operations Through Site Selection Models: Istanbul, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdemir, Ugur

    2003-01-01

    .... Given the dynamic environment surrounding the military operations, logistic sustainability requirements, rapid information technology developments, and budget-constrained Turkish DoD acquisition...

  20. Greenhouse gases emission assessment in residential sector through buildings simulations and operation optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojiljković, Mirko M.; Ignjatović, Marko G.; Vučković, Goran D.

    2015-01-01

    Buildings use a significant amount of primary energy and largely contribute to greenhouse gases emission. Cost optimality and cost effectiveness, including cost-optimal operation, are important for the adoption of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. The long-term assessment of buildings-related greenhouse gases emission might take into account cost-optimal operation of their energy systems. This is often not the case in the literature. Long-term operation optimization problems are often of large scale and computationally intensive and time consuming. This paper formulates a bottom-up methodology relying on an efficient, but precise operation optimization approach, applicable to long-term problems and use with buildings simulations. We suggest moving-horizon short-term optimization to determine near-optimal operation modes and show that this approach, applied to flexible energy systems without seasonal storage, have satisfactory efficiency and accuracy compared with solving problem for an entire year. We also confirm it as a valuable pre-solve technique. Approach applicability and the importance of energy systems optimization are illustrated with a case study considering buildings envelope improvements and cogeneration and heat storage implementation in an urban residential settlement. EnergyPlus is used for buildings simulations while mixed integer linear programming optimization problems are constructed and solved using the custom-built software and the branch-and-cut solver Gurobi Optimizer. - Highlights: • Bottom-up approach for greenhouse gases emission assessment is presented. • Short-term moving-horizon optimization is used to define operation regimes. • Operation optimization and buildings simulations are connected with modeling tool. • Illustrated optimization method performed efficiently and gave accurate results.

  1. Driving external chemistry optimization via operations management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, F Christopher; Frost, Heather N; Ling, Xiaolan; Perry, David A; Sakata, Sylvie K; Bailey, Simon; Fobian, Yvette M; Sloan, Leslie; Wood, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Confronted with the need to significantly raise the productivity of remotely located chemistry CROs Pfizer embraced a commitment to continuous improvement which leveraged the tools from both Lean Six Sigma and queue management theory to deliver positive measurable outcomes. During 2012 cycle times were reduced by 48% by optimization of the work in progress and conducting a detailed workflow analysis to identify and address pinch points. Compound flow was increased by 29% by optimizing the request process and de-risking the chemistry. Underpinning both achievements was the development of close working relationships and productive communications between Pfizer and CRO chemists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design, Performance and Optimization for Multimodal Radar Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra S. Bhat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the underlying methodology behind an adaptive multimodal radar sensor that is capable of progressively optimizing its range resolution depending upon the target scattering features. It consists of a test-bed that enables the generation of linear frequency modulated waveforms of various bandwidths. This paper discusses a theoretical approach to optimizing the bandwidth used by the multimodal radar. It also discusses the various experimental results obtained from measurement. The resolution predicted from theory agrees quite well with that obtained from experiments for different target arrangements.

  3. Response of currents and water quality to changes in dam operations in Hoover Reservoir, Columbus, Ohio, August 24–28, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonins, Branden L.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2017-05-25

    Hoover Reservoir, an important drinking water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, has been the source of a series of taste and odor problems in treated drinking water during the past few years. These taste and odor problems were caused by the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, which are thought to have been related to cyanobacteria blooms. In an effort to reduce the phosphorus available for cyanobacteria blooms at fall turnover, the City of Columbus began experimenting with the dam’s selective withdrawal system to remove excess phosphorus in the hypolimnion, which is released from bottom sediments during summer anoxic conditions.The U.S. Geological Survey completed two synoptic survey campaigns to assess distributions of water quality and water velocity in the lower part of Hoover Reservoir to provide information on the changes to reservoir dynamics caused by changing dam operations. One campaign (campaign 1) was done while water was being withdrawn from the reservoir through the dam’s middle gate and the other (campaign 2) while water was being withdrawn through the dam’s lower gate. Velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water-quality parameters were measured using an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with water-quality sensors. Along with the water-quality and water-velocity data, meteorological, inflow and outflow discharges, and independent water-quality data were compiled to monitor changes in other parameters that affect reservoir behavior. Monthly nutrient data, collected by the City of Columbus, were also analyzed for trends in concentration during periods of expected stratification.Based on the results of the two campaigns, when compared to withdrawing water through the middle gate, withdrawing water through the lower gate seemed to increase shear-driven mixing across the thermocline, which resulted in an increase in the depth of the epilimnion throughout the lower part of Hoover Reservoir. The

  4. Supervising UAVs : improving operator performance by optimizing the human factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Jansen, C.; Veltman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have no operators on board and therefore enable extension of the present sensing and communication capabilities in civil and military missions, without unnecessarily endangering personnel or deploying expensive material. One should also realize that

  5. Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes

  6. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    eggs above minimum pool depends on redds being wetted by groundwater seeps. After 40 days exposure by drawdown, eggs in groundwater seeps showed 86 percent survival, whereas outside of the groundwater seeps eggs survived less than six days. These results confirm that exposure by drawdown is the primary factor that limits kokanee reproductive success in redds above minimum pool. We surveyed the west and south shoreline of Flathead Lake to locate potential kokanee spawning habitat. We found conditions which could support incubating eggs at two sites in South Ray and two sites on the west shore of the lake. Seven other sites on the west shore were not suitable due to low groundwater discharge or low dissolved oxygen. In all these areas suitable substrate existed only within the drawdown zone. The lake should be drafted earlier in the fall, and filled earlier in the spring to improve recruitment from lakeshore spawning. We conducted creel surveys during 1985, and estimated that anglers caught 192,000 kokanee. Anglers harvested 49,200 fish during the ice fishery in Skidoo Bay, 129,000 fish during the summer fishery on the lake, and 13,800 during the fall river fishery. Estimated fishing pressure for the year exceeded 188,000 angler hours. The abundance of mysid shrimp in Flathead Lake, measured at six index stations, increased to 130/mIf in 1986. My&Is increased tenfold from 1984 to 1985, and about threefold from 1985 to 1986. Monitoring of mysid shrimp and zooplankton populations in Flathead Lake is supplementing an investigation of the growth and survival of juvenile kokanee. Kokanee and mysid shrimp feed primarily on planktonic crustaceans. This work was designed to detect a potential decline in kokanee recruitment or growth brought about by competitive interaction with mysid shrimp. Fluctuation in adult kokanee year class strength is in part attributable to the negative effects of hydroelectric dam operation on reproductive success in the main stem Flathead River and in

  7. Audit Technical of Kori Rubber Dam in the River of Keyang District of Ponorogo East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnianto, E.; Suprapto, M.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    The development of science and technology for the utilization and protection of rivers has embodied various types of river infrastructure. Without proper maintenance, rapid river sediments undergo physical degradation and function. Problems that occur in Kori Rubber Dam, among others, the damage to the body of the rubber dam that is made of rubber, so that the function of flower deflection is not optimal. This happens because of limited operational and maintenance activities (OM). A technical audit is a process of identifying problems, analyzing, and evaluating ones conducted independently, objectively and professionally on the basis of examination, to assess the truth, accuracy, credibility, and reliability of information about a job. In this case an assessment of the Kori Rubber Dam, which is basically a benchmarking activity. Assessment of rubber dam components includes the physical conditions and functions that affect the weir. This research is expected to know the performance of Kori rubber Dam as a recommendation material in the implementation of OM Rubber Dam activities.

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF AGGREGATION AND SEQUENTIAL-PARALLEL EXECUTION MODES OF INTERSECTING OPERATION SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. М. Levin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model and a method for the problem of optimization of aggregation and of sequential- parallel execution modes of intersecting operation sets are proposed. The proposed method is based on the two-level decomposition scheme. At the top level the variant of aggregation for groups of operations is selected, and at the lower level the execution modes of operations are optimized for a fixed version of aggregation.

  9. Optimal Operational Monetary Policy Rules in an Endogenous Growth Model: a calibrated analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    This paper constructs an endogenous growth New Keynesian model and considers growth and welfare effect of Taylor-type (operational) monetary policy rules. The Ramsey equilibrium and optimal operational monetary policy rule is also computed. In the calibrated model, the Ramseyoptimal volatility of inflation rate is smaller than that in standard exogenous growth New Keynesian model with physical capital accumulation. Optimal operational monetary policy rule makes nominal interest rate respond s...

  10. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.; Anderson, D.; Bieser, F.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a control strategy for the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS), which relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a particle bending field of 3 tesla. The control strategy has allowed full time unattended operation and significant operating cost reductions. Microprocessor control of flash boiling style LIN circuits has been successful. It is determined that the overall operating cost of most cryogenic systems using closed loop helium systems can be minimized by properly balancing the total heat load between the helium and nitrogen circuits to take advantage of the non-linearity which exists in the power input to 4K refrigeration characteristic. Variable throughput compressors have the advantage of turndown capability at steady state. It is concluded that a hybrid system using digital and analog input for control, data display and alarms enables full time unattended operation

  11. Workforce Optimization for Bank Operation Centers: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sefik Ilkin Serengil; Alper Ozpinar

    2017-01-01

    Online Banking Systems evolved and improved in recent years with the use of mobile and online technologies, performing money transfer transactions on these channels can be done without delay and human interaction, however commercial customers still tend to transfer money on bank branches due to several concerns. Bank Operation Centers serve to reduce the operational workload of branches. Centralized management also offers personalized service by appointed expert employees in these centers. In...

  12. Optimizing the Operation of Maceration to Obtain Quality White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegărus Diana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study monitors the physico-chemical properties of wines from Dragasani under the influence of pectolytic enzymes in various temperature conditions. during maceration contact is made between the grape skins and selected the optimal time leads to wines with more pronounced floral character. The physico-chemical extraction maceration leads to a more pronounced specific compounds, the time of maceration is very important in this case. The curing time is of great importance in producing varieties Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească primarily for successful extraction of aromatic components from grape. As noted in the literature flavored grapes contain large amounts of terpene compounds are in free form or bound. To optimize the technological process is able to extract these compounds and to achieve a harmonious and balanced wine. The variants considered in the study presents the results of physico-chemical and aromatic wines obtained from the Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească, which took into consideration both during maceration and the use of selected yeasts and enzymes, which form the basis for the selection of the optimal procedure for obtaining aromatic white wines in Dragasani Vineyard.

  13. Quantum behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with Differential Mutation operator applied to WWER-1000 in-core fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamalipour, Mostafa; Sayareh, Reza; Gharib, Morteza; Khoshahval, Farrokh; Karimi, Mahmood Reza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method called QPSO-DM is applied to BNPP in-core fuel management optimization. ► It is found that QPSO-DM performs better than PSO and QPSO. ► This method provides a permissible arrangement for optimum loading pattern. - Abstract: This paper presents a new method using Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization with Differential Mutation operator (QPSO-DM) for optimizing WWER-1000 core fuel management. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have shown good performance on in-core fuel management optimization (ICFMO). The objective of this paper is to show that QPSO-DM performs very well and is comparable to PSO and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). Most of the strategies for ICFMO are based on maximizing multiplication factor (k eff ) to increase cycle length and minimizing power peaking factor (P q ) in order to improve fuel integrity. PSO, QPSO and QPSO-DM have been implemented to fulfill these requirements for the first operating cycle of WWER-1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP). The results show that QPSO-DM performs better than the others. A program has been written in MATLAB to map PSO, QPSO and QPSO-DM for loading pattern optimization. WIMS and CITATION have been used to simulate reactor core for neutronic calculations

  14. Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nah-Oak Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimal electric energy management of a cooperative multi-microgrid community with sequentially coordinated operations. The sequentially coordinated operations are suggested to distribute computational burden and yet to make the optimal 24 energy management of multi-microgrids possible. The sequential operations are mathematically modeled to find the optimal operation conditions and illustrated with physical interpretation of how to achieve optimal energy management in the cooperative multi-microgrid community. This global electric energy optimization of the cooperative community is realized by the ancillary internal trading between the microgrids in the cooperative community which reduces the extra cost from unnecessary external trading by adjusting the electric energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP generators and amounts of both internal and external electric energy trading of the cooperative community. A simulation study is also conducted to validate the proposed mathematical energy management models.

  15. Support Vector Regression and Genetic Algorithm for HVAC Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers records of various parameters affecting the power consumption of air-conditioning systems. Using the Support Vector Machine (SVM, the chiller power consumption model, secondary chilled water pump power consumption model, air handling unit fan power consumption model, and air handling unit load model were established. In addition, it was found that R2 of the models all reached 0.998, and the training time was far shorter than that of the neural network. Through genetic programming, a combination of operating parameters with the least power consumption of air conditioning operation was searched. Moreover, the air handling unit load in line with the air conditioning cooling load was predicted. The experimental results show that for the combination of operating parameters with the least power consumption in line with the cooling load obtained through genetic algorithm search, the power consumption of the air conditioning systems under said combination of operating parameters was reduced by 22% compared to the fixed operating parameters, thus indicating significant energy efficiency.

  16. Optimal Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrid by Using a Modified PSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal economic operation method is presented to attain a joint-optimization of cost reduction and operation strategy for islanded microgrid, which includes renewable energy source, the diesel generator, and battery storage system. The optimization objective is to minimize the overall generating cost involving depreciation cost, operation cost, emission cost, and economic subsidy available for renewable energy source, while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. A novel dynamic optimization process is proposed based on two different operation control modes where diesel generator or battery storage acts as the master unit to maintain the system frequency and voltage stability, and a modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to get faster solution to the practical economic operation problem of islanded microgrid. With the example system of an actual islanded microgrid in Dongao Island, China, the proposed models, dynamic optimization strategy, and solution algorithm are verified and the influences of different operation strategies and optimization algorithms on the economic operation are discussed. The results achieved demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Dams bulletin reports on technical news concerning big French dams in operation. This issue comprises 5 papers. Two of them are examples of granting problems which led to the dismantling of the dams of Kernansquillec (Cotes d`Armor, France) and Maisons-Rouges (Indre-et-Loire, France) for economical and environmental reasons. The 3 other papers concern the life of French dams (technical control reports of the French dams in operation), the activities of the control service (annual inspections, preparation of draining operations, renewing of granting), and some general information (organisation of competent authorities, colloquium reports, hydro-power production during the first quarter of 1997). (J.S.)

  18. Optimal control of load-following operations in a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fuyu; Zhou Dawei

    2000-01-01

    According to the optimal control theory, the problem of load-following operation in a pressurized water reactor is formulated as a nonlinear-quadratic optimal control problem. One-dimensional core model is adopted. A successful optimization algorithm DDPSR is proposed to solving the obtained problem. The research results show that the DDPSR can converge with a long time interval and needs very small iteration number and computing time, and the practical reactor can be fairly operated in an optimal load-following manner and axial offset satisfies the required value from beginning to end. Control characters of boron concentration are discussed specially

  19. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    optimization problems where the environment does not change dynamically. For that reason, the requirement for convergence in static optimization problems is not as timecritical as for dynamic optimization problems. Most MOEAs use generic variables and operators that scale to static multi-objective optimization...... problem. The domain specific operators only encode existing knowledge about the environment. A comprehensive comparative study is provided to evaluate the results of applying the CONTROLEUM-GA compared to NSGAII, e-NSGAII and e- MOEA. Experimental results demonstrate clear improvements in convergence time...

  20. Operational optimization of large-scale SRF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; C. E. Reece

    1999-01-01

    Unlike other types of accelerator subsystems, because of the flexibility in setting the gradient in each cavity, an SRF linac has many operational degrees of freedom. The overall linac has an operational envelope (beam voltage and current) that depends on acceptable reliability, cryogenic capacity, and RF power budget. For economic and end-user physics reasons, one typically wants to run as close to the edge of the operational envelope as possible. With about 160 cavities in each of the CEBAF linacs. The authors have been forced to treat this problem in a very general way, and satisfy other non-fundamental needs as energy lock and rapid recovery from failures. They present a description of the relevant diverse constraints and the solution developed for CEBAF

  1. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... overtopping by wind and wave action. (iii) Dams shall have minimum safety factors as follows: Case Loading... title and the name of the person operating or controlling the dam, shall be located on or immediately...

  2. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate control of a church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The report presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  3. Optimization of peri-operative care in colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornmann, V.N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is an important health issue, and colorectal surgery is increasingly being performed. During the last years, quality and safety of care, new surgical techniques and attention for peri-operative risks resulted in reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Despite these

  4. Optimal operation of water distribution networks by predictive control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an approach for the operational optimisation of potable water distribution networks. The maximisation of the use of low-cost power (e.g. overnight pumping) and the maintenance of a target chlorine concentration at final delivery points were defined as important optimisation objectives. The first objective ...

  5. Cost and radiation exposure optimization of demineralizer operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, F.E.; Burn, R.R.; Cook, G.M.; Simonetti, L.; Simpson, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A pool water demineralizer is utilized at a research reactor to minimize impurities that become radioactive; to minimize impurities that react chemically with reactor components; to maintain optical clarity of the pool water; and to minimize aluminum fuel cladding corrosion by maintaining a slightly acidic pH. Balanced against these advantages are the dollar costs of equipment, resins, recharging chemicals, and maintenance; the man-rem costs of radiation exposure during maintenance, demineralizer recharges, and resin replacement; and hazardous chemical exposure. At the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), maintenance of the demineralizer system is the second largest source of radiation exposure to operators. Theoretical and practical aspects of demineralizer operation are discussed. The most obvious way to reduce radiation exposure due to demineralizer system operation is to perform recharges after the reactor has been shut down for the maximum possible time. Setting a higher depletion limit and operating with the optimum system lineup reduce the frequency between recharges, saving both exposure and cost. Recharge frequency and resin lifetime seem to be relatively independent of the quality of the chemicals used and the personnel performing recharges, provided consistent procedures are followed

  6. Nuclear risk and optimal civil liability of the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Andre; Spaeter, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    The civil liability of nuclear operators are regulated by two sets of international Conventions. In particular, strict liability, limited financial responsibility and the obligation of providing financial guaranties are imposed to the nuclear operator by the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. Then national legislations are free to increase the financial cap of responsibility fixed by the international regimes. First we present the main elements of these Conventions. Then we focus on the impact of a modification in the amount of responsibility of the nuclear operator on his risk mitigation policy and on his financial condition. In particular we show that an increase of the cap beyond a given level determined by the model gives the operator some incentives to lessen the investment in prevention, contrary to what is expected. Besides, the impact of the preventive activities done by the firm on its financial constraint depends on the sensitivity of the risk distribution to the variation of the prevention level: The risk mitigation activities must be discussed with respect to the severity of the incidents and/or to the size of the nuclear park

  7. THE OPERATION MODES OPTIMIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Shkarbets

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variants of grounding the neutral wire of electric networks are considered and the recommendations are presented on increasing the level of operational reliability and electric safety of distribution networks with 6 kV voltage on the basis of limitation and suppression of transitional processes at asymmetrical damages.

  8. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  9. Optimal operation of a south double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; De Herde, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium). Architecture et Climat

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for higher quality office buildings. Occupants and developers of office buildings ask for a healthy and stimulating working environment. Double-skin facades are appropriate when buildings are subject to great external noise and wind loads. A further area of application is in rehabilitation work, when existing facades cannot be renewed, or where this is not desirable. Double-skin facades have a special esthetic of their own, and this can be exploited architecturally to great advantage. However there are still relatively few buildings in which double-skin facades have actually been realized, and there is still too little experience of their behaviour in operation. In this matter, we choose to study a multi-storey double-skin facades behaviour. Simulations were realized with TAS software on the building proposed in the frame of the subtask A of the Task 27 (performance of solar facade components) of the International Energy Agency. Simulations were performed on the chosen building with and without double-skin facades. We decide to study eight types of days; and we analyze the double-skin facade behaviour for various operations. The thermal behaviours of the building with and without double-skin are compared. The study of these eight cases showed the importance of the dynamic use of the double-skin. The operation of this one must be obligatorily related to the climatic conditions as well external as interior and a bad operation of the double-skin could lead to catastrophic results. (author)

  10. Reducing Operating Costs by Optimizing Space in Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Design: Mapping the High Performance Workscape. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco. Berkman, Elliot. (2012). A Conceptual Guide to Statistics using SPSS. Sage ...Cleaning: Includes labor costs for in-house and contract service, payroll , taxes and fringe benefits, plus salaried supervisors and managers, as well as...Labor costs include payroll , taxes and fringe benefits for employees and contracted workers. Personnel include operating engineers, general

  11. Optimal operation of a multipurpose multireservoir system in the Eastern Nile River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Goor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The upper Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia is a largely untapped resource despite its huge potential for hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Controversies exist as to whether the numerous infrastructural development projects that are on the drawing board in Ethiopia will generate positive or negative externalities downstream in Sudan and Egypt. This study attempts at (1 examining the (re-operation of infrastructures, in particular the proposed reservoirs in Ethiopia and the High Aswan Dam and (2 assessing the economic benefits and costs associated with the storage infrastructures in Ethiopia and their spatial and temporal distribution. To achieve this, a basin-wide integrated hydro-economic model has been developed. The model integrates essential hydrologic, economic and institutional components of the river basin in order to explore both the hydrologic and economic consequences of various policy options and planned infrastructural projects. Unlike most of the deterministic economic-hydrologic models reported in the literature, a stochastic programming formulation has been adopted in order to: (i understand the effect of the hydrologic uncertainty on management decisions, (ii determine allocation policies that naturally hedge against the hydrological risk, and (iii assess the relevant risk indicators. The study reveals that the development of four mega dams in the upper part of the Blue Nile Basin would change the drawdown refill cycle of the High Aswan Dam. Should the operation of the reservoirs be coordinated, they would enable an average annual saving of at least 2.5 billion m3 through reduced evaporation losses from the Lake Nasser. Moreover, the new reservoirs (Karadobi, Beko-Abo, Mandaya and Border in Ethiopia would have significant positive impacts on hydropower generation and irrigation in Ethiopia and Sudan: at the basin scale, the annual energy generation is boosted by 38.5 TWh amongst which 14.2 TWh due to

  12. Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily

  13. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu

    2017-12-01

    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Optimization of costs of Port Operations in Nigeria: A Scenario For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... +Department of Maritime Management Technology,. Federal ... Abstract. This study attempts to optimize the cost of port operations in Nigeria. ..... Slack. Original Value. Lower. Bound. Upper Bound. Const. 1. 0. 685.7727. 672.

  15. Optimization of an experimental hybrid microgrid operation: reliability and economic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Aitor; Gaztañaga, Haizea; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion; Bilbao, Endika; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid microgrid system, composed of RES (Renewable Energy System) and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems together with a battery based storage system is presented. The microgrid is accompanied by a centralized energy management system (CEMS) in order to optimize the microgrid operation both in grid-connected and in stand-alone modes. In grid-connected mode the optimization of the economic exploitation of the microgrid is privileged by applying optim...

  16. The optimization of nuclear power plants operation modes in emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebayev, A. M.; Trifonenkov, A. V.; Ramazanov, R. N.

    2018-01-01

    An emergency situations resulting in the necessity for temporary reactor trip may occur at the nuclear power plant while normal operating mode. The paper deals with some of the operation c aspects of nuclear power plant operation in emergency situations and during threatened period. The xenon poisoning causes limitations on the variety of statements of the problem of calculating characteristics of a set of optimal reactor power off controls. The article show a possibility and feasibility of new sets of optimization tasks for the operation of nuclear power plants under conditions of xenon poisoning in emergency circumstances.

  17. Optimal Operation of Data Centers in Future Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhari, Seyed Mahdi

    The emergence of cloud computing has established a growing trend towards building massive, energy-hungry, and geographically distributed data centers. Due to their enormous energy consumption, data centers are expected to have major impact on the electric grid by significantly increasing the load at locations where they are built. However, data centers also provide opportunities to help the grid with respect to robustness and load balancing. For instance, as data centers are major and yet flexible electric loads, they can be proper candidates to offer ancillary services, such as voluntary load reduction, to the smart grid. Also, data centers may better stabilize the price of energy in the electricity markets, and at the same time reduce their electricity cost by exploiting the diversity in the price of electricity in the day-ahead and real-time electricity markets. In this thesis, such potentials are investigated within an analytical profit maximization framework by developing new mathematical models based on queuing theory. The proposed models capture the trade-off between quality-of-service and power consumption in data centers. They are not only accurate, but also they posses convexity characteristics that facilitate joint optimization of data centers' service rates, demand levels and demand bids to different electricity markets. The analysis is further expanded to also develop a unified comprehensive energy portfolio optimization for data centers in the future smart grid. Specifically, it is shown how utilizing one energy option may affect selecting other energy options that are available to a data center. For example, we will show that the use of on-site storage and the deployment of geographical workload distribution can particularly help data centers in utilizing high-risk energy options such as renewable generation. The analytical approach in this thesis takes into account service-level-agreements, risk management constraints, and also the statistical

  18. Optimal operation of smart houses by a real-time rolling horizon algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Pappi, I.N.; Catalão, J.P.S.; Erdinc, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel real-time rolling horizon optimization framework for the optimal operation of a smart household is presented. A home energy management system (HEMS) model based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is developed in order to minimize the energy procurement cost considering

  19. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  20. Teton Dam failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snorteland, N. [United States Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States). Bureau of Reclamation

    2009-07-01

    This case summary discussed an internal erosion failure that occurred at the embankment foundation of Teton Dam. The project was designed as a run-of-the-river power generation facility and to provide irrigation, flood protection, and power generation to the lower Teton region of southern Idaho. The dam site was located next to the eastern Snake River plain, a volcanic filled depression. The foundation's cutoff trench was excavated into the bedrock along the length of the dam. The dam was designed as a zoned earthfill with a height of 305 feet. A trench made of low plasticity windblown silt was designed to connect the embankment core to the rock foundation. Seeps were noted in 1976, and a leak was observed near the toe of the dam. A wet spot appeared on the downstream face of the dam at elevation 5200. A sinkhole then developed. The embankment crest collapsed, and the dam breached. Peak outflow was estimated at 1,000,000 cfs. The failure was attributed to a lack of communication between designers, a failure to understand geologic information about the region, and an insufficient review of designs and specifications by designers and field personnel. No monitoring instrumentation was installed in the embankment. Approximately 300 square miles were inundated, and 25,000 people were displaced. Eleven people were killed. A review group noted that the rock surface was not adequately sealed, and that the dam failed as a result of inadequate protection of the impervious core material from internal erosion. 42 figs.

  1. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. This paper discusses a control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption has been accomplished by making use of the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. The measured throughput differential for the total system is higher

  2. Non uniform nature of recorded ground accelerations at dam foundation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemian, Mohsen; Gilani, Morteza Sohrabi [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, Ali [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The Karun III is a double curved concrete arch dam located in Iran which was used to investigate earthquake motions and dam responses. This paper presented the study of the Karun III dam foundation interface. Using an array of 15 accelerometers, two major events that occurred on 2007.11.20 and 2007.11.21 were recorded during dam operation with a PGA at crest of 0.312 g and 0.109.g respectively. A finite element model of Karun III dam was performed. The response of the Karun III dam during the 2007 earthquake was investigated using the NSAD-DRI program. It was found that the motion of the dam foundation interface is non-uniform. There is a time shift and amplification at the abutment compared to those at the base of the dam. The results showed that the spatially varying earthquake assumption is in good agreement with the recorded displacement of the dam.

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation Management of a Ship Electrical Power System with Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Meng, Lexuan

    2016-01-01

    Next generation power management at all scales is highly relying on the efficient scheduling and operation of different energy sources to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the energy storage options within energy systems can also lead to more efficient use...... of the generating units. This optimal planning and operation management strategy becomes increasingly important for off-grid systems that operate independently of the main utility, such as microgrids or power systems on marine vessels. This work extends the principles of optimal planning and economic dispatch...... for the proposed plan is derived based on the solution from a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Simulation results showed that including well-sized energy storage options together with optimal operation management of generating units can improve the economic operation of the test system while...

  4. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  5. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  6. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

  7. Optimizing post-operative pain management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America. Resumo: O controle da dor no período pós-operatório é um problema significativo na prática clínica na América Latina. O controle insuficiente ou inadequado da dor é devido, em grande parte, à insuficiência de conhecimento, atitudes e formação e à comunicação precária em vários níveis. Al

  8. Optimal operation of stationary and mobile batteries in distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yubo; Shi, Wenbo; Wang, Bin; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A DSM minimizes both nodal operational cost and network power losses is proposed. • Uncertainties in distribution grids are captured with stochastic programming. • An ADMM based distributed method is applied for scalability and privacy preserving. - Abstract: The trending integrations of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS, stationary battery) and Electric Vehicles (EV, mobile battery) to distribution grids call for advanced Demand Side Management (DSM) technique that addresses the scalability concerns of the system and stochastic availabilities of EVs. Towards this goal, a stochastic DSM is proposed to capture the uncertainties in EVs. Numerical approximation is then used to make the problem tractable. To accelerate the computational speed, the proposed DSM is tightly relaxed to a convex form using second-order cone programming. Furthermore, in light of the continuous increasing problem size, a distributed method with a guaranteed convergence is applied to shift the centralized computational burden to distributed controllers. To verify the proposed DSM, real-life EV data collected on UCLA campus is used to test the proposed DSM in an IEEE benchmark test system. Numerical results demonstrate the correctness and merits of the proposed approach.

  9. Optimal Operation and Dispatch of Voltage Regulation Devices Considering High Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University

    2017-06-29

    Voltage regulation devices have been traditionally installed and utilized to support distribution voltages. Installations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile for a feeder; therefore, in the distribution system planning stage of the optimal operation and dispatch of voltage regulation devices, possible high penetrations of DERs should be considered. In this paper, we model the IEEE 34-bus test feeder, including all essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the optimal siting and operation of the voltage regulation devices in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally, we verify the optimal configuration of the entire system through the optimization and simulation results.

  10. Operating cycle optimization for a Magnus effect-based airborne wind energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinović, Milan; Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating cycle of a Magnus effect-based AWE system has been optimized. • The cycle trajectory should be vertical and far from the ground based generator. • Vertical trajectory provides high pulling force that drives the generator. • Large distance from the generator is required for the feasibility of the cycle. - Abstract: The paper presents a control variables optimization study for an airborne wind energy production system. The system comprises an airborne module in the form of a buoyant, rotating cylinder, whose rotation in a wind stream induces the Magnus effect-based aerodynamic lift. Through a tether, the airborne module first drives the generator fixed on the ground, and then the generator becomes a motor that lowers the airborne module. The optimization is aimed at maximizing the average power produced at the generator during a continuously repeatable operating cycle. The control variables are the generator-side rope force and the cylinder rotation speed. The optimization is based on a multi-phase problem formulation, where operation is divided into ascending and descending phases, with free boundary conditions and free cycle duration. The presented simulation results show that significant power increase can be achieved by using the obtained optimal operating cycle instead of the initial, empirically based operation control strategy. A brief analysis is also given to provide a physical interpretation of the optimal cycle results

  11. System and method of cylinder deactivation for optimal engine torque-speed map operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A; Frazier, Timothy R; Follen, Kenneth; Moon, Suk-Min

    2014-11-11

    This disclosure provides a system and method for determining cylinder deactivation in a vehicle engine to optimize fuel consumption while providing the desired or demanded power. In one aspect, data indicative of terrain variation is utilized in determining a vehicle target operating state. An optimal active cylinder distribution and corresponding fueling is determined from a recommendation from a supervisory agent monitoring the operating state of the vehicle of a subset of the total number of cylinders, and a determination as to which number of cylinders provides the optimal fuel consumption. Once the optimal cylinder number is determined, a transmission gear shift recommendation is provided in view of the determined active cylinder distribution and target operating state.

  12. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  13. Optimal, Risk-based Operation and Maintenance Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines costs to operation and maintenance are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based life-cycle approach for optimal planning of operation and maintenance. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory. Deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue...

  14. Optimization of an Operative Period at Radical Mastectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Vasilyev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood loss volume is determined visually and approximately in most cases of surgical interventions, which most commonly leads to its underestimation, inadequate compensation, and development of hypovolemia. The latter induces peripheral vasospasm resulting in circulatory hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, diminished immunity, and worse reparative capacities of the body in the postoperative period. The transfused liquid volumes exceeding blood loss cause an increase in interstitial fluid volume, tissue edema and, hence, lead to impaired pulmonary gas exchange, enlarged postoperative wound edema, and postoperative complications. Administration of infusion media at a temperature lower than the body temperature has multiple adverse effects that impair the function of organs and systems. The typical response to hypothermia is peripheral vasospasm, followed by the development of circulatory hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. The objective of the study was to precisely estimate the volume of intraoperative blood loss and its adequate compensation and to correct central hemodynamic parameters and the body’s water sectors by nor-mothermal infusion therapy. Subjects and methods. The body’s water sectors, central hemodynamics, oxygen balance, and intraoperative blood loss volume were studied. Three groups of patients with radical mastectomy were comparatively analyzed. In Group 1 including 35 women operated on for breast cancer, the magnitude of blood loss was determined by eye and standard infusion therapy was performed, by using the mean solution temperatures of 20°C. Group 2 comprised 20 patients in whom blood loss was measured using a balance and infusion therapy was performed in accordance with the volume of the measured blood loss at the same temperature as in Group 1. Group 3 (n=18 received infusion therapy with the solutions warmed up to 37°C in accordance with blood loss volume determined applying a balance. Results. The studies have shown it

  15. Modeling Optimal Scheduling for Pumping System to Minimize Operation Cost and Enhance Operation Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional pump scheduling models neglect the operation reliability which directly relates with the unscheduled maintenance cost and the wear cost during the operation. Just for this, based on the assumption that the vibration directly relates with the operation reliability and the degree of wear, it could express the operation reliability as the normalization of the vibration level. The characteristic of the vibration with the operation point was studied, it could be concluded that idealized flow versus vibration plot should be a distinct bathtub shape. There is a narrow sweet spot (80 to 100 percent BEP to obtain low vibration levels in this shape, and the vibration also follows similar law with the square of the rotation speed without resonance phenomena. Then, the operation reliability could be modeled as the function of the capacity and rotation speed of the pump and add this function to the traditional model to form the new. And contrast with the tradition method, the result shown that the new model could fix the result produced by the traditional, make the pump operate in low vibration, then the operation reliability could increase and the maintenance cost could decrease.

  16. Review on applications of artificial intelligence methods for dam and reservoir-hydro-environment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allawi, Mohammed Falah; Jaafar, Othman; Mohamad Hamzah, Firdaus; Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Efficacious operation for dam and reservoir system could guarantee not only a defenselessness policy against natural hazard but also identify rule to meet the water demand. Successful operation of dam and reservoir systems to ensure optimal use of water resources could be unattainable without accurate and reliable simulation models. According to the highly stochastic nature of hydrologic parameters, developing accurate predictive model that efficiently mimic such a complex pattern is an increasing domain of research. During the last two decades, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been significantly utilized for attaining a robust modeling to handle different stochastic hydrological parameters. AI techniques have also shown considerable progress in finding optimal rules for reservoir operation. This review research explores the history of developing AI in reservoir inflow forecasting and prediction of evaporation from a reservoir as the major components of the reservoir simulation. In addition, critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of integrated AI simulation methods with optimization methods has been reported. Future research on the potential of utilizing new innovative methods based AI techniques for reservoir simulation and optimization models have also been discussed. Finally, proposal for the new mathematical procedure to accomplish the realistic evaluation of the whole optimization model performance (reliability, resilience, and vulnerability indices) has been recommended.

  17. Optimal sizing and operation of energy storage systems considering long term assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Guerra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for estimating the optimal sizing of Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storage units when they are operated from the utility’s perspective. The goal is to explore the potential improvement on the overall operating conditions of the distribution system to which the Generators and Storage units will be connected. Optimization is conducted by means of a General Parallel Genetic Algorithm that seeks to maximize the technical benefits for the distribution system. The paper proposes an operation strategy for Energy Storage units based on the daily variation of load and generation; the operation strategy is optimized for an evaluation period of one year using hourly power curves. The construction of the yearly Storage operation curve results in a high-dimension optimization problem; as a result, different day-classification methods are applied in order to reduce the dimension of the optimization. Results show that the proposed approach is capable of producing significant improvements in system operating conditions and that the best performance is obtained when the day-classification is based on the similarity among daily power curves.

  18. Optimization of fuel-cell tram operation based on two dimension dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Lu, Xuecheng; Zhao, Jingsong; Li, Jianqiu

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimal control strategy based on the two-dimension dynamic programming (2DDP) algorithm targeting at minimizing operation energy consumption for a fuel-cell tram. The energy consumption model with the tram dynamics is firstly deduced. Optimal control problem are analyzed and the 2DDP strategy is applied to solve the problem. The optimal tram speed profiles are obtained for each interstation which consist of three stages: accelerate to the set speed with the maximum traction power, dynamically adjust to maintain a uniform speed and decelerate to zero speed with the maximum braking power at a suitable timing. The optimal control curves of all the interstations are connected with the parking time to form the optimal control method of the whole line. The optimized speed profiles are also simplified for drivers to follow.

  19. 33 CFR 208.32 - Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.32 Sanford Dam and Lake Meredith, Canadian River, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Sanford Dam and...

  20. 33 CFR 208.34 - Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.34 Norman Dam and Lake Thunderbird, Little River, Okla. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate Norman Dam and Lake...

  1. Framework for Combined Diagnostics, Prognostics and Optimal Operation of a Subsea Gas Compression System

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyleweghen, Adriaen; Jaeschke, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The efficient and safe operation of subsea gas and oil production systems sets strict requirements to equipment reliability to avoid unplanned breakdowns and costly maintenance interventions. Because of this, condition monitoring is employed to assess the status of the system in real-time. However, the condition of the system is usually not considered explicitly when finding the optimal operation strategy. Instead, operational constraints on flow rates, pressures etc., based on worst-case sce...

  2. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  3. Isotope technique in JPS dam surveillance: its potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Controlling seepage is one of the most important requirements for safe dams. Any leakage at an earth embankment may be potentially dangerous since rapid internal erosion may quickly enlarge an initially minor defect. Thus dam owners need to have thorough surveillance programs that can forewarn of impending problems from seepage or other factors influencing the safety of dams. In carrying out dam surveillance works, all possible efforts should be considered and foreseeing the potential of isotope technique, JPS (Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia) and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) participated actively in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA program under RAS/8/093 project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through these activities, it was noted that the technique demonstrated very promising potentials such as in assisting dam site selections, site investigations, watershed studies, dam and reservoir design, leakage investigations and sediments related issues, the two latter ones being relatively critical during the operational life of the dam. Establishment of baseline isotopic characteristics (or fingerprint), hydrochemistry, electrical conductivity and temperature profiles is underway for all JPS dams to be later utilized in diagnosing seepage related issues it is suggested that application of this technique be extended to other dam owners nationwide. (Author)

  4. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  5. Multi-Objective Distribution Network Operation Based on Distributed Generation Optimal Placement Using New Antlion Optimizer Considering Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHANBABAZADEH Javad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution network designers and operators are trying to deliver electrical energy with high reliability and quality to their subscribers. Due to high losses in the distribution systems, using distributed generation can improves reliability, reduces losses and improves voltage profile of distribution network. Therefore, the choice of the location of these resources and also determining the amount of their generated power to maximize the benefits of this type of resource is an important issue which is discussed from different points of view today. In this paper, a new multi-objective optimal location and sizing of distributed generation resources is performed to maximize its benefits on the 33 bus distribution test network considering reliability and using a new Antlion Optimizer (ALO. The benefits for DG are considered as system losses reduction, system reliability improvement and benefits from the sale electricity and voltage profile improvement. For each of the mentioned benefits, the ALO algorithm is used to optimize the location and sizing of distributed generation resources. In order to verify the proposed approach, the obtained results have been analyzed and compared with the results of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The results show that the ALO has shown better performance in optimization problem solution versus PSO.

  6. Themoeconomic optimization of triple pressure heat recovery steam generator operating parameters for combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Mohammed S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a method for optimization of operating parameters of a triple pressure heat recovery steam generator. Two types of optimization: (a thermodynamic and (b thermoeconomic were preformed. The purpose of the thermodynamic optimization is to maximize the efficiency of the plant. The selected objective for this purpose is minimization of the exergy destruction in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. The purpose of the thermoeconomic optimization is to decrease the production cost of electricity. Here, the total annual cost of HRSG, defined as a sum of annual values of the capital costs and the cost of the exergy destruction, is selected as the objective function. The optimal values of the most influencing variables are obtained by minimizing the objective function while satisfying a group of constraints. The optimization algorithm is developed and tested on a case of CCGT plant with complex configuration. Six operating parameters were subject of optimization: pressures and pinch point temperatures of every three (high, intermediate and low pressure steam stream in the HRSG. The influence of these variables on the objective function and production cost are investigated in detail. The differences between results of thermodynamic and the thermoeconomic optimization are discussed.

  7. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  8. Optimal operating conditions for external cavity semiconductor laser optical chaos communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyadarshi, S; Pierce, I; Hong, Y; Shore, K A

    2012-01-01

    In optical chaos communications a message is masked in the noise-like broadband output of a chaotic transmitter laser, and message recovery is enabled through the synchronization of the transmitter and the (chaotic) receiver laser. Key issues are to identify the laser operating conditions which provide the highest quality synchronization conditions and those which provide optimized message extraction. In general such operating conditions are not coincident. In this paper numerical simulations are performed with the aim of identifying a regime of operation where the highest quality synchronization and optimizing message extraction efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Use of such an operating regime will facilitate practical deployment of optical chaos communications systems without the need for re-adjustment of laser operating conditions in the field. (paper)

  9. The time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation,Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, a new optimization model of time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator is designed. The task of this manipulator is to inspect the components of Tokamak, the inspecting velocity of manipulator must be limited in the operating space in order to get the clear pictures. With the limitation of joint velocity, acceleration and jerk, this optimization model can not only get the minimum working time along a specific path, but also ensure the imaging quality of camera through the constraint of inspecting velocity. The upper bound of the scanning speed is not a constant but changes according to the observation distance of camera in real time. The relation between scanning velocity and observation distance is estimated by curve-fitting. Experiment has been carried out to verify the feasibility of optimization model, moreover, the Laplace image sharpness evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the quality of images obtained by the proposed method.

  10. The time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hesheng; Lai, Yinping; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new optimization model of time optimal trajectory planning with limitation of operating task for the Tokamak inspecting manipulator is designed. The task of this manipulator is to inspect the components of Tokamak, the inspecting velocity of manipulator must be limited in the operating space in order to get the clear pictures. With the limitation of joint velocity, acceleration and jerk, this optimization model can not only get the minimum working time along a specific path, but also ensure the imaging quality of camera through the constraint of inspecting velocity. The upper bound of the scanning speed is not a constant but changes according to the observation distance of camera in real time. The relation between scanning velocity and observation distance is estimated by curve-fitting. Experiment has been carried out to verify the feasibility of optimization model, moreover, the Laplace image sharpness evaluation method is adopted to evaluate the quality of images obtained by the proposed method.

  11. A robust optimization based approach for microgrid operation in deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.A.; Gupta, Nand Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RO based approach developed for optimal MG operation in deregulated environment. • Wind uncertainty modeled by interval forecasting through ARIMA model. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach evaluated the impact of degree of robustness. • Proposed approach gives a significant reduction in operation cost of microgrid. - Abstract: Micro Grids (MGs) are clusters of Distributed Energy Resource (DER) units and loads. MGs are self-sustainable and generally operated in two modes: (1) grid connected and (2) grid isolated. In deregulated environment, the operation of MG is managed by the Microgrid Operator (MO) with an objective to minimize the total cost of operation. The MG management is crucial in the deregulated power system due to (i) integration of intermittent renewable sources such as wind and Photo Voltaic (PV) generation, and (ii) volatile grid prices. This paper presents robust optimization based approach for optimal MG management considering wind power uncertainty. Time series based Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model is used to characterize the wind power uncertainty through interval forecasting. The proposed approach is illustrated through a case study having both dispatchable and non-dispatchable generators through different modes of operation. Further the impact of degree of robustness is analyzed in both cases on the total cost of operation of the MG. A comparative analysis between obtained results using proposed approach and other existing approach shows the strength of proposed approach in cost minimization in MG management

  12. Neuro-optimal operation of a variable air volume HVAC and R system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Min; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are some reasons for high energy consumption of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC and R) systems. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC and R systems should be efficiently operated to maintain a desired indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions. This study proposes a neural network based optimal supervisory operation strategy to find the optimal set points for chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and VAV system fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. Simulation results show that compared to the conventional night reset operation scheme, the optimal operation scheme saves around 10% energy under full load condition and 19% energy under partial load conditions.

  13. Operation of a plant for waste combustion in the dim frames and the national and Europe legislation in the case of the solid waste combustion plant Rugenberger-Dam in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, D.; Zwahr, D.

    2000-01-01

    The difficulties in the operation of a waste processing plant are demonstrated on the example of the waste combustion facility Rudenberger-Dam in Hamburg. The installation and processes are described in details. The produced in the process 30% HCL is in compliance with the requirements for a commercial product, but since it is produced as a result from the processing of waste gases, it is treated as a waste product. Similar problems occur in other installations. German and European legislation in the field of waste management are unnecessary complicated. The introduction of technical frame conditions in the laws often presents an obstacle for the application of new technologies. It is pointed out that the time for changes in the environment legislation has come

  14. Core design and operation optimization methods based on time-dependent perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1983-08-01

    A general approach for the optimization of nuclear reactor core design and operation is outlined; it is based on two cornerstones: a newly developed time-dependent (or burnup-dependent) perturbation theory for nonlinear problems and a succesive iteration technique. The resulting approach is capable of handling realistic reactor models using computational methods of any degree of sophistication desired, while accounting for all the constraints imposed. Three general optimization strategies, different in the way for handling the constraints, are formulated. (author)

  15. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    river base beneath the dam structure. In fact , this layer has not been considered in the analysis as well in design. Because of fully saturated condition of this layer in an operation period of dam it might subjected to liquefaction during the happening of the earthquake. Evaluation of liquefaction potential of this layer based on Seed and Idriss (1971 diagram showed probability of this phenomenon. To prove this hypothesis, the stability analysis had been conducted in two different conditions by including the thin sandy layer and without considering the mentioned layer. The analysis showed in the case of absence of sandy layer the required safety factor was satisfied, but including the sandy layer leads cause the safety factor dropped to 0.84 that means accruing of liquefaction in the thin layer would lead to structural instability of the studied dam. The simulation of the behavior of dam by employing the accrued earthquake acceleration confirmed the liquefaction has been accrued in the thin sandy layer. The results of finite element simulation showed the depth of the cracks on the crest is about 2 meters and also the upstream slope has slipped about 81 mm to the reservoir of the dam. These results was consistent with the observed values. To overcome the next risks, also to repair the damaged parts of the dam, 3 different methods had been proposed. The curing technics was deploying of the reservoir and removing of the damage part of the dam and as well the thin sandy layer and reconstructed that part of dam, Deploying of reservoir of the dam and adjusting the slope of the upper shoulder to stable condition and at least repairing the developed cracks by injecting cement slurry and tolerate the current condition without imposition any additional costs to the project. The third method has been selected, but for any probable risky condition monitoring of the dam has been advised. Conclusion: Based on the overall results of the investigations, it was concluded that cracking

  16. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The results showed that coordinated optimization of the energy distribution have significant benefits for reducing wind curtailment, operation cost, and energy losses. The proposed model and methodology could help system operators with decision support in the emerging...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss...

  17. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stochastic. Under the assumptions, the proposed operating strategy for battery is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem considering reliability and failure number. And an explicit expression of the average cost rate is derived for battery lifetime. Results show that the proposed operating strategy enhances the availability and reliability at a low cost.

  18. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  19. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  20. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  1. Multi-objective particle swarm and genetic algorithm for the optimization of the LANSCE linac operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, X.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are both nature-inspired population based optimization methods. Compared to GA, whose long history can trace back to 1975, PSO is a relatively new heuristic search method first proposed in 1995. Due to its fast convergence rate in single objective optimization domain, the PSO method has been extended to optimize multi-objective problems. In this paper, we will introduce the PSO method and its multi-objective extension, the MOPSO, apply it along with the MOGA (mainly the NSGA-II) to simulations of the LANSCE linac and operational set point optimizations. Our tests show that both methods can provide very similar Pareto fronts but the MOPSO converges faster

  2. Combining On-Line Characterization Tools with Modern Software Environments for Optimal Operation of Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ghadipasha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial steps towards the formulation and implementation of a generic and flexible model centric framework for integrated simulation, estimation, optimization and feedback control of polymerization processes. For the first time it combines the powerful capabilities of the automatic continuous on-line monitoring of polymerization system (ACOMP, with a modern simulation, estimation and optimization software environment towards an integrated scheme for the optimal operation of polymeric processes. An initial validation of the framework was performed for modelling and optimization using literature data, illustrating the flexibility of the method to apply under different systems and conditions. Subsequently, off-line capabilities of the system were fully tested experimentally for model validations, parameter estimation and process optimization using ACOMP data. Experimental results are provided for free radical solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  3. Multi-objective particle swarm and genetic algorithm for the optimization of the LANSCE linac operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, X., E-mail: xpang@lanl.gov; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2014-03-21

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are both nature-inspired population based optimization methods. Compared to GA, whose long history can trace back to 1975, PSO is a relatively new heuristic search method first proposed in 1995. Due to its fast convergence rate in single objective optimization domain, the PSO method has been extended to optimize multi-objective problems. In this paper, we will introduce the PSO method and its multi-objective extension, the MOPSO, apply it along with the MOGA (mainly the NSGA-II) to simulations of the LANSCE linac and operational set point optimizations. Our tests show that both methods can provide very similar Pareto fronts but the MOPSO converges faster.

  4. Design of teleoperated robot system for nozzle dam maintenance in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Hoi; Hwang, Suk-Young; Lee, Young-Gwang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jong-Min

    1994-01-01

    The recent development of teleoperated manipulator system in KAERI is presented. The manipulator system is composed of master-slave arm and control system with VME based hierarchical structure. Supervisory control part with graphic workstation provides affluent visual information to human operator. This robot can be operated either in the teleoperation mode with master-slave or in the program mode running by computer system itself to enable installation or removal of nozzle dam appropriately within a water chamber of steam generator. Evaluation and analysis have been carried out to get optimal parameters of the robot. (author)

  5. Optimal year-round operation of a concentrated solar energy plant in the south of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Lidia; Martín, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We present the year-round optimization of the operation of a concentrated solar power facility evaluating the molten salts storage, the power block and cooling. We locate the plant in the south of Europe, Almería (Spain), where high solar radiation is available. The operation of the plant is a function of the solar incidence as well as the climate and atmospheric conditions. The optimization of the system is formulated as a multiperiod Non-linear Programming problem (NLP) that is solved for the optimal production of electricity over a year defining the main operating variables of the thermal and cooling cycles. For a maximum of 25 MW in summer and a minimum of 9.5 MW in winter the annual production cost of electricity is 0.15 €/kWh consuming an average of 2.1 L water /kWh. The investment for the plant is 260 M€. Scale-up studies reveal that the production cost can decrease by half while the investment per unit of power should become competitive with current coal based power plants if solar and coal facilities present similar production capacities. -- Highlights: • Plant design so far relies on process simulation and only partial optimization studies. • We optimize the operation of a concentrated solar power plant. • The facility involves solar field, molten salts, steam and electricity generation and cooling. • The results are promising and validate literature sensitive studies

  6. Live Operation Data Collection Optimization and Communication for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office's Rail Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelston, Gariann M.

    2010-01-01

    For the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office's Rail Test Center (i.e., DNDO's RTC), port operation knowledge with flexible collection tools and technique are essential in both technology testing design and implementation intended for live operational settings. Increased contextual data, flexibility in procedures, and rapid availability of information are keys to addressing the challenges of optimization, validation, and analysis within live operational setting data collection. These concepts need to be integrated into technology testing designs, data collection, validation, and analysis processes. A modified data collection technique with a two phased live operation test method is proposed.

  7. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  8. Optimization of operating schedule of machines in granite industry using evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loganthurai, P.; Rajasekaran, V.; Gnanambal, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating time of machines in granite industries was studied. • Operating time has been optimized using evolutionary algorithms such as PSO, DE. • The maximum demand has been reduced. • Hence the electricity cost of the industry and feeder stress have been reduced. - Abstract: Electrical energy consumption cost plays an important role in the production cost of any industry. The electrical energy consumption cost is calculated as two part tariff, the first part is maximum demand cost and the second part is energy consumption cost or unit cost (kW h). The maximum demand cost can be reduced without affecting the production. This paper focuses on the reduction of maximum demand by proper operating schedule of major equipments. For this analysis, various granite industries are considered. The major equipments in granite industries are cutting machine, polishing machine and compressor. To reduce the maximum demand, the operating time of polishing machine is rescheduled by optimization techniques such as Differential Evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The maximum demand costs are calculated before and after rescheduling. The results show that if the machines are optimally operated, the cost is reduced. Both DE and PSO algorithms reduce the maximum demand cost at the same rate for all the granite industries. However, the optimum scheduling obtained by DE reduces the feeder power flow than the PSO scheduling

  9. Research on Cascade Reservoirs’ Short-Term Optimal Operation under the Effect of Reverse Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Ji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently research on joint operation of a large reservoir and its re-regulating reservoir focuses on either water quantity regulation or water head regulation. The accuracy of relevant models is in need of improvement if the influence of factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are taken into consideration. In this paper, given the actual production of Pankou-Xiaoxuan cascade hydropower stations that combines two operation modes (‘electricity to water’ and ‘water to electricity’, a coupling model of their short-term optimal operation is developed, which considers Xiaoxuan reservoir’s regulating effect on Pankou reservoir’s outflow volume and water head. Factors such as water flow hysteresis and the aftereffect of tail water level variation are also considered to enhance the model’s accuracy. The Backward Propagation (BP neural network is employed for precise calculation of the downstream reservoir’s inflow and the upstream reservoir’s tail water level. Besides, we put forth Accompanying Progressive Optimality Algorithm (APOA to solve the coupling model with aftereffect. An example is given to verify the scientificity of the proposed model and the advantages of APOA. Through analysis of the model calculation results, the optimal operation rules of the cascade reservoirs are obtained in terms of water quantity regulation and water head regulation, which can provide scientific reference for cascade reservoirs’ optimal operation.

  10. Stochastic optimization of energy hub operation with consideration of thermal energy market and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahid-Pakdel, M.J.; Nojavan, Sayyad; Mohammadi-ivatloo, B.; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying heating market impact on energy hub operation considering price uncertainty. • Investigating impact of implementation of heat demand response on hub operation. • Presenting stochastic method to consider wind generation and prices uncertainties. - Abstract: Multi carrier energy systems or energy hubs has provided more flexibility for energy management systems. On the other hand, due to mutual impact of different energy carriers in energy hubs, energy management studies become more challengeable. The initial patterns of energy demands from grids point of view can be modified by optimal scheduling of energy hubs. In this work, optimal operation of multi carrier energy system has been studied in the presence of wind farm, electrical and thermal storage systems, electrical and thermal demand response programs, electricity market and thermal energy market. Stochastic programming is implemented for modeling the system uncertainties such as demands, market prices and wind speed. It is shown that adding new source of heat energy for providing demand of consumers with market mechanism changes the optimal operation point of multi carrier energy system. Presented mixed integer linear formulation for the problem has been solved by executing CPLEX solver of GAMS optimization software. Simulation results shows that hub’s operation cost reduces up to 4.8% by enabling the option of using thermal energy market for meeting heat demand.

  11. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  12. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    schists and in propylitized andesite volcanic rocks. Tests on chlorite-bearing graywackes (Lumni Island and Robe Quarry, Seattle District) and... propylitized chlorite-bearing andesites (Blue River and Lookout Point Dams, Portland District) have shown these rocks to be durable materials with only minor

  13. Thermal monitoring of leakage through Karkheh embankment dam, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghasemi, A.A.; Bagheri, S.M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Heidarzadeh, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Mahab Ghodss Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A newly developed and simple method for monitoring seepage in embankment dams was presented. The method of temperature measurement is based on the fact that a change in permeability results in a change in seepage flow, thereby causing a temperature change that can be readily measured in the dam body and foundation. In this study, water leaking through the Karkheh embankment dam was thermally analyzed to determine a pattern and amount of water seepage. With nearly 33 million cubic metres of fill, the Karkheh earth and rock-fill dam is the largest dam in Iran. Construction was completed in 2000. The thermal processes in the embankment were studied due to the dam's complex thermo-hydraulic behaviour. Thermal data was collected and analyzed during construction and operation of the dam. This paper presented the temperature variations for the different dam zones, including core, upstream shell, downstream shell, upstream filter, downstream filter and the plastic concrete cut-off wall. It was determined that the clay core works very well as an impermeable curtain. It was also shown that temperature variations of the Karkheh reservoir water is seasonal, and decrease as water depth increases. The reservoir water temperature remains constant beyond depths of 60 metres. The thermal behaviour of the core is not similar to that of the reservoir, indicating a very low value of seepage through the core. The pattern of temperature variations in the upstream shell in the left abutment is harmonic, while in the right abutment it is not harmonic. A harmonic pattern of temperature variation exists in some aquifers of the dam foundation, indicating high seepage through these aquifers. The Karkheh dam cut-off wall performs satisfactorily. It was determined that one dimensional equations for estimating seepage cannot be applied for the Karkheh dam. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  14. METHODS OF EVALUATION AND INDICATORS OF OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND VEHICLES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Volkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of forming methods of determination and system, as a part of the computer-integrated technology of transport operation, estimation of indecies of the optimal temperature state of the ICE and the vehicle under operation conditions, which is provided with the help of analysis of possible schemes and processes of the complex system of combined heating, using the technology of heat accumulation are described.

  15. Method and apparatus for optimizing operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, David [Mentor, OH; Katrompas, Alexander M [Concord, OH; Parikh, Neel J [Richmond Heights, OH

    2009-09-01

    A method and apparatus for optimizing the operation of a power generating plant using artificial intelligence techniques. One or more decisions D are determined for at least one consecutive time increment, where at least one of the decisions D is associated with a discrete variable for the operation of a power plant device in the power generating plant. In an illustrated embodiment, the power plant device is a soot cleaning device associated with a boiler.

  16. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  17. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  18. Quantifying the Effects of Near-Bed Concentration on the Sediment Flux after the Operation of the Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The regime of sediment transport in the Jingjiang Reach has significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to sub-saturation since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, and vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC have changed accordingly. Vertical profiles of SSC data measured at three hydrological stations in the Jingjiang Reach (Zhicheng, Shaishi, and Jianli, before and after the impoundment of TGD, were collected and analyzed. Analytic results indicate a remarkably large concentration in the near-bed zone (within 10% of water depth from the river-bed in a sub-saturated channel. The maximum measured concentration was up to 15 times the vertical average concentration, while the ratio in quasi-equilibrium channel was less than four times that. Concentrations normalized with reference concentration at the same height, and may decrease with increasing values of suspension index (settling velocity over shear velocity. In addition, concentration near the water surface may be larger than concentration in the near-bed region when the suspension index is smaller than 0.01. Sediment flux transported in the near-bed zone may be up to 35% of the total sediment flux in unsaturated flows. The relationship between deviations of estimating sediment flux when ignoring the near-bed concentration and discharge in flood season and non-flood season are different in unsaturated and quasi-equilibrium channels. Analysis indicates that, in the quasi-equilibrium channel, more attention should be paid to near-bed concentration during non-flood season, the same as measurements during flood season with larger discharge.

  19. Optimal economic and environment operation of micro-grid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsied, Moataz; Oukaour, Amrane; Gualous, Hamid; Lo Brutto, Ottavio A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time energy management system for Micro-Grid power systems is introduced. • The management system considered cost objective function and emission constraints. • The optimization problem is solved using Binary Particle Swarm Algorithm. • Advanced real-time interface libraries are used to run the optimization code. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced real-time energy management system is proposed in order to optimize micro-grid performance in a real-time operation. The proposed strategy of the management system capitalizes on the power of binary particle swarm optimization algorithm to minimize the energy cost and carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions while maximizing the power of the available renewable energy resources. Advanced real-time interface libraries are used to run the optimization code. The simulation results are considered for three different scenarios considering the complexity of the proposed problem. The proposed management system along with its control system is experimentally tested to validate the simulation results obtained from the optimization algorithm. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed management system for micro-grids operation.

  20. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  1. Perencanaan Check Dam Sungai Dawe Kudus

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaanah, Adibatul; Pinandoyo, Nur; Sugiyanto, Sugiyanto; Wahyuni, Sri Eko

    2013-01-01

    Juana river's located in two administrative regions Kudus and Pati had superficial. This is because the slope of the river is quite gentle and the level of environmental degradation in the watershed (DAS) Juana river's have increased. Based on these conditions, it is necessary to plan the construction of sediment control (check dams) to reduce sedimentation along the river and optimize the function of the Juana river's. Planning is performed on Dawe river's ,the branch of Juana river's. From ...

  2. Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  3. The primary ion source for construction and optimization of operation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synowiecki, A.; Gazda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of primary ion source for SIMS has been presented. The influence of individual operation parameters on the properties of ion source has been investigated. Optimization of these parameters has allowed to appreciate usefulness of the ion source for SIMS study. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Fast reactor parameter optimization taking into account changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrin, B.A.; Rechnov, A.V.; Usynin, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The formulation and solution of optimization problem for parameters determining the layout of the central part of sodium cooled power reactor taking into account possible changes in fuel charge type during reactor operation time are performed. The losses under change of fuel composition type for two reactor modifications providing for minimum doubling time for oxide and carbide fuels respectively, are estimated

  5. Optimal hysteretic control for a BMAP/SM/1/N queue with two operation modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dudin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider BMAP/SM/1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N. The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of BMAP-input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.

  6. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...

  7. IEP (Individualized Educational Program) Co-operation between Optimal Support of Students with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Akio; Ogoshi, Sakiko; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Araki, Chikahiro

    A key aspect of the optimal support of students with special needs is co-ordination and co-operation between school, home and specialized agencies. Communication between these entities is of prime importance and can be facilitated through the use of a support system implementing ICF guidelines as outlined. This communication system can be considered to be a preventative rather than allopathic support.

  8. Comparison of three control strategies for optimization of spray dryer operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    controllers for operation of a four-stage spray dryer. The three controllers are a proportional-integral (PI) controller that is used in industrial practice for spray dryer operation, a linear model predictive controller with real-time optimization (MPC with RTO, MPC-RTO), and an economically optimizing...... nonlinear model predictive controller (E-NMPC). The MPC with RTO is based on the same linear state space model in the MPC and the RTO layer. The E-NMPC consists of a single optimization layer that uses a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations for its predictions. The PI control strategy has...... the production rate, while minimizing the energy consumption, keeping the residual moisture content of the powder below a maximum limit, and avoiding that the powder sticks to the chamber walls. We use an industrially recorded disturbance scenario in order to produce realistic simulations and conclusions...

  9. Walden North Dam overtopping : emergency response and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, S. [FortisBC Inc., South Slocan, BC (Canada); McCreanor, J. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Cronin, D.L.R.; Daw, D. [Acres International Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper described the events that led to the overtopping of the Walden North Dam during a heavy rainfall in June 2002, resulting in a breach around an abutment wall. The dam is part of a run-of-river hydro development on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet, British Columbia. The Walden North Dam was a low, 46 meter wide concrete dam with a single radial gate. The dam overtopping was attributed to failure of the radial gate hoist. Prior to this event, the dam had been classified by the British Columbia Dam Safety Authorities as a high and then a low consequence category of failure. As facility managers, Aquila Networks Canada Ltd. established an immediate action plan to stabilize the situation and resume normal power production by applying the following priorities: (1) ensure safety of workers and the public, (2) limit further damage to the dam and other facilities, (3) ensure environmental protection, and (4) continue to operate the generation units. Local authorities were informed to evacuate a downstream campsite and environmental agencies were contacted along with safety regulators. Repairs included demolition of the damaged portion of the structure and construction a new two-bay gate/stoplog spillway and bridge. Construction was completed by September 2003 according to the requirements of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for minimum flow, accurate control of fish flows and environmental monitoring of the stream area. 10 figs.

  10. Application study of evolutionary operation methods in optimization of process parameters for mosquito coils industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, E.; Tambunanand, M. M.; Syahputri, K.

    2018-02-01

    Evolutionary Operation Methods (EVOP) is a method that is designed used in the process of running or operating routinely in the company to enables high productivity. Quality is one of the critical factors for a company to win the competition. Because of these conditions, the research for products quality has been done by gathering the production data of the company and make a direct observation to the factory floor especially the drying department to identify the problem which is the high water content in the mosquito incense coil. PT.X which is producing mosquito coils attempted to reduce product defects caused by the inaccuracy of operating conditions. One of the parameters of good quality insect repellent that is water content, that if the moisture content is too high then the product easy to mold and broken, and vice versa if it is too low the products are easily broken and burn shorter hours. Three factors that affect the value of the optimal water content, the stirring time, drying temperature and drying time. To obtain the required conditions Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) methods is used. Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) is used as an efficient technique for optimization of two or three variable experimental parameters using two-level factorial designs with center point. Optimal operating conditions in the experiment are stirring time performed for 20 minutes, drying temperature at 65°C, and drying time for 130 minutes. The results of the analysis based on the method of Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) value is the optimum water content of 6.90%, which indicates the value has approached the optimal in a production plant that is 7%.

  11. Optimization and planning of operating theatre activities: an original definition of pathways and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Simone; Corradi, Luca; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Iannucci, Marina; Porro, Ivan; Rosso, Nicola; Tanfani, Elena; Testi, Angela

    2015-05-17

    The Operating Room (OR) is a key resource of all major hospitals, but it also accounts for up 40% of resource costs. Improving cost effectiveness, while maintaining a quality of care, is a universal objective. These goals imply an optimization of planning and a scheduling of the activities involved. This is highly challenging due to the inherent variable and unpredictable nature of surgery. A Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN 2.0) was used for the representation of the "OR Process" (being defined as the sequence of all of the elementary steps between "patient ready for surgery" to "patient operated upon") as a general pathway ("path"). The path was then both further standardized as much as possible and, at the same time, keeping all of the key-elements that would allow one to address or define the other steps of planning, and the inherent and wide variability in terms of patient specificity. The path was used to schedule OR activity, room-by-room, and day-by-day, feeding the process from a "waiting list database" and using a mathematical optimization model with the objective of ending up in an optimized planning. The OR process was defined with special attention paid to flows, timing and resource involvement. Standardization involved a dynamics operation and defined an expected operating time for each operation. The optimization model has been implemented and tested on real clinical data. The comparison of the results reported with the real data, shows that by using the optimization model, allows for the scheduling of about 30% more patients than in actual practice, as well as to better exploit the OR efficiency, increasing the average operating room utilization rate up to 20%. The optimization of OR activity planning is essential in order to manage the hospital's waiting list. Optimal planning is facilitated by defining the operation as a standard pathway where all variables are taken into account. By allowing a precise scheduling, it feeds the process of

  12. Optimal reducibility of all W states equivalent under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Swapan; Parashar, Preeti [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 BT Road, Kolkata (India)

    2011-11-15

    We show that all multipartite pure states that are stochastic local operation and classical communication (SLOCC) equivalent to the N-qubit W state can be uniquely determined (among arbitrary states) from their bipartite marginals. We also prove that only (N-1) of the bipartite marginals are sufficient and that this is also the optimal number. Thus, contrary to the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class, W-type states preserve their reducibility under SLOCC. We also study the optimal reducibility of some larger classes of states. The generic Dicke states |GD{sub N}{sup l}> are shown to be optimally determined by their (l+1)-partite marginals. The class of ''G'' states (superposition of W and W) are shown to be optimally determined by just two (N-2)-partite marginals.

  13. Operation Characteristics Optimization of Low Power Three-Phase Asynchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLAD, I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most published papers on low power asynchronous motors were aimed to achieve better operational performances in different operating conditions. The optimal design of the general-purpose motors requires searching and selecting an electric machine to meet minimum operating costs criterion and certain customer imposed restrictive conditions. In this paper, there are many significant simulations providing qualitative and quantitative information on reducing active and reactive energy losses in motors, and on parameters and constructive solution. The optimization study applied the minimal operating costs criterion, and it took into account the starting restrictive conditions. Thirteen variables regarding electromagnetic stresses and main constructive dimensions were considered. The operating costs of the optimized motor decreased with 25.6%, as compared to the existing solution. This paper can be a practical and theoretical support for the development and implementation of modern design methods, based on theoretical and experimental study of stationary and transient processes in low power motors, to increase efficiency and power factor.

  14. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.

  15. Optimized Skip-Stop Metro Line Operation Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peitong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skip-stop operation is a low cost approach to improving the efficiency of metro operation and passenger travel experience. This paper proposes a novel method to optimize the skip-stop scheme for bidirectional metro lines so that the average passenger travel time can be minimized. Different from the conventional “A/B” scheme, the proposed Flexible Skip-Stop Scheme (FSSS can better accommodate spatially and temporally varied passenger demand. A genetic algorithm (GA based approach is then developed to efficiently search for the optimal solution. A case study is conducted based on a real world bidirectional metro line in Shenzhen, China, using the time-dependent passenger demand extracted from smart card data. It is found that the optimized skip-stop operation is able to reduce the average passenger travel time and transit agencies may benefit from this scheme due to energy and operational cost savings. Analyses are made to evaluate the effects of that fact that certain number of passengers fail to board the right train (due to skip operation. Results show that FSSS always outperforms the all-stop scheme even when most passengers of the skipped OD pairs are confused and cannot get on the right train.

  16. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  17. The socio-economics dynamics of Dam on Rural Communities: A case study of Oyan Dam, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Amidu; Ojifo, Lawrence

    2018-06-01

    Dams construction and operations have many benefits, nevertheless, they have also led to lots of negative social, health and human impacts. It is based on this that this study assesses the potential and socio-economics dynamics of Oyan dam between 1980 and 2016. The data used for this study include water level and discharge records of the dam between 2007 and 2016, Landsat imageries of 1984 and 2016 and socio-economic datasets for the period. Analysis of the dam potentials (water supply, agriculture and hydropower) and socio-economic impacts of the dam were carried out using basic statistical tools, land use change anaysis and field survey using questionnaire, structured interview with major stakeholders and personal observation. The results revealed that the water level and storage of the Oyan dam had a relative reduction of about 2 % as well as non-stationarity pattern of water abstraction and production for the period. The landuse classes show all classes decreased in extent except the cultivated landuse that acrued an increased of 19.9 % between 1984 and 2016. Furthermore, commercial water supply varied significantly between 2010 and 2016 while irrigation scheme is grossly under-utilized from the inception in 1983 to 2016. Finally, the result of socio-economic impacts revealed that majority of the selected communities' members are actually not benefiting from the dam and their livelihoods are not from the dam.

  18. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  19. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  20. An Improved Multi-Objective Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm with Regulation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyuan Huo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve effective and accurate optimization for multi-objective optimization problems, a multi-objective artificial bee colony algorithm with regulation operators (RMOABC inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees was proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm utilizes the Pareto dominance theory and takes advantage of adaptive grid and regulation operator mechanisms. The adaptive grid technique is used to adaptively assess the Pareto front maintained in an external archive and the regulation operator is used to balance the weights of the local search and the global search in the evolution of the algorithm. The performance of RMOABC was evaluated in comparison with other nature inspired algorithms includes NSGA-II and MOEA/D. The experiments results demonstrated that the RMOABC approach has better accuracy and minimal execution time.

  1. Energy and operation management of a microgrid using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Jordan; Jevtić, Miroljub; Klimenta, Dardan

    2016-05-01

    This article presents an efficient algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) for energy and operation management (EOM) of a microgrid including different distributed generation units and energy storage devices. The proposed approach employs PSO to minimize the total energy and operating cost of the microgrid via optimal adjustment of the control variables of the EOM, while satisfying various operating constraints. Owing to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties and market prices, a probabilistic approach in the EOM is introduced. The proposed method is examined and tested on a typical grid-connected microgrid including fuel cell, gas-fired microturbine, wind turbine, photovoltaic and energy storage devices. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve the EOM of the microgrids.

  2. Optimal offering and operating strategies for wind-storage systems with linear decision rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    The participation of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS) in electricity markets calls for an integrated view of day-ahead offering strategies and real-time operation policies. Such an integrated strategy is proposed here by co-optimizing offering at the day-ahead stage and operation policy...... to be used at the balancing stage. Linear decision rules are seen as a natural approach to model and optimize the real-time operation policy. These allow enhancing profits from balancing markets based on updated information on prices and wind power generation. Our integrated strategies for WF...

  3. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  4. Optimization of conventional rule curves coupled with hedging rules for reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghian, Mehrdad; Rosbjerg, Dan; Haghighi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    As a common approach to reservoir operating policies, water levels at the end of each time interval should be kept at or above the rule curve. In this study, the policy is captured using rationing of the target yield to reduce the intensity of severe water shortages. For this purpose, a hybrid...... to achieve the optimal water allocation and the target storage levels for reservoirs. As a case study, a multipurpose, multireservoir system in southern Iran is selected. The results show that the model has good performance in extracting the optimum policy for reservoir operation under both normal...... model is developed to optimize simultaneously both the conventional rule curve and the hedging rule. In the compound model, a simple genetic algorithm is coupled with a simulation program, including an inner linear programming algorithm. In this way, operational policies are imposed by priority concepts...

  5. Advances of radioisotope for design, intensification and optimization of processes and operations in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In chemical industries different processes and operations involve a variety of multiphase contacting schemes for optimal production schedule in terms of ease of handling, time and money. A number of parameters will have to be optimized for this purpose. Further more, during the operation of a process plant, a number of problems such as reduction in process efficiency, deterioration in product quality etc. are encountered due to malfunctioning of one or more components. The successful operation of an industry depends on the early detection of the problems for appropriate remedial action. These are conveniently carried out by the application of radioisotopes either directly or in sealed condition depending upon the problem to be addressed. In this talk both types of radiotracer applications are discussed by taking specific examples

  6. Optimal Bidding of a Microgrid Based on Probabilistic Analysis of Island Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyoung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Island operation of a microgrid increases operation survivability and reliability when there is a large accident in a main grid. However, because a microgrid typically has limited generation capability, a microgrid operator (MGO has to take the risk of island operation into account in its market participation and generation scheduling to ensure efficient operation. In this paper, a microgrid islanding event is interpreted as a trade suspension of a contract, and a set of islanding rules is presented in the form of a market rule. The risk of island operation is evaluated by modeling the microgrid islanding stochastically using an islanding probability function, which is defined in the form of a conditional probability to reflect the influence of outside conditions. An optimal bidding strategy is obtained for the MGO by formulating and solving an optimization problem to minimize the expected operating cost. The effectiveness of the proposed method was investigated by numerical simulations in which the proposed method and two other methods were applied to the same microgrid. Numerical sensitivity analyses of the coefficients of the islanding probability function were conducted to determine how an MGO copes with changes in outside conditions.

  7. Study on MPGA-BP of Gravity Dam Deformation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is an important physical quantity of hydraulic structures deformation monitoring, and its prediction accuracy is the premise of ensuring the safe operation. Most existing metaheuristic methods have three problems: (1 falling into local minimum easily, (2 slowing convergence, and (3 the initial value’s sensitivity. Resolving these three problems and improving the prediction accuracy necessitate the application of genetic algorithm-based backpropagation (GA-BP neural network and multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA. A hybrid multiple population genetic algorithm backpropagation (MPGA-BP neural network algorithm is put forward to optimize deformation prediction from periodic monitoring surveys of hydraulic structures. This hybrid model is employed for analyzing the displacement of a gravity dam in China. The results show the proposed model is superior to an ordinary BP neural network and statistical regression model in the aspect of global search, convergence speed, and prediction accuracy.

  8. Operation optimization of a distributed energy system considering energy costs and exergy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Somma, M.; Yan, B.; Bianco, N.; Graditi, G.; Luh, P.B.; Mongibello, L.; Naso, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation optimization model of a Distributed Energy System (DES). • Multi-objective strategy to optimize energy cost and exergy efficiency. • Exergy analysis in building energy supply systems. - Abstract: With the growing demand of energy on a worldwide scale, improving the efficiency of energy resource use has become one of the key challenges. Application of exergy principles in the context of building energy supply systems can achieve rational use of energy resources by taking into account the different quality levels of energy resources as well as those of building demands. This paper is on the operation optimization of a Distributed Energy System (DES). The model involves multiple energy devices that convert a set of primary energy carriers with different energy quality levels to meet given time-varying user demands at different energy quality levels. By promoting the usage of low-temperature energy sources to satisfy low-quality thermal energy demands, the waste of high-quality energy resources can be reduced, thereby improving the overall exergy efficiency. To consider the economic factor as well, a multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated. The Pareto frontier, including the best possible trade-offs between the economic and exergetic objectives, is obtained by minimizing a weighted sum of the total energy cost and total primary exergy input using branch-and-cut. The operation strategies of the DES under different weights for the two objectives are discussed. The operators of DESs can choose the operation strategy from the Pareto frontier based on costs, essential in the short run, and sustainability, crucial in the long run. The contribution of each energy device in reducing energy costs and the total exergy input is also analyzed. In addition, results show that the energy cost can be much reduced and the overall exergy efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimized operation of the DES as compared with the

  9. A Survey of Recent Research on Optimization Models and Algorithms for Operations Management from the Process View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, optimization in operations management has grown ever more popular not only in the academic literature but also in practice. However, the problems have varied a lot, and few literature reviews have provided an overview of the models and algorithms that are applied to the optimization in operations management. In this paper, we first classify crucial optimization areas of operations management from the process point of view and then analyze the current status and trends of the studies in those areas. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of optimization modelling and resolution approaches, which are applied to operations management.

  10. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-07-01

    powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  11. Determination of the Optimal Operating Parameters for Jefferson Laboratory's Cryogenic Cold Compressor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr., Joe D. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The technology of Jefferson Laboratory's (JLab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and Free Electron Laser (FEL) requires cooling from one of the world's largest 2K helium refrigerators known as the Central Helium Liquefier (CHL). The key characteristic of CHL is the ability to maintain a constant low vapor pressure over the large liquid helium inventory using a series of five cold compressors. The cold compressor system operates with a constrained discharge pressure over a range of suction pressures and mass flows to meet the operational requirements of CEBAF and FEL. The research topic is the prediction of the most thermodynamically efficient conditions for the system over its operating range of mass flows and vapor pressures with minimum disruption to JLab operations. The research goal is to find the operating points for each cold compressor for optimizing the overall system at any given flow and vapor pressure.

  12. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Jonas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel’s calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  13. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Wagner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  14. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonas; Binkowski, Eva; Bronsart, Robert

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC) the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  15. Condenser design optimization and operation characteristics of a novel miniature loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhenping; Wang Xiaowu; Tang Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system was presented. ► Optimal design of condenser was considered. ► The heat transfer performance was investigated experimentally. - Abstract: Loop heat pipe (LHP) is a promising means for electronics cooling since LHP is a exceptionally efficient heat transfer device. In this paper, a novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system is presented and optimal design of condenser is considered seeing that evaporators have been able to handle very high-heat fluxes with low-heat transfer resistances since most of the previous researchers focused on the evaporator of mLHP. The arrayed pins were designed and machined out on the bottom of condenser to enhance condensation heat transfer. The parameters of the arrayed pins, including layout, cross-section shape and area, were optimized by finite element analysis. Tests were carried out on the mLHP with a CPU thermal simulator using forced air convection condenser cooling to validate the optimization. The operation characteristics of the mLHP with optimal design parameters of condenser were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the mLHP can reject head load 200 W while maintaining the cooled object temperatures below 100 °C, and for a variable power applied to the evaporator, the system presents reliable startups and continuous operation.

  16. Energy Hub’s Structural and Operational Optimization for Minimal Energy Usage Costs in Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Tung Ha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The structural and optimal operation of an Energy Hub (EH has a tremendous influence on the hub’s performance and reliability. This paper envisions an innovative methodology that prominently increases the synergy between structural and operational optimization and targets system cost affordability. The generalized energy system structure is presented theoretically with all selective hub sub-modules, including electric heater (EHe and solar sources block sub-modules. To minimize energy usage cost, an energy hub is proposed that consists of 12 kinds of elements (i.e., energy resources, conversion, and storage functions and is modeled mathematically in a General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS, which indicates the optimal hub structure’s corresponding elements with binary variables (0, 1. Simulation results contrast with 144 various scenarios established in all 144 categories of hub structures, in which for each scenario the corresponding optimal operation cost is previously calculated. These case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested model and methodology. Finally, avenues for future research are also prospected.

  17. Optimization of startup and shutdown operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhou; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Raisch, Jörg; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2011-06-24

    This paper presents new multistage optimal startup and shutdown strategies for simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes. The proposed concept allows to adjust transient operating conditions stage-wise, and provides capability to improve transient performance and to fulfill product quality specifications simultaneously. A specially tailored decomposition algorithm is developed to ensure computational tractability of the resulting dynamic optimization problems. By examining the transient operation of a literature separation example characterized by nonlinear competitive isotherm, the feasibility of the solution approach is demonstrated, and the performance of the conventional and multistage optimal transient regimes is evaluated systematically. The quantitative results clearly show that the optimal operating policies not only allow to significantly reduce both duration of the transient phase and desorbent consumption, but also enable on-spec production even during startup and shutdown periods. With the aid of the developed transient procedures, short-term separation campaigns with small batch sizes can be performed more flexibly and efficiently by SMB chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.

  19. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  1. Collaboration pathway(s) using new tools for optimizing `operational' climate monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Douglas B.; Selva, Daniel; Dwyer, Morgan M.

    2015-09-01

    Consistently collecting the earth's climate signatures remains a priority for world governments and international scientific organizations. Architecting a long term solution requires transforming scientific missions into an optimized robust `operational' constellation that addresses the collective needs of policy makers, scientific communities and global academic users for trusted data. The application of new tools offers pathways for global architecture collaboration. Recent rule-based expert system (RBES) optimization modeling of the intended NPOESS architecture becomes a surrogate for global operational climate monitoring architecture(s). These rulebased systems tools provide valuable insight for global climate architectures, by comparison/evaluation of alternatives and the sheer range of trade space explored. Optimization of climate monitoring architecture(s) for a partial list of ECV (essential climate variables) is explored and described in detail with dialogue on appropriate rule-based valuations. These optimization tool(s) suggest global collaboration advantages and elicit responses from the audience and climate science community. This paper will focus on recent research exploring joint requirement implications of the high profile NPOESS architecture and extends the research and tools to optimization for a climate centric case study. This reflects work from SPIE RS Conferences 2013 and 2014, abridged for simplification30, 32. First, the heavily securitized NPOESS architecture; inspired the recent research question - was Complexity (as a cost/risk factor) overlooked when considering the benefits of aggregating different missions into a single platform. Now years later a complete reversal; should agencies considering Disaggregation as the answer. We'll discuss what some academic research suggests. Second, using the GCOS requirements of earth climate observations via ECV (essential climate variables) many collected from space-based sensors; and accepting their

  2. Model development and optimization of operating conditions to maximize PEMFC performance by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, Homayoon; Shams, Mehrzad; Hasheminasab, Mohammadreza; Bozorgnezhad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of the operating parameters in a serpentine PEMFC is done using RSM. • The RSM model can predict the cell power over the wide range of operating conditions. • St-An, St-Ca and RH-Ca have an optimum value to obtain the best performance. • The interactions of the operating conditions affect the output power significantly. • The cathode and anode stoichiometry are the most effective parameters on the power. - Abstract: Optimization of operating conditions to obtain maximum power in PEMFCs could have a significant role to reduce the costs of this emerging technology. In the present experimental study, a single serpentine PEMFC is used to investigate the effects of operating conditions on the electrical power production of the cell. Four significant parameters including cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, gases inlet temperature, and cathode relative humidity are studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) to obtain an optimal power. Central composite second order Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to model the relationship between goal function (power) and considered input parameters (operating conditions). Using this statistical–mathematical method leads to obtain a second-order equation for the cell power. This model considers interactions and quadratic effects of different operating conditions and predicts the maximum or minimum power production over the entire working range of the parameters. In this range, high stoichiometry of cathode and low stoichiometry of anode results in the minimum cell power and contrary the medium range of fuel and oxidant stoichiometry leads to the maximum power. Results show that there is an optimum value for the anode stoichiometry, cathode stoichiometry and relative humidity to reach the best performance. The predictions of the model are evaluated by experimental tests and they are in a good agreement for different ranges of the parameters

  3. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  4. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  5. Solving optimum operation of single pump unit problem with ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y; Liu, C

    2012-01-01

    For pumping stations, the effective scheduling of daily pump operations from solutions to the optimum design operation problem is one of the greatest potential areas for energy cost-savings, there are some difficulties in solving this problem with traditional optimization methods due to the multimodality of the solution region. In this case, an ACO model for optimum operation of pumping unit is proposed and the solution method by ants searching is presented by rationally setting the object function and constrained conditions. A weighted directed graph was constructed and feasible solutions may be found by iteratively searching of artificial ants, and then the optimal solution can be obtained by applying the rule of state transition and the pheromone updating. An example calculation was conducted and the minimum cost was found as 4.9979. The result of ant colony algorithm was compared with the result from dynamic programming or evolutionary solving method in commercial software under the same discrete condition. The result of ACO is better and the computing time is shorter which indicates that ACO algorithm can provide a high application value to the field of optimal operation of pumping stations and related fields.

  6. Genetic Algorithm (GA Method for Optimization of Multi-Reservoir Systems Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Momtahen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Genetic Algorithm (GA method for optimization of multi-reservoir systems operation is proposed in this paper. In this method, the parameters of operating policies are optimized using system simulation results. Hence, any operating problem with any sort of objective function, constraints and structure of operating policy can be optimized by GA. The method is applied to a 3-reservoir system and is compared with two traditional methods of Stochastic Dynamic Programming and Dynamic Programming and Regression. The results show that GA is superior both in objective function value and in computational speed. The proposed method is further improved using a mutation power updating rule and a varying period simulation method. The later is a novel procedure proposed in this paper that is believed to help in solving computational time problem in large systems. These revisions are evaluated and proved to be very useful in converging to better solutions in much less time. The final GA method is eventually evaluated as a very efficient procedure that is able to solve problems of large multi-reservoir system which is usually impossible by traditional methods. In fact, the real performance of the GA method starts where others fail to function.

  7. Development of a Numerical Fish Surrogate for Improved Selection of Fish Passage Design and Operation Alternatives for Lower Granite Dam: Phase I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestler, John

    2000-01-01

    .... The overall goal of this research is to develop and apply an approach for integrating biological and hydraulic information to support selection of optimum designs and project operations for Surface...

  8. Optimal synthesis and operation of advanced energy supply systems for standard and domotic home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buoro, Dario; Casisi, Melchiorre; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of an optimization model for a home energy supply system. ► Optimization of the energy supply system for standard and domotic home. ► Strong improvement can be achieved adopting the optimal system in standard and domotic home. ► The improvements are consistent if supply side and demand side strategies are applied together. ► Solutions with internal combustion engines are less sensible to market price of electricity and gas. - Abstract: The paper deals with the optimization of an advanced energy supply systems for two dwellings: a standard home and an advanced domotic home, where some demand side energy saving strategies have been implemented. In both cases the optimal synthesis, design and operation of the whole energy supply system have been obtained and a sensitivity analysis has been performed, by introducing different economic constraints. The optimization model is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and includes different kinds of small-scale cogenerators, geothermal heat pumps, boilers, heat storages, solar thermal and photovoltaic panels. In addition, absorption machines, supplied with cogenerated heat, can be used instead of conventional electrical chiller to face the cooling demand. The aim of the analysis is to address the question if advanced demand strategies and supply strategies have to be regarded as alternatives, or if they have to be simultaneously applied, in order to obtain the maximum energy and economic benefit.

  9. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  10. Online Optimization Method for Operation of Generators in a Micro Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Hideki; Matsuki, Junya; Iizuka, Toshio; Azuma, Hitoshi

    Recently a lot of studies and developments about distributed generator such as photovoltaic generation system, wind turbine generation system and fuel cell have been performed under the background of the global environment issues and deregulation of the electricity market, and the technique of these distributed generators have progressed. Especially, micro grid which consists of several distributed generators, loads and storage battery is expected as one of the new operation system of distributed generator. However, since precipitous load fluctuation occurs in micro grid for the reason of its smaller capacity compared with conventional power system, high-accuracy load forecasting and control scheme to balance of supply and demand are needed. Namely, it is necessary to improve the precision of operation in micro grid by observing load fluctuation and correcting start-stop schedule and output of generators online. But it is not easy to determine the operation schedule of each generator in short time, because the problem to determine start-up, shut-down and output of each generator in micro grid is a mixed integer programming problem. In this paper, the authors propose an online optimization method for the optimal operation schedule of generators in micro grid. The proposed method is based on enumeration method and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In the proposed method, after picking up all unit commitment patterns of each generators satisfied with minimum up time and minimum down time constraint by using enumeration method, optimal schedule and output of generators are determined under the other operational constraints by using PSO. Numerical simulation is carried out for a micro grid model with five generators and photovoltaic generation system in order to examine the validity of the proposed method.

  11. Report on Auscultation of the Arenal's Dam P. H. Arenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Costa Rican Electricity Institute (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad), always has been worried to verify the good state of the works and thus to guarantee its operation. For that reason, it has established different sorts of auscultation to the Arenal's Dam. This report analyzes the geo-hydraulic, structural and topographic auscultation. It also includes information about the new techniques used by the ARCAL XVIII RLA/8/018; application of Tracer Techniques for the study of water leakage in dams and damming projects. (author). 18 charts, 2 maps, 4 tabs

  12. Dose optimization of intra-operative high dose rate interstitial brachytherapy implants for soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamema Swamidas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : A three dimensional (3D image-based dosimetric study to quantitatively compare geometric vs. dose-point optimization in combination with graphical optimization for interstitial brachytherapy of soft tissue sarcoma (STS. Materials and Methods : Fifteen consecutive STS patients, treated with intra-operative, interstitial Brachytherapy, were enrolled in this dosimetric study. Treatment plans were generated using dose points situated at the "central plane between the catheters", "between the catheters throughout the implanted volume", at "distances perpendicular to the implant axis" and "on the surface of the target volume" Geometrically optimized plans had dose points defined between the catheters, while dose-point optimized plans had dose points defined at a plane perpendicular to the implant axis and on the target surface. Each plan was graphically optimized and compared using dose volume indices. Results : Target coverage was suboptimal with coverage index (CI = 0.67 when dose points were defined at the central plane while it was superior when the dose points were defined at the target surface (CI=0.93. The coverage of graphically optimized plans (GrO was similar to non-GrO with dose points defined on surface or perpendicular to the implant axis. A similar pattern was noticed with conformity index (0.61 vs. 0.82. GrO were more conformal and less homogeneous compared to non-GrO. Sum index was superior for dose points defined on the surface of the target and relatively inferior for plans with dose points at other locations (1.35 vs. 1.27. Conclusions : Optimization with dose points defined away from the implant plane and on target results in superior target coverage with optimal values of other indices. GrO offer better target coverage for implants with non-uniform geometry and target volume.

  13. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  14. Automatic dam concrete placing system; Dam concrete dasetsu sagyo no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Y; Hori, Y; Nakayama, T; Yoshihara, K; Hironaka, T [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    An automatic concrete placing system was developed for concrete dam construction. This system consists of the following five subsystems: a wireless data transmission system, an automatic dam concrete mixing system, a consistency determination system, an automatic dam concrete loading and transporting system, and a remote concrete bucket opening and closing system. The system includes the following features: mixing amount by mixing ratio and mixing intervals can be instructed from a concrete placing site by using a wireless handy terminal; concrete is mixed automatically in a batcher plant; a transfer car is started, and concrete is charged into a bucket automatically; the mixed concrete is determined of its properties automatically; labor cost can be reduced, the work efficiency improved, and the safety enhanced; and the system introduction has resulted in unattended operation from the aggregate draw-out to a bunker line, manpower saving of five persons, and reduction in cycle time by 10%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A dynamic lattice searching method with rotation operation for optimization of large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Cai Wensheng; Shao Xueguang

    2009-01-01

    Global optimization of large clusters has been a difficult task, though much effort has been paid and many efficient methods have been proposed. During our works, a rotation operation (RO) is designed to realize the structural transformation from decahedra to icosahedra for the optimization of large clusters, by rotating the atoms below the center atom with a definite degree around the fivefold axis. Based on the RO, a development of the previous dynamic lattice searching with constructed core (DLSc), named as DLSc-RO, is presented. With an investigation of the method for the optimization of Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters, i.e., LJ 500 , LJ 561 , LJ 600 , LJ 665-667 , LJ 670 , LJ 685 , and LJ 923 , Morse clusters, silver clusters by Gupta potential, and aluminum clusters by NP-B potential, it was found that both the global minima with icosahedral and decahedral motifs can be obtained, and the method is proved to be efficient and universal.

  16. Orthogonal optimization of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuyao; Wu, Chao; Li, Bin; Wu, Di

    2017-12-01

    In order to optimize the comprehensive characteristics of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve, numerical orthogonal experimental design was adopted. Six parameters of the valve, containing diameters of damping plugs, volume of spring chamber, half cone angle of main spool, half cone angle of pilot spool, mass of main spool and diameter of main spool, were selected as the orthogonal factors, and each factor has five different levels. An index of flowrate stability, pressure stability and pressure overstrike stability (iFPOS) was used to judge the merit of each orthogonal attempt. Embedded orthogonal process turned up and a final optimal combination of these parameters was obtained after totally 50 numerical orthogonal experiments. iFPOS could be low to a fairly low value which meant that the valve could have much better stabilities. During the optimization, it was also found the diameters of damping plugs and main spool played important roles in stability characteristics of the valve.

  17. Natural Image Enhancement Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Enhanced with Blended Migration Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a novel and efficient algorithm for solving optimization problem in image processing applications. Image enhancement (IE is one of the complex optimization problems in image processing. The main goal of this paper is to enhance color images such that the eminence of the image is more suitable than the original image from the perceptual viewpoint of human. Traditional methods require prior knowledge of the image to be enhanced, whereas the aim of the proposed biogeography based optimization (BBO enhanced with blended migration operator (BMO algorithm is to maximize the objective function in order to enhance the image contrast by maximizing the parameters like edge intensity, edge information, and entropy. Experimental results are compared with the current state-of-the-art approaches and indicate the superiority of the proposed technique in terms of subjective and objective evaluation.

  18. Efficient operation scheduling for adsorption chillers using predictive optimization-based control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Adrian; Sawant, Parantapa; Bohlayer, Markus; Altmann-Dieses, Angelika; Braun, Marco; Diehl, Moritz

    2017-10-01

    Within this work, the benefits of using predictive control methods for the operation of Adsorption Cooling Machines (ACMs) are shown on a simulation study. Since the internal control decisions of series-manufactured ACMs often cannot be influenced, the work focuses on optimized scheduling of an ACM considering its internal functioning as well as forecasts for load and driving energy occurrence. For illustration, an assumed solar thermal climate system is introduced and a system model suitable for use within gradient-based optimization methods is developed. The results of a system simulation using a conventional scheme for ACM scheduling are compared to the results of a predictive, optimization-based scheduling approach for the same exemplary scenario of load and driving energy occurrence. The benefits of the latter approach are shown and future actions for application of these methods for system control are addressed.

  19. Realization of universal optimal quantum machines by projective operators and stochastic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciarrino, F.; Sias, C.; Ricci, M.; De Martini, F.

    2004-01-01

    Optimal quantum machines can be implemented by linear projective operations. In the present work a general qubit symmetrization theory is presented by investigating the close links to the qubit purification process and to the programmable teleportation of any generic optimal antiunitary map. In addition, the contextual realization of the N→M cloning map and of the teleportation of the N→(M-N) universal-NOT (UNOT) gate is analyzed by a very general angular momentum theory. An extended set of experimental realizations by state symmetrization linear optical procedures is reported. These include the 1→2 cloning process, the UNOT gate and the quantum tomographic characterization of the optimal partial transpose map of polarization encoded qubits

  20. Optimal Design and Operation Management of Battery-Based Energy Storage Systems (BESS) in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dulout, Jeremy; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    of energy storage units requires certain performance measures and constraints, which has to be well considered in design phase and embedded in control and management strategies. This chapter mainly focuses on these aspects and provides a general framework for optimal design and operation management......-scale integration of renewables into the grid environment. Energy storage options can also be used for economic operation of energy systems to cut down system’s operating cost. By utilizing ESSs, it is very possible to store energy in off-peak hours with lower cost and energize the grid during peak load intervals...... at supply/demand side which is helpful for load levelling or peak shaving purposes. Last but not least, ESSs can provide frequency regulation services in offgrid locations where there is a strong need to meet the power balance in different operating conditions. Each of the abovementioned applications...

  1. Optimal dimensioning of low-energy district heating networks with operational planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    in design stage resulted in satisfaction of heat demand of the house in low temperature operation. In this paper the operational planning of the low-energy DH systems was investigated to reduce the dimensions of the distribution network with consideration given both to current high-heat and future low......-heat demand situations. The operational planning was based on boosting (increasing) the supply temperature at peak-demand situations which occur rarely over a year period. Hence optimal pipe dimensions of low-energy DH systems were investigated based on the dynamic response of in-house heating systems...... of operational planning in comparison to DH network dimensioned according to high heat demand situation....

  2. A novel membrane-based process to isolate peroxidase from horseradish roots: optimization of operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Yang, Bo; Chen, Changzhen

    2013-02-01

    The optimization of operating parameters for the isolation of peroxidase from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots with ultrafiltration (UF) technology was systemically studied. The effects of UF operating conditions on the transmission of proteins were quantified using the parameter scanning UF. These conditions included solution pH, ionic strength, stirring speed and permeate flux. Under optimized conditions, the purity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) obtained was greater than 84 % after a two-stage UF process and the recovery of HRP from the feedstock was close to 90 %. The resulting peroxidase product was then analysed by isoelectric focusing, SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism, to confirm its isoelectric point, molecular weight and molecular secondary structure. The effects of calcium ion on HRP specific activities were also experimentally determined.

  3. Power-limited low-thrust trajectory optimization with operation point detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhemin; Li, Haiyang; Jiang, Fanghua; Li, Junfeng

    2018-06-01

    The power-limited solar electric propulsion system is considered more practical in mission design. An accurate mathematical model of the propulsion system, based on experimental data of the power generation system, is used in this paper. An indirect method is used to deal with the time-optimal and fuel-optimal control problems, in which the solar electric propulsion system is described using a finite number of operation points, which are characterized by different pairs of thruster input power. In order to guarantee the integral accuracy for the discrete power-limited problem, a power operation detection technique is embedded in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm with fixed step. Moreover, the logarithmic homotopy method and normalization technique are employed to overcome the difficulties caused by using indirect methods. Three numerical simulations with actual propulsion systems are given to substantiate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Dynamic optimization of distribution networks. Closed loop operation results; Dynamische Optimierung der Verteilnetze. Closed loop Betriebsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilo, Albana [Siemens AG, Wien (Austria); Schaffer, Walter; Rieder, Thomas [Salzburg Netz GmbH, Salzburg (Austria); Dzafic, Izudin [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A holistic approach of power system control that includes all voltage levels from highest to low voltage is provided. The power grid is conceived as a supply chain. The medium voltage grid represents the central link. The implemented automatic voltage control and the dynamic operation optimization are based on Distribution System State Estimator (DSSE) and Volt/Var Control (VVC) applications. The last one realizes the dynamic optimization of distribution network combining the reactive power of the decentralized generation, capacitors and voltage set points of on-line tap changers. Application of this method has shown, that by using the dynamic voltage control the grid can be stable operated near the low voltage limit. The conservation voltage reduction can be applied in real time. Furthermore the integration of the decentralized generation is facilitated with minimal costs. Until now in this regard required network expansion can be prevented or delayed. (orig.)

  5. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. How does network design constrain optimal operation of intermittent water supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Urban water distribution systems do not always supply water continuously or reliably. As pipes fill and empty, pressure transients may contribute to degraded infrastructure and poor water quality. To help understand and manage this undesirable side effect of intermittent water supply--a phenomenon affecting hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world--we study the relative contributions of fixed versus dynamic properties of the network. Using a dynamical model of unsteady transition pipe flow, we study how different elements of network design, such as network geometry, pipe material, and pipe slope, contribute to undesirable pressure transients. Using an optimization framework, we then investigate to what extent network operation decisions such as supply timing and inflow rate may mitigate these effects. We characterize some aspects of network design that make them more or less amenable to operational optimization.

  8. Optimal operation planning of radioactive waste processing system by fuzzy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the applications of linear goal programming and fuzzy theory to the analysis of management and operational problems in the radioactive processing system (RWPS). The developed model is validated and verified using actual data obtained from the RWPS at Kyoto University in Japan. The solution by goal programming and fuzzy theory would show the optimal operation point which is to maximize the total treatable radioactive waste volume and minimize the released radioactivity of liquid waste even under the restricted resources. (orig.)

  9. Stochastic Optimization Model to STudy the Operational Impacts of High Wind Penetrations in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Barth, R.; Hasche, B.

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic mixed integer linear optimization scheduling model minimizing system operation costs and treating load and wind power production as stochastic inputs is presented. The schedules are updated in a rolling manner as more up-to-date information becomes available. This is a fundamental...... change relative to day-ahead unit commitment approaches. The need for reserves dependent on forecast horizon and share of wind power has been estimated with a statistical model combining load and wind power forecast errors with scenarios of forced outages. The model is used to study operational impacts...

  10. Electromagnetic Problems Solving by Conformal Mapping: A Mathematical Operator for Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Pacheco Calixto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Having the property to modify only the geometry of a polygonal structure, preserving its physical magnitudes, the Conformal Mapping is an exceptional tool to solve electromagnetism problems with known boundary conditions. This work aims to introduce a new developed mathematical operator, based on polynomial extrapolation. This operator has the capacity to accelerate an optimization method applied in conformal mappings, to determinate the equipotential lines, the field lines, the capacitance, and the permeance of some polygonal geometry electrical devices with an inner dielectric of permittivity ε. The results obtained in this work are compared with other simulations performed by the software of finite elements method, Flux 2D.

  11. Derivation of Optimal Operating Rules for Large-scale Reservoir Systems Considering Multiple Trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Lei, X.; Liu, P.; Wang, H.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Flood control operation of multi-reservoir systems such as parallel reservoirs and hybrid reservoirs often suffer from complex interactions and trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream. The optimization of such systems is computationally intensive due to nonlinear storage curves, numerous constraints and complex hydraulic connections. This paper aims to derive the optimal flood control operating rules based on the trade-off among tributaries and the mainstream using a new algorithm known as weighted non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (WNSGA II). WNSGA II could locate the Pareto frontier in non-dominated region efficiently due to the directed searching by weighted crowding distance, and the results are compared with those of conventional operating rules (COR) and single objective genetic algorithm (GA). Xijiang river basin in China is selected as a case study, with eight reservoirs and five flood control sections within four tributaries and the mainstream. Furthermore, the effects of inflow uncertainty have been assessed. Results indicate that: (1) WNSGA II could locate the non-dominated solutions faster and provide better Pareto frontier than the traditional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) due to the weighted crowding distance; (2) WNSGA II outperforms COR and GA on flood control in the whole basin; (3) The multi-objective operating rules from WNSGA II deal with the inflow uncertainties better than COR. Therefore, the WNSGA II can be used to derive stable operating rules for large-scale reservoir systems effectively and efficiently.

  12. Optimization of operating parameters in polysilicon chemical vapor deposition reactor with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li-sha; Liu, Chun-jiao; Liu, Ying-wen

    2018-05-01

    In the polysilicon chemical vapor deposition reactor, the operating parameters are complex to affect the polysilicon's output. Therefore, it is very important to address the coupling problem of multiple parameters and solve the optimization in a computationally efficient manner. Here, we adopted Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to analyze the complex coupling effects of different operating parameters on silicon deposition rate (R) and further achieve effective optimization of the silicon CVD system. Based on finite numerical experiments, an accurate RSM regression model is obtained and applied to predict the R with different operating parameters, including temperature (T), pressure (P), inlet velocity (V), and inlet mole fraction of H2 (M). The analysis of variance is conducted to describe the rationality of regression model and examine the statistical significance of each factor. Consequently, the optimum combination of operating parameters for the silicon CVD reactor is: T = 1400 K, P = 3.82 atm, V = 3.41 m/s, M = 0.91. The validation tests and optimum solution show that the results are in good agreement with those from CFD model and the deviations of the predicted values are less than 4.19%. This work provides a theoretical guidance to operate the polysilicon CVD process.

  13. Risk averse optimal operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajeddini, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Soroudi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    VPP (Virtual Power Plant) is defined as a cluster of energy conversion/storage units which are centrally operated in order to improve the technical and economic performance. This paper addresses the optimal operation of a VPP considering the risk factors affecting its daily operation profits. The optimal operation is modelled in both day ahead and balancing markets as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming in order to maximize a GenCo (generation companies) expected profit. Furthermore, the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used as a risk measure technique in order to control the risk of low profit scenarios. The uncertain parameters, including the PV power output, wind power output and day-ahead market prices are modelled through scenarios. The proposed model is successfully applied to a real case study to show its applicability and the results are presented and thoroughly discussed. - Highlights: • Virtual power plant modelling considering a set of energy generating and conversion units. • Uncertainty modelling using two stage stochastic programming technique. • Risk modelling using conditional value at risk. • Flexible operation of renewable energy resources. • Electricity price uncertainty in day ahead energy markets

  14. Optimal Operation and Management of Smart Grid System with LPC and BESS in Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generators (DG using renewable energy sources (RESs have been attracting special attention within distribution systems. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation and reverse power flow in the smart grid. Therefore, the smart grid needs a solution for voltage control, power flow control and power outage prevention. This paper proposes a decision technique of optimal reference scheduling for a battery energy storage system (BESS, inverters interfacing with a DG and voltage control devices for optimal operation. Moreover, the reconfiguration of the distribution system is made possible by the installation of a loop power flow controller (LPC. Two separate simulations are provided to maintain the reliability in the stable power supply and economical aspects. First, the effectiveness of the smart grid with installed BESS or LPC devices is demonstrated in fault situations. Second, the active smart grid using LCPs is proposed. Real-time techniques of the dual scheduling algorithm are applied to the system. The aforementioned control objective is formulated and solved using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm with an adaptive inertia weight (AIW function. The effectiveness of the optimal operation in ordinal and fault situations is verified by numerical simulations.

  15. Dynamic Value Engineering Method Optimizing the Risk on Real Time Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The value engineering is the umbrella of the many more sub-system like quality assurance, quality control, quality function design and development for manufacturability. The system engineering & value engineering is two part of the coin. The value engineering is the high level of technology management for every aspect of engineering fields. The value engineering is the high utilization of System Product (i.e. Processor, Memory & Encryption key, Services, Business and Resources at minimal cost. The high end operating system providing highest services at optimal cost & time. The value engineering provides the maximum performance, accountability, reliability, integrity and availability of processor, memory, encryption key and other inter dependency sub-components. The value engineering is the ratio of the maximum functionality of individual components to the optimal cost. VE=k [(P, M, E, C, A]/optimal cost. Where k is the proportionality constant. The VE is directly proportional to performance of individual components and inversely proportional to the minimal cost. The VE is directly proportional to the risk assessment. The VE maximize the business throughput & decision process mean while minimize the risk and down time. We have to develop the dynamic value engineering model & mechanism for risk optimization over a complex real time operating system This proposed composition model definite will be resolve our objective at top high level. Product

  16. Contribution of the operational dosimetry in the radiation protection optimization in a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herit, S.; Cosculluela, S.; Lambert, B.; Gras, H.

    2007-01-01

    Beyond its contribution in the personnel dosimetric surveillance, the operational dosimetry is a very efficient educational tool, of easy use. This study is lengthened by the setting up in 2007 of a job study in order to redefine the service zoning and by an evaluation of the extremities dosimetry with the help of thermoluminescent rings, in order to optimize the practices during the phase of preparation and injection. (N.C.)

  17. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  18. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  19. Survey of Optimal Temperature and Moisture for Worms Growth and Operating Vermicompost Production of Food Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    A Eslami; A Nabaey; R Rostami

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives:Nowadays vermicompost production of food wastes is posed as one of appropriate methods to food wastes. disposal, its production used in agriculture and gardening. Moreover this process has some by products beside useful fertilizer that one of them is the worms. we can use them in variety of products specially in production of poultry and fish food. So determination of optimal condition for operating vermicompost production process of food wastes and worms. growt...

  20. Optimization of basic parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Олександрович Заєць

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of process parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages in gas mode is determined in the article. The target function is defined, expressing necessary capacity of compressor station for gas injection in the storage. Its minimization will find the necessary technological parameters, such as flow and reservoir pressure change over time. Limitations and target function are reduced to a linear form. Solution of problems is made by the simplex method

  1. Modeling of District Heating Networks for the Purpose of Operational Optimization with Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśko, Michał; Bujalski, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a difficult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way - allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.

  2. Wynoochee Lake and dam flood storage reevaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    With the desire to increase the revenue generating potential of the Wynoochee Lake and Dam Project the cities of Tacoma and Aberdeen, Washington, have pursued the potential for retrofitting a hydropower plant at the dam. The feasibility of the hydropower plant is dependent on higher average head for power generation. This paper discusses the Corps of Engineers reevaluation of the winter flood control requirements with the aim of raising the elevation of the winter operating pool

  3. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  4. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  5. Optimization of design and operating parameters in a pilot scale Jameson cell for slime coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacifazlioglu, Hasan; Toroglu, Ihsan [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Karaelmas, 67100 (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    The Jameson flotation cell has been commonly used to treat a variety of ores (lead, zinc, copper etc.), coal and industrial minerals at commercial scale since 1989. It is especially known to be highly efficient at fine and ultrafine coal recovery. However, although the Jameson cell has quite a simple structure, it may be largely inefficient if the design and operating parameters chosen are not appropriate. In this study, the design and operating parameters of a pilot scale Jameson cell were optimized to obtain a desired metallurgical performance in the slime coal flotation. The optimized design parameters are the nozzle type, the height of the nozzle above the pulp level, the downcomer diameter and the immersion depth of the downcomer. Among the operating parameters optimized are the collector dosage, the frother dosage, the percentage of solids and the froth height. In the optimum conditions, a clean coal with an ash content of 14.90% was obtained from the sample slime having 45.30% ash with a combustible recovery of 74.20%. In addition, a new type nozzle was developed for the Jameson cell, which led to an increase of about 9% in the combustible recovery value.

  6. A Novel Optimization Method on Logistics Operation for Warehouse & Port Enterprises Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The following investigation aims to deal with the competitive relationship among different warehouses & ports in the same company. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, Game Theory is used in carrying out the optimization model. Genetic Algorithm is used to solve the model. Findings: Unnecessary competition will rise up if there is little internal communication among different warehouses & ports in one company. This paper carries out a novel optimization method on warehouse & port logistics operation model. Originality/value: Warehouse logistics business is a combination of warehousing services and terminal services which is provided by port logistics through the existing port infrastructure on the basis of a port. The newly proposed method can help to optimize logistics operation model for warehouse & port enterprises effectively. We set Sinotrans Guangdong Company as an example to illustrate the newly proposed method. Finally, according to the case study, this paper gives some responses and suggestions on logistics operation in Sinotrans Guangdong warehouse & port for its future development.

  7. Monthly Optimal Reservoirs Operation for Multicrop Deficit Irrigation under Fuzzy Stochastic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertain monthly reservoirs operation and multicrop deficit irrigation model was proposed under conjunctive use of underground and surface water for water resources optimization management. The objective is to maximize the total crop yield of the entire irrigation districts. Meanwhile, ecological water remained for the downstream demand. Because of the shortage of water resources, the monthly crop water production function was adopted for multiperiod deficit irrigation management. The model reflects the characteristics of water resources repetitive transformation in typical inland rivers irrigation system. The model was used as an example for water resources optimization management in Shiyang River Basin, China. Uncertainties in reservoir management shown as fuzzy probability were treated through chance-constraint parameter for decision makers. Necessity of dominance (ND was used to analyse the advantages of the method. The optimization results including reservoirs real-time operation policy, deficit irrigation management, and the available water resource allocation could be used to provide decision support for local irrigation management. Besides, the strategies obtained could help with the risk analysis of reservoirs operation stochastically.

  8. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Torrent hazard mitigation remains a big issue in mountainous regions. In steep slope streams and especially in their fan part, torrential floods mainly result from abrupt and massive sediment deposits. To curtail such phenomenon, soil conservation measures as well as torrent control works have been undertaken for decades. Since the 1950s, open check dams complete other structural and non-structural measures in watershed scale mitigation plans1. They are often built to trap sediments near the fan apexes. The development of earthmoving machinery after the WWII facilitated the dredging operations of open check dams. Hundreds of these structures have thus been built for 60 years. Their design evolved with the improving comprehension of torrential hydraulics and sediment transport; however this kind of structure has a general tendency to trap most of the sediments supplied by the headwaters. Secondary effects as channel incision downstream of the traps often followed an open check dam creation. This sediment starvation trend tends to propagate to the main valley rivers and to disrupt past geomorphic equilibriums. Taking it into account and to diminish useless dredging operation, a better selectivity of sediment trapping must be sought in open check dams, i.e. optimal open check dams would trap sediments during dangerous floods and flush them during normal small floods. An accurate description of the hydraulic and deposition processes that occur in sediment traps is needed to optimize existing structures and to design best-adjusted new structures. A literature review2 showed that if design criteria exist for the structure itself, little information is available on the dynamic of the sediment depositions upstream of open check dams, i.e. what are the geomorphic patterns that occur during the deposition?, what are the relevant friction laws and sediment transport formula that better describe massive depositions in sediment traps?, what are the range of Froude and Shields

  9. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    passive integrated transponder detectors at various locations downstream of the dam, indicating some tagged fish passed the dam undetected. The rate of dam passage was affected by diel period, discharge, and reservoir elevation. Diel period was the most influential factor of those examined, with nighttime dam passage rates about 9 times greater than daytime rates, depending on the distance of fish from the dam outlet. Dam passage rates also were positively related to dam discharge, and negatively related to reservoir elevation. In the operational condition used as an example, fish approached the dam outlet at the temperature control tower from the south and east and, when most fish got near the tower, they were directly in front of it. In many cases, the results for wild and hatchery fish were similar, or the results suggested hatchery fish could be reasonable surrogates for wild fish. Hatchery-origin and wild-origin fish behaved similarly in the following ways: their general movements in the reservoir; the timing of their dam passage; and the effects of diel period, discharge, and elevation on their passage rates. Parasitic copepods were present on most wild fish examined, and the mortality of wild fish during capture, handling and tagging was much greater than that of hatchery fish. This suggests that the ability of wild fish to cope with stressors may be less than that of fish directly from the hatchery.

  10. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  11. Optimal Control and Operation Strategy for Wind Turbines Contributing to Grid Primary Frequency Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun-Kyeom Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a frequency regulation strategy to enable the participation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. The optimal strategy focuses on developing the frequency support capability of PMSGs connected to the power system. Active power control is performed using maximum power point tracking (MPPT and de-loaded control to supply the required power reserve following a disturbance. A kinetic energy (KE reserve control is developed to enhance the frequency regulation capability of wind turbines. The coordination with the de-loaded control prevents instability in the PMSG wind system due to excessive KE discharge. A KE optimization method that maximizes the sum of the KE reserves at wind farms is also adopted to determine the de-loaded power reference for each PMSG wind turbine using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control and operation strategy, three different case studies are conducted using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the optimal strategy enhances the frequency support contribution from PMSG wind turbines.

  12. Multicriteria optimization approach to design and operation of district heating supply system over its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał

    2017-11-01

    District Heating (DH) systems are commonly supplied using local heat sources. Nowadays, modern insulation materials allow for effective and economically viable heat transportation over long distances (over 20 km). In the paper a method for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of long distance Heat Transportation System (HTS) is proposed. The method allows for evaluation of feasibility and effectivity of heat transportation from the considered heat sources. The optimized selection is formulated as multicriteria decision-making problem. The constraints for this problem include a static HTS model, allowing considerations of system life cycle, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby, variation of heat demand and ground temperature within the DH area, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile are taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. Inner pipe diameter, insulation thickness, temperatures and pumping stations locations are optimized during the decision-making process. Moreover, the variants of pipe-laying e.g. one pipeline with the larger diameter or two with the smaller might be considered during the optimization. The analyzed optimization problem is multicriteria, hybrid and nonlinear. Because of such problem properties, the genetic solver was applied.

  13. Optimizing Operation Indices Considering Different Types of Distributed Generation in Microgrid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Ghanbari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for independent power generation has increased in recent years, especially with the growing demand in microgrid systems. In a microgrid with several generations of different types and with all kinds of loads of variable nature, an optimal power balance in the system has to be achieved. This optimal objective, which results in minimal energy losses over a specific period of time, requires an optimal location and sizing of the distributed generations (DGs in a microgrid. This paper proposes a new optimization method in which both optimal location of the DGs and their generation profile according to the load demand profile as well as the type of DG are determined during the life time of the DGs. The types of DGs that are considered in this paper are diesel generators and wind turbine. The method is based on simultaneously minimizing the cost of the investment and operation of the DGs, the cost of power delivered by the the external grid as well as the cost of power losses in the network. The proposed method is tested on the IEEE standard radial distribution network considering time-varying loads and the wind speed every hour of a day.

  14. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  15. Optimizing Water Use and Hydropower Production in Operational Reservoir System Scheduling with RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Zagona, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Practical operational optimization of multipurpose reservoir systems is challenging for several reasons. Each purpose has its own constraints which may conflict with those of other purposes. While hydropower generation typically provides the bulk of the revenue, it is also among the lowest priority purposes. Each river system has important details that are specific to the location such as hydrology, reservoir storage capacity, physical limitations, bottlenecks, and the continuing evolution of operational policy. In addition, reservoir operations models include discrete, nonlinear, and nonconvex physical processes and if-then operating policies. Typically, the forecast horizon for scheduling needs to be extended far into the future to avoid near term (e.g., a few hours or a day) scheduling decisions that result in undesirable future states; this makes the computational effort much larger than may be expected. Put together, these challenges lead to large and customized mathematical optimization problems which must be solved efficiently to be of practical use. In addition, the solution process must be robust in an operational setting. We discuss a unique modeling approach in RiverWare that meets these challenges in an operational setting. The approach combines a Preemptive Linear Goal Programming optimization model to handle prioritized policies complimented by preprocessing and postprocessing with Rulebased Simulation to improve the solution with regard to nonlinearities, discrete issues, and if-then logic. An interactive policy language with a graphical user interface allows modelers to customize both the optimization and simulation based on the unique aspects of the policy for their system while the routine physical aspect of operations are modeled automatically. The modeler is aided by a set of compiled predefined functions and functions shared by other modelers. We illustrate the success of the approach with examples from daily use at the Tennessee Valley

  16. Optimal Operation of Hydropower Reservoirs under Climate Change: The Case of Tekeze Reservoir, Eastern Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikru Fentaw Abera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation of reservoirs is very essential for water resource planning and management, but it is very challenging and complicated when dealing with climate change impacts. The objective of this paper was to assess existing and future hydropower operation at the Tekeze reservoir in the face of climate change. In this study, a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model runoff inflow into the Tekeze hydropower reservoir under present and future climate scenarios. Inflow to the reservoir was simulated using hydro-climatic data from an ensemble of downscaled climate data based on the Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment over African domain (CORDEX-Africa with Coupled Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 simulations under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Observed and projected inflows to Tekeze hydropower reservoir were used as input to the US Army Corps of Engineer’s Reservoir Evaluation System Perspective Reservoir Model (HEC-ResPRM, a reservoir operation model, to optimize hydropower reservoir release, storage and pool level. Results indicated that climate change has a clear impact on reservoir inflow and showed increase in annual and monthly inflow into the reservoir except in dry months from May to June under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. HEC-ResPRM optimal operation results showed an increase in Tekeze reservoir power storage potential up to 25% and 30% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios, respectively. This implies that Tekeze hydropower production will be affected by climate change. This analysis can be used by water resources planners and mangers to develop reservoir operation techniques considering climate change impact to increase power production.

  17. Optimal design and operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert Joseph

    The advent of maturing fuel cell technologies presents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiencies at many scales; thereby, simultaneously extending our finite resources and reducing "harmful" energy-related emissions to levels well below that of near-future regulatory standards. However, before realization of the advantages of fuel cells can take place, systems-level design issues regarding their application must be addressed. Using modeling and simulation, the present work offers optimal system design and operation strategies for stationary solid oxide fuel cell systems applied to single-family detached dwellings. A one-dimensional, steady-state finite-difference model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature. Fuel cell system balance-of-plant components and costs are also modeled and used to provide an estimate of system capital and life cycle costs. The models are used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, fuel type, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on overall system energetic and economic performance. Optimal cell design voltage, fuel utilization, and operating temperature parameters are found using minimization of the life cycle costs. System design evaluations reveal that hydrogen-fueled SOFC systems demonstrate lower system efficiencies than methane-fueled systems. The use of recycled cell exhaust gases in process design in the stack periphery are found to produce the highest system electric and cogeneration efficiencies while achieving the lowest capital costs. Annual simulations reveal that efficiencies of 45% electric (LHV basis), 85% cogenerative, and simple economic paybacks of 5--8 years are feasible for 1--2 kW SOFC systems in residential-scale applications. Design guidelines that offer additional suggestions related to fuel cell

  18. Impact of Demand Response Programs on Optimal Operation of Multi-Microgrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh-Duc Nguyen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased penetration of renewables is beneficial for power systems but it poses several challenges, i.e., uncertainty in power supply, power quality issues, and other technical problems. Backup generators or storage system have been proposed to solve this problem but there are limitations remaining due to high installation and maintenance cost. Furthermore, peak load is also an issue in the power distribution system. Due to the adjustable characteristics of loads, strategies on demand side such as demand response (DR are more appropriate in order to deal with these challenges. Therefore, this paper studies how DR programs influence the operation of the multi-microgrid (MMG. The implementation is executed based on a hierarchical energy management system (HiEMS including microgrid EMSs (MG-EMSs responsible for local optimization in each MG and community EMS (C-EMS responsible for community optimization in the MMG. Mixed integer linear programming (MILP-based mathematical models are built for MMG optimal operation. Five scenarios consisting of single DR programs and DR groups are tested in an MMG test system to evaluate their impact on MMG operation. Among the five scenarios, some DR programs apply curtailing strategies, resulting in a study about the influence of base load value and curtailable load percentage on the amount of curtailed load and shifted load as well as the operation cost of the MMG. Furthermore, the impact of DR programs on the amount of external and internal trading power in the MMG is also examined. In summary, each individual DR program or group could be handy in certain situations depending on the interest of the MMG such as external trading, self-sufficiency or operation cost minimization.

  19. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  20. Optimization principle of operating parameters of heat exchanger by using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mičieta Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of effective heat transfer devices and minimizing costs are desired sections in industry and they are important for both engineers and users due to the wide-scale use of heat exchangers. Traditional approach to design is based on iterative process in which is gradually changed design parameters, until a satisfactory solution is achieved. The design process of the heat exchanger is very dependent on the experience of the engineer, thereby the use of computational software is a major advantage in view of time. Determination of operating parameters of the heat exchanger and the subsequent estimation of operating costs have a major impact on the expected profitability of the device. There are on the one hand the material and production costs, which are immediately reflected in the cost of device. But on the other hand, there are somewhat hidden costs in view of economic operation of the heat exchanger. The economic balance of operation significantly affects the technical solution and accompanies the design of the heat exchanger since its inception. Therefore, there is important not underestimate the choice of operating parameters. The article describes an optimization procedure for choice of cost-effective operational parameters for a simple double pipe heat exchanger by using CFD software and the subsequent proposal to modify its design for more economical operation.

  1. Dam Break Analysis of Embankment Dams Considering Breach Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Shamsaei

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of dam's break, needs the definition of various parameters such as the break cause, its type, its dimension and the duration of breach development. The precise forecast for different aspects of the breach is one of the most important factors for analyzing it in embankment dam. The characteristics of the breach and determination of their vulnerability has the most effect on the waves resulting from dam break. Investigating, about the parameters of the breach in "Silveh" earth dam have been determined using the suitable model. In Silve dam a trapezoid breach with side slope z=0.01m and the average base line b=80m was computed. The duration of the breaches development is 1.9 hour. Regarding the above results and the application of DAM Break software the consequences of the probable break of the dam was determined. The analysis of the results of water covering of the city of Piranshahr located 12km from silve dam confirms that in 3 hours the water will reach the height (level of 1425 meters.

  2. Safer operating conditions and optimal scaling-up process for cyclohexanone peroxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Na; Qian, Xin-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal hazard of cyclohexanone peroxide reaction was measured by experimental techniques. • Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was adopted to evaluate kinetic parameters. • Safer operating conditions at laboratory scale were acquired by BDs and TDs. • The verified safer operating conditions were used to obtain the optimal scale-up parameters applied in industrial plants. - Abstract: The cyclohexanone peroxide reaction process, one of the eighteen hazardous chemical processes identified in China, is performed in indirectly cooled semibatch reactors. The peroxide reaction is added to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which form heterogeneous liquid–liquid systems. A simple and general procedure for building boundary and temperature diagrams of peroxide process is given here to account for the overall kinetic expressions. Such a procedure has been validated by comparison with experimental data. Thermally safer operating parameters were obtained at laboratory scale, and the scaled-up procedure was performed to give the minimum dosing time in an industrial plant, which is in favor of maximizing industrial reactor productivity. The results are of great significance for governing the peroxide reaction process apart from the thermal runaway region. It also greatly aids in determining optimization on operating parameters in industrial plants.

  3. AI techniques for optimizing multi-objective reservoir operation upon human and riverine ecosystem demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Fi-John; Chang, Li-Chiu; Herricks, Edwin E.

    2015-11-01

    Flow regime is the key driver of the riverine ecology. This study proposes a novel hybrid methodology based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for quantifying riverine ecosystems requirements and delivering suitable flow regimes that sustain river and floodplain ecology through optimizing reservoir operation. This approach addresses issues to better fit riverine ecosystem requirements with existing human demands. We first explored and characterized the relationship between flow regimes and fish communities through a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN). Then the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. The ecosystem requirement took the form of maximizing fish diversity, which could be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement was to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology could offer a number of diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operational strategies producing downstream flows that could meet both human and ecosystem needs. Applications that make this methodology attractive to water resources managers benefit from the wide spread of Pareto-front (optimal) solutions allowing decision makers to easily determine the best compromise through the trade-off between reservoir operational strategies for human and ecosystem needs.

  4. Matahina Dam : lessons learned from an earthquake-related internal erosion incident at the Matahina Dam, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillon, M. [Damwatch Services Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    This case history discussed internal erosion damage and crest subsidence caused by an earthquake at the Matahina Dam in New Zealand. The study showed that cracking and internal erosion was initiated during the 1967 reservoir filling operation. Located in an area of active volcanism and faulting, the dam is located on a river with extensive erosion through an ignimbrite flow. The dam's core is founded on compact Tertiary age sediments overlain by sand and gravel deposits beneath the shoulders of the dam. The earthquake caused a rupture along an unidentified fault trace 12 km from the dam. The horizontal base acceleration recorded at the dam was 3.25 m/s. Transverse cracking was observed at each abutment, and deformations were observed in the rockfill. An investigation program was conducted to determine the dam's integrity. Piezometer measurements showed widespread fluctuations. It was concluded that the lack of an effective filter was a significant design omission. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Removing Dams, Constructing Science: Coproduction of Undammed Riverscapes by Politics, Finance, Environment, Society and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Grabowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dam removal in the United States has continued to increase in pace and scope, transitioning from a dam-safety engineering practice to an integral component of many large-scale river restoration programmes. At the same time, knowledge around dam removals remains fragmented by disciplinary silos and a lack of knowledge transfer between communities of practice around dam removal and academia. Here we argue that dam removal science, as a study of large restoration-oriented infrastructure interventions, requires the construction of an interdisciplinary framework to integrate knowledge relevant to decision-making on dam removal. Drawing upon infrastructure studies, relational theories of coproduction of knowledge and social life, and advances within restoration ecology and dam removal science, we present a preliminary framework of dams as systems with irreducibly interrelated political, financial, environmental, social, and technological dimensions (PFESTS. With this framework we analyse three dam removals occurring over a similar time period and within the same narrow geographic region (the Mid-Columbia Region in WA and OR, USA to demonstrate how each PFESTS dimension contributed to the decision to remove the dam, how it affected the process of removing the dam, and how those dimensions continue to operate post removal in each watershed. We conclude with a discussion of a joint research and practice agenda emerging out of the PFESTS framing.

  6. Short-term optimal operation of Three-gorge and Gezhouba cascade hydropower stations in non-flood season with operation rules from data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chao; Lian Jijian; Wang Junna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Short-term optimal operation of Three-gorge and Gezhouba hydropower stations was studied. ► Key state variable and exact constraints were proposed to improve numerical model. ► Operation rules proposed were applied in population initiation step for faster optimization. ► Culture algorithm with difference evolution was selected as optimization method. ► Model and method proposed were verified by case study with feasible operation solutions. - Abstract: Information hidden in the characteristics and relationship data of a cascade hydropower stations can be extracted by data-mining approaches to be operation rules and optimization support information. In this paper, with Three-gorge and Gezhouba cascade hydropower stations as an example, two operation rules are proposed due to different operation efficiency of water turbines and tight water volume and hydraulic relationship between two hydropower stations. The rules are applied to improve optimization model with more exact decision and state variables and constraints. They are also used in the population initiation step to develop better individuals with culture algorithm with differential evolution as an optimization method. In the case study, total feasible population and the best solution based on an initial population with an operation rule can be obtained with a shorter computation time than that of a pure random initiated population. Amount of electricity generation in a dispatch period with an operation rule also increases with an average increase rate of 0.025%. For a fixed water discharge process of Three-gorge hydropower station, there is a better rule to decide an operation plan of Gezhouba hydropower station in which total hydraulic head for electricity generation is optimized and distributed with inner-plant economic operation considered.

  7. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  8. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Three papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the experience feedback gained from the accident of the Drac river near Grenoble (France) due to a spillover at the Notre-Dame-de-Commiers` dam and which led to the death of 6 children and their teacher. The second one is a report of the conclusions of decennial and annual safety inspections of French dams, while the third one is a report of the Control Services activities for the third quarter of the year 1996 concerning the French dams in operation. (J.S.)

  9. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decò, Alberto; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  10. A Dynamic Optimization Strategy for the Operation of Large Scale Seawater Reverses Osmosis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aipeng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an efficient strategy was proposed for efficient solution of the dynamic model of SWRO system. Since the dynamic model is formulated by a set of differential-algebraic equations, simultaneous strategies based on collocations on finite element were used to transform the DAOP into large scale nonlinear programming problem named Opt2. Then, simulation of RO process and storage tanks was carried element by element and step by step with fixed control variables. All the obtained values of these variables then were used as the initial value for the optimal solution of SWRO system. Finally, in order to accelerate the computing efficiency and at the same time to keep enough accuracy for the solution of Opt2, a simple but efficient finite element refinement rule was used to reduce the scale of Opt2. The proposed strategy was applied to a large scale SWRO system with 8 RO plants and 4 storage tanks as case study. Computing result shows that the proposed strategy is quite effective for optimal operation of the large scale SWRO system; the optimal problem can be successfully solved within decades of iterations and several minutes when load and other operating parameters fluctuate.

  11. The application of optimization of protection to regulation and operational practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization of protection and the problems of its practical application have been of concern for several years to the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health. The present paper summarizes the principal conclusions of a meeting on this topic organized by the NEA in March 1988, with the participation of radiation protection, nuclear safety and radioactive waste management experts. From the results of the meeting it appears that there is now as increasingly solid background of knowledge and common understanding of the conceptual aspects of optimization of protection. However, its degree of implementation in the regulatory and operational practices is very uneven. The areas of plant design and operation appear the most promising in terms of examples of concrete application, whilst severe reservations exist in the nuclear safety community on the possibility of applying this approach to the prevention of nuclear accidents. There is also consensus on the fact that optimization of protection can only play a partial and minor role in decisions concerning the choice of radioactive waste disposal options

  12. Evaluatie Dam tot Damloop 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    In het weekend van 20 en 21 september 2014 vond de 30ste editie van de Dam tot Damloop plaats. Onderzoekers van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en Hogeschool Inholland hebben bij de Dam tot Damloop een evaluatieonderzoek uitgevoerd met als doel het vinden van aanknopingspunten voor het structureel

  13. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the

  14. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  15. Optimization of PHEV Power Split Gear Ratio to Minimize Fuel Consumption and Operation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhe

    A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a vehicle powered by a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor with a battery pack. The battery pack can be charged by plugging the vehicle to the electric grid and from using excess engine power. The research activity performed in this thesis focused on the development of an innovative optimization approach of PHEV Power Split Device (PSD) gear ratio with the aim to minimize the vehicle operation costs. Three research activity lines have been followed: • Activity 1: The PHEV control strategy optimization by using the Dynamic Programming (DP) and the development of PHEV rule-based control strategy based on the DP results. • Activity 2: The PHEV rule-based control strategy parameter optimization by using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Activity 3: The comprehensive analysis of the single mode PHEV architecture to offer the innovative approach to optimize the PHEV PSD gear ratio.

  16. Bayesian optimization analysis of containment-venting operation in a boiling water reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Ishikawa, Jun; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maryyama, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Containment venting is one of several essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor during severe accidents, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach to venting operations, from a simulation-based perspective, using an integrated severe accident code, THALES2/KICHE. The effectiveness of the containment-venting strategies needs to be verified via numerical simulations based on various settings of the venting conditions. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled to avoid cumbersome computational burden of integrated codes. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization approach. By using a Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the “black-box” code is constructed. It can be updated simultaneously whenever new simulation results are acquired. With predictions via the surrogate model, upcoming locations of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The sampling procedure is adaptive. Compared with the case of pure random searches, the number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding. One typical severe accident scenario of a boiling water reactor is chosen as an example. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies during severe accidents

  17. Bayesian optimization analysis of containment-venting operation in a boiling water reactor severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Ishikawa, Jun; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Maryyama, Yu [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Containment venting is one of several essential measures to protect the integrity of the final barrier of a nuclear reactor during severe accidents, by which the uncontrollable release of fission products can be avoided. The authors seek to develop an optimization approach to venting operations, from a simulation-based perspective, using an integrated severe accident code, THALES2/KICHE. The effectiveness of the containment-venting strategies needs to be verified via numerical simulations based on various settings of the venting conditions. The number of iterations, however, needs to be controlled to avoid cumbersome computational burden of integrated codes. Bayesian optimization is an efficient global optimization approach. By using a Gaussian process regression, a surrogate model of the “black-box” code is constructed. It can be updated simultaneously whenever new simulation results are acquired. With predictions via the surrogate model, upcoming locations of the most probable optimum can be revealed. The sampling procedure is adaptive. Compared with the case of pure random searches, the number of code queries is largely reduced for the optimum finding. One typical severe accident scenario of a boiling water reactor is chosen as an example. The research demonstrates the applicability of the Bayesian optimization approach to the design and establishment of containment-venting strategies during severe accidents.

  18. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  19. Swainsonine, a novel fungal metabolite: optimization of fermentative production and bioreactor operations using evolutionary programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-08-01

    The optimization of bioreactor operations towards swainsonine production was performed using an artificial neural network coupled evolutionary program (EP)-based optimization algorithm fitted with experimental one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) results. The effects of varying agitation (300-500 rpm) and aeration (0.5-2.0 vvm) rates for different incubation hours (72-108 h) were evaluated in bench top bioreactor. Prominent scale-up parameters, gassed power per unit volume (P g/V L, W/m(3)) and volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a, s(-1)) were correlated with optimized conditions. A maximum of 6.59 ± 0.10 μg/mL of swainsonine production was observed at 400 rpm-1.5 vvm at 84 h in OFAT experiments with corresponding P g/VL and K L a values of 91.66 W/m(3) and 341.48 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The EP optimization algorithm predicted a maximum of 10.08 μg/mL of swainsonine at 325.47 rpm, 1.99 vvm and 80.75 h against the experimental production of 7.93 ± 0.52 μg/mL at constant K L a (349.25 × 10(-4) s(-1)) and significantly reduced P g/V L (33.33 W/m(3)) drawn by the impellers.

  20. Effect of imperfect knowledge of hazards on the reliability of concrete face rockfill dam and breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De León–Escobedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A formulation to treat aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, in a separate way, on infrastructures is proposed and applied to a dam and a breakwater in Mexico. The purpose of that is to de termine 2nd order bounds on the reliability estimation due to the in complete knowledge of some design parameters. These bounds provide a quantitative basis for risk management according to the risk–aversion of owners and operators of the infrastructure. Also, acceptable values of reliability, are assessed in terms of consequences costs, and an initial cost curve for a breakwater is presented, as they may contribute to enhance the decision making process.The in corporation of epistemic uncertainty makes the reliability index to become a random variable and its his to gram is obtained to estimate percentiles as a means to measure a new additional room for decisions as compared to the traditionally used mean value of the reliability. Conservative decisions are illustrated for design and assessment of structures like a dam and a breakwater.The procedure involves a double loop of Monte Carlo simulation and represents a basis for the optimal design and risk management of dams and breakwaters.

  1. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A short-term scheduling for the optimal operation of biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisi, E.F.; Yusta, J.M.; Khodr, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the inherent potentialities and characteristics of the sugarcane industries that produce sugar, bioethanol, biogas and bioelectricity and that are being described as ''Biorefineries''. These Biorefineries are capable of producing bio-energy under diverse forms, intended for their own internal consumption and for external sales and marketing. A complex model and simulation are carried out of the processes of a sugarcane industry, with the data characteristic as well as the production costs, prices of products and considerations on the energy demand by basic processes. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) optimization problem formulation and an analysis of optimal solutions in short-term operation are described, taking into account the production cost functions of each commodity and the incomes obtained from selling electricity and other products. The objective is to maximize the hourly plant economic profit in the different scenarios considered in a real case study. (author)

  3. Optimal Constant DC Link Voltage Operation of aWave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leijon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a simple and reliable damping strategy for wave powerfarm operation of small-scale point-absorber converters. The strategy is based on passiverectification onto a constant DC-link, making it very suitable for grid integration of the farm.A complete model of the system has been developed in Matlab Simulink, and uses real sitedata as input. The optimal constant DC-voltage is evaluated as a function of the significantwave height and energy period of the waves. The total energy output of the WEC is derivedfor one year of experimental site data. The energy output is compared for two cases, onewhere the optimal DC-voltage is determined and held constant at half-hour basis throughoutthe year, and one where a selected value of the DC-voltage is kept constant throughout theyear regardless of sea state.

  4. Factors affecting the optimal performance of a high-yield pulping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada); Paris, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Valada, J L [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Strategies for operating a chemical-mechanical pulp mill were investigated from data based on process models from some one hundred pilot scale pulping runs. Optimal values for 55 process and pulp quality variables have been calculated by applying a genetic algorithm search to a fuzzy model of the overall system. Best pulp quality was achieved and maintained when the chemical pretreatment was conducted at moderately low temperatures using a high SO{sub 2} concentration, which produced high sulphonation and high yield at the same time. By characterizing the quality of the pulp at the fibre level, optimization results were said to be more easily transferable to other high yield pulping systems. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. A Bilevel Programming Model to Optimize Train Operation Based on Satisfaction for an Intercity Rail Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The passenger travel demands for intercity rail lines fluctuate obviously during different time periods, which makes the rail departments unable to establish an even train operation scheme. This paper considers an optimization problem for train operations which respond to passenger travel demands of different periods in intercity rail lines. A satisfactory function of passenger travelling is proposed by means of analyzing the passengers’ travel choice behavior and correlative influencing factors. On this basis, the paper formulates a bilevel programming model which maximizes interests of railway enterprises and travelling satisfaction of each passenger. The trains operation in different periods can be optimized through upper layer planning of the model, while considering the passenger flow distribution problem based on the Wardrop user equilibrium principle in the lower layer planning. Then, a genetic algorithm is designed according to model features for solving the upper laying. The Frank-Wolfe algorithm is used for solving the lower layer planning. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the application of the method proposed in this paper.

  6. Integrated Urban Flood Analysis considering Optimal Operation of Flood Control Facilities in Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Yuk, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    eavy rainfall has become a recent major cause of urban area flooding due to the climate change and urbanization. To prevent property damage along with casualties, a system which can alert and forecast urban flooding must be developed. Optimal performance of reducing flood damage can be expected of urban drainage facilities when operated in smaller rainfall events over extreme ones. Thus, the purpose of this study is to execute: A) flood forecasting system using runoff analysis based on short term rainfall; and B) flood warning system which operates based on the data from pump stations and rainwater storage in urban basins. In result of the analysis, it is shown that urban drainage facilities using short term rainfall forecasting data by radar will be more effective to reduce urban flood damage than using only the inflow data of the facility. Keywords: Heavy Rainfall, Urban Flood, Short-term Rainfall Forecasting, Optimal operating of urban drainage facilities. AcknowledgmentsThis research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B066744-05) from Advanced Water Management Research Program (AWMP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  7. Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juying Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time.

  8. Optimal operation of a micro-combined cooling, heating and power system driven by a gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, Y.; Huang, X.H.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the problem of energy management and optimal operation of cogeneration system for micro-combined cooling, heating and power production (CCHP). The energy system mainly consists of a gas engine, an adsorption chiller, a gas boiler, a heat exchanger and an electric chiller. On the basis of an earlier experimental research of the micro-CCHP system, a non-linear-programming cost-minimization optimization model is presented to determine the optimum operational strategies for the system. It is shown that energy management and optimal operation of the micro-CCHP system is dependent upon load conditions to be satisfied and energy cost. In view of energy cost, it would not be optimal to operate the gas engine when the electric-to-gas cost ratio (EGCR) is very low. With higher EGCR, the optimum operational strategy of the micro-CCHP system is independent of energy cost

  9. Damming evidence : Canada and the World Commission on Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.; Parkinson, B.

    2003-06-01

    Large hydroelectric projects have been met with strong resistance from affected communities, particularly indigenous groups who have been displaced from their flooded communities following the damming of a river. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formed in 1998 to review the effectiveness of large dams and develop internationally acceptable guidelines and standards for large dams or hydro energy projects. The Canadian government, through the Canadian International Development Agency, was one of many governments to fund the WCD. However, the authors argue that despite the financial support, the Canadian government was absent from any effort to follow-up on the recommendations of the WCD. The seven strategic priorities in the decision making process include: (1) gaining public acceptance, (2) comprehensive option assessment of water, energy, food and development needs, (3) addressing existing dams to improve the benefits that can be derived from them, (4) sustaining livelihoods, (5) recognizing the entitlements and sharing benefits, (6) ensuring compliance, and (7) sharing rivers for peace, development and security. This report offers a means to assess planned or existing dams and presents a set of guidelines for good practices linked to the seven strategic priorities. Ten case studies from around the world were presented, including the Three Gorges Dam in China. 154 refs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  10. Management plan for White Oak Dam. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose is to provide operation and maintenance, periodic inspection, and emergency action plans for White Oak Dam in general accordance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines for dam safety. It must be understood that operations at the site are primarily for purposes of environmental monitoring, environmental protection and waste management operations control. Effluent is generally allowed to flow from the lake at its natural rate by rising above the broad crested weir notch elevation of 744 feet m.s.l

  11. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material ( K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material ( K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  12. Improving operability of spouted beds using a simple optimizing control structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. CORRÊA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In operations using spouted beds, it is of major importance, from an energy consumption point of view, to operate the process as close as possible to the minimum spout flow. At this point, the speed of the gas (for example, warm air in drying operations is greater than the amount of heat and mass transfer involved, although it only transfers the minimum amount of momentum to maintain the spout. Therefore, by staying close to this minimum flow condition, it is possible to perform a stable operation and to obtain energy savings not only in the heating of the gas but also in its displacement by blowers. In order to improve the operation of such processes, a study is carried out by implementing a simple optimizing control structure on a spouted bed experimental set-up. The air flow is regulated by a frequency inverter, at the speed of blower rotation. A PI controller was used and the set-point for the air flow rate is calculated on-line by a simple and well-known minimization method called Golden Section Search. This set-point is constantly updated with values very close to the actual minimum spout flow rate. To accomplish the calculations and data acquisitions, a microcomputer with an interface and an analog signal conditioner is used .

  13. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  14. Operational planning optimization of steam power plants considering equipment failure in petrochemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying; Mo, Songping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a systematic programming methodology to address equipment failure. ► We classify different operation conditions into real periods and virtual periods. ► The formulated MILP models guarantee cost reduction and enough operation safety. ► The consideration of reserving operation redundancy is effective. - Abstract: One or more interconnected steam power plants (SPPs) are constructed in a petrochemical complex to supply utility energy to the process. To avoid large economic penalties or process shutdowns, these SPPs should be flexible and reliable enough to meet the process energy requirement under varying conditions. Unexpected utility equipment failure is inevitable and difficult to be predicted. Most of the conventional methods are based on the assumption that SPPs do not experience any kind of equipment failure. Unfortunately, a process shutdown cannot be avoided when equipment fails unexpectedly. In this paper, a systematic methodology is presented to minimize the total cost under normal conditions while reserving enough flexibility and safety for unexpected equipment failure conditions. The proposed method transforms the different conditions into real periods to indicate normal scenarios and virtual periods to indicate unexpected equipment failure scenarios. The optimization strategy incorporating various operation redundancy scheduling, the transition constraints from equipment failure conditions to normal conditions, and the boiler load increase behavior modeling are presented to save cost and guarantee operation safety. A detailed industrial case study shows that the proposed systematic methodology is effective and practical in coping with equipment failure conditions with only few additional cost penalties

  15. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeaw, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated

  16. Development and optimization of operational parameters of a gas-fired baking oven

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi Tunde MORAKINYO; Babatunde OMIDIJI; Hakeem OWOLABI

    2017-01-01

    This study presented the development and optimization of operational parameters of an indigenous gas-fired bread-baking oven for small-scale entrepreneur. It is an insulated rectangular box-like chamber, made of galvanized-steel sheets and having a total dimension of 920mm×650mm×600mm. This oven consists of two baking compartments and three combustion chambers. The oven characteristics were evaluated in terms of the baking capacity, baking efficiency and weight loss of the baked bread. The ph...

  17. The optimal operation of cooling tower systems with variable-frequency control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Huang, Liqing; Cui, Zhiguo; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the energy performance of chiller and cooling tower systems integrated with variable-frequency control for cooling tower fans and condenser water pumps. With regard to an example chiller system serving an office building, Chiller and cooling towers models were developed to assess how different variable-frequency control methods of cooling towers fans and condenser water pumps influence the trade-off between the chiller power, pump power and fan power under various operating conditions. The matching relationship between the cooling tower fans frequency and condenser water pumps frequency at optimal energy consumption of the system is introduced to achieve optimum system performance.

  18. Saturne II synchroton injector parameters operation and control: computerization and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagniel, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The injector control system has been studied, aiming at the beam quality improvement, the increasing of the versatility, and a better machine availability. It has been choosen to realize the three following functions: - acquisition of the principal parameters of the process, so as to control them quickly and to be warned if one of them is wrong (monitoring); - the control of those parameters, one by one or by families (starting, operating point); - the research of an optimal control (on a model or on the process itself) [fr

  19. Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Chenghui Zhang; Bo Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power(CCHP) with storage systems.Initially,the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season,the heating season and the transition season was formulated.The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency,minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy.Furthermore,the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm.Ultimately,the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method.A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method.The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method.The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency,environmental protection and economic benefits.

  20. Characteristics of plasma streams and optimization of operational regimes for magnetoplasma compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.S.; Marchenko, A.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Solyakov, D.G.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Chuvilo, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of these studies is characterization of dense xenon plasma streams generated by magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) in different operational regimes. Optimization of plasma compression in MPC allows increase of the plasma stream pressure up to 22...25 bar, average temperature of electrons of 10...20 eV and plasma stream velocity varied in the range of (2...9)x10 6 cm/s depending on operation regime. Spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that in these conditions most of Xe spectral