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Sample records for optimized plasma-deposited fluorocarbon

  1. Optimized plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coating for dry release and passivation of thin SU-8 cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings are introduced as a convenient method for the dry release of polymer structures. In this method, the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etch reactor was used to deposit hydrophobic fluorocarbon films. Standard photolithography with the negative epoxy......-based photoresist SU-8 was used to fabricate polymer structures such as cantilevers and membranes on top of the nonadhesive release layer. The authors identify the plasma density as the main parameter determining the surface properties of the deposited fluorocarbon films. They show that by modifying the pressure...

  2. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  3. The application of magnetic self-filter to optimization of AIN film growth process during the impulse plasma deposition synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the very first results of the application of plasma magnetic filtering achieved by a coil coupled with an electrical circuit of a coaxial accelerator during the synthesis of A1N thin films by use of Impulse Plasma Deposition method (IPD. The uniqueness of this technical solution lies in the fact that the filter is not supplied, controlled and synchronized from any external device. Our solution uses the energy from the electrical circuit of plasma accelerator. The plasma state was described on the basis of OES studies. Estimation of the effects of plasma filtering on the film quality was carried out on the basis of characterization of structure morphology (SEM, phase and chemical composition (vibrational spectroscopy. Our work has shown that the use of the developed magnetic self-filter improved the structure of the AlN coatings synthesized under the condition of impulse plasma, especially by the minimization of the tendency to deposit metallic aluminum droplets and columnar growth.

  4. Mass spectrometry of fluorocarbon-labeled glycosphingolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Arigi, Emma; Eichert, Heather;

    2010-01-01

    A method for generation of novel fluorocarbon derivatives of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with high affinity for fluorocarbon phases has been developed, and their potential applications to mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for glycosphingolipidomics have been investigated. Sphingolipid...

  5. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  6. A nanoscale fluorocarbon coating on PET surfaces improves the adhesion and growth of cultured coronary endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzatini, S; Morbidelli, L; Ziche, M [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena (Italy); Gristina, R [IMIP, CNR, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Favia, P [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: ziche@unisi.it

    2008-07-09

    Plasma deposition was applied to deposit smooth and nanostructured fluorocarbon coatings on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, with the aim to obtain surfaces with identical chemical composition but different roughness to improve the endothelialization process on PET surfaces. We found that increased roughness was associated with enhanced endothelial cell response, as shown by the ability of cells to grow and adhere to nanostructures. We also observed specific interaction of filopodia protruding from the cell membrane with individual nanostructures, leading to increased cell attachment, spreading and cell viability. Among the modified surfaces, one termed PET-tfl90 emerged as the one capable of best sustaining the formation of a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells. In conclusion, PET modified by nanostructured fluorocarbon film represents an improved graft material, over conventional PET, for endothelial cell adhesion and growth.

  7. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  8. Plasma-deposited a-C(N) H films

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, D E

    2000-01-01

    The growth behaviour, film structure and mechanical properties of plasma-deposited amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen films are shortly reviewed. The effect of nitrogen-containing gas addition to the deposition to the hydrocarbon atmospheres used is discussed, considering the modifications observed in the chemical composition growth kinetics, carbon atom hybridisation and chemical bonding arrangements of a-C(N):H films. The overall structure behaviour is correlated to the variation of the mechanical properties.

  9. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H. Todd; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-01

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g-1 at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g-1 at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  10. Particle melting, flattening, and stacking behaviors in induction plasma deposition of tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Particle melting, flattening, and stacking behaviors during induction plasma deposition of refractory tungsten were studied for land-based turbine engine application. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of particles and splats as well as to examine the microstructure of tungsten deposit. Three kinds of pores were found in the deposit, i.e., large pores with d > 10 μm, medium pores in the range of 1~10μm, and small pores with d < 1 μm. Both optimized plasma spray condition and use of spherical powder with a narrow particle size distribution are important in the elimination of large and medium pores and have significant influences on the formation of dense tungsten deposit. Highly dense tungsten deposit was obtained through complete melting, sufficiently flattening, and regularly stacking of tungsten particles.

  11. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  12. Plasma deposition of amorphous silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giovanni; Madan, Arun

    1995-01-01

    Semiconductors made from amorphous silicon have recently become important for their commercial applications in optical and electronic devices including FAX machines, solar cells, and liquid crystal displays. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon-Based Materials is a timely, comprehensive reference book written by leading authorities in the field. This volume links the fundamental growth kinetics involving complex plasma chemistry with the resulting semiconductor film properties and the subsequent effect on the performance of the electronic devices produced. Key Features * Focuses on the plasma chemistry of amorphous silicon-based materials * Links fundamental growth kinetics with the resulting semiconductor film properties and performance of electronic devices produced * Features an international group of contributors * Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the subject, from deposition technology to materials characterization to applications and implementation in state-of-the-art devices.

  13. Comparing Measured Fluorocarbon Leader Breaking Strength with Manufacturer Claims

    CERN Document Server

    Haight, Christine; McQueeney, Kathleen; Courtney, Ya'el

    2012-01-01

    The experiment reported in this article addresses manufacturer claims of fluorocarbon leader material strength versus experimental tests of leaders strength. Breaking strength of fishing line is the most common specification when marketing fishing line. In this study, eight leaders rated near 15 pounds by their manufacturers were tested. Each leader was tested with a knot in the line and without a knot in the line. The strongest leader tested without a knot was Cabela's Seaguar fluorocarbon and the weakest leader tested without a knot was Cabela's Premier leader. The highest strength of leaders with a knot was the Ande Monofilament Fluorocarbon and the lowest breaking strength of leaders with a knot was the Seaguar Grand Max Fluorocarbon. Few published studies actually test the breaking strength of a leader to determine the accuracy of manufacturers' claims. Tensile strengths are also reported.

  14. Synthesis of multicomponent metallic layers during impulse plasma deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowska-Langier Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed plasma in the impulse plasma deposition (IPD synthesis is generated in a coaxial accelerator by strong periodic electrical pulses, and it is distributed in a form of energetic plasma packets. A nearly complete ionization of gas, in these conditions of plasma generation, favors the nucleation of new phase of ions and synthesis of metastable materials in a form of coatings which are characterized by amorphous and/or nanocrystalline structure. In this work, the Fe–Cu alloy, which is immiscible in the state of equilibrium, was selected as a model system to study the possibility of formation of a non-equilibrium phase during the IPD synthesis. Structural characterization of the layers was done by means of X-ray diffraction and conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was found that supersaturated solid solutions were created as a result of mixing and/or alloying effects between the layer components delivered to the substrate independently and separately in time. Therefore, the solubility in the Fe–Cu system was largely extended in relation to the equilibrium conditions, as described by the equilibrium phase diagram in the solid state.

  15. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  16. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  17. Fluorocarbon compounds in MRI diagnostics and medical therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, Yu

    2016-02-01

    The lecture describes the application of fluorocarbon compounds as blood substitutes and contrasting preparations in MRI diagnostics. A blood substitute product fluorocarbon Perfluorane® has shown effectiveness in oxygen delivery to the tissues of living organisms, and cardioprotective effect which does not depend on the patient's blood group. Inclusion of paramagnetic atoms (gadolinium, iron, etc.) to the Perfluorane® chemical formula creates a new compound with high MRI contrast efficiencies at Larmor frequencies of protons so and fluorine-19 nuclei.

  18. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  19. Preparation of Self-crosslinked Fluorocarbon Polymer Emulsion with Core-shell Structure by the Method of Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lijun; SHI Hongxin; XIANG Juping; WU Hongke

    2009-01-01

    Using methyl methacrylate(MMA),butyl acrylate(BA)and hexafluorobutyl acry-late(HFBA)as main raw materials,we prepared self-crosslinked fluorocarbon polymer emulsion with core-shell structure via soap-free emulsion polymerization when the conception of particle design and polymer morphology was adopted.Moreover,the influence of mole ratio of BA to MAA,pH value on the oligomer was studied.And the effects of the added amount of oligomer,self-crosslinked monomer and HFBA,mass ratio of BA to MMA,reaction temperature and the initiator on the polymerization technology and the performance of the product,were investigated and optimized.The structure and performance of the fluorocarbon polymer emulsion were characterized and tested with FTIR,TEM, MFT and contact angle and water absorption of the latex film.The experimental results show that the optimal conditions for preparing fluorocarbon polymer emulsion are as follows:for preparing the oligomer,mol ratio of BA to MAA is equal to 1.0:1.60,and pH value is controlled within the range of 8.0 and 9.0;for preparing fluorocarbon polymer emulsion,the added amount of oligmer[P(BA/MANa)] is 6%;mass ratio of BA to MMA is 40:60;the added amount of self-crosslinked monomer is 2%,the added amount of HFBA is 15%;reaction temperature is 80℃;the mixture of potassium persulfate and sodium bisulfite is used as the initiator.The film-forming stability of the fluorocarbon polymer emul-sion and the performance of the latex film,which is prepared with the soap-free emulsion polymeri-zation,are better than that prepared with the conventional emulsion polymerization.

  20. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differen...

  1. Interaction of platelets, fibrinogen and endothelial cells with plasma deposited PEO-like films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilu; Wang, Jin; Li, Xin; Tu, Qiufen; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2012-02-01

    For blood-contacting biomedical implants like retrievable vena cava filters, surface-based diagnostic devices or in vivo sensors, limiting thrombosis and cell adhesion is paramount, due to a decrease even failure in performance. Plasma deposited PEO-like films were investigated as surface modifications. In this work, mixed gas composed of tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) vapor and oxygen was used as precursor. It was revealed that plasma polymerization under high ratio of oxygen/tetraglyme led to deposition of the films that had high content of ether groups. This kind of PEO-like films had good stability in phosphate buffer solution. In vitro hemocompatibility and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion revealed low platelet adhesion, platelet activation, fibrinogen adhesion, EC adhesion and proliferation on such plasma deposited PEO-like films. This made it a potential candidate for the applications in anti-fouling surfaces of blood-contacting biomedical devices.

  2. Aerosol-assisted plasma deposition of hydrophobic polycations makes surfaces highly antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Harris; Kim, Yoojeong; Mello, Kerrianne; Lovaasen, John; Shah, Apoorva; Rice, Norman; Yim, Jacqueline H; Pappas, Daphne; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2014-02-01

    The currently used multistep chemical synthesis for making surfaces antimicrobial by attaching to them hydrophobic polycations is replaced herein by an aerosol-assisted plasma deposition procedure. To this end, N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI (HMPEI) is directly plasma-coated onto a glass surface. The resultant immobilized HMPEI coating has been thoroughly characterized and shown to be robust, bactericidal against Escherichia coli, and virucidal against human influenza virus.

  3. Integration Process Development for Improved Compatibility with Organic Non-Porous Ultralow-k Dielectric Fluorocarbon on Advanced Cu Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xun; Tomita, Yugo; Nemoto, Takenao; Miyatani, Kotaro; Saito, Akane; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akinobu; Kuroda, Rihito; Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro; Kawase, Kazumasa; Nozawa, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Takaaki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2012-05-01

    Integration of an organic non-porous ultralow-k dielectric, fluorocarbon (k= 2.2), into advanced Cu interconnects was demonstrated. The challenges of process-induced damage, such as delamination and variances of both the structure and electrical properties of the fluorocarbon during fabrication, were investigated on Cu/fluorocarbon damascene interconnects. A titanium-based barrier layer, instead of a tantalum-based barrier layer, was used to avoid delamination between Cu and fluorocarbon in Cu/fluorocarbon interconnects. A moisture-hermetic dielectric protective layer was also effective to avoid damage induced by wet chemical cleaning. On the other hand, a post-etching nitrogen plasma treatment to form a stable protective layer on the surface of the fluorocarbon was proposed for the practical minimization of damage introduction to fluorocarbon in the following damascene process, such as post-etching cleaning.

  4. Properties of CdTe layers deposited by a novel method -Pulsed Plasma Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Ancora, C.; Nozar, P.; Mittica, G.; Prescimone, F.; A. Neri; Contaldi, S.; Milita, S.; Albonetti, C.; Corticelli, F.; Brillante, A.; Bilotti, I.; Tedeschi, G.; Taliani, C.

    2011-01-01

    CdTe and CdS are emerging as the most promising materials for thin film photovoltaics in the quest of the achievement of grid parity. The major challenge for the advancement of grid parity is the achievement of high quality at the same time as low fabrication cost. The present paper reports the results of the new deposition technique, Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD), for the growth of the CdTe layers on CdS/ZnO/quartz and quartz substrates. The PPD method allows to deposit at low temperature. ...

  5. Fabrication of transparent antifouling thin films with fractal structure by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamauchi, Koji; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Suzaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-21

    Antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency has been fabricated on glass substrate by forming fractal microstructure(s). The fractal microstructure was constituted by transparent silica particles of 100 nm diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition. The sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. We found that one sample has the superhydrophobic ability with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°, while another sample has a high transmittance of more than 85% in a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm.

  6. Cell adhesion property of cathodic arc plasma deposited CrN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Pham, Vuong Hung

    2009-09-01

    The interaction between human osteoblast cells and CrN thin film was studied in vitro. CrN thin films were produced by cathodic arc plasma deposition. The surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Cell adhesion on the coatings was assessed by MTT assay and visualization. Cell cytoskeleton organization was studied by analyzing microtubule and actin cytoskeleton organization. Focal contact adhesion was monitored by analyzing vinculin density. The study found that the CrN thin film is a potential candidate as a protective coating on implantable devices that require minimal cellular adhesion.

  7. Ultra-small platinum and gold nanoparticles by arc plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: kim_sh@kist.re.kr [Center for Materials Architecturing, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Young Eun; Ha, Heonphil; Byun, Ji Young [Center for Materials Architecturing, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Dok [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-small (<2 nm) and bigger platinum and gold nanoparticles were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD). • Size and coverage of deposited nanoparticles were easily controlled with APD parameters. • Crystalline structures of deposited nanoparticles emerged only when the particle size was bigger than ∼2 nm. - Abstract: Ultra-small (<2 nm) nanoparticles of platinum and gold were produced by arc plasma deposition (APD) in a systematic way and the deposition behavior was studied. Nanoparticles were deposited on two dimensional amorphous carbon and amorphous titania thin films and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Deposition behavior of nanoparticles by APD was studied with discharge voltage (V), discharge condenser capacitance (C), and the number of plasma pulse shots (n) as controllable parameters. The average size of intrinsic nanoparticles generated by APD process was as small as 0.9 nm and deposited nanoparticles began to have crystal structures from the particle size of about 2 nm. V was the most sensitive parameter to control the size and coverage of generated nanoparticles compared to C and n. Size of APD deposited nanoparticles was also influenced by the nature of evaporating materials and substrates.

  8. Plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon solar cells. Looking beyond the glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donker, M.N. van den

    2006-07-01

    Microcrystalline silicon emerged in the past decade as highly interesting material for application in efficient and stable thin film silicon solar cells. It consists of nanometer-sized crystallites embedded in a micrometer-sized columnar structure, which gradually evolves during the SiH{sub 4} based deposition process starting from an amorphous incubation layer. Understanding of and control over this transient and multi-scale growth process is essential in the route towards low-cost microcrystalline silicon solar cells. This thesis presents an experimental study on the technologically relevant high rate (5-10 Aa s{sup -1}) parallel plate plasma deposition process of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The objective of the work was to explore and understand the physical limits of the plasma deposition process as well as to develop diagnostics suitable for process control in eventual solar cell production. Among the developed non-invasive process diagnostics were a pyrometer, an optical spectrometer, a mass spectrometer and a voltage probe. Complete thin film silicon solar cells and modules were deposited and characterized. (orig.)

  9. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Containing Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolyte with Nonionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of fluorocarbon containing hydrophobically modified polyelectrolyte (FMPAANa) with two kinds of nonionic surfactants (hydrogenated and fluorinated) in a semidilute (0.5 wt% ) aqueous solution had been studied by rheological measurements. Association behavior was found in both systems. The hydrophobic interaction of FMPAANa with fluorinated surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than that with hydrogenated surfactant (NP7.5) at low surfactant concentrations. The interaction is strengthened by surfactants being added for the density of active junctions increased. Whereas distinct phenomena for FC171 and NP7. 5 start to be found as the surfactants added over their respective certain concentration. The interaction of polyelectrolyte with fluorinated surfactant increases dramatical ly while that with hydrogenated surfactant decreases.

  10. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G

    2002-01-01

    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  11. Antifouling Transparent ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Du, Jinlong; Yuji, Toshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ogawa, Kazufumi

    2015-09-01

    One problem with outdoor-mounted solar panels is that power generation efficiency is reduced by face plate dirt; a problem with electronic touch panels is the deterioration of screen visibility caused by finger grease stains. To solve these problems, we should fabricate antifouling surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent properties without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, an antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency was fabricated on a glass substrate by forming a fractal microstructure. The fractal microstructure was constituted of transparent silica particles 100 nm in diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles through atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition; the sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. Samples were obtained which had a superhydrophobic property (with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°) and a high average transmittance of about 90% (with wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 780 nm).

  12. Investigations of the environmental acceptability of fluorocarbon alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, M

    1992-02-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are currently used in systems for preservation of perishable foods and medical supplies, increasing worker productivity and consumer comfort, conserving energy and increasing product reliability. As use of CFCs is phased out due to concerns of ozone depletion, a variety of new chemicals and technologies will be needed to serve these needs. In choosing alternatives, industry must balance concerns over safety and environmental acceptability and still meet the preformance characteristics of the current technology, the only viable alternatives meeting the safety, performance, and environmental requirements for the remaining 40% of demand are fluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). HCFCs and HFCs possess many of the desirable properties of the CFCs, but because of the, hydrogen, they results in shorter atmospheric lifetimes compared to CFCs and reduces their potential to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion or global warming; HFCs do not contain chlorine and have no potential to destroy ozone. This paper provides an overview of challenges faced by industry, regulators, and society in general in continuing to meet societal needs and consumer demands while reducing risk to the enviroment without compromising consumer or worker safety.

  13. Decreased Fibroblast and Increased Osteoblast Functions on Ionic Plasma Deposited Nanostructured Ti Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Dan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBioactive coatings are in high demand to control cellular functions for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize for the first time fibroblast (fibrous scar tissue forming cells adhesion and proliferation on an important polymeric biomaterial (silicone coated with titanium using a novel ionic plasma deposition (IPD process. Fibroblasts are one of the first anchorage-dependent cells to arrive at an implant surface during the wound healing process. Persistent excessive functions of fibroblasts have been linked to detrimental fibrous tissue formation which may cause implant failure. The IPD process creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features usually below 100 nm by first using a vacuum to remove all contaminants, then guiding charged metallic ions or plasma to the surface of a medical device at ambient temperature. Results demonstrated that compared to currently used titanium and uncoated silicone, silicone coated with titanium using IPD significantly decreased fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Results also showed competitively increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells over fibroblast adhesion on silicone coated with titanium; in contrast, osteoblast adhesion was not competitively increased over fibroblast adhesion on uncoated silicone or titanium controls. In this manner, this study strongly suggests that IPD should be further studied for biomaterial applications in which fibrous tissue encapsulation is undesirable (such as for orthopedic implants, cardiovascular components, etc..

  14. Numerical simulation of the transient multiphase field during plasma deposition manufacturing composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A solid/liquid/gas unified model has been developed to investigate the gradient composition formation during the plasma deposition manufacturing(PDM) composite materials process. In this model,an enthalpy porosity model was applied to deal with the melting and solidification of the deposited layer,and a level-set approach was introduced to track the evolution of the free surface of the molten pool and the deposited layer. Moreover,complicated physical phenomena occurring at the liquid/gas interface,including forced convection heat loss,heat emission and plasma heat source,have been incorporated into the governing equations by source terms. In this study,the numerical experiment of nickel base alloy powder deposited on the medium steel substrate by PDM technique was implemented based on the staggered grid and SIMPLEC algorithm. Concentration gradient distribution of the solute material at the composite material interface,fluid flow and temperature distribution in the molten pool and the deposited layer have been investigated in detail.

  15. Numerical simulation of the transient multiphase field during plasma deposition manufacturing composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG FanRong; ZHANG HaiOu; WANG GuiLan

    2009-01-01

    A solid/liquid/gas unified model has been developed to investigate the gradient composition formation during the plasma deposition manufacturing (PDM) composite materials process. In this model, an enthalpy porosity model was applied to deal with the melting end solidification of the deposited layer, and a level-set approach was introduced to track the evolution of the free surface of the molten pool and the deposited layer. Moreover, complicated physical phenomena occurring at the liquid/gas inter-face, including forced convection heat loss, heat emission and plasma heat source, have been incor-porated into the governing equations by source terms. In this study, the numerical experiment of nickel base alloy powder deposited on the medium steel substrate by PDM technique was implemented based on the staggered grid and SlMPLEC algorithm. Concentration gradient distribution of the solute mate-rial at the composite material interface, fluid flow and temperature distribution in the molten pool and the deposited layer have been investigated in detail.

  16. Surface Passivation of ZrO2 Artificial Dentures by Magnetized Coaxial Plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hara, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiko; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Nihon University Team

    2015-09-01

    Recent growth and fabrication technologies for functional materials have been greatly contributed to drastic development of oral surgery field. Zirconia based ceramics is expected to utilize artificial dentures because these ceramics have good biocompatibility, high hardness and aesthetic attractively. However, to apply these ceramics to artificial dentures, this denture is removed from a dental plate because of weakly bond. For improving this problem, synthesis an Al passivation-layer on the ceramics for bonding with these dental items is suitable. In order to deposit the passivation layer, we focused on a magnetized coaxial plasma deposition (MCPD). The greatest characteristic of MCPD is that high-melting point metal can be deposited on various substrates. Additionally, adhesion force between substrate and films deposited by the MCPD is superior to it of general deposition methods. In this study, we have reported on the growth techniques of Al films on ZrO2 for contributing to oral surgery by the MCPD. Surface of deposited films shows there were some droplets and thickness of it is about 200 nm. Thickness is increased to 500 nm with increasing applied voltage.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of antimicrobial coatings on non-woven textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; Deng, Xiaolong; Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Vujosevic, Danijela; Vuksanovic, Vineta; Cvelbar, Uros; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Leys, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for preparation of nanoparticle incorporated non-woven fabric with high antibacterial efficiency has been proposed based on atmospheric pressure plasma process. In this work direct current plasma jet stabilized by fast nitrogen flow was used as a plasma deposition source. Three different types of the nanoparticles (silver, copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles) were employed as antimicrobial agents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown a positive chemical shift observed for Ag 3d 5/2 (at 368.1 eV) suggests that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are partly oxidized during the deposition. The surface chemistry and the antibacterial activity of the samples against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated and analyzed. It is shown that the samples loaded with nanoparticles of Ag and Cu and having the barrier layer of 10 nm characterized by almost 97% of bacterial reduction whereas the samples with ZnO nanoparticles provide 86% reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  18. Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Final report, February 1979-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, J C

    1980-02-15

    Studies of defects in plasma-deposited, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), covering the period February 1979-January 1980 are described. Substantial progress has been made in understanding defect structures, their electronic properties and the influence of doping. The two most significant results are surprising, in one case for simplicity where complexity was expected, and in the other for complexity where simplicity had been presumed. In the first study we have clarified the nature of the defects by showing the connection between luminescence and light induced ESR experiments. The results indicate that dangling bonds having a positive electronic correlation energy are sufficient to explain most of the experimental information. The second study demonstrates the existence of microstructural inhomogeneities, arising from the nucleation and growth of the films. Thus the usual assumption of a uniform alloy with a random distribution of defects must be modified in considering processes such as electrical conduction, trapping, recombination, hydrogen effusion, etc. Of considerable technological and fundamental interest is the influence of doping on the defect behavior. Previous indications that doping introduces defect states have been confirmed. It remains to determine why this behavior occurs, and if there are any means of circumventing the problem.

  19. Novel fluoro-carbon functional monomer for dental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, K; Yoshida, Y; Hayakawa, S; Nagaoka, N; Kamenoue, S; Okihara, T; Ogawa, T; Nakamura, M; Osaka, A; Van Meerbeek, B

    2014-02-01

    Among several functional monomers, 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) bonded most effectively to hydroxyapatite (HAp). However, more hydrolysis-resistant functional monomers are needed to improve bond durability. Here, we investigated the adhesive potential of the novel fluoro-carbon functional monomer 6-methacryloxy-2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorohexyl dihydrogen phosphate (MF8P; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Tokyo, Japan) by studying its molecular interaction with powder HAp using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H MAS NMR) and with dentin using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and by characterizing its interface ultrastructure at dentin using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We further determined the dissolution rate of the MF8P_Ca salt, the hydrophobicity of MF8P, and the bond strength of an experimental MF8P-based adhesive to dentin. NMR confirmed chemical adsorption of MF8P onto HAp. XRD and TEM revealed MF8P_Ca salt formation and nano-layering at dentin. The MF8P_Ca salt was as stable as that of 10-MDP; MF8P was as hydrophobic as 10-MDP; a significantly higher bond strength was recorded for MF8P than for 10-MDP. In conclusion, MF8P chemically bonded to HAp. Despite its shorter size, MF8P possesses characteristics similar to those of 10-MDP, most likely to be associated with the strong chemical bond between fluorine and carbon. Since favorable bond strength to dentin was recorded, MF8P can be considered a good candidate functional monomer for bonding.

  20. Electron attachment and positive ion chemistry of monohydrogenated fluorocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Justin P.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A., E-mail: afrl.rvborgmailbox@kirtland.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Rate coefficients and product branching fractions for electron attachment and for reaction with Ar{sup +} are measured over the temperature range 300–585 K for three monohydrogenated fluorocarbon (HFC) radicals (CF{sub 3}CHF, CHF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}, and CF{sub 3}CHFCF{sub 2}), as well as their five closed-shell precursors (1-HC{sub 2}F{sub 4}I, 2-HC{sub 2}F{sub 4}I, 2-HC{sub 2}F{sub 4}Br, 1-HC{sub 3}F{sub 6}I, 2-HC{sub 3}F{sub 6}Br). Attachment to the HFC radicals is always fairly inefficient (between 0.1% and 10% of the Vogt–Wannier capture rate), but generally faster than attachment to analogous perfluorinated carbon radicals. The primary products in all cases are HF-loss to yield C{sub n}F{sub m−1}{sup −} anions, with only a minor branching to F{sup −} product. In all cases the temperature dependences are weak. Attachment to the precursor halocarbons is near the capture rate with a slight negative temperature dependence in all cases except for 2-HC{sub 2}F{sub 4}Br, which is ∼10% efficient at 300 K and becomes more efficient, approaching the capture rate at higher temperatures. All attachment kinetics are successfully reproduced using a kinetic modeling approach. Reaction of the HFC radicals with Ar{sup +} proceeds at or near the calculated collisional rate coefficient in all cases, yielding a wide variety of product ions.

  1. Properties of Low Surface Energy Fluorocarbon Polymers with Fluoro-acrylic Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiusheng; WANG Can; LIU Lanxuan; LI Jian; GAO Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    The low surface energy fluorocarbon polymer from the synthesized fluoro-acrylic resins was developed. Then the molecule orientation principle of nonpolar and polar functional groups in the polymers was analyzed. And the contact angles of pure water drops on the surfaces of various fluoro-monomer homopolymers and interpolymers were measured. So the relation of polymers' fluoro-content with the surface energy was determined. The distribution of fluoric functional groups in the polymers was investigated. And the test results show that though the total fluorine content of the fluorocarbon polymers is relative few, their surface energy is really low due to the enrichment of fluoro-chains on the polymers surface.

  2. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  3. The Study of Low Surface Energy Fluorocarbon Coatings with Fluor Content Being Lower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wan-zhen; LIU Xiu-sheng; ZHONG Ping

    2004-01-01

    A kind of low surface energy fluorocarbon coatings from the synthesized fluoro-acrylic resin was developed.The molecule orientation principle of nonpolar and polar functional groups in the coatings was analyzed. The contact angles of pure water drops on the surfaces of various fluoro-monomer homopolymers and interpolymers were measured. The relation of coatings' fluoro-content with the surface energy was determined. The distribution of fluoric functional groups in the coatings was investigated. The test results show that though the total content of fluor of the fluorocarbon coatings is relative few, their surface energy is really low due to the enrichment of fluoro-chains on the surfaces.

  4. Optical modeling of plasma-deposited ZnO films: Electron scattering at different length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoops, Harm C. M., E-mail: H.C.M.Knoops@tue.nl; Loo, Bas W. H. van de; Smit, Sjoerd; Ponomarev, Mikhail V.; Weber, Jan-Willem; Sharma, Kashish [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kessels, Wilhelmus M. M.; Creatore, Mariadriana, E-mail: M.Creatore@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this work, an optical modeling study on electron scattering mechanisms in plasma-deposited ZnO layers is presented. Because various applications of ZnO films pose a limit on the electron carrier density due to its effect on the film transmittance, higher electron mobility values are generally preferred instead. Hence, insights into the electron scattering contributions affecting the carrier mobility are required. In optical models, the Drude oscillator is adopted to represent the free-electron contribution and the obtained optical mobility can be then correlated with the macroscopic material properties. However, the influence of scattering phenomena on the optical mobility depends on the considered range of photon energy. For example, the grain-boundary scattering is generally not probed by means of optical measurements and the ionized-impurity scattering contribution decreases toward higher photon energies. To understand this frequency dependence and quantify contributions from different scattering phenomena to the mobility, several case studies were analyzed in this work by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The obtained electrical parameters were compared to the results inferred by Hall measurements. For intrinsic ZnO (i-ZnO), the in-grain mobility was obtained by fitting reflection data with a normal Drude model in the IR range. For Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO), besides a normal Drude fit in the IR range, an Extended Drude fit in the UV-vis range could be used to obtain the in-grain mobility. Scattering mechanisms for a thickness series of Al:ZnO films were discerned using the more intuitive parameter “scattering frequency” instead of the parameter “mobility”. The interaction distance concept was introduced to give a physical interpretation to the frequency dependence of the scattering frequency. This physical interpretation furthermore allows the prediction of which Drude models can be used in a specific

  5. Plasma Deposition and Characterization of Copper-doped Cobalt Oxide Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TYCZKOWSKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of pure and copper-doped cobalt oxide films was prepared by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD. The effect of Cu-doping on the chemical structure and morphology of the deposited films was investigated. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies were used to characterize the chemical structure and morphology of the produced films. The bulk composition and homogeneity of the samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was employed to assess the surface chemical composition of pure and doped materials. The obtained results permit to affirm that the PEMOCVD technique is a simple, versatile and efficient method for providing homogeneous layers of cobalt oxides with a different content of copper. It has been found that pure cobalt oxide films mainly contain Co3O4 in the form of nanoclusters whereas the films doped with Cu are much more complex, and CoOx (also Co3O4, mixed Co-Cu oxides and CuOx nanoclusters are detected in them. Preliminary catalytical tests show that Cu-doped cobalt oxide films allow to initiate catalytic combustion of n-hexane at a lower temperature compared to the pure cobalt oxide (Co3O4 films. From what has been stated above, the plasma-deposited thin films of Cu-doped cobalt oxides pave the way towards a new class of nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2320

  6. Fluorocarbon coatings deposited on micron-sized particles by atmospheric PECVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Ommen, J.R. van

    2012-01-01

    Fluorocarbon coatings have been deposited on micron-sized silica particles by means of atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The silica particles have a diameter in the range between 40 and 70 ?m. They are fluidized at atmospheric pressure in a circulating fluidized

  7. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUOROCARBON-MODIFIED POLYACRYLAMIDE/SURFACTANT AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-tian Bu; Zhen-zhong Yang; Yun-xiang Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between surfactants and fluorocarbon-modified polyacrylamide (FC-PAM) in aqueous solutions was evaluated by theological means and fluorescence spectroscopy and was found to be strong regardless of the surfactant's nature. Two representative surfactants, anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nonionic Triton X-100, were used. The origin of the interaction and its dependence on the surfactant concentration were discussed.

  8. Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallewell, G., E-mail: Gregory.Hallewell@cern.c [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-05-21

    The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixtures-developed for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.

  9. The environmental history and probable future of fluorocarbon-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1993-12-01

    The atmospheric concentration of fluorocarbon 11 (F-11) has increased steadily since it was first put into commercial use in the late 1930s and early 1940s. The observed trends, however, have two periods of dramatic declines. The first occurred around 1974, when trends started falling from their all time high of 13.8 pptv/yr down to around 7.8 pptv/yr (1 pptv = 10-12 parts by volume) in 1982. This decline occurred at first, probably, because of market conditions and later because of the ban in the United States on inessential uses of F-11, particularly in aerosol spray cans. In the meantime, other uses of F-11, such as blowing foams, increased, causing an increasing trend once again until around 1987, when the atmospheric trends reached 11 pptv/yr (measured 1986-1988, inclusive). After this time, however, the trends have fallen dramatically and are now only 4.6 pptv/yr (measured 1990-1992) and even lower in the middle northern latitudes (about 2 pptv/yr). The recent decline of trend is attributed to the effect of the Montreal Protocol and subsequent agreements that are designed to ban worldwide production before the turn of this century. The atmospheric trends reflect estimated emissions, which reached highest values in 1974 (340-355 Gg/yr; 1 Gg = 109g) and again in 1988 (314-380 Gg/yr). The observed concentrations and trends agree extremely well with those calculated from independent estimates of emissions from the various sources. Atmospheric concentrations of F-11 are calculated from a mass balance theory involving seven reservoirs and their interactions. Three of the reservoirs are at the Earth's surface arising from the uses of F-11 (quick-release applications such as open cell foams and aerosols, nonhermetically sealed refrigeration, and rigid polyurethane foams). We estimate that of the 9150 Gg of F-11 that have been produced throughout its history, at present about 1040 Gg are tied up in rigid foams (90 Gg and 24 Gg are tied up in refrigeration and quick

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Surfactant PEG Macromonomers with Fluorocarbon End-capped Groups and its Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Shou-Ping; ZHUANG, Dong-Qing; ZHANG, Yun-Xiang; CHEN, Jun-Yan; JIANG, Ming; WU, Shu-Guang; SWIFT, Graham

    2001-01-01

    Fluorocarbon (RF) or hydrocarbon (RH) end-capped PEG macromonomers were prepared by coupling method. Several factors that affect the synthesis were studied and optimum condition was obtained. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of these macromonomers were determined by fluorescence method. A new type of fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobically modified alkali swellable/soluble copolymers were obtained by copolymerization of RF or RH alkyl endcapped PEG macromonomers with acrylic acid in organic solvent. The preliminary researches on viscosity property of these copolymer solutions were conducted under different conditions, such as various macromonomer content in the copolymer, polymer concentration, shear rate, pH value and temperature. All the results proved that there existed a very strong hydrophobic association among hydrophobes in these copolymer solutions.

  11. Stability and Hydrocarbon/Fluorocarbon Sorption of a Metal-Organic Framework with Fluorinated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijiang Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The stabilities and hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon sorption properties of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (MOF Zn(hfipbb with fluorinated channels has been studied. By the combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD measurements, we confirm that Zn(hfipbb has exceptionally high hydrothermal and thermal stabilities. The adsorption behaviors of water and methanol by Zn(hfipbb indicate that it is highly hydrophobic but with high adsorption of alcohols. Hexane and perfluorohexane adsorption measurements show that the fluorinated channels in Zn(hfipbb have high affinity with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon. The high fluorophilic nature of the channels and the high stability of the compound suggest its potential utility in practical separation applications.

  12. Supported Ag-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanofibres formed at low temperature by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, Ana; Barranco, Angel; Yubero, Francisco; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avenida Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-07-28

    Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanofibres (about three {mu}m long and 30-150 nm thick) formed by a single-crystalline silver wire (20-30 nm thick) and an external layer of amorphous TiO{sub 2} of variable thickness are prepared at 403 K by oxygen plasma activation of a silver substrate followed by plasma deposition of TiO{sub 2}. Thicker fibres of anatase crystallites surrounding the silver wire were prepared when plasma deposition was carried out at 523 K. The fibres have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The plasmon losses of the silver core wire have been characterized by electron energy loss spectroscopy in the TEM microscope. Based on the experimental evidence, a new volcano-type mechanism of formation of these core-shell fibres is proposed, whereby the effect of the plasma and the high mobility of the silver would be key factors determining their morphology and dimensions.

  13. Mechanical properties of isolated fetal miniature pig lungs after substitution with fluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, B; Wuthe, J; Schmidt, A; Seitz, B; Rüfer, R

    1988-01-01

    In our present study we tried to inflate and stabilize isolated immature lungs of fetal minipigs in gestation age of 95 days (= 85% of total normal gestation period) with different fluorocarbons. Based on our previous experiences, the immature lungs at day 95 are almost non inflatable with air. For our experiments we used fluorocarbon 43 (FC-43) with a surface tension of 16 mN/m and fluorocarbon 72 (FC-72) with a surface tension of 12 mN/m. Eighteen fetal immature lungs were used. In group 1 the lungs were rinsed with FC-43; in group 2 the rinse solution was FC-72, and in group 3 the lungs were untreated. After removing the fluorocarbon, in the case of groups 1 and 2, the lungs were artificially ventilated. Pressure-volume (p-v) curves were registered in the beginning (immediately after FC lavage), after 10 and 20 min of artificial ventilation. Airway opening pressure (pi) and weight-specific end-inspiratory lung compliance (ci) were investigated. Statistically significant differences in weight-specific end-inspiratory compliance were found between FC groups and untreated group 3, but no stabilization could be seen during the investigation period of 20 min. No statistically significant improvement in weight-specific end-inspiratory compliance was observed between group 1 and 2, although the compliances of group 2 with FC-72 were better than those of group 1 with FC-43 in three p-v diagrams registered in the beginning and after 10 and 20 min of artificial ventilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Effect of Fluorocarbon Surfactant Additives on the Effective Viscosity of Acetone Solutions of Cellulose Diacetate,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    34 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION i00 Lfl .. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON SURFACTANT ADDITIVES ON THE EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE ...ADDITIVES ON TH~ .. t- ’_ ition EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE DIACETATE D~rbt~l By: L.A. Shits, N. Yu. Kal’nova Codesuton English...VISCOSITY OF ACETONE SOLUTIONS OF CELLULOSE DIACETATE L. A. Shits, N. Yu. Kal’nova (Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS USSR, Moscow) ! - The

  15. Surface characterization and platelet adhesion studies on fluorocarbons prepared by plasma-induced graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J C; Tiong, S L; Chen, C Y

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that the interactions between the biological environment and biomaterial surface are the key factors influencing its biocompatibility. Therefore, plasma processing, which can vary the surface properties without altering the bulk properties, has been considered as one of the important techniques for improving a materials' biocompatibility. In this investigation, plasma-induced grafting polymerization of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), instead of direct plasma polymerization, was attempted with an aim to improve the substrate blood compatibility. Contact angle measurement indicated both fluorocarbon-grafted Pdyethylenes (PEs) are hydrophobic. Due to the additional fluorine and chlorine atoms on the CTFE chain, the PCTFE-grafted PE exhibited a higher hydrophobicity than the PVDF-grafted one. ESCA analysis has revealed that these two plasma-induced fluorocarbon deposits contain almost no CFx (x > 2) binding on the surface layer, indicating the grafting polymerization mainly follows the free radical mechanism instead of the molecule-highly-fragmented reaction steps commonly seen in the direct plasma polymerization treatment. In addition, ATR-FTIR has shown the surface chemical configuration of these PVDF- and PCTFE-grafted PEs to be very similar to those of the bulk samples of PVDF and PCTFE. The surface roughness decreased after oxygen plasma treatment and was further reduced by VDF and CTFE grafting polymerization. In vitro platelet adhesion testing indicated these two fluorocarbon grafted PEs are less platelet-activating than the nontreated PE control and oxygen plasma activated one.

  16. Absorption and recovery of n-hexane in aqueous solutions of fluorocarbon surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yan, Bo; Fu, Jiamo; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-11-01

    n-Hexane is widely used in industrial production as an organic solvent. As an industrial exhaust gas, the contribution of n-hexane to air pollution and damage to human health are attracting increasing attention. In the present study, aqueous solutions of two fluorocarbon surfactants (FSN100 and FSO100) were investigated for their properties of solubilization and dynamic absorption of n-hexane, as well as their capacity for regeneration and n-hexane recovery by thermal distillation. The results show that the two fluorocarbon surfactants enhance dissolution and absorption of n-hexane, and their effectiveness is closely related to their concentrations in solution. For low concentration solutions (0.01%-0.30%), the partition coefficient decreases dramatically and the saturation capacity increases significantly with increasing concentration, but the changes for both are more modest when the concentration is over 0.30%. The FSO100 solution presents a smaller partition coefficient and a greater saturation capacity than the FSN100 solution at the same concentration, indicating a stronger solubilization for n-hexane. Thermal distillation is a feasible method to recover n-hexane from these absorption solutions, and to regenerate them. With 90sec heating at 80-85°C, the recovery of n-hexane ranges between 81% and 85%, and the regenerated absorption solution maintains its original performance during reuse. This study provides basic information on two fluorocarbon surfactants for application in the treatment of industrial n-hexane waste gases.

  17. Effect of temperature on deposition layer formation in HBr/N2/fluorocarbon-based plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Taku; Yokogawa, Kenetsu; Mori, Masahito

    2017-06-01

    The effects of wafer temperature on etching rate and surface composition were investigated to clarify the surface reaction mechanism under HBr/N2/fluorocarbon-based gas plasma for developing a process for three-dimensional NAND flash devices. The etching rates of both polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) and SiO2 were found to increase at a wafer temperature of 20 °C as compared with those at 60 °C. Comparing the gas combination of fluorocarbon/N2 and HBr/N2 mixtures, the temperature dependence of SiO2 etching rates was considered to relevant to the sticking probability of fluorocarbon polymers. To determine the cause of the temperature dependence of the poly-Si etching rate, surface composition was evaluated by thermal-desorption-spectroscopy and laser-sputtered-neutral-mass-spectrometry analyses. Ammonium bromide was confirmed in the deposition film at a wafer temperature of 20 °C. The observed increase in poly-Si etching rate at lower temperatures was possibly caused by increased amounts of nitrogen, hydrogen, and bromine fixed to the surface with the formation of ammonium bromide.

  18. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-05

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de [Department of Mechanics, Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Piaui, Praça da Liberdade, 1597, CEP 64000-040 Teresina, Piaui, Brazil and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Piaui, Campus Min. Petronio Portela, Ininga, CEP 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P., E-mail: nascente@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luis km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Viana, Bartolomeu C. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Piaui, Campus Min. Petronio Portela, Ininga, CEP 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Alves, Clodomiro [Department of Exact and Natural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Semi Arido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, CEP 59625-900 Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Nishimoto, Akio [Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  20. Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolytes: V. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Modified Poly (acrylic acid) with Various Added Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Hui(周晖); SONG,Guo-Qaiang(宋国强); GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHANG,Yun-xiang (章云祥); DIEING,Reinhold; MA,Lian(马莲); HAEUSSLING,Lukas

    2001-01-01

    The interactions between fiuorocarbon-medified pol(sodium acrylate) and various kinds of added surfactant have been studied by means of viscometric measurement. Association behavior was found in both hydrogenated and fluorinated anionic, nonionic and cationic surfactants. Among them, the interactions between fluorocarbon-modified poly ( sodium acrylate) and cationic surfactants are the strongest, owing to the cooperation of both electrostatic attractions and hydrophobic associations. The anionic surfactants have the weakest effects on the solution properties because of the existence of unfavorable electrostatic repulsion. The hydrophobic interactions between copolymers and fluorinated surfactants are much stronger than those between copolymers and hydrogenated surfactants.

  1. Mesoporous Fluorinated Metal-Organic Frameworks with Exceptional Adsorption of Fluorocarbons and CFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Teng-Hao; Popov, Ilya; Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Chuang, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Jacobson, Allan J.; Miljani,; #263; Ognjen, Š. [NSRRC; (UC); (Houston)

    2016-02-08

    Two mesoporous fluorinated metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized from extensively fluorinated tritopic carboxylate- and tetrazolate-based ligands. The tetrazolate-based framework MOFF-5 has an accessible surface area of 2445 m2g-1, the highest among fluorinated MOFs. Crystals of MOFF-5 adsorb hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)—the latter two being ozone-depleting substances and potent greenhouse species—with weight capacities of up to 225%. The material exhibits an apparent preference for the adsorption of non-spherical molecules, binding unusually low amounts of both tetrafluoromethane and sulfur hexafluoride.

  2. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  3. Synthesis and optical activity of isosorbide chiral derivative containing fluorocarbon group as chiral dopant in liquid crystal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Liang Xie; Yin He Su; Chun Xiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Novel isosorbide derivative containing perfluorocarbon group, bi(perfluorooctanesulfonyl)isosorbide ester as chiral dopant in liquid crystal, was synthesized. Chemical structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 19F NMR. The optical texture of the mixture was observed by polarized optical microscopy (POM). Novel chiral dopant containing perfluorocarbon group had excellent optical activity. Its specific rotation and molar rotation were noticeable higher than those of bi(4-chloromethylbenzenecarbonic)isosorbide ester. The fluorocarbon group improved the molar rotation of chiral compound and did not affect optical rotation direction. The texture of the mixture added isosorbide derivative with fluorocarbon group showed the oily streak texture.

  4. IR spectroscopy of gaseous fluorocarbon ions: The perfluoroethyl anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Chiavarino, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Lemaire, Joel; Maitre, Philippe [Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - UMR8000 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences - Batiment 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Fornarini, Simonetta, E-mail: simonetta.fornarini@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are formed by dissociative electron capture in perfluoropropane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both their reactivity towards neutrals and IRMPD spectroscopy are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sampled C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are best described as covalently bound pentafluoroethyl anions. - Abstract: The first IR spectrum of a perfluorinated carbanion has been obtained in the gas phase by IRMPD spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level were performed yielding the optimized geometries and IR spectra for a covalently bound C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} species and for conceivable loosely bound F{sup -}(C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) complexes. Both the computational results and the IR characterization point to a covalent structure for the assayed species in agreement with the reactivity pattern displayed with selected neutrals.

  5. Very high frequency plasma deposited amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon tandem solar cells on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2010-02-01

    The work in this thesis is to develop high quality intrinsic layers (especially nc-Si:H) for micromorph silicon tandem solar cells/modules on plastic substrates following the substrate transfer method or knows as the Helianthos procedure. Two objectives are covered in this thesis: (1) preliminary work on trial and optimization of single junction and tandem cells on glass substrate, (2) silicon film depositions on Al foil, and afterwards the characterization and development of these cells/modules on a plastic substrate. The first objective includes the development of suitable ZnO:Al TCO for nc Si:H single junction solar cells, fabrication of the aimed micromorph tandem solar cells on glass, and finally the optimization of the nc-Si:H i-layer for the depositions afterwards on Al foil. Chapter 3 addresses the improvement of texture etching of ZnO:Al by studying the HCl etching effect on ZnO:Al films sputter-deposited in a set substrate heater temperature series. With the texture-etched ZnO:Al front TCO, a single junction nc-Si:H solar cell was deposited with an initial efficiency of 8.33%. Chapter 4 starts with studying the light soaking and annealing effects on micromorph tandem solar cell. In the end, a highly stabilized bottom cell current limited tandem cell was made. The tandem shows an initial efficiency of 10.2%, and degraded only 6.9% after 1600 h of light soaking. In Chapter 5, the nc-Si:H i-layers were studied in 3 pressure and inter-electrode distance series. The correlations between plasma physics and the consequent i-layers’ properties are investigated. We show that the Raman crystalline ratio and porosity of the nc-Si:H layer have an interesting relation with the p•d product. By varying p and d, device quality nc-Si:H layer can be deposited at a high rate of 0.6 nm/s. These results in fact are a very important step for the second objective. The second objective is covered by the entire Chapter 6. All silicon layers are deposited on special aluminum

  6. Fabrication of a Transparent Anti-stain Thin Film Using an Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaki Y.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, outdoor-constructed solar panels have a problem such as power generation efficiency is reduced by the face plate dirt. On the other hand, electronic touch panels have a problem such as deterioration of visibility of the screen by finger grease stain. To solve these problems, we need to fabricate the anti-stain surfaces which have superhydrophobic and oil-repellent abilities without spoiling the transparency of the transparent substrate. In this study, we fabricated lotus leaves like surface on a glass substrate. Firstly, SiO2 particles of ca. 100 nm diameter were arranged on the glass substrates. Secondly, to obtain the fractal-like structure (ultra-micro-rough structure on the surface, ZnO thin film having a columnar structure was fabricated on the SiO2 particles by using an atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition system. By using these processes, the ZnO columns formed radiantly on the spherical surface of the SiO2 particles. Furthermore, without spoiling the ultra-micro-rough structure, a transparent anti-stain monolayer with low surface energy was prepared by using a chemical adsorption technique onto the surface. Average value of the water droplet contact angles of the samples fabricated was 151.8 deg. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM observation reviled that this sample has a raspberry structure in which columnar structure has grown radially on the SiO2 particles.

  7. Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Technical progress report, May-July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, J C

    1979-09-21

    Three preprints are presented. The first, entitled ''Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy Measurement of Dopant Concentrations in a-Si:H,'' reports significant differences between the ratio of boron to silicon of the films and that of their deposition plasmas. The second, entitled ''Growth Morphology and Defects in Plasma-Deposited a-Si:H Films,'' presents structural studies that show that a major class of defect is an anisotropic density fluctuation. Studies of the hydrogen environment suggest that an inhomogeneous hydrogen distribution is associated with these fluctuations. From considerations of the deposition chemistry and nucleation theory, a model is proposed to describe the film growth process and its relationship to defects. The third, entitled ''Luminescence and ESR Studies of Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,'' demonstrates that the two experiments involve identical recombination transitions, and identify two separate processes. One process involves defect states, and from the doping dependence of light induced ESR, it is deduced that the electronically active defects are dangling bonds with positive electronic correlation energy. (LEW)

  8. Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide with focus on thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Loeffler, J. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute, SID-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Linden, J.L. [TNO TPD, Division Models and Processes, P.O. Box 595, 5600 AN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute, SID-Physics of Devices, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanden, M.C.M. van de [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.c.m.v.d.sanden@tue.nl

    2005-12-01

    Property control of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide is demonstrated considering intrinsic, i.e. bulk, and extrinsic transparent conducting oxide quality relevant for application in thin film amorphous silicon pin solar cells. Particularly the interdependence of electrical conductivity, film composition and film morphology, i.e. structure, feature shape and roughness of the surface, is addressed. Control of film composition is mainly governed by plasma production and gas phase chemistry inherently inducing a significant contribution to film morphology, whereas control of film morphology solely is governed by near-substrate conditions. Especially the ratio of zinc to oxygen and the reactor chamber pressure appear to be determinative in obtaining zinc oxide exhibiting the appropriate intrinsic and extrinsic quality, i.e. a high electrical conductivity, a high transmittance, a textured rough surface morphology and a strong hydrogen plasma resistance. The solar cell performance of appropriate undoped and aluminium doped textured zinc oxide inherently obtained during deposition is comparable with respect to Asahi U-type fluorine-doped tin oxide.

  9. Modeling the liquid-liquid equilibria of water plus fluorocarbons with the cubic-plus-association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Mariana B.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorocarbons (FCs) are a family of chemicals that are composed primarily of carbon and fluorine. They present weak intermolecular and strong intramolecular interactions, which confers them unusual thermophysical properties. They can also solubilize large amounts of gases such as oxygen and carbo...

  10. Application of fluorocarbon remover DEF%氟树脂去除剂DEF的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲

    2012-01-01

    The fluorochemical water- and oil- repeffent on textiles must be stripped firstly in color restoration of finished polyester dyeings. The stripping process is carried out by immersion method with fluorocarbon remover DEF. Influences of remover dosage, NaOH dosage, stripping temperature and time on the stripping effects are investigated according to the water- and oil- repellent effect of polyester fabric before and after washing. The optimum stripping process is as follows; fluorocarbon remover DEF 1.0~1.5 g/L,Na0H 1 g/L, material ratio 1:20, stripping at 90~100 ℃ for 20 min. The results show that fluorocarbon re-mover DEF features good stripping effect. The water repellent effect of refinished fabric reaches 100 and the oil-repellent effect is 5. The refinished fabric has a little change in K/S value and a little decrease in tear strength.%含氟拒水拒油整理涤纶染色布修色时,需先剥除拒水拒油整理剂.试验采用氟树脂去除剂DEF,以浸渍法剥除织物上的整理剂.根据水洗前后织物的拒水拒油性能,讨论了去除剂用量、烧碱用量、温度、时间对剥除效果的影响,优化的剥除工艺为:去除剂DEF1.0-1.5 g/L,烧碱1 g/L,浴比1:20,温度90-100℃,时间20 min.结果表明,去除剂DEF可有效地剥除含氟整理剂,重新整理后织物拒水等级达到100分,拒油级别达到5级,对色光影响较小,强力稍有下降.

  11. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganesan Balasundaram,1 Daniel M Storey,1 Thomas J Webster2,3 1Chameleon Scientific, Longmont, CO, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA and coat it on titanium (Ti using molecular plasma deposition (MPD. NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, anodization, nanotechnology

  12. Domain Structure in Calcium-Cerium Fluorocarbonate Minerals, Mianning County, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The domain structures in calcium-cerium fluorocarbonate mineral series from a rare earth mineral deposit within an aegirine alkali granite massif in Mianning County, Sichuan Province, China, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Many categories of domain structures in this mineral series were observed and investigated, including the microtwin domains of parisite-6R2 and B2S-6R, the antiphase domains of B2S-2H. The results show that the antiphase domains which are faults along crystal plane (0001) are formed by the displacement of crystal lattice in c* direction and the displacement is 0.471 nm. A new polytype (B4S2-3R) of regular mixed-layer structure with B4S2 type is found in the domain region of mixed-layer structure.

  13. Development of molecular based optical techniques for thermometry and velocimetry for fluorocarbon media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouya, Shahram; Blanchard, Gary; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2016-11-01

    Fluorocarbon solvents are very stable inert fluids with unique physical properties that make them attractive compounds as refrigerant and several medical applications such as contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging. Since they do not mix with typical organic solvents or water, most luminescent (fluorescent or phosphorescent) probes cannot be used as tracers for optical diagnostic techniques. Perfluoropentane, a compound from this family, is used as a simulant fluid by NASA for two-phase heat transfer/mixing experiments under micro-gravity condition due to its low boiling temperature. Here we study the feasibility of employing non-intrusive optical methods for measurements of temperature and/or velocity within Perfluoropentane as the working fluid. Preliminary results of temperature and velocity measurement using Laser Induced Fluorescence and Molecular Tagging Velocimetry are presented. This work was supported by NASA Grant Number NNX16AD52A.

  14. Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

  15. Fluorocarbons and cardiac arrhythmia: does difluorodichloromethane (FC 12) inhibit cardiac metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, Y.; Begue, J.M.; Paulet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Certain fluorocarbons, such as difluorodichloromethane (FC 12), depress the cardiovascular system by diminution of all the transmembrane ionic conductances in cardiac tissues. Does FC 12 also inhibit active transport and thus enzymatic activity and cellular energy. We measured phosphocreatine (PC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) in rat hearts. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; 2 control groups: one breathing a mixture of oxygen (21%) and nitrogen (79%) (group C) and the other breathing the same mixture but simultaneously perfused with 1 microgram/kg/min. epinephrine (groupe E-C); 2 trial groups T and E-T where nitrogen was replaced by FC 12. The maximal FC 12 concentration of 720 micrograms/ml in arterial blood produced no significant difference in the concentrations of these three metabolites compared with controls.

  16. Growth of Fluorocarbon Films by Low-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; TAN Xiaodong; LIU Dongping; LIU Yanhong; FENG Zhiqing; CHEN Baoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Plasma polymerized fluorocarbon (FC) films have been deposited on silicon sub-strates from dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma of C4Fs at room temperature under a pressure of 25~125 Pa. The effects of the discharge pressure and frequency of power supply on the films have been systematically investigated. FC films with a less cross linked structure may be formed at a relatively high pressure. Increase in the frequency of power supply leads to a signifi-cant increase in the deposition rate. Static contact angle measurements show that deposited FC films have a stable, hydrophobic surface property. All deposited films show smooth surfaces with an atomic surface roughness. The relationship between plasma parameters and the properties of the deposited FC films are discussed.

  17. Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes I. Dilute solution properties of fluorocarbon-containingpoly(acrylic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU, Hui(周晖); SONG, Guo-Qiang(宋国强); ZHANG, Yun-Xiang(章云祥); DIEING, Reinhold; MA, Lian; HAEUSSLING, Lukas

    2000-01-01

    Dilute solution viscosity of fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) was measured in aqueous solutions of various NaCl concentrations. The intrinsic viscosity ([η]) and Huggins coefficient (kH) were evaluated using Huggins equations. It is found that, at low NaCl concentration, the modified polymers exhibit values of intrinsic viscosity ( [η] ) and Huggins coefficient (kH) similar to those of unmodified polymers. For both of the modified and unmodified polymers, the intrinsic viscosity decreases with increase of NaCl concentration, while the Huggins coefficient increases upon addition of NaCl. But the variation of [η] and kH is more significant for the modified polymers, which reflects the enhanced intra- and intermolecular hydrophobic association at higher NaCl concentration.

  18. Assessment of effects on vegetation of degradation products from alternative fluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccune, D. C.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Concern with the effects of fluorides on plants has been devoted to that resulting from dry deposition (mainly with reference to gaseous HF and secondarily with particulate forms). The occurrence of precipitation as rain or mist and the presence of dew or free water on the foliage has mainly been considered with respect to their effects on the accumulation of air-borne fluoride and not with fluoride in wet deposition. That is, precipitation has been viewed primarily with respect to its facilitation of the solution and subsequent absorption of deposits by the foliar tissues or its elution of deposited fluoride from foliage. Accordingly, our evaluation of inorganic fluoride from fluorocarbon degradation rests upon a comparison with what is known about the effects of industrial emissions and what could be considered the natural condition.

  19. Preparation of transparent fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coating with improved self-cleaning performance and anti-aging property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Tan, Zhongyuan; Liu, Zhilei; Jing, Mengmeng; Liu, Wenjie; Fu, Wanli

    2017-02-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning fluorocarbon coatings filled by semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO2-SiO2 composite oxide presenting a particle size ranging from 6 to 10 nm. Anatase-TiO2 crystallites were successfully obtained after microwave heating treatment of the TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles as confirmed by XRD, TEM and FTIR measurements. The fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity and an improved photocatalytic activity in contrast to the TiO2-filled coatings. In particular, a water contact angle (WCA) value of 4.5° and a decolorization ratio relative to methyl orange as high as 96.0% were achieved for the composite coatings containing 1.5 wt% of TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles. The results of the anti-soiling experiments indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a prominent self-cleaning performance, while the accelerated aging experiments revealed that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings were highly stable toward UV irradiation when compared to the TiO2-filled fluorocarbon coatings. These findings indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings could be a very attractive solution for many practical areas, especially for outdoor applications.

  20. Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: yanli@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Zhang, Haiying [Department of Biology, Dezhou University, Shandong 253023 (China); Ling, Jin; Sun, Xueni; Feng, Jianan; Duan, Gengli [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • New SPE method was developed for analysis of PFCs in human serum. • Fluorocarbon-bonded magnetic mesoporous microspheres were used as SPE absorbents. • PFCs in serum were directly extracted without any other pretreatment procedure. • The PFCs-adsorbed microspheres were simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet. - Abstract: We report herein an extraction method for the analysis of perfluorinated compounds in human serum based on magnetic core–mesoporous shell microspheres with decyl-perfluorinated interior pore-walls (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2}-F{sub 17}). Thanks to the unique properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2}-F{sub 17} microspheres, macromolecules like proteins could be easily excluded from the mesoporous channels due to size exclusion effect, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in protein-rich biosamples such as serum could thus be directly extracted with the fluorocarbon modified on the channel wall without any other pretreatment procedure. The PFCs adsorbed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2}-F{sub 17} microspheres could then be simply and rapidly isolated by using a magnet, followed by being identified and quantified by LC–MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry). Five perfluorinatedcarboxylic acids (C6, C8–C11) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were selected as model analytes. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, some important factors including the amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2}-F{sub 17} microspheres added, adsorption time, type of elution solvent, eluting solvent volume and elution time were investigated. The ranges of the LOD were 0.02–0.05 ng mL{sup −1} for the six PFCs. The recovery of the optimized method varies from 83.13% to 92.42% for human serum samples.

  1. Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yoonyoung; Desta, Yohannes; Goettert, Jost; Lee, G. S.; Ajmera, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon (SiCF) films achieved by wet chemical treatments and through x-ray irradiation is examined. The SiCF films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using gas precursors of tetrafluoromethane and disilane. As-deposited SiCF film composition was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface modification of SiCF films utilizing n-lithiodiaminoethane wet chemical treatment is discussed. Sessile water-drop contact angle changed from 95°+/-2° before treatment to 32°+/-2° after treatment, indicating a change in the film surface characteristics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. For x-ray irradiation on the SiCF film with a dose of 27.4 kJ/cm3, the contact angle of the sessile water drop changed from 95°+/-2° before radiation to 39°+/-3° after x-ray exposure. The effect of x-ray exposure on chemical bond structure of SiCF films is studied using Fourier transform infrared measurements. Electroless Cu deposition was performed to test the applicability of the surface modified films. The x-ray irradiation method offers a unique advantage in making possible surface modification in a localized area of high-aspect-ratio microstructures. Fabrication of a Ti-membrane x-ray mask is introduced here for selective surface modification using x-ray irradiation.

  2. Modification of tin oxide nanoparticles by fluorocarbon solids via a mechanochemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Mamoru, E-mail: senna@applc.keio.ac.jp; Turianicová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Makreski, Petre [SS Cyril and Methodius University, Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Kaňuchová, Mária [Technical University of Košice, Institute of Montaneous Sciences and Environmental Protection (Slovakia); Scholz, Gudrun [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Šepelák, Vladimír [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Hahn, Horst [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Interfacial reactions at the surface of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles adjacent to the fluorocarbon solids (FCS) under mechanical stressing were compared in an attempt to their modification by introducing fluorine and carbon. Emphasis was laid on the comparison of the reactivity of 3 different species of FCS, i.e., polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PVdF exhibited the highest reactivity, followed by PTFE and PFOA, as confirmed by Raman, FT-IR, XPS, and {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectra. The preferential reactivity could be explained in terms of the electrophilicity of FCS toward the nucleophilic oxygen in SnO{sub 2}, since the decomposition of FCS is catalyzed by the coexisting SnO{sub 2}. PFOA behaved in a different manner, due to its carboxylic groups. At the same time, carbon nanospecies were introduced as a decomposed product of FCS. This results in the formation of SnO{sub 2}:F/C nanocomposite. Fluorine introduced to SnO{sub 2} survived even after heating up to 600 °C either in air or in Ar. This indicates the thermal stability of the present partially fluorinated SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  3. Fluidization of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayer by fluorocarbon gases: potential use in lung surfactant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Frédéric; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Vandamme, Thierry F; Goldmann, Michel; Fontaine, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Fluorocarbon gases (gFCs) were found to inhibit the liquid-expanded (LE)/liquid-condensed (LC) phase transition of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers. The formation of domains of an LC phase, which typically occurs in the LE/LC coexistence region upon compression of DPPC, is prevented when the atmosphere above the DPPC monolayer is saturated with a gFC. When contacted with gFC, the DPPC monolayer remains in the LE phase for surface pressures lower than 38 mN m(-1), as assessed by compression isotherms and fluorescence microscopy (FM). Moreover, gFCs can induce the dissolution of preexisting LC phase domains and facilitate the respreading of the DPPC molecules on the water surface, as shown by FM and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. gFCs have thus a highly effective fluidizing effect on the DPPC monolayer. This gFC-induced fluidizing effect was compared with the fluidizing effect brought about by a mixture of unsaturated lipids and proteins, namely the two commercially available lung surfactant substitutes, Curosurf and Survanta, which are derived from porcine and bovine lung extracts, respectively. The candidate FCs were chosen among those already investigated for biomedical applications, and in particular for intravascular oxygen transport, i.e., perfluorooctyl bromide, perfluorooctylethane, bis(perfluorobutyl)ethene, perfluorodecalin, and perfluorooctane. The fluidizing effect is most effective with the linear FCs. This study suggests that FCs, whose biocompatibility is well documented, may be useful in lung surfactant substitute compositions.

  4. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  5. Time resolved measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in pulsed fluorocarbon rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, O; Stepanov, S; Pfafferott, M; Meichsner, J [Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17498, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of the absolute densities of small radicals like CF, CF{sub 2} and CF{sub 3} in fluorocarbon plasmas is essential for a fundamental understanding of plasma chemical processes and plasma surface interaction. Infrared absorption spectroscopy by means of tunable diode lasers (IR-TDLAS) was established and widely used for density measurements in the last decade. The often unknown parameter in the calculation of absolute radical densities from a measured absorption of a single line is the rotational temperature. In particular, a strong dependence of the line strength on rotational temperature has a significant influence on density calculation. In this paper we report on measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas (CCP) with rf (13.56 MHz) powers up to 200 W. Rotational temperatures in continuous and pulsed modes of the discharge were found to be between 300 and 450 K. Furthermore, first measurements of the time dependence of the rotational temperature in pulsed rf plasma are presented. The rotational temperature rises in the plasma phase within 0.1 s and goes down again to the temperature of the background gas in the plasma pause within 0.5 s. It is also shown that accurate density measurements of the radicals by means of single line absorption need correct information about the rotational temperature and careful selection of a suitable absorption line.

  6. Absorption of gaseous toluene in aqueous solutions of some kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Yan, Bo; Fu, Jiamo; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    A self-designed device was applied to treat a simulated exhaust gas loaded with toluene by aqueous solutions of five kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant (FS-3100, FS-22, FSN-100, FSO-100 and FSG) under the controlled laboratory conditions. The simulated exhaust gas is generated by a mixture of clean air and toluene vapor, and its toluene concentration can be controlled by changing the volume ratio of the inlet air to the vapor. Two mass transfer methods: liquid-liquid transfer and gas-liquid transfer, were compared for their toluene saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions, and it was found that more toluene was dissolved by the liquid-liquid transfer than by the gas-liquid transfer. According to the saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions and their Henry's Constants, FSO-100 is the best absorbent to treat the simulated exhaust gas and was selected for further experiments. The FSO-100 absorbent solution with a concentration of 0.1 % shows an efficient absorption to the simulated exhaust gas, with a toluene saturation capacity of 4.2 mg/g. Heating distillation (90- 95 oC) is highly efficient to recover toluene from the FSO-100 absorbent solution as well as regenerate it. A toluene recovery of about 85 % was achieved. The regenerated absorption solution can keep its initial toluene absorption capacity during the reuse.

  7. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) to Hanford tank waste simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.; BOLTON,DENNIS L.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 Krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that FKM rubber is not a good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study. They have determined that FKM rubber has limited chemical durability after exposure to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford tank simulant mixed waste at elevated temperatures above 18 C.

  8. Hierarchical ZnO particles grafting by fluorocarbon polymer derivative: Preparation and superhydrophobic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hierarchical particles were prepared by a simple, mild hydrothermal process. • The obtained “chestnut” ZnO particles show dual-scale morphology with high roughness. • FEVE derivative was creatively imported to graft onto hierarchical particles. • Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained, on which the contact angles surpass 150°. • A special model was proposed to explain the wetting state in this work. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces on the basis of hierarchical ZnO particles grafted by fluoroethylene-vinylether (FEVE) polymer derivative were prepared using a facile, mild and low-cost method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the resulting ZnO particles via hydrothermal process exhibit micro–nano dual-scale morphology with high purity under a suitable surfactant amount and alkali concentration. The grafting of FEVE derivative was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), suggesting that hierarchical surface of ZnO particles was an imported monomolecular layer of fluorocarbon polymer. The obtained surface fabricated by drop-casting shows considerably high contact angle and good resistance to water immersion. The wetting behavior in this work was furthermore analyzed by theoretical wetting model. This work demonstrates that the sufficient low-wettable surface and high roughness both take a vital role in the superhydrophobic behavior.

  9. Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  10. 氟碳杂化表面活性剂的研究进展%Research Progress of Fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon Hybrid Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚芝; 冯浦涌; 荣新明; 费晨洪; 王碧清; 王继宇; 冯玉军

    2013-01-01

    氟碳杂化表面活性剂是指分子结构中同时含有氟碳链和碳氢链的表面活性剂.从氟碳杂化表面活性剂的类型,合成路线,溶液性能及应用等方面系统地综述了其研究进展.参考文献46篇.%Fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid surfactants are amphiphilies in which fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon chains coexist.In this paper,the classification,synthesis,surface activities and application of fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid surfactants are reviewed with 46 references.

  11. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  12. Feature Profile Evolution of SiO2 Trenches In Fluorocarbon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Helen; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arunachalam, Valli; Rauf, Shahid; Coronell, Dan; Carroll, Carol W. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Etching of silicon microstructures for semiconductor manufacturing in chlorine plasmas has been well characterized. The etching proceeds in a two-part process, where the chlorine neutrals passivate the Si surface and then the ions etch away SiClx. However, etching in more complicated gas mixtures and materials, such as etching of SiO2 in Ar/C4F8, requires knowledge of the ion and neutral distribution functions as a function of angle and velocity, in addition to modeling the gas surface reactions. In order to address these needs, we have developed and integrated a suite of models to simulate the etching process from the plasma reactor level to the feature profile evolution level. This arrangement allows for a better understanding, control, and prediction of the influence of equipment level process parameters on feature profile evolution. We are currently using the HPEM (Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model) and PCMCM (Plasma Chemistry Monte Carlo Model) to generate plasma properties and ion and neutral distribution functions for argon/fluorocarbon discharges in a GEC Reference Cell. These quantities are then input to the feature scale model, Simulation of Profile Evolution by Level Sets (SPELS). A surface chemistry model is used to determine the interaction of the incoming species with the substrate material and simulate the evolution of the trench profile. The impact of change of gas pressure and inductive power on the relative flux of CFx and F to the wafer, the etch and polymerization rates, and feature profiles will be examined. Comparisons to experimental profiles will also be presented.

  13. Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Pinar; Ileri, Nazar; Erdinç, Burak I; Aydogan, Nihal; Argun, Muharrem

    2005-09-13

    As foaming appears as a problem in chemical and fermentation processes that inhibits reactor performance, the eminence of a novel fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon unsymmetrical bolaform (FHUB: OH(CH2)11N+(C2H4)2(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3 I-) surfactant as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent was investigated and compared with other surfactants and a commercial antifoaming agent. The surface elasticity of FHUB was determined as 4 mN/m, indicating its high potential on thinning of the foam film. The interactions between FHUB and the microoganism were investigated in a model fermentation process related with an enzyme production by recombinant Escherichia coli, in V = 3.0 dm3 bioreactor systems with V(R) = 1.65 dm3 working volume at air inlet rate of Q(o)/V(R) = 0.5 dm3 dm(-3) min(-1) and agitation rate of N = 500 min(-1) oxygen transfer conditions, at T = 37 degrees C, pH(o) = 7.2, and C(FHUB) = 0 and 0.1 mM, in a glucose-based defined medium. As FHUB did not influence the metabolism, specific enzyme activity values obtained with and without FHUB were close to each other; however, because of the slight decrease in oxygen transfer coefficient, slightly lower volumetric enzyme activity and cell concentrations were obtained. However, when FHUB is compared with widely used silicon oil based Antifoam A, with the use of the FHUB, higher physical oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) values are obtained. Moreover, as the amount required for the foam control is very low, minute changes in the working volume of the bioreactor were obtained indicating the high potential of the use of FHUB as an antifoaming agent as well as a foam-reducing agent.

  14. STUDIES ON THE PERMEABILITY OF PVC /EBBA OVERLAPPED ULTRATHIN COMPOSITE MEMBRANES MODIFIED BY PLASMA- POLYMERIZATION WITH FLUOROCARBON MONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiucheng; JIN Xigao; Tisato KAJIYAMA

    1989-01-01

    The PVC/EBBA ultrathin composite membranes with thickness of about 100 nm were prepared by spreading the solution on water surface. The overlapped composite membrane showed a characteristic aggregation structure in which the polymer matrix exists as a three-dimensional spongy network and the liquid crystal domains were observedThe surface modification for the overlapped membranes was carried out by means of plasma-polymerization with the monomers of fluorocarbon compounds. Both Arrhenius plots of permeability coefficients for oxygen (-Po2) in the membrane samples before and after modification showed significant increase in the vicinity of the TKN of EBBA.

  15. Transmission properties of fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide with tapered section for Er:YAG laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Hiraga, Hajime; Miura, Daisuke; Kato, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    1996-11-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating low-loss fluorocarbon polymer (FCP)-coated silver hollow glass waveguides by using a liquid-flow coating method. The thickness of a FCP film is strongly dependent on the flow speed and the concentration of FCP solution. It is shown that the optimum condition exists for depositing the polymer to reduce the roughness of layer. The transmission loss of the fabricated waveguide with inner diameter of 700 micrometers is about 0.2 dB/m for Er:YAG laser light. An efficient tapered coupler with a lens is also investigated to couple the laser beam with large diameter to small-bore waveguides.

  16. Pore-Engineered Metal–Organic Frameworks with Excellent Adsorption of Water and Fluorocarbon Refrigerant for Cooling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian [Physical; Vemuri, Rama S. [Energy; Estevez, Luis [Energy; Koech, Phillip K. [Energy; Varga, Tamas [Environmental; Camaioni, Donald M. [Physical; Blake, Thomas A. [Physical; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Energy

    2017-07-20

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are found to be promising sorbents for adsorption cooling applications. Using organic ligands with 1, 2, and 3 phenylene rings, we construct moisture-stable Ni-MOF-74 members with adjustable pore apertures. These pore-engineered materials exhibit excellent sorption capabilities towards water and fluorocarbons. The adsorption patterns for these materials differ significantly and are attributed to variances in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic pore character, associated with differences in pore size. Complementary ex situ characterizations and in situ FTIR spectra are deployed to understand the correlations between the mechanisms of gas loadings and the pore environment of the MOFs.

  17. The effect of polar end of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting the superamphiphobic property over multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifaldeen, Zubayda S.; Khedir, Khedir R.; Camci, Merve T.; Ucar, Ahmet; Suzer, Sefik; Karabacak, Tansel

    2016-08-01

    Rough structures with re-entrant property and their subsequent surface energy reduction with long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers are both critical in developing superamphiphobic (SAP, i.e. both super hydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces. However, morphology of the low-surface energy layer on a rough re-entrant substrate can strongly depend on the fluorocarbon oligomers used. In this study, the effect of polar end of different kinds of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting a self-assembled monolayer with close packed molecules and robust adhesion on multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces was investigated. Hierarchical Al alloy surfaces with microgrooves and nanograss structures were developed by a simple combination of one-directional mechanical sanding and post treatment in boiling de-ionized water (DIW). Three types of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDCS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were chemically vaporized onto these rough Al alloy surfaces. The PFDCS exhibited the lowest surface free energy of less than 10 mN/m. The contact angle and sliding angle measurements for water, ethylene glycol, and peanut oil verified the SAP property of hierarchical rough Al alloy surfaces treated with alkylsilane oligomers (PFDTS, PFDCS). However, the hierarchical surfaces treated with fluorocarbon oligomer with polar acidic tail (PFOA) showed highly amphiphobic properties but could not reach the threshold for SAP. Chemical stability of the hierarchical Al alloy surfaces treated with the fluorocarbon oligomers was tested under the harsh conditions of ultra-sonication in acetone and annealing at high temperature after different treatment times. Contact angle measurements revealed the robustness of the alkylsilane oligomers and deterioration of the PFOA coating particularly for low surface tension liquids. The robust adhesion and close-packing of the alkylsilane

  18. Chemical bonding structural analysis of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gima, Hiroki; Zkria, Abdelrahman; Katamune, Yūki; Ohtani, Ryota; Koizumi, Satoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared in hydrogen and nitrogen mixed-gas atmospheres by coaxial arc plasma deposition with graphite targets were studied electrically and chemical-bonding-structurally. The electrical conductivity was increased by nitrogen doping, accompanied by the production of n-type conduction. From X-ray photoemission, near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure, hydrogen forward-scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectral results, it is expected that hydrogen atoms that terminate diamond grain boundaries will be partially replaced by nitrogen atoms and, consequently, π C–N and C=N bonds that easily generate free electrons will be formed at grain boundaries.

  19. Improvements in the technique of vascular perfusion-fixation employing a fluorocarbon-containing perfusate and a peristaltic pump controlled by pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, J; Qvortrup, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    oxygenated fluorocarbon to glutaraldehyde perfusate-fixatives, enough oxygen is made accessible for cellular respiration as well as for the oxygen-consuming chemical reactions of glutaraldehyde with the tissue. Data on anaesthesia, operative manoeuvres, mechanical components of the system, preparation...

  20. Effect of plasma dissociation on fluorocarbon layers formed under C4F8/Ar pulsed plasma for SiO2 etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miyako; Usui, Tatehito; Ono, Tetsuo

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of gas pressure on the dissociation of C4F8/Ar plasma and the formations of fluorocarbon layers on etched materials by SiO2 etching using pulsed-microwave electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma. Dissociated radicals and molecules of C x F y and CF x species generated from C4F8/Ar plasma were measured by ion attachment mass spectrometry, which is a fragment-free method. The thickness and chemical state of the fluorocarbon layers formed on the etched materials were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Higher selective etching of SiO2 relative to Si3N4 was possible at 2.0 Pa but not at 0.5 Pa. Thick fluorocarbon layers, which protect etched materials from ion bombardment, formed on both SiO2 and Si3N4 surfaces; thus, both the SiO2 and Si3N4 etching rates were reduced at a high pressure. However, the CF2 flux ratio increased while the flux ratio of C2F2 decreased as the pressure increased. The increased flux of CF2 enhanced SiO2 etching because CF2 is the main etchant of SiO2. This CF2-rich plasma formed CF2-rich fluorocarbon layers, enhancing the SiO2 etching reaction.

  1. Anisotropic fluorocarbon plasma etching of silicon/silicon germanide heterostructures and plasma etching-induced sidewall damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruhang

    Plasma etching is a critical tool in the fabrication of Si/SiGe heterostructure quantum devices, but with challenges addressed herein, including (1) control of etch profiles and (2) damage to etched feature sidewalls that affects device performance. (1) Fluorocarbon-based plasma etching often results in device profiles with undercuts due to preferential etching of SiGe over silicon. A C4F8/N2/Ar etch plasma gas mixture introduced here has been successfully used to achieve straight sidewalls through heterostructure layers by formation of a fluorocarbon inhibitor film on feature sidewalls to prevent undercutting. (2) Chemical and structural changes in the semiconductor at feature sidewalls associated with plasma-surface interactions are considered damage, as they affect band structure and electrical conduction in the active region of the device, known as the 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In experiments designed to better understand the mechanisms of plasma-induced sidewall damage, damage to straight wires was characterized both by the width of a non-conductive "sidewall depletion" region at the device sidewall, and by the noise level factor, gamma H/N, determined from spectra of low frequency noise. Observed increases in sidewall depletion width with increasing etch depth are tentatively attributed to the increase in total number of defects with increased plasma exposure time. Excess negative charge incorporated into the fluorocarbon inhibitor film could be another contributing factor. Other factors considered, including defects at the bottom of etched features as well as leakage current bypassing the wire, are ruled out as their contribution is expected to diminish as the distance between the 2DEG and feature bottom increases. The noise level factor, gammaH /N, shows a maximum with increasing etch depth, possibly the result of two competing effects: increasing ion dose and decreasing leakage current. The noise level shows a minimum at an ion bombardment energy

  2. Phase behavior, rheological property, and transmutation of vesicles in fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Qin, Menghua; Chen, Xiushan; Liu, Changcheng; Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2012-06-26

    We present a detailed study of a salt-free cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant system where a strongly alkaline cationic surfactant (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, TTAOH) was mixed with a single-chain fluorocarbon acid (nonadecafluorodecanoic acid, NFDA) and a hyperbranched hydrocarbon acid [di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, DEHPA] in water. Typically the concentration of TTAOH is fixed while the total concentration and mixing molar ratio of NFDA and DEHPA is varied. In the absence of DEHPA and at a TTAOH concentration of 80 mmol·L(-1), an isotropic L(1) phase, an L(1)/L(α) two-phase region, and a single L(α) phase were observed successively with increasing mixing molar ratio of NFDA to TTAOH (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH)). In the NFDA-rich region (n(NFDA)/n(TTAOH) > 1), a small amount of excess NFDA can be solubilized into the L(α) phase while a large excess of NFDA eventually leads to phase separation. When NFDA is replaced gradually by DEHPA, the mixed system of TTAOH/NFDA/DEHPA/H(2)O follows the same phase sequence as that of the TTAOH/NFDA/H(2)O system and the phase boundaries remain almost unchanged. However, the viscoelasticity of the samples in the single L(α) phase region becomes higher at the same total surfactant concentration as characterized by rheological measurements. Cryo-transmission electron microscopic (cryo-TEM) observations revealed a microstructural evolution from unilamellar vesicles to multilamellar ones and finally to gaint onions. The size of the vesicle and number of lamella can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of NFDA to DEHPA. The dynamic properties of the vesicular solutions have also been investigated. It is found that the yield stress and the storage modulus are time-dependent after a static mixing process between the two different types of vesicle solutions, indicating the occurrence of a dynamic fusion between the two types of vesicles. The microenvironmental changes induced by aggregate transitions were probed by

  3. Rheological Properties of the Aqueous Solution for Fluorocarbon-containing Hydrophobically Modified Sodium PolyacrylicAcid with Various Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHOU,Hui(周晖); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of fluorocarbon-containing hydrophobicallymodified sodiun polyacryiic acid (FMPAANa) (0.5 wt% )with various surfactants (anionic,nonionic and cationic) hasbeen investigated by theological measurements.Different rhe-ological behaviors are displayed for ionic surfactants and non-ionic surfactants.Fluorinated surfactants have stronger affini-ty with polyelectrolyte hydrophobes comparing with hydro-genated surfactants.The hydrophobic association of FM-PAANa with a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and a fluorinatednonionic surfactant (FC171) is much stronger than with anonionic surfactant (NP7.5 ) and an anionic surfactant(FC143).Further investigation of the effects of temperatureon solution properties shows that the dissociation energy Em iscorrelated to the strength of the aggregated junctions.``

  4. Surface films of short fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks studied by molecular dynamics simulations: Spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Angel; Prieto, Gerardo; Ruso, Juan M; Verdes, Pedro V; Sarmiento, Félix

    2009-01-15

    Using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) it has been recently demonstrated that linear fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon diblocks (FnHm) self-assemble in water/air interfaces forming elongated and circular hemimicelles. Those structures have been observed for diblocks with at least eight fluorinated carbons. Based on the lack of a collapse pressure for F6H16, and due to the fact that no stable surface pressure values are reached under compression, it has been concluded that these molecules do not form stable monolayers. It has been also suggested that F6H16 and shorter diblocks desorb from the water surface under compression. It is not easy to accept that a significant concentration of so hydrophobic molecules can be stable in aqueous solution even when the employed experimental techniques were not able to clearly detect a well defined structure on the interface. In the present work the adsorption and arrangement of F6H16 and F6H10 at the water surface are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a function of the available area per molecule. Starting from a random mixture, the spontaneous formation of elongated hemimicelles is observed for both systems when the area per molecule is higher than approximately 50 A(2). For intermediate areas two pseudo-phases, one rich in hydrocarbons and the other with higher fluorocarbon concentration, are formed. For the systems with less than approximately 30 A(2) available per molecule the formation of multilayers is observed. This is the first time that the dynamics and structure of perfluoroalkane (PFA) films, and in particular of hemimicelles on a liquid surface, are observed and characterized at atomic level.

  5. Experiments and shape prediction of plasma deposit layer using artificial neural network%基于人工神经网络的等离子熔积层形貌试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继彭; 林柳兰; 胡庆夕; 方明伦

    2006-01-01

    Plasma surfacing is an important enabling technology in high-performance coating applications. Recently, it is applied to rapid prototyping/tooling to reduce development time and manufacturing cost for the development of new products. However, this technology is in its infancy, it is essential to understand clearly how process variables relate to deposit microstructure and properties for plasma deposition manufacturing process control. In this paper, layer appearance of single surfacing under different parameters such as plasma current, voltage, powder feedrate and travel speed is studied. Back-propagation neural networks are used to associate the depositing process variables with the features of the deposit layer shape. These networks can be effectively implemented to estimate the layer shape. The results indicate that neural networks can yield fairly accurate results and can be used as a practical tool in plasma deposition manufacturing process.

  6. Characterizing fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of Si using cyclic Ar/C4F8 and Ar/CHF3 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian; Bruce, Robert L.; Joseph, Eric A.; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing interest in establishing directional etching methods capable of atomic scale resolution for fabricating highly scaled electronic devices, the need for development and characterization of atomic layer etching processes, or generally etch processes with atomic layer precision, is growing. In this work, a flux-controlled cyclic plasma process is used for etching of SiO2 and Si at the Angstrom-level. This is based on steady-state Ar plasma, with periodic, precise injection of a fluorocarbon (FC) precursor (C4F8 and CHF3) and synchronized, plasma-based Ar+ ion bombardment [D. Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 020603 (2014) and D. Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 34, 01B101 (2016)]. For low energy Ar+ ion bombardment conditions, physical sputter rates are minimized, whereas material can be etched when FC reactants are present at the surface. This cyclic approach offers a large parameter space for process optimization. Etch depth per cycle, removal rates, and self-limitation of removal, along with material dependence of these aspects, were examined as a function of FC surface coverage, ion energy, and etch step length using in situ real time ellipsometry. The deposited FC thickness per cycle is found to have a strong impact on etch depth per cycle of SiO2 and Si but is limited with regard to control over material etching selectivity. Ion energy over the 20-30 eV range strongly impacts material selectivity. The choice of precursor can have a significant impact on the surface chemistry and chemically enhanced etching. CHF3 has a lower FC deposition yield for both SiO2 and Si and also exhibits a strong substrate dependence of FC deposition yield, in contrast to C4F8. The thickness of deposited FC layers using CHF3 is found to be greater for Si than for SiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study surface chemistry. When thicker FC films of 11 Å are employed, strong changes of FC film chemistry during a cycle are seen

  7. Characterizing fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of Si using cyclic Ar/C4F8 and Ar/CHF3 plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian; Bruce, Robert L; Joseph, Eric A; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S

    2017-02-07

    With the increasing interest in establishing directional etching methods capable of atomic scale resolution for fabricating highly scaled electronic devices, the need for development and characterization of atomic layer etching processes, or generally etch processes with atomic layer precision, is growing. In this work, a flux-controlled cyclic plasma process is used for etching of SiO2 and Si at the Angstrom-level. This is based on steady-state Ar plasma, with periodic, precise injection of a fluorocarbon (FC) precursor (C4F8 and CHF3) and synchronized, plasma-based Ar(+) ion bombardment [D. Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 020603 (2014) and D. Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 34, 01B101 (2016)]. For low energy Ar(+) ion bombardment conditions, physical sputter rates are minimized, whereas material can be etched when FC reactants are present at the surface. This cyclic approach offers a large parameter space for process optimization. Etch depth per cycle, removal rates, and self-limitation of removal, along with material dependence of these aspects, were examined as a function of FC surface coverage, ion energy, and etch step length using in situ real time ellipsometry. The deposited FC thickness per cycle is found to have a strong impact on etch depth per cycle of SiO2 and Si but is limited with regard to control over material etching selectivity. Ion energy over the 20-30 eV range strongly impacts material selectivity. The choice of precursor can have a significant impact on the surface chemistry and chemically enhanced etching. CHF3 has a lower FC deposition yield for both SiO2 and Si and also exhibits a strong substrate dependence of FC deposition yield, in contrast to C4F8. The thickness of deposited FC layers using CHF3 is found to be greater for Si than for SiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study surface chemistry. When thicker FC films of 11 Å are employed, strong changes of FC film chemistry during a cycle are seen

  8. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Characteristics of REE—Fluorocarbonate Minerals and Their Genetic Implications,Bayan Obo Deposit,Inner Mongloia,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方涛; 裘愉卓; 等

    1996-01-01

    REE-fluorocarbonates as major REE minerals in the Bayan Obo deposit,the largest REE deposit in the world,were analyzed for their stable isotopic compositions,The δ13 C and δ18 O values of huanghoite,cebaite and bastnaesite from late-stage veins vary in the ranges of 7.8--4.0‰ and 6.7-9.4‰,respectively,These data are relatively similar to those of bastnaesites from banded ores:δ13C-5.6--5.2‰ andδ18O3.6-5.5‰.The REE fluorocarbonates from both late-staege veins and banded ores are characterized by lower δ13 C and δ18O values,especially the δ18O values of bastnaesites from banded ores.Compared with them,the disseminated bastnaesits the dolomite-type ores possess rather highδ13 C and δ18O values,i.e.,-2.1-0.4‰ and 8.6-12.9‰ respectively.The high values are typical of the sedimentary host dolomite rocks as well as of the dolomite-type-ores.The carbon and oxygen isotopic characteristics of REE fluorocarbonate minerals provide new evidence for the hypothesis on the origin of Bayan Obo deposit-epigenetic hydrothermal metasomatism.

  9. Surface etching mechanism of carbon-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material in fluorocarbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lanlan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Li, Le; Guo, Tianqi; Cheng, Yan; Lv, Shilong; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, carbon-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 (CGST) phase change material has been widely researched for being highly promising material for future phase change memory application. In this paper, the reactive-ion etching of CGST film in CF{sub 4}/Ar plasma is studied. Compared with GST, the etch rate of CGST is relatively lower due to the existence of carbon which reduce the concentration of F or CF{sub x} reactive radicals. It was found that Argon plays an important role in defining the sidewall edge acuity. Compared with GST, more physical bombardment is required to obtain vertical sidewall of CGST. The effect of fluorocarbon gas on the damage of the etched CGST film was also investigated. A Ge- and Sb-deficient layer with tens of nanometers was observed by TEM combining with XPS analysis. The reaction between fluorocarbon plasma and CGST is mainly dominated by the diffusion and consumption of reactive fluorine radicals through the fluorocarbon layer into the CGST substrate material. The formation of damage layer is mainly caused by strong chemical reactivity, low volatility of reaction compounds and weak ion bombardment. (orig.)

  10. Mesoporous fluorocarbon-modified silica aerogel membranes enabling long-term continuous CO2 capture with large absorption flux enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Chen, Chien-Hua; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wei, Te-Yu; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Kai-Shiun

    2013-03-01

    The use of a membrane contactor combined with a hydrophobic porous membrane and an amine absorbent has attracted considerable attention for the capture of CO2 because of its extensive use, low operational costs, and low energy consumption. The hydrophobic porous membrane interface prevents the passage of the amine absorbent but allows the penetration of CO2 molecules that are captured by the amine absorbent. Herein, highly porous SiO2 aerogels modified with hydrophobic fluorocarbon functional groups (CF3 ) were successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane; their performance in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption is discussed. The SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups exhibits the highest CO2 absorption flux and can be continuously operated for CO2 absorption for extended periods of time. This study suggests that a SiO2 aerogel membrane modified with CF3 functional groups could potentially be used in a membrane contactor for CO2 absorption. Also, the resulting hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel membrane contactor is a promising technology for large-scale CO2 absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.

  11. Nanoscale mechanical and tribological properties of fluorocarbon films grafted onto plasma-treated low-density polyethylene surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-03-01

    Fluorocarbon (FC) films were grafted onto Ar plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces by plasma polymerization and deposition. The evolution of the surface morphology of the grafted FC films was investigated at different scales with an atomic force microscope. Nanoscale sliding experiments performed with a surface force microscope provided insight into the nanotribological properties of Ar plasma-treated LDPE, with and without grafted FC films, in terms of applied normal load and number of sliding cycles. The observed trends are explained in the context of microstructure models accounting for morphological and structure changes at the LDPE surface due to the effects of plasma treatment (e.g., selective etching of amorphous phase, chain crosslinking and FC film grafting) and surface sliding (e.g., crystalline lamellae alignment along the sliding direction). Nanoindentation experiments elucidated the effect of plasma treatment on surface viscoelasticity and global contact stiffness. The results of this study demonstrate that plasma-assisted grafting of FC films is an effective surface modification method for tuning the nanomechanical/tribological properties of polymers.

  12. Development of a high speed cutting and pressure rolling technology for recycling of refrigerators with recovery of the fluorocarbon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsumoto, M; Matsuda, Y. [Panasonic AVC Networks Co., (Japan)]|[Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Refrigerators having reached end-of-life are a prime target for recycling because of their bulk and the relatively pristine condition of their components. This article reports on an innovative method of recycling these appliances. Conventional recycling relies on bulk crushing and then separation by magnetic, eddy current and possibly gravity methods. Separation of plastics by type is poor and the steel is often contaminated by copper. This innovative method replaces bulk crushing by high speed impact cutting, which cuts the metal-polymer-matrix composite material of the body into smaller parts (e.g. the walls, the door) of rectangular form. This is done by robots suitably controlled by sophisticated software which uses camera images as input, so that suitable pieces are precisely cut. High pressure rolling then liberates the cut plates of composite material into its constituent materials. The rolling process ruptures the polyurethane foam releasing the gas inside its unit cells. The gases traditionally used were fluorocarbons, but now flammable butane and cyclopentane is often used. The rolling system includes a gas recovery system to prevent escape of these environmentally sensitive substances. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  14. Fluorine-doped SiO{sub 2} and fluorocarbon low-k dielectrics investigated by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwil, M. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: cwil@if.pw.edu.pl; Kalisz, M. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technologies, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Konarski, P. [Tele and Radio Research Institute, Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-12-15

    In this work, we present secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations of the incorporation of fluorine into thin SiO{sub 2} films adapted as low-k dielectrics in the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The insulating SiOF oxides with the thickness ranging from 1 up to 15 nm have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and/or by reactive ion etching (RIE) methods on <1 0 0> oriented p-Si substrates with the use of either CF{sub 4} or CHF{sub 3} source of the plasma. SIMS experiments were performed using ultra-low energy (1 keV) argon ion beam and quadrupole mass analyzer. Depth profiles of the resulting dielectric films illustrate: (i) the incorporation of F into the SiO{sub 2} matrix is accomplished by either the CHF{sub 3} or CF{sub 4} plasmas; (ii) no etching of SiO{sub 2} matrix is observed by using of CHF{sub 3}; (iii) CHF{sub 3} is a source of fluorocarbon film deposition on top of the SiO{sub 2} that prevents the SiO{sub 2} etching; and (iv) fluorine quantifications done based on implantation criteria give the maximum concentrations within the films from 6.0 x 10{sup 18} to 2.4 x 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} depending on the different fluoridation conditions. The F concentration in SiO{sub 2} increases with the r.f. power of CF{sub 4} or with decreasing a gas pressure of CHF{sub 3} plasma.

  15. 氟碳表面活性剂环境风险控制措施初探%Environment risks control of fluorocarbon surfactants in foam extinguishing agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江

    2012-01-01

    统计分析了山西省大中型石油化工企业数量以及2007-2011年全省油类火灾发生的时间、地点,由此估算出泡沫灭火剂储备量及含氟碳表面活性剂(主要是C8类氟碳表面活性剂)的用量.从中分析氟碳表面活性剂排入大气中、直接进入土壤、直接流入河流和通过下水道进入污水处理厂对环境造成的污染风险.介绍国际发达国家相关处理措施,提出我国消防领域解决控制氟碳表面活性剂的建议:一是大力开发和选用环境友好型泡沫灭火剂,把对环境的影响降至最低;二是积极应对,加强管理,妥善回收处理消防灭火剂使用后的残液;三是鼓励污水处理厂开发能降解氟碳表面活性剂的处理工艺,最终达到降低此类风险对人类的危害;四是提出研制新型泡沫灭火剂的思路.%In order to investigate the reserves of foam extinguishing agents and usage of fluorocarbon surfactants in fire fighting field of Shanxi Province, we made a statistics of the number of large and medium petrochemistry industries and the occurring time and sites of oil (ire during 2007 - 2011. And there existed environment risks for the fluorocarbon surfactants (especially C8). The control measures of fluorocarbon surfactants' pollution include utilize the green foam extinguishing agents without or with as few as C8 fluorocarbon surfactants such as perfluo-rooctane sulfonate (PFOS)and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). collection of the used foam extinguishing agents, and development of the degradation techniques for them and new foam extinguishing agent.

  16. Nanotexturing of polystyrene surface in fluorocarbon plasmas: from sticky to slippery superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Rosa Di; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2008-05-06

    In this work plasma etching processes have been studied to roughen and fluorinate polystyrene surface as an easy method to achieve a superhydrophobic slippery character. Radiofrequency discharges have been fed with CF(4)/O(2) mixtures and the effect of the O(2):CF(4) ratio, the input power, and the treatment duration have been investigated in terms of wettability, with focus on sliding performances. For this purpose, surface morphological variations, evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, together with the chemical assessment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, have been correlated with water contact angle hysteresis and volume resolved sliding angle measurements. Results indicate that by increasing the height and decreasing the density of the structures formed by etching, within a tailored range, a transition from sticky to slippery superhydrophobicity occurs. A short treatment time (5 min) is sufficient to obtain such an effect, provided that a high power input is utilized. Optimized surfaces show a unaltered transparency to visible light according to the low roughness produced.

  17. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods.

  18. Study of the properties of plasma deposited layers of nickel-chrome-aluminium-yttrium coatings resistant to oxidation and hot corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the properties of Ni22Cr10Al1Y layers in order to obtain optimal structural - mechanical properties with the optimization of depositing parameters. Powder was deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray (APS process with the current intensity of 600, 700 and 800A, with a corresponding plasma gun power supply of 22KW, 34KW and 28KW. The evaluation of the Ni22Cr10Al1Y coating layers was made on the basis of their microhardness, tensile strength and microstructure performance. The best performance was obtained in the layers deposited with 800A and the 34KW plasma gun power supply. The coating with the best characteristics was tested to oxidation in the furnace for heat treatment without a protective atmosphere at 1100°C for one hour. The examination of the morphology of Ni22Cr10Al1Y powder particles was carried out on the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope as well as the EDS analysis of the best layers. The microstructure of the deposited coating layers was examined with a light microscope. The microstructure analysis was performed according to the TURBOMECA standard. The mechanical properties of layers were evaluated by the method HV0.3 for microhardness and by tensile testing for bond strength. The research has shown that plasma gun power supply significantly affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of coatings that are of crucial importance for the protection of components exposed to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion.

  19. Hydrophobicity attainment and wear resistance enhancement on glass substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization of mixtures of an aminosilane and a fluorocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Sainz-García, Elisa; Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola

    2015-08-01

    Mixtures of different proportions of two liquid precursors were subjected to plasma-polymerization by a non-thermal atmospheric jet plasma system in a search for a coating that achieves a hydrophobic character on a glass substrate and enhances its wear resistance. 1-Perfluorohexene (PFH) was chosen as a low-surface-energy precursor to promote a hydrophobic character. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) was chosen for its contribution to the improvement of wear resistance by the formation of siloxane bonds. The objective of this work was to determine which of the precursors' mixtures that were tested provides the coating with the most balanced enhancement of both hydrophobicity and wear resistance, given that coatings deposited with fluorocarbon-based precursors such as PFH are usually low in resistance to wear and coatings deposited with APTES are generally hydrophilic. The coatings obtained were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), static Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements, tribological ball-on-disc tests and contact profilometry. A relationship between the achievement of a hydrophobic character and the modifications to roughness and surface morphology and the incorporation of fluorocarbon groups in the surface chemistry was observed. Also, it was seen that the wear resistance was influenced by the SiOSi content of the coatings. In turn, the SiOSi content appears to be directly related to the percentage of APTES used in the mixture of precursors. The best conjunction of hydrophobicity and wear resistance in this work was found in the sample that was coated using a mixture of APTES and PFH in proportions of 75 and 25%, respectively. Its WCA (100.2 ± 7.5°) was the highest of all samples that were measured and more than three times that of the uncoated glass (31 ± 0.7°). This sample underwent a change from a hydrophilic to a

  20. 氟碳化合物等离子体处理丝绸织物的表面分析%The surface properties of silk fabrics treated by fluorocarbon compound plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽; 朱泉; 曹淑华

    2013-01-01

    Silk fabrics were treated by low temperature plasma with fluorocarbons such as hexafluoropro-pene, perfluoroheptane, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorooctyl ethylene, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, 2,2, 2-trifluoroethanol. The water and oil repellency of silk treated by fluorocarbon plasma was investigated. The changes of element composition and functional groups before and after treatment were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Certain amounts of fluorine atoms were introduced to the surface of fluorocarbon plasma treated silk fabrics, which increased the water repellency of silk fabrics. C1s spectra showed that -CF, -CF2 and -CF3 groups were introduced to the silk surface. The fluoro containing groups on the silk fabrics surface varied with the kinds of fluorocarbon compounds, which indicated that the binding modes with silk fabric surface changed with the structures of fluorocarbon compounds.%以六氟丙烯、全氟庚烷、八氟环丁烷、全氟辛基乙烯、1,1,1,3,3,3-六氟-2-丙醇和2,2,2-三氟乙醇等氟碳化合物为气氛对丝绸织物进行等离子体处理,考察处理后丝绸织物的拒水拒油性能,利用X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析等离子体处理前后元素组成及官能团的变化.不同氟碳化合物等离子体处理后在织物表面引入了一定量的氟元素,织物的拒水性能增加.Cls谱图表明在织物表面引入了—CF、—CF2和—CF3基团,不同氟碳化合物引入到织物表面的含氟基团有所不同,说明化合物结构不同使在丝绸织物表面的结合方式有所区别.

  1. Highly sensitive response to dopamine at a modified electrode involving a composite film with Au nanoparticles dispersed in a fluorocarbon polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the highly sensitive detection of dopamine by a novel composite film involving gold nanoparticles trapped in a negatively-charged fluorocarbon polymer (Nafion) on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode fabricated by a simple method is described. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 2.3 nm ± 0.2 nm are dispersed throughout the whole Nafion film. The introduction of gold nanoparticles into the Nafion film not only gives a highly active electrode surface area but also increases the conductivity of the Nafion film and the resulting Au/Nafion/GC electrode combines the advantages of the properties of gold nanoparticles and the selective pre-concentration ability of Nafion. For positively charged dopamine, the results show a decrease in the redox peak separation and a high sensitivity. The oxidation peak current of dopamine was shown to vary linearly with dopamine concentration over a wide range from 0.4 to 50.0 μmol/L with a detection limit of 0.3 μmol/L. Negatively charged ascorbic acid shows no redox waves at concentrations up to 1.0 ×10-4 mol/L.

  2. Local plasma deposition on polymer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Theelen, M.J.; Habets, D.; Winands, G.J.J.; Staemmler, L.

    2011-01-01

    For the modification of the surface energy of polymers, organosilicon coatings provide good optical and mechanical properties and are excellent candidates for the modification of the surface energy of polymers. These coatings can be deposited by plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)

  3. Asymmetric Hollow Fiber Membranes for Separation of CO 2 from Hydrocarbons and Fluorocarbons at High-Pressure Conditions Relevant to C 2 F 4 Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuri, Madhava R.

    2009-12-02

    Separation of high-pressure carbon dioxide from fluorocarbons is important for the production of fluoropolymers such as poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Typical polymeric membranes plasticize under high CO2 partial pressure conditions and fail to provide adequate selective separations. Torlon, a polyamide-imide polymer, with the ability to form interchain hydrogen bonding, is shown to provide stability against aggressive CO2 plasticization. Torlon membranes in the form of asymmetric hollow fibers (the most productive form of membranes) are considered for an intended separation of CO 2/C2F4. To avoid safety issues with tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), which could detonate under testing conditions, safer surrogate mixtures (C2H2F 2 and C2H4) are considered in this paper. Permeation measurements (at 35 °C) indicate that the Torlon membranes are not plasticized even up to 1250 psi of CO2. The membranes provide mixed gas CO2/C2H2F2 and CO 2/C2H4 selectivities of 100 and 30, respectively, at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2. On the basis of the measured separation performances of CO2/C2H 2F2 and CO2/C2H4 mixtures, the selectivity of the CO2/C2F4 mixture is expected to be greater than 100. Long-term stability studies indicate that the membranes provide stable separations over a period of 5 days at 1250 psi partial pressures of CO2, thereby making the membrane approach attractive. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fluorocarbon based atomic layer etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lai, Chiukin Steven; Hudson, Eric A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Angstrom-level plasma etching precision is required for semiconductor manufacturing of sub-10 nm critical dimension features. Atomic layer etching (ALE), achieved by a series of self-limited cycles, can precisely control etching depths by limiting the amount of chemical reactant available at the surface. Recently, SiO{sub 2} ALE has been achieved by deposition of a thin (several Angstroms) reactive fluorocarbon (FC) layer on the material surface using controlled FC precursor flow and subsequent low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment in a cyclic fashion. Low energy ion bombardment is used to remove the FC layer along with a limited amount of SiO{sub 2} from the surface. In the present article, the authors describe controlled etching of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub 2} layers of one to several Angstroms using this cyclic ALE approach. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching and etching selectivity of SiO{sub 2} over Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were studied and evaluated with regard to the dependence on maximum ion energy, etching step length (ESL), FC surface coverage, and precursor selection. Surface chemistries of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after vacuum transfer at each stage of the ALE process. Since Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has a lower physical sputtering energy threshold than SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} physical sputtering can take place after removal of chemical etchant at the end of each cycle for relatively high ion energies. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to SiO{sub 2} ALE etching selectivity was observed for these FC depleted conditions. By optimization of the ALE process parameters, e.g., low ion energies, short ESLs, and/or high FC film deposition per cycle, highly selective SiO{sub 2} to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etching can be achieved for FC accumulation conditions, where FC can be selectively accumulated on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces. This highly selective etching is explained by a lower carbon consumption of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as compared to Si

  5. CrAlTiN及CrAlTiSiN纳米多层复合涂层的制备及力学性能%CrAlTiN and CrAlTiSiN Nanocomposite Coatings Deposited by Multi-arc Plasma Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付酮程; 闫少健; 田灿鑫; 杨兵; 黄志宏; 付德君

    2013-01-01

    以金属Cr和AlTi合金为靶材料,在沉积过程中引入SiH4气体,用自行设计的多靶阴极电弧离子镀系统在单晶硅和硬质合金衬底上沉积了CrAlTiN和CrAlTiSiN硬质涂层.通过X射线衍射(XRD)和透射电镜(TEM)分析涂层的组织和形貌,结果表明:衬底偏压和反应气体流量对膜层的力学性能有较大影响,在优化条件下得到CrAlTiN涂层的硬度为29 GPa.且CrAlTiSiN涂层为CrSiN和AlTiSiN组成的纳米多层复合涂层,随着SiH4流量的增加,薄膜中的硅含量明显增加,在优化条件下,涂层的显微硬度达到37 GPa,摩擦因数为0.58.刀具涂层检测试验表明,涂覆CrAlTiN涂层的铣刀使用寿命可提高3倍,而CrAlTiSiN涂层较CrAlTiN涂层还会进一步提高刀具使用寿命.%CrAlTiN and CrAlTiSiN nanocomposite coatings were synthesized on cemented carbide and Si substrate through a home-made cathodic multi-arc plasma deposition system with Cr and AITi alloy targets. The structural characteristics, morphology were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results show that the bias voltage and flow rate of reactant gas significantly affect mechanical properties of the films, and the microhardness of CrAlTiN reaches 29 GPa at optimized conditions. The CrAlTiSiN coatings consisting of multilayer composite with CrSiN and AlTiSiN from the figures of XRD patterns and TEM morphologies. With the increase of SiH4 flow rate, the content of Si elevats and the microhardness reaches the 37 GPa with fricition coefficient of 0. 58 at the most optimized parameters. The cutting experiment illustrated that the milling cutter with CrAlTiN coatings is three times longer than that of common tools, while the CrAlTiSiN coatings can further improve the working life the cutter compared with the CrAlTiN.

  6. Synthesis of trimethoxy-type silane coupling agents containing two fluorocarbon chains and surface modification of glass; Fukka tanso kusari wo nisa yusuru torimetokishigata shiran coupling zai no gosei to glass no hyomen kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, N.; Itagaki, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kondo, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Colloid and Interface Sciences

    1997-08-20

    This paper reports synthesis of silane coupling agents (containing two fluorocarbon chains in one molecule) and modification of glass surface. The agents were synthesized by hydrosilylation of diester maleate, RfCH2CH2OCOCH = CHCOOCH2CH2Rf[Rf=CF3(CF)n, n=3, 5, 7 or (CF3)2CF(CF2)m, m=2, 4, 6, 8] using trimethoxy-type silane. The following matters were clarified on modification of glass surface for water repellency and oil repellency by using these silane coupling agents: the optimum treatment condition is heating at 200 degC for 60 minutes after the glass has been immersed in 10 mM aqueous solution of the agents/F-113 for 240 minutes; the modified glass has sufficiently high oxidation resistance if the fluorocarbon chain in molecules of the silane coupling agents is long; however, the glass may be hydrolyzed more easily because of having ester bond, whereas its acid resistance was shown low. 40 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  8. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  9. New Methodology for Fluorocarbon Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Distribucion Unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMIER(S) 61. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION F6b...Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Frod Reder 07-70;7-LThA-QA " D Form 1473, JUN 84 P’wous ed, r,on eare 6o0ee. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAG...AISTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION QUNCASSIFIEDIUNUMITED 0 SAME AS RAT r:C . if’.S snlas gf{.d Zia. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (InIufe Area

  10. Mechanism of Nano-fluorocarbon Coating Restraining Ice Blocking in Supercooled Heat Exchanger%纳米氟碳涂层抑制过冷却器冰堵的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 何国庚; 田奇琦; 杨丽媛

    2012-01-01

    Ice slurry has been widely used in many fields because of its thermal properties, and ice-making technology has become a focus of study. Dynamic ice-making with supercooled water is one of the most promising method in making ice slurries, but the major defect of this method is that the ice blocking easily take place in the supercooled heat exchanger. Based on the theory of water crystallization and the analysis of the influence factors of ice blocking, a nano-fluorocarbon coating was used to improve the surface conditions of the supercooled heat exchanger and to restrain water from freezing. It is concluded that the nano-fluorocarbon coating will effectively restrain crystallization on the wall and improve the efficiency of the ice-making unit, which results in the decrease of ice blocking and the energy consumption. The investigation will benefit in developing and improving anti-icing techniques.%冰浆由于良好的热物特性,在许多领域得到广泛的应用,其制取方式也成为关注的焦点.过冷水动态制冰是目前最有发展前途的制取冰浆方式之一,但其主要缺陷是过冷却器易发生冰堵.在此,基于水溶液结晶的机理,从影响过冷却器冰堵的因素出发,指出纳米氟碳表面改性材料可改善表面状况,有效抑制壁面结冰,减少制冰过程中的冰堵问题,提高整个系统的制冰效率,降低能耗.纳米氟碳涂层抑制过冷却器冰堵的机理对进一步深化和开发新一代防结冰技术有一定意义.

  11. 靶基距对射频磁控溅射法制备氟碳膜的结构与性能影响%The study on structure and properties of fluorocarbon films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at varying target-substrate distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增机; 纪全; 张浴晖; 夏延致; 王凤军

    2011-01-01

    采用射频磁控溅射法,以聚四氟乙烯(PT-FE)为靶,氩气为载气,在再生纤维素基底上制备了氟碳膜.用原子力显微镜(AFM)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)和静态接触角测试仪对氟碳膜的表面形貌、表面结构和表面性能进行了研究.结果表明,该法制得的氟碳膜是由纳米粒子组成的岛状结构,岛的表面起伏不平.这种氟碳膜由-CF3-CF2-、-CF-和-C-4个组分构成,靶基距从30mm增加到813mm时,氟碳膜的F/C从0.551减小到0.427,呈逐渐减小的趋势.随着靶基距的增大,接触角从107°逐渐减小到75°,减小靶基距有利于提高氟碳膜的疏水性能.%Fluorocarbon films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on regenerated cellulose substrate,used PTFE as the target and used Ar as the working gas. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was employed to determine the morphology of the surface. The structure of fluorocarbon films was investigated by means of XPS, and the contact angle was measured by the static contact angle testing apparatus. It was found that the obtained fluorocarbon films demonstrated islands-structure which were composed of nanosized particles and the surface of islands was not even. The fluorocarbon films which consisted of four components, i.e. -CF3,-CF2-,-CF- and -C-. The ratio of fluorine to carbon (F/C) of films drops from 0. 551 to 0. 427 and the contact angle drops from 107 to 75° with the increase of the target-substrate distance from 30 to 80mm, decreasing the target-substrate distance is beneficial to enhance hydrophobicity of fluorocarbon films.

  12. optimal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Rozonoer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of optimal control for all initial data are proved for LQ-optimization problem. If these conditions are fulfilled, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality are formulated. Basing on the results, some general hypotheses on optimal control in terms of Pontryagin's maximum condition and Bellman's equation are proposed.

  13. Enhancement of the light-scattering ability of Ga-doped ZnO thin films using SiO{sub x} nano-films prepared by atmospheric pressure plasma deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kow-Ming [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Po-Ching, E-mail: raymondsam.ee98g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ariyarit, Atthaporn [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Kuo-Hui; Hsu, Jui-Mei; Wu, Chin-Jyi; Chang, Chia-Chiang [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-02

    To enhance the light-trapping qualities of silicon thin-film solar cells, the use of transparent conductive oxide with high haze and high conductivity is essential. This study investigated an eco-friendly technique that used bilayer Ga-doped zinc oxide/SiO{sub x} films prepared with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet to achieve high haze and low resistivity. A minimum resistivity of 6.00 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm was achieved at 8 at.% gallium doping. Examination of X-ray diffraction spectra showed that increased film thickness led to increased carrier concentration in GZO bilayers. The optimal bilayer GZO film achieved considerably higher haze values in the visible and NIR regions, compared with Asahi U-type fluorine doped tin oxide. - Highlights: • Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) and SiO{sub x} deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) • Deposition uses a water-based precursor and low substrate temperature (< 150 °C). • SiO{sub x} buffer layers deposited by APPJ can control haze value of Ga-doped ZnO films. • GZO/SiO{sub x} achieved the resistivity of 6.00 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm and haze of 21.5% at 550 nm.

  14. Dynamic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Philip

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.

  15. Stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Johannes J

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses stochastic optimization procedures in a broad manner. The first part offers an overview of relevant optimization philosophies; the second deals with benchmark problems in depth, by applying a selection of optimization procedures. Written primarily with scientists and students from the physical and engineering sciences in mind, this book addresses a larger community of all who wish to learn about stochastic optimization techniques and how to use them.

  16. Selective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    consider a probabilistically-constrained portfolio optimization problem [16] to determine a minimum cost distribution of a unit investment among n assets...present a branching technique (Section 5). Through computational experiments on the probabilistic portfolio optimization problem (3) and an optimal ...at one. 15 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 6.2 Probabilistic Portfolio Optimization The first class of instances we test

  17. 含氟苯丙无皂乳液的合成及其在涂料中的应用%Preparation of Fluorinated Polystyrene-acrylate Soap-free Emulsion and Its Application in Fluorocarbon Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁姣姣; 安秋凤; 马丽; 吴婧; 许伟

    2012-01-01

    A fluorinated polystyrene-acrylate emulsion (BSAD) was prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization from dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA) , butyl acrylate (BA) ,styrene(ST) and acrylic acid(AA) , with (NH4)2S2O8( APS) as an initiator. And the chemical structure,morphology of latex grain, size distribution and Zeta potential of BSAD were characterized by means of infrared spectrum (IR) transition electron microscopy (TEM) , particle analyzer and Zeta potential analyzer. The effects of temperature and dosage of sodium acrylate, APS and DFMA on the properties of emulsion were discussed. And the emulsion was employed with nano-Ti02 to prepare the fluorocarbon coating. The results show that,when the dosage of sodium acrylate and APS was 12% and 1% respectively and the reaction temperature was 78 ℃, the emulsion displayed the best properties, with its gel rate being 0. 8% ,the time of water tolerance being longer than 168 h,percent conversion being 97. 1% ;when the dosage of DFMA was 25% of monomers, the coating displayed the best hydrophobicity with the water contact angle on its surface being 113°, water absorption rate being 6.4%. The fluorocarbon coating thus manufactured won satisfying effect in terms of such properties as adhesion, hardness and water resistance.%以过硫酸铵(APS)为引发剂,将丙烯酸丁酯(BA)、苯乙烯(ST)、丙烯酸(AA)与甲基丙烯酸十二氟庚酯(DFMA)通过无皂乳液聚合法制备了含氟苯丙无皂乳液(BSAD).通过IR、TEM、粒度仪及Zeta电位分析仪表征了乳液主组分结构、乳胶粒形貌、粒径分布及Zeta电位,并考察了丙烯酸钠、引发剂APS、DFMA的用量及反应温度对乳液性能的影响.并将该乳液与纳米TiO2等复配制备了氟碳涂料. 结果表明,当丙烯酸钠质量分数为12%,APS质量分数为1%,反应温度为78℃时,乳液性能最佳,此时凝胶率为0.8%,耐水性大于168 h,单体转化率为97.1%;当DFMA质量分数为25%时,涂膜疏

  18. Preparation of Cationic Fluorocarbon Emulsion and Properties of Emulsion in Gelatin%明胶作用下阳离子氟碳乳液的制备及乳液性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之坤; 李刚辉; 古永红

    2012-01-01

    The cationic fluorocarbon emulsion (CFE) was prepared by the reaction of gelatin, styrene, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate), hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate dimethyl amino ethyl ester, whole fluoroalkyl acrylate ph, through the free radicals copolymerization. Through the DLS, AFM, FT-IR, TGA and contact angle, the CFE emulsion membrane surface morphology, structure characteristics, thermal stability and wettability were studied; the application effect of CFE used as paper surface sizing agent was investigated by contact angle analysis. The results showed that the content of gelatin is 1%, CFE emulsion is stable, latex particle size 120 nm and contact angle is up to 126°. The film has good hydrophobic property.%在明胶作用下,以苯乙烯、丙烯酸甲酯、丙烯酸丁酯、丙烯酸羟乙酯、甲基丙烯酸二甲氨基乙酯、全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯为原料,通过自由基共聚制备了阳离子氟碳乳液(CFE),通过粒径、AFM、FT-IR、热重、接触角测量仪等分别研究了CFE的乳胶膜表面形貌、结构特征、润湿性等;通过接触角法考察了CFE作为纸张表面施胶剂的应用效果。结果表明,在明胶添加量为1%时,CFE乳液稳定,乳液粒径120nm,水在纸张表面的接触角可达126°,涂膜具有良好的疏水性能.

  19. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} and Si using cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and Ar/CHF{sub 3} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Engelmann, Sebastian; Bruce, Robert L.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing as smaller critical dimensions and pitches are required in device patterning. A flux-control based cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} ALE based on steady-state Ar plasma in conjunction with periodic, precise C{sub 4}F{sub 8} injection and synchronized plasma-based low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment has been established for SiO{sub 2} [Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32, 020603 (2014)]. In this work, the cyclic process is further characterized and extended to ALE of silicon under similar process conditions. The use of CHF{sub 3} as a precursor is examined and compared to C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. CHF{sub 3} is shown to enable selective SiO{sub 2}/Si etching using a fluorocarbon (FC) film build up. Other critical process parameters investigated are the FC film thickness deposited per cycle, the ion energy, and the etch step length. Etching behavior and mechanisms are studied using in situ real time ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon ALE shows less self-limitation than silicon oxide due to higher physical sputtering rates for the maximum ion energies used in this work, ranged from 20 to 30 eV. The surface chemistry is found to contain fluorinated silicon oxide during the etching of silicon. Plasma parameters during ALE are studied using a Langmuir probe and establish the impact of precursor addition on plasma properties.

  20. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  1. Optimal semelparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Vaupel

    Full Text Available Semelparous organisms have a simple life cycle characterized by immediate death after reproduction. We assume that semelparous life histories can be separated into a juvenile non-reproductive period followed by an adult period during which reproduction is possible. We derive formulae for the optimal age and size at reproduction and for the optimal size of the offspring (e.g., seeds. Our main contribution is to determine the conditions under which the optimal size of the offspring does not depend on the optimal size at reproduction and vice versa.

  2. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  3. Medicinsk Optimering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Klavs

    2010-01-01

    En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system......En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system...

  4. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...

  5. Dispositional Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  6. Localised plasma deposition of organosilicon layers on polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.; Habets, D.; Staemmler, L.; Winands, H.; Bolt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Organosilicon coatings provide good optical and mechanical properties and are excellent candidates for the modification of the surface energy of polymers. These coatings can be deposited by plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) under atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. The

  7. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of material that may be treated. The deposition of DLC at atmospheric pressure has been demonstrated by several researchers. Izake, et al [53] and Novikov and Dymont [54] have demonstrated an electrochemical process that is carried out with organic compounds such as methanol and acetylene dissolved in ammonia. This process requires that the substrates be immersed in the liquid [53-54]. The atmospheric pressure deposition of DLC was also demonstrated by Kulik, et al. utilizing a plasma torch. However, this process requires operating temperatures in excess of 800 oC [55]. In this report, we investigate the deposition of diamond-like carbon films using a low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The films were characterized by solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and found to have a ratio of sp2 to sp3 carbon of 43 to 57%. The films were also tested for adhesion, coefficient of friction, and dielectric strength.

  8. Plasma Processes : Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D S Patil; K Ramachandran; N Venkatramani; M Pandey; R D'Cunha

    2000-11-01

    The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a wave guide single mode applicator. We have deposited DLC coatings on the substrates like stainless steel, Cu–Be, Cu and Si. The deposited coatings have been characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometric techniques. The results show that we have achieved depositing ∼ 95% sp3 bonded carbon in the films. The films are uniform with golden yellow color. The films are found to be excellent insulators. The ellipsometric measurements of optical constant on silicon substrates indicate that the films are transparent above 900 nm.

  9. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D. S.; Ramachandran, K.; Venkataramani, N.; Pandey, M.; D'Cunha, R.

    2000-11-01

    he promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a wave guide single mode applicator. We have deposited DLC coatings on the substrates like stainless steel, Cu--Be, Cu and Si. The deposited coatings have been characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometric techniques. The results show that we have achieved depositing ~ 95% sp3 bonded carbon in the films. The films are uniform with golden yellow color. The films are found to be excellent insulators. The ellipsometric measurements of optical constant on silicon substrates indicate that the films are transparent above 900 nm.

  10. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  11. Anticorrosion properties of water-based polyaniline/fluorocarbon composite emulsion coatings%水性聚苯胺/氟碳复合乳液涂层的防腐蚀性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉峰; 曾照坡; 王迪

    2012-01-01

    Water-based polyaniline ( PANI ) emulsions were synthesized use dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid ( DBSA ) as emulsifier and doping agent, X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed DBSA doped PANI molecular chain had good stretch. Particle size test showed PANI latex particles had uniform distribution and the average particle size was about 250nm. Then make the water-based composited emulsion coatings with PANI emulsion and fluorocarbon emulsion (FC), the anticorrosion property to Q235 mild steel were discussed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy( EIS ), Tafel polt( Tafel ) and open circuit potential( OCP ). The results showed the PANI/FC composite emulsion coatings had higher impedance and corrosion potential ( -0.4V ) , the corrosion current density was lower ( 10-6A/cm2 ). The composite coatings had better anticorrosion properties to Q235 mild steel while m( PANI ) : m( FC ) =1:1.%以十二烷基苯磺酸(DBSA)为乳化剂和掺杂剂,制备了水性聚苯胺(PANI)乳液,X射线衍射分析(XRD)结果表明,DBSA掺杂的PANI分子链伸展性较好;粒径测试结果表明聚苯胺乳胶粒子分布均匀,平均粒径约为250nm。冉以水性氟碳(FC)乳液为成膜物制备了水性PANUFC复合乳液涂层材料,利用电化学交流阻抗谱(EIS)、Tafel曲线(Tafel)、平衡开路电位(OCP)考察了其对Q235低碳钢的防腐蚀性能。结果表明,PANI/FC复合乳液涂层具有较高的阻抗.显著地提高了金属的腐蚀电位(-0.4V),降低了金属的腐蚀电流密度(10-6A/cm2)。当m(PANI):m(FC)=1:1时,复合涂层对Q235碳钢的防腐蚀性能最好。

  12. 凝析气藏氟碳气湿反转剂FC-1的室内研究%Laboratory Study of a Novel Fluorocarbon Gas-Wetting Reversal FC-I for Condensate Gas Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖颖; 蒋官澄; 黎凌; 许伟星; 徐帆

    2012-01-01

    A fluorocarbon gas-wetting reversal FC-1 was developed in this paper by core-shell emulsion polymerization, and the structure of FC-1 was confirmed by infra-red (IR) spectrum. The measurement of contact angle (CA) and surface energy spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of the cores treated with FC-1 were carried out. The IR results confirmed that the fluoroacrylate copolymer was obtained. The results of CA, surface energy, SEM and TEM proved that the laboratory gas-wetting effect of FC-1 was superior. When the cores were treated by 10% FC-1 and heat-treatment of 100℃ for 12 h, the wettability of the treated cores converted from strong liquid-wetting into intermediate gas-wetting. The contact angles of distilled water and hexadecane on the surface of the treated cores, was up to 124.98° and 84.69° respectively, and the rock surface energy reduced to 8.33 mJ/m^2.%本文采用核壳乳液聚合法制备了一种氟碳气湿反转剂FC-1,采用红外光谱表征了共聚物的结构,对FC-1处理前后岩心的接触角、表面能谱、扫描电镜和透射电镜等表征。结果表明:FC-1为含氟丙烯酸酯共聚物。FC-1对岩石有良好的气湿反转能力,处理后的岩心表面由强亲液转变为疏油疏水的中性气湿。经10%FC-1溶液处理并经100℃热处理12h后的岩心,蒸馏水在其表面的接触角最高可达124.98°,正十六烷在其表面的接触角可达84.69°,表面能降低至8.33mJ/m^2。图5表1参9

  13. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Frajtova-Michalikova, Katarina; Spuchľakova, Erika; Misankova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  14. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    This lecture note is intended for use in the course 04212 Optimization and Data Fitting at the Technincal University of Denmark. It covers about 25% of the curriculum. Hopefully, the note may be useful also to interested persons not participating in that course. The aim of the note is to give...... an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...

  15. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    This lecture note is intended for use in the course 04212 Optimization and Data Fitting at the Technincal University of Denmark. It covers about 25% of the curriculum. Hopefully, the note may be useful also to interested persons not participating in that course. The aim of the note is to give...... an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...

  16. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  17. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  18. Nonclassical gasdynamic region of selected fluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, A.; Argrow, B. M.

    2005-11-01

    The nonclassical gasdynamic region of fluorinated substances belonging to the PP, FC, and E series is investigated using different thermodynamic models of increasing complexity. Thermodynamic models range from the simple van der Waals equation of state to the more complex Martin-Hou model and include the Redlich-Kwong, Clausius-II, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, and Peng-Robinson equations, under both the polytropic (constant isochoric specific heat in the dilute gas limit) and nonpolytropic approximations. The possibility of observing nonclassical gasdynamic behavior for a given fluid is confirmed to increase with the molecular weight of the substance times the specific heat at constant volume in the dilute gas limit and at the critical temperature, but to be almost insensitive to the nonpolytropic behavior of the fluid; the dependence on the compressibility at the critical point is also weak. A strong dependence on the acentric factor of the substance is revealed, which points to fluids made of nonpolar molecules with nearly spheroidal shapes as the most favorable to exhibit nonclassical gasdynamic behavior. In this respect, the fluorinated cyclic compounds of the PP series are singled out as the most promising candidates for the experimental verification of the existence of nonclassical phenomena in the vapor phase and for nonclassical gasdynamic applications.

  19. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...) Chlorotrifluoroethylene-1,1-difluoroethylene-tetrafluoroethylene co-polymer resins produced by copolymerization of..., Extrusion, and Coating Materials,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)...

  1. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  2. Distributed optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Trommer, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In dieser Dissertation schlage ich eine Synthese (Distributed Optimality, DO) von Optimalitätstheorie und einem derivationellen, morphologischem Asatz, Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz, 1993) vor. Durch die Integration von OT in DM wird es möglich, Phänomene, die in DM durch sprachspezifische Regeln oder Merkmale von lexikalischen Einträge erfasst werden, auf die Interaktion von verletzbaren, universellen Constraints zurückzuführen. Andererseits leistet auch DM zwei substantielle B...

  3. Optimal learning

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, Warren B

    2012-01-01

    Learn the science of collecting information to make effective decisions Everyday decisions are made without the benefit of accurate information. Optimal Learning develops the needed principles for gathering information to make decisions, especially when collecting information is time-consuming and expensive. Designed for readers with an elementary background in probability and statistics, the book presents effective and practical policies illustrated in a wide range of applications, from energy, homeland security, and transportation to engineering, health, and business. This book covers the

  4. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  5. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  6. Combinatorial Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Chvátal, V

    2011-01-01

    This book is a collection of six articles arising from the meeting of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) "Combinatorial Optimization: Methods and Applications," which was held at the University of Montreal in June 2006. This ASI consisted of seven series of five one-hour lectures and one series of four one-hour lectures. It was attended by some sixty students of graduate or postdoctoral level from fifteen countries worldwide. It includes topics such as: integer and mixed integer programming, facility location, branching on split disjunctions, convexity in combinatorial optimizat

  7. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  8. Optimal produktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öje Danell

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Production in Reindeer Husbandry.There are three ways to optimize the reindeer herd: 1 Adjusting the reindeer number to pasture resources. 2 Keeping as many productive animals in the herd as possible through slaughter. 3 Increasing the herd quality through selection.Renhjorden bör optimeras så att den fungerar som en "skördeapparat" for bete och lämnar största möjliga bidrag till försörjningen för dem som lever av renskötsel. Det finns minst tre sätt att optimera renhjorden, nämligen (1 anpassning av djurantalet till betesresurserna så att djurens kondition och därmed produktiviteten kan bibehållas på hög nivå, (2 utforma renhjordens struktur med hjalp av slaktuttaget så att den innehåller så stor andel produktiva djur som möjligt, och (3 förbättra djurmaterialets produktionsmässiga kvalitet genom urval baserat på registrerad produktion. Betesanpassningen är den mest grundläggande åtgärden och ger den snabbaste effekten. Även hjordstrukturering är en åtgärd som ger relativt snabb effekt och som dessutom kan beslutas och utforas av den enskilde djuraägaren utan att störa den kollektiva renskötseln. Urval är en åtgärd som ger effekt först på längre sikt och därför kräver en konsekvent insats under en längre tid.

  9. [SIAM conference on optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  10. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of fabricated black silicon nanostructures: Optimal geometries for an antireflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Adam [X-FAB Semiconductor Foundries AG, Erfurt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Voerckel, Andreas [X-FAB Semiconductor Foundries AG, Erfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Nano-structured silicon has received a growing and serious amount of interest in industrial technology and university research, particularly in regard to the possibility of such nanostructures in optics, with the primary interest here being black silicon as an anti-reflective coating (ARC) for photodiodes. Current literature now contains a wealth of morphological information to influence structure growth and shape in fluorine-based plasma etching in the presence of oxide-forming or fluorocarbon gas inhibitors. Using the computationally efficient grid-based differential time-domain numerical modeling of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, approximations to Maxwell's equations are solved to model the optical properties of crystalline black silicon. Multiple geometries, from pillars to more pyramid and needle-like structures, are considered and results are correlated to actual scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures with corresponding reflection measurements taken in a Cary 5000 UV*VIS spectrophotometer with accompanying integrating (Ulbricht) sphere from 200 nm to 800 nm to evaluate both diffuse and specular reflection from the silicon surface. Optimal geometries are simulated and the consequences for photodiode applications are discussed.

  11. Multiple Satellite Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS ........................................5...OPTIMIZATION A. SOLVING OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS The driving principle used to solve optimal control problems was first formalized by the Soviet...methods and processes of solving optimal control problems , this section will demonstrate how the formulations work as expected. Once coded, the

  12. Antenna optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ružica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results for two different antenna optimization problems that are found using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. The first problem is finding the maximal forward gain of a Yagi antenna. The second problem is finding the optimal feeding of a broadside antenna array. The optimization problems have 6 and 20 optimization variables, respectively. The preferred values of the parameters of the PSO algorithm are found for presented problems. The results show that the preferred parameters of PSO are somewhat different for optimization problems with different number of dimensions of the optimization space. The results that are found using the PSO algorithm are compared with the results that are found using other optimization algorithms, in order to estimate the efficiency of the PSO.

  13. Optimization modeling with spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    An accessible introduction to optimization analysis using spreadsheets Updated and revised, Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets, Third Edition emphasizes model building skills in optimization analysis. By emphasizing both spreadsheet modeling and optimization tools in the freely available Microsoft® Office Excel® Solver, the book illustrates how to find solutions to real-world optimization problems without needing additional specialized software. The Third Edition includes many practical applications of optimization models as well as a systematic framework that il

  14. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  15. New Hoopoe Heuristic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    El-Dosuky, Mohammed; EL-Bassiouny, Ahmed; Hamza, Taher; Rashad, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Most optimization problems in real life applications are often highly nonlinear. Local optimization algorithms do not give the desired performance. So, only global optimization algorithms should be used to obtain optimal solutions. This paper introduces a new nature-inspired metaheuristic optimization algorithm, called Hoopoe Heuristic (HH). In this paper, we will study HH and validate it against some test functions. Investigations show that it is very promising and could be seen as an optimi...

  16. Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design includes an optimization process in which designers always consider objectives such as strength, deflection, weight, wear, corrosion, etc. depending on the requirements. However, design optimization for a complete mechanical assembly leads to a complicated objective function with a large number of design variables. It is a good practice to apply optimization techniques for individual components or intermediate assemblies than a complete assembly. Analytical or numerical methods for calculating the extreme values of a function may perform well in many practical cases, but may fail in more complex design situations. In real design problems, the number of design parameters can be very large and their influence on the value to be optimized (the goal function) can be very complicated, having nonlinear character. In these complex cases, advanced optimization algorithms offer solutions to the problems, because they find a solution near to the global optimum within reasonable time and computational ...

  17. Benchmarking optimization solvers for structural topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Labanda, Susana; Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to benchmark different optimization solvers when applied to various finite element based structural topology optimization problems. An extensive and representative library of minimum compliance, minimum volume, and mechanism design problem instances for different...... sizes is developed for this benchmarking. The problems are based on a material interpolation scheme combined with a density filter. Different optimization solvers including Optimality Criteria (OC), the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and its globally convergent version GCMMA, the interior point...... profiles conclude that general solvers are as efficient and reliable as classical structural topology optimization solvers. Moreover, the use of the exact Hessians in SAND formulations, generally produce designs with better objective function values. However, with the benchmarked implementations solving...

  18. Microgenetic optimization algorithm for optimal wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    One of the main limitations of utilizing optimal wavefront shaping in imaging and authentication applications is the slow speed of the optimization algorithms currently being used. To address this problem we develop a micro-genetic optimization algorithm ($\\mu$GA) for optimal wavefront shaping. We test the abilities of the $\\mu$GA and make comparisons to previous algorithms (iterative and simple-genetic) by using each algorithm to optimize transmission through an opaque medium. From our experiments we find that the $\\mu$GA is faster than both the iterative and simple-genetic algorithms and that both genetic algorithms are more resistant to noise and sample decoherence than the iterative algorithm.

  19. Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox is a library of evolutionary optimization tools developed in the MATLAB environment. The algorithms contained in the library include a genetic algorithm (GA), a single-objective particle swarm optimizer (SOPSO), and a multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO). Development focused on both the SOPSO and MOPSO. A GA was included mainly for comparison purposes, and the particle swarm optimizers appeared to perform better for a wide variety of optimization problems. All algorithms are capable of performing unconstrained and constrained optimization. The particle swarm optimizers are capable of performing single and multi-objective optimization. The SOPSO and MOPSO algorithms are based on swarming theory and bird-flocking patterns to search the trade space for the optimal solution or optimal trade in competing objectives. The MOPSO generates Pareto fronts for objectives that are in competition. A GA, based on Darwin evolutionary theory, is also included in the library. The GA consists of individuals that form a population in the design space. The population mates to form offspring at new locations in the design space. These offspring contain traits from both of the parents. The algorithm is based on this combination of traits from parents to hopefully provide an improved solution than either of the original parents. As the algorithm progresses, individuals that hold these optimal traits will emerge as the optimal solutions. Due to the generic design of all optimization algorithms, each algorithm interfaces with a user-supplied objective function. This function serves as a "black-box" to the optimizers in which the only purpose of this function is to evaluate solutions provided by the optimizers. Hence, the user-supplied function can be numerical simulations, analytical functions, etc., since the specific detail of this function is of no concern to the optimizer. These algorithms were originally developed to support entry

  20. Optimization of composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdal, Zafer; Haftka, Raphael T.

    Design of composite structures can be viewed as a multi-faceted task, one which requires integration of issues related to composite mechanics, structural analysis, optimization, and manufacturing. The major coverage of the paper is on the issue of optimization, with special emphasis on the use of optimization for designing with discrete and integer valued variables required for the stacking-sequence optimization. Different techniques that can be used for stacking sequence optimization are introduced, and different aspects of their application are demonstrated for laminate buckling optimization.

  1. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...... the adjoint method. We use an Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method for the integration and a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm for the constrained optimization. We use this algorithm in a numerical case study to optimize the production of oil from an oil...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%....

  2. Optimization with PDE constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pinnau, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Presents an introduction of pde constrained optimization. This book provides a precise functional analytic treatment via optimality conditions and a non-smooth algorithmical framework. It also presents structure-exploiting discrete concepts and large scale, practically relevant applications.

  3. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  4. Path Optimization Using APSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Goyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the malicious node detection and path optimization problem for wireless sensor networks. Malicious node detection in neighborhood is a needed because that node may cause incorrect decisions or energy depletion. In this paper APSO (combination of Artificial bee colony and particular swarm optimization is used to choose an optimized path. Through this improved version we will overcome the disadvantage of local optimal which comes when we use PSO approach.

  5. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  6. Pseudolinear functions and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Shashi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems.The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally

  7. Optimization algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Choose the Correct Solution Method for Your Optimization ProblemOptimization: Algorithms and Applications presents a variety of solution techniques for optimization problems, emphasizing concepts rather than rigorous mathematical details and proofs. The book covers both gradient and stochastic methods as solution techniques for unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It discusses the conjugate gradient method, Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm, Powell method, penalty function, augmented Lagrange multiplier method, sequential quadratic programming, method of feasible direc

  8. Optimal obstacle control problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li; LI Xiu-hua; GUO Xing-ming

    2008-01-01

    In the paper we discuss some properties of the state operators of the optimal obstacle control problem for elliptic variational inequality. Existence, uniqueness and regularity of the optimal control problem are established. In addition, the approximation of the optimal obstacle problem is also studied.

  9. Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal

  10. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  11. Optimal Load Dispatch Using Ant Lion Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Mahendru Nischal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Ant lion optimization (ALO technique to solve optimal load dispatch problem. Ant lion optimization (ALO is a novel nature inspired algorithm. The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of ant lions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. Optimal load dispatch (OLD is a method of determining the most efficient, low-cost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching available electricity generation resources to supply load on the system. The primary objective of OLD is to minimize total cost of generation while honoring operational constraints of available generation resources. The proposed technique is implemented on 3, 6 & 20 unit test system for solving the OLD. Numerical results shows that the proposed method has good convergence property and better in quality of solution than other algorithms reported in recent literature.

  12. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Reactive Power Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sujin, P R; Linda, M Mary

    2010-01-01

    Reactive power plays an important role in supporting the real power transfer by maintaining voltage stability and system reliability. It is a critical element for a transmission operator to ensure the reliability of an electric system while minimizing the cost associated with it. The traditional objectives of reactive power dispatch are focused on the technical side of reactive support such as minimization of transmission losses. Reactive power cost compensation to a generator is based on the incurred cost of its reactive power contribution less the cost of its obligation to support the active power delivery. In this paper an efficient Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based reactive power optimization approach is presented. The optimal reactive power dispatch problem is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. The objective of the proposed PSO is to minimize the total support cost from generators and reactive compensators. It is achieved by maintaining the whole system power loss as minimum...

  13. Concepts of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management.  The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range  of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization.Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts:- On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomi

  14. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  15. Optimization theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, Donald A

    1987-01-01

    Optimization principles are of undisputed importance in modern design and system operation. They can be used for many purposes: optimal design of systems, optimal operation of systems, determination of performance limitations of systems, or simply the solution of sets of equations. While most books on optimization are limited to essentially one approach, this volume offers a broad spectrum of approaches, with emphasis on basic techniques from both classical and modern work.After an introductory chapter introducing those system concepts that prevail throughout optimization problems of all typ

  16. Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gerhard; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski Jaroslaw

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the search algorithm known as particle swarm optimization performs. Here, particle swarm optimization is applied to structural design problems, but the method has a much wider range of possible applications. The paper's new contributions are improvements to the particle swarm optimization algorithm and conclusions and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm, Results of numerical experiments for both continuous and discrete applications are presented in the paper. The results indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm does locate the constrained minimum design in continuous applications with very good precision, albeit at a much higher computational cost than that of a typical gradient based optimizer. However, the true potential of particle swarm optimization is primarily in applications with discrete and/or discontinuous functions and variables. Additionally, particle swarm optimization has the potential of efficient computation with very large numbers of concurrently operating processors.

  17. Integrated controls design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl H.

    2015-09-01

    A control system (207) for optimizing a chemical looping process of a power plant includes an optimizer (420), an income algorithm (230) and a cost algorithm (225) and a chemical looping process models. The process models are used to predict the process outputs from process input variables. Some of the process in puts and output variables are related to the income of the plant; and some others are related to the cost of the plant operations. The income algorithm (230) provides an income input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of input parameters (215) of the power plant. The cost algorithm (225) provides a cost input to the optimizer (420) based on a plurality of output parameters (220) of the power plant. The optimizer (420) determines an optimized operating parameter solution based on at least one of the income input and the cost input, and supplies the optimized operating parameter solution to the power plant.

  18. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  19. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    software where the users are assumed to be well-educated both in the finite element method and topology optimization. This dissertation describes how various topology optimization methods have been used for creating cross-platform applications with high performance. The user interface design is based......Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... in an interactive and intuitive way. By creating such applications with an intuitive and simple user interface we allow non-engineers like designers and architects to easily experiment with boundary conditions, design domains and other optimization settings. This is in contrast to commercial topology optimization...

  20. Optimization of Culture of Leptospira from Humans with Leptospirosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Smythe, Lee D.; Symonds, Meegan L.; Dohnt, Michael F.; Slack, Andrew T.; Limpaiboon, Roongreung; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study of 989 patients with acute febrile illness was performed in northeast Thailand to define the yield of Leptospira from four different types of blood sample. Based on a comparison of the yields from whole blood, surface plasma, deposit from spun plasma, and clotted blood samples from 80 patients with culture-proven leptospirosis, we suggest a sampling strategy in which culture is performed using whole blood and deposit from spun plasma. PMID:17301285

  1. On Validating Boolean Optimizers

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Boolean optimization finds a wide range of application domains, that motivated a number of different organizations of Boolean optimizers since the mid 90s. Some of the most successful approaches are based on iterative calls to an NP oracle, using either linear search, binary search or the identification of unsatisfiable sub-formulas. The increasing use of Boolean optimizers in practical settings raises the question of confidence in computed results. For example, the issue of confidence is paramount in safety critical settings. One way of increasing the confidence of the results computed by Boolean optimizers is to develop techniques for validating the results. Recent work studied the validation of Boolean optimizers based on branch-and-bound search. This paper complements existing work, and develops methods for validating Boolean optimizers that are based on iterative calls to an NP oracle. This entails implementing solutions for validating both satisfiable and unsatisfiable answers from the NP oracle. The wo...

  2. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Our everyday life is unthinkable without optimization. We try to minimize our effort and to maximize the achieved profit. Many real world and industrial problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2013. It presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real life problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor, resource constrained project scheduling, problems arising in transport services, error correcting codes, optimal system performance and energy consumption and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others.

  3. Homotopy optimization methods for global optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; O' Leary, Dianne P. (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

    2005-12-01

    We define a new method for global optimization, the Homotopy Optimization Method (HOM). This method differs from previous homotopy and continuation methods in that its aim is to find a minimizer for each of a set of values of the homotopy parameter, rather than to follow a path of minimizers. We define a second method, called HOPE, by allowing HOM to follow an ensemble of points obtained by perturbation of previous ones. We relate this new method to standard methods such as simulated annealing and show under what circumstances it is superior. We present results of extensive numerical experiments demonstrating performance of HOM and HOPE.

  4. Optimization and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedregal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.

  5. Topology optimized microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    . Topology optimization is then used to change the spatial distribution of cells in the reactor in order to optimize for maximal product flow out of the reactor. This distribution accounts for potentially negative effects of, for example, by-product inhibition. We show that the theoretical improvement...... in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced....

  6. Topics in Nonconvex Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Shashi Kant

    2011-01-01

    Nonconvex Optimization is a multi-disciplinary research field that deals with the characterization and computation of local/global minima/maxima of nonlinear, nonconvex, nonsmooth, discrete and continuous functions. Nonconvex optimization problems are frequently encountered in modeling real world systems for a very broad range of applications including engineering, mathematical economics, management science, financial engineering, and social science. This contributed volume consists of selected contributions from the Advanced Training Programme on Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications he

  7. POSTDOC : THE HUMAN OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in the Artificial Intelligence. John Henry Holland proposed Genetic Algorithm in the early 1970s. Ant Colony Optimization was proposed by Marco Dorigo in 1992. Particle Swarm Optimization was introduced by Kennedy and Eberhart in 1995. Storn and Price introduced Differential Evolution in 1996. K.M. Passino introduced Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm in 2002. In 2003, X.L. Li proposed Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm....

  8. Optimization : insights and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkhuis, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization. The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be s

  9. Integer and combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Nemhauser, George L

    1999-01-01

    Rave reviews for INTEGER AND COMBINATORIAL OPTIMIZATION ""This book provides an excellent introduction and survey of traditional fields of combinatorial optimization . . . It is indeed one of the best and most complete texts on combinatorial optimization . . . available. [And] with more than 700 entries, [it] has quite an exhaustive reference list.""-Optima ""A unifying approach to optimization problems is to formulate them like linear programming problems, while restricting some or all of the variables to the integers. This book is an encyclopedic resource for such f

  10. Sequential stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Cairoli, Renzo

    1996-01-01

    Sequential Stochastic Optimization provides mathematicians and applied researchers with a well-developed framework in which stochastic optimization problems can be formulated and solved. Offering much material that is either new or has never before appeared in book form, it lucidly presents a unified theory of optimal stopping and optimal sequential control of stochastic processes. This book has been carefully organized so that little prior knowledge of the subject is assumed; its only prerequisites are a standard graduate course in probability theory and some familiarity with discrete-paramet

  11. Optimization under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez, Rafael H.

    2016-01-06

    The goal of this poster is to present the main approaches to optimization of engineering systems in the presence of uncertainties. We begin by giving an insight about robust optimization. Next, we detail how to deal with probabilistic constraints in optimization, the so called the reliability based design. Subsequently, we present the risk optimization approach, which includes the expected costs of failure in the objective function. After that the basic description of each approach is given, the projects developed by CORE are presented. Finally, the main current topic of research of CORE is described.

  12. Control and optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  13. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ROBUST OPTIMIZATION DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianjiang; Xiao Renbin; Zhong Yifang; Dou Gang

    2005-01-01

    Because uncertainty factors inevitably exist under multidisciplinary design environment, a hierarchical multidisciplinary robust optimization design based on response surface is proposed. The method constructs optimization model of subsystem level and system level to coordinate the coupling among subsystems, and also the response surface based on the artificial neural network is introduced to provide information for system level optimization tool to maintain the independence of subsystems,i.e. to realize multidisciplinary parallel design. The application case of electrical packaging demonstrates that reasonable robust optimum solution can be yielded and it is a potential and efficient multidisciplinary robust optimization approach.

  14. Optimal Recurrence Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    We optimally estimate the recurrence structure of a multivariate time series by Markov chains obtained from recurrence grammars. The goodness of fit is assessed with a utility function derived from the stochastic Markov transition matrix. It assumes a local maximum for the distance threshold of the optimal recurrence grammar. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. Finally we apply our optimization procedure to the segmentation of neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  15. OPTIMAL DELAUNAY TRIANGULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Chen; Jin-chao Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Delaunay triangulation, in both classic and more generalized sense, is studied in this paper for minimizing the linear interpolation error (measure in Lp-norm) for a given function. The classic Delaunay triangulation can then be characterized as an optimal triangulation that minimizes the interpolation error for the isotropic function ‖x‖2 among all the triangulations with a given set of vertices. For a more general function, a functiondependent Delaunay triangulation is then defined to be an optimal triangulation that minimizes the interpolation error for this .function and its construction can be obtained by a simple lifting and projection procedure.The optimal Delaunay triangulation is the one that minimizes the interpolation error among all triangulations with the same number of vertices, i.e. the distribution of vertices are optimized in order to minimize the interpolation error. Such a function-dependent optimal Delaunay triangulation is proved to exist for any given convex continuous function.On an optimal Delaunay triangulation associated with f, it is proved that ▽f at the interior vertices can be exactly recovered by the function values on its neighboring vertices.Since the optimal Delaunay triangulation is difficult to obtain in practice, the concept of nearly optimal triangulation is introduced and two sufficient conditions are presented for a triangulation to be nearly optimal.

  16. Deterministic Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This monograph deals with a general class of solution approaches in deterministic global optimization, namely the geometric branch-and-bound methods which are popular algorithms, for instance, in Lipschitzian optimization, d.c. programming, and interval analysis.It also introduces a new concept for the rate of convergence and analyzes several bounding operations reported in the literature, from the theoretical as well as from the empirical point of view. Furthermore, extensions of the prototype algorithm for multicriteria global optimization problems as well as mixed combinatorial optimization

  17. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random model parameters. This book features many illustrations, several examples, and applications to concrete problems from engineering and operations research.

  18. 硅烷改性氟代聚丙烯酸酯乳液的制备及其氟碳涂层表面性能%Preparation of Silane Modified Fluorinated Polyacrylate Emulsion and the Surface Properties of Its Fluorocarbon Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 安秋凤; 许伟; 胡海龙

    2011-01-01

    在阴/非离子表面活性剂作用下,将甲基丙烯酸十二氟庚酯(DFMA)与丙烯酸月桂酯(LA)、甲基丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPMA)及γ-甲基丙烯酰氧基丙基三甲氧基硅烷(MPMS)在水相进行乳液共聚,合成了一种硅烷改性氟代聚丙烯酸酯( DLHM)乳液.用红外光谱(IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1HNMR)和透射电镜(TEM)等对DLHM的结构及乳液的物化性能进行了表征和测定.再将DLHM乳液制备成氟碳涂层,考察温度、乳液用量对涂层表面性能的影响.结果表明,DLHM乳液具有核壳结构、平均粒径为131 nm、Zeta电位为-24.09 mV.当固化温度为150 ℃、乳液用量为25 g时,所得涂层性能最佳,与水的接触角达128°,表现出良好的拒水效果.%A fluorinated polyacrylate ( DLHM ) emulsion was prepared by copolymerization of dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate( DFMA) ,lauryl acrylate(LA) ,2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate( HPMA) and 3-( methylacryloxyl) propyltri-methoxy silane ( MPMS ) in the presence of anionic/nonionic surfactants. The structure and physicochemical properties of DLHM were characterized by infrared spectrum (IR) ,'H-nuclear magnetic resonance ('HNMR) and transition electron microscopy (TEM). Then the DLHM emulsion was utilized to prepare the fluorocarbon coating and the effect of temperature and dosage of emulsion on the surface properties of the coating was discussed. The results show that the DLHM latexes possess core - shell structures with an average particle size of 131 nm and zeta potential of - 24. 09 mV. The coating displays favorable water repellency and the water contact angle on its surface is 128° when the dosage of emulsion is 25 g and the curing temperature is 150 t.

  19. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  20. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  2. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  3. Workshop on Computational Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization 2014, held at Warsaw, Poland, September 7-10, 2014. The book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real problems like parameter settings for controlling processes in bioreactor and other processes, resource constrained project scheduling, infection distribution, molecule distance geometry, quantum computing, real-time management and optimal control, bin packing, medical image processing, localization the abrupt atmospheric contamination source and so on. It shows how to develop algorithms for them based on new metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming and others. This research demonstrates how some real-world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks.

  4. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  5. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  6. Optimal periodic control

    CERN Document Server

    Colonius, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    This research monograph deals with optimal periodic control problems for systems governed by ordinary and functional differential equations of retarded type. Particular attention is given to the problem of local properness, i.e. whether system performance can be improved by introducing periodic motions. Using either Ekeland's Variational Principle or optimization theory in Banach spaces, necessary optimality conditions are proved. In particular, complete proofs of second-order conditions are included and the result is used for various versions of the optimal periodic control problem. Furthermore a scenario for local properness (related to Hopf bifurcation) is drawn up, giving hints as to where to look for optimal periodic solutions. The book provides mathematically rigorous proofs for results which are potentially of importance in chemical engineering and aerospace engineering.

  7. Modern optimization with R

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this book is to gather in a single document the most relevant concepts related to modern optimization methods, showing how such concepts and methods can be addressed using the open source, multi-platform R tool. Modern optimization methods, also known as metaheuristics, are particularly useful for solving complex problems for which no specialized optimization algorithm has been developed. These methods often yield high quality solutions with a more reasonable use of computational resources (e.g. memory and processing effort). Examples of popular modern methods discussed in this book are: simulated annealing; tabu search; genetic algorithms; differential evolution; and particle swarm optimization. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Science, Information Technology, and related areas, as well as data analysts interested in exploring modern optimization methods using R.

  8. SAGD optimization under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossuin, J.; Naccache, P. [Schlumberger SIS, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Bailley, W.; Couet, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but this is a costly method and ways to make it more efficient are needed. Multiple methods have been developed to optimize the SAGD process but none of them explicitly considered uncertainty. This paper presents an optimization method in the presence of reservoir uncertainty. This process was tested on an SAGD model where three equi-probable geological models are possible. Preparatory steps were first performed to identify key variables and the optimization model was then proposed. The method was shown to be successful in handling a significant number of uncertainties, optimizing the SAGD process and preventing premature steam channels that can choke production. The optimization method presented herein was successfully applied to an SAGD process and was shown to provide better strategies than sensitivity analysis while handling more complex problems.

  9. Global Optimization using Interval Analysis: Interval Optimization for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization is an important element in aerospace related research. It is encountered for example in trajectory optimization problems, such as: satellite formation flying, spacecraft re-entry optimization and airport approach and departure optimization; in control optimization, for example in adapti

  10. Judo Biomechanical Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Sacripanti, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, there is comprehensively tackling the problem of biomechanical optimization of a sport of situation such as judo. Starting from the optimization of more simple sports, optimization of this kind of complex sports is grounded on a general physics tool such as the analysis of variation. The objective function is divided for static and dynamic situation of Athletes couple, and it is proposed also a sort of dynamic programming problem Strategic Optimization. A dynamic programming problem is an optimization problem in which decisions have to be taken sequentially over several time periods linked in some fashion. A strategy for a dynamic programming problem is just a contingency plan, a plan that specifies what is to be done at each stage as a function of all that has transpired up to that point. It is possible to demonstrate, under some conditions, that a Markovian optimal strategy is an optimal strategy for the dynamic programming problem under examination. At last we try to appr...

  11. 4th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard, Andrew; Ralph, Daniel; Glover, Barney M

    1999-01-01

    Although the monograph Progress in Optimization I: Contributions from Aus­ tralasia grew from the idea of publishing a proceedings of the Fourth Optimiza­ tion Day, held in July 1997 at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, the focus soon changed to a refereed volume in optimization. The intention is to publish a similar book annually, following each Optimization Day. The idea of having an annual Optimization Day was conceived by Barney Glover; the first of these Optimization Days was held in 1994 at the University of Ballarat. Barney hoped that such a yearly event would bring together the many, but widely dispersed, researchers in Australia who were publishing in optimization and related areas such as control. The first Optimization Day event was followed by similar conferences at The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996), the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), and The University of Western Australia (1998). The 1999 conference will return to Ballarat ...

  12. Optimal Strategy in Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the major principles associated with optimal strategy in basketball. In particular, we consider the principles of allocative efficiency (optimal allocation of shots between offensive options), dynamic efficiency (optimal shot selection in the face of pressure from the shot clock), and the risk/reward tradeoff (strategic manipulation of outcome variance). For each principle, we provide a simple example of a strategic problem and show how it can be described analytically. We then review general analytical results and provide an overview of existing statistical studies. A number of open challenges in basketball analysis are highlighted.

  13. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  14. Encyclopedia of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2001-01-01

    Optimization problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems and their applications arise in all branches of science, applied science and engineering. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Optimization is to introduce the reader to a complete set of topics in order to show the spectrum of recent research activities and the richness of ideas in the development of theories, algorithms and the applications of optimization. It is directed to a diverse audience of students, scientists, engineers, decision makers and problem solvers in academia, business, industry, and government.

  15. Optimal control computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solution of the optimal control problem, even with low order dynamical systems, can usually strain the analytical ability of most engineers. The understanding of this subject matter, therefore, would be greatly enhanced if a software package existed that could simulate simple generic problems. Surprisingly, despite a great abundance of commercially available control software, few, if any, address the part of optimal control in its most generic form. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to present a simple computer program that will perform simulations of optimal control problems that arise from the first necessary condition and the Pontryagin's maximum principle.

  16. Contingency contractor optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  17. Contingency contractor optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  18. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  19. Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an open ... relaxation-based approach for strategic bidding in England-Wales pool type electricity market has ... presents the mathematical formulation of optimal bidding problem.

  20. On Alternative Optimal Solutions to Linear Fractional Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShengjiaXue

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the optimal solution set is derived for linear fractional optimization problems with the representation theorem of polyhedral sets.And the computational procedure in determining all optimal solutions is also given.

  1. Self-cleaning fluorocarbon aluminum with N-TiO2 film preparation process parameters optimization%自清洁氟碳铝单板用 N-TiO 2薄膜制备工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍明; 闫洪; 艾凡荣

    2014-01-01

    Visible-light-active N-TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized by the sol-gel method with using urea and ammonia as the nitrogen precursor at low temperature,structural and photocatalyst performance of such photo-catalyst were characterized by XRD,SEM,FT-IR and UV-Vis.The results showed when urea was used as ni-trogen precursor,under the conditions of the pH of sol was 2,the molar percent of alcohol to Ti(OBu)4 was 10,water-bath temperature was 65 ℃,the molar percent of N/Ti was 0.06,the anatase was the mian constitu-ent,N-TiO 2 had obviously visible-light-activity,high crystallinity and the film with a uniform surface.And it was obviously higher than that of ammonia as the nitrogen precursor.%以尿素和氨水为氮源,采用溶胶-凝胶法低温制备了具有可见光活性的 N-TiO 2光催化剂,并用XRD、SEM、FT-IR、UV-Vis 等表征手段,研究其晶体结构和光催化性能.结果表明,以尿素为氮源,在 pH值=2、n (醇)∶ n (钛)为10、水浴温度为65℃、n (氮)∶n (钛)为0.06条件下制备的 N-TiO 2以锐钛矿为主,结晶度好,薄膜表面均匀平整;与以氨水为氮源制备的 N-TiO 2比较具有更好的可见光活性.

  2. Dynamic stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ermoliev, Yuri; Pflug, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainties and changes are pervasive characteristics of modern systems involving interactions between humans, economics, nature and technology. These systems are often too complex to allow for precise evaluations and, as a result, the lack of proper management (control) may create significant risks. In order to develop robust strategies we need approaches which explic­ itly deal with uncertainties, risks and changing conditions. One rather general approach is to characterize (explicitly or implicitly) uncertainties by objec­ tive or subjective probabilities (measures of confidence or belief). This leads us to stochastic optimization problems which can rarely be solved by using the standard deterministic optimization and optimal control methods. In the stochastic optimization the accent is on problems with a large number of deci­ sion and random variables, and consequently the focus ofattention is directed to efficient solution procedures rather than to (analytical) closed-form solu­ tions. Objective an...

  3. Accelerated Parallel Texture Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Da Huang; Xin Tong; Wen-Cheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Texture optimization is a texture synthesis method that can efficiently reproduce various features of exemplar textures. However, its slow synthesis speed limits its usage in many interactive or real time applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel texture optimization algorithm to run on GPUs. In our algorithm, k-coherence search and principle component analysis (PCA) are used for hardware acceleration, and two acceleration techniques are further developed to speed up our GPU-based texture optimization. With a reasonable precomputation cost, the online synthesis speed of our algorithm is 4000+ times faster than that of the original texture optimization algorithm and thus our algorithm is capable of interactive applications. The advantages of the new scheme are demonstrated by applying it to interactive editing of flow-guided synthesis.

  4. Topology optimized microbioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields--microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein. Topology optimization is then used to change the spatial distribution of cells in the reactor in order to optimize for maximal product flow out of the reactor. This distribution accounts for potentially negative effects of, for example, by-product inhibition. We show that the theoretical improvement in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced.

  5. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  6. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  7. Handbook of simulation optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Simulation Optimization presents an overview of the state of the art of simulation optimization, providing a survey of the most well-established approaches for optimizing stochastic simulation models and a sampling of recent research advances in theory and methodology. Leading contributors cover such topics as discrete optimization via simulation, ranking and selection, efficient simulation budget allocation, random search methods, response surface methodology, stochastic gradient estimation, stochastic approximation, sample average approximation, stochastic constraints, variance reduction techniques, model-based stochastic search methods and Markov decision processes. This single volume should serve as a reference for those already in the field and as a means for those new to the field for understanding and applying the main approaches. The intended audience includes researchers, practitioners and graduate students in the business/engineering fields of operations research, management science,...

  8. Group Leaders Optimization Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Daskin, Anmer

    2010-01-01

    Complexity of global optimization algorithms makes implementation of the algorithms difficult and leads the algorithms to require more computer resources for the optimization process. The ability to explore the whole solution space without increasing the complexity of algorithms has a great importance to not only get reliable results but so also make the implementation of these algorithms more convenient for higher dimensional and complex-real world problems in science and engineering. In this paper, we present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique that is designed into a group architecture similar to the architecture of Cooperative Coevolutionary Algorithms. Therefore, we present the implementation method and the experimental results for the single and multidimensional optimization test problems and a scientific real world problem, the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters.

  9. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.

  10. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  11. Bolt Thread Stress Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Designs of threaded fasteners are controlled by different standards, and the number of different thread definitions is large. The most commonly used thread is probably the metric ISO thread, and this design is therefore used in this paper. Thread root design controls the stress concentration factor...... of threads and therefore indirectly the bolt fatigue life. The root shape is circular, and from shape optimization for minimum stress concentration it is well known that the circular shape is seldom optimal. An axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) formulation is used to analyze the bolted connection, and a study...... is performed to establish the need for contact modeling with regard to finding the correct stress concentration factor. Optimization is performed with a simple parameterization with two design variables. Stress reduction of up to 9% is found in the optimization process, and some similarities are found...

  12. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  13. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  14. Polynomial Datapaths Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Parta, Hojat

    2014-01-01

    The research presented focuses on optimization of polynomials using algebraic manipulations at the high level and digital arithmetic techniques at the implementation level. Previous methods lacked any algebraic understanding of the polynomials or only exposed limited potential. We have treated the polynomial optimization problem in abstract algebra allowing us algebraic freedom to transform polynomials. Unlike previous attempts where only a set of limited benchmarks have been used, we have fo...

  15. Guided randomness in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Clerc, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The performance of an algorithm used depends on the GNA. This book focuses on the comparison of optimizers, it defines a stress-outcome approach which can be derived all the classic criteria (median, average, etc.) and other more sophisticated.   Source-codes used for the examples are also presented, this allows a reflection on the ""superfluous chance,"" succinctly explaining why and how the stochastic aspect of optimization could be avoided in some cases.

  16. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...

  17. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1... Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Outline 1 Introduction to Remote Sensing 2 Background and Objective of the study 3 Methodology 4 Results Optimal...

  18. Optimization of Bolt Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with ISO metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength. Maximum stress in the bolt is found at, the fillet...... under the head, at the thread start or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration shape optimization is applied....

  19. Optimal time discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun, Filiz; Sayalı, Zeynep Ceyda; Gürbüz, Emine; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Time Discrimination Journal: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Manuscript ID: QJE-STD 14-039.R1 Manuscript Type: Standard Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete List of Authors: Çoskun, Filiz; Koç University, Psychology Sayalı Ungerer, Zeynep; Koç University, Psychology Gürbüz, Emine; Koç University, Psychology Balcı, Fuat; Koç University, Psychology Keywords: Decision making, Interval Timing, Optimality, Response Times, Temporal ...

  20. Regularizing portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Susanne; Kondor, Imre

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of large portfolios displays an inherent instability due to estimation error. This poses a fundamental problem, because solutions that are not stable under sample fluctuations may look optimal for a given sample, but are, in effect, very far from optimal with respect to the average risk. In this paper, we approach the problem from the point of view of statistical learning theory. The occurrence of the instability is intimately related to over-fitting, which can be avoided using known regularization methods. We show how regularized portfolio optimization with the expected shortfall as a risk measure is related to support vector regression. The budget constraint dictates a modification. We present the resulting optimization problem and discuss the solution. The L2 norm of the weight vector is used as a regularizer, which corresponds to a diversification 'pressure'. This means that diversification, besides counteracting downward fluctuations in some assets by upward fluctuations in others, is also crucial because it improves the stability of the solution. The approach we provide here allows for the simultaneous treatment of optimization and diversification in one framework that enables the investor to trade off between the two, depending on the size of the available dataset.

  1. 5th Optimization Day

    CERN Document Server

    Mees, Alistair; Fisher, Mike; Jennings, Les

    2000-01-01

    'Optimization Day' (OD) has been a series of annual mini-conferences in Australia since 1994. The purpose of this series of events is to gather researchers in optimization and its related areas from Australia and their collaborators, in order to exchange new developments of optimization theories, methods and their applications. The first four OD mini-conferences were held in The Uni­ versity of Ballarat (1994), The University of New South Wales (1995), The University of Melbourne (1996) and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (1997), respectively. They were all on the eastern coast of Australia. The fifth mini-conference Optimization Days was held at the Centre for Ap­ plied Dynamics and Optimization (CADO), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, from 29 to 30 June 1998. This is the first time the OD mini-conference has been held at the west­ ern coast of Australia. This fifth OD preceded the International Conference on Optimization: Techniques and Applica...

  2. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  3. Training a quantum optimizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecker, Dave; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    We study a variant of the quantum approximate optimization algorithm [E. Farhi, J. Goldstone, and S. Gutmann, arXiv:1411.4028] with a slightly different parametrization and a different objective: rather than looking for a state which approximately solves an optimization problem, our goal is to find a quantum algorithm that, given an instance of the maximum 2-satisfiability problem (MAX-2-SAT), will produce a state with high overlap with the optimal state. Using a machine learning approach, we chose a "training set" of instances and optimized the parameters to produce a large overlap for the training set. We then tested these optimized parameters on a larger instance set. As a training set, we used a subset of the hard instances studied by Crosson, Farhi, C. Y.-Y. Lin, H.-H. Lin, and P. Shor (CFLLS) (arXiv:1401.7320). When tested, on the full set, the parameters that we find produce a significantly larger overlap than the optimized annealing times of CFLLS. Testing on other random instances from 20 to 28 bits continues to show improvement over annealing, with the improvement being most notable on the hardest instances. Further tests on instances of MAX-3-SAT also showed improvement on the hardest instances. This algorithm may be a possible application for near-term quantum computers with limited coherence times.

  4. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    OpenAIRE

    van der Schaft, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  5. Handbook of optimization in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M

    2008-01-01

    Covers the field of optimization in telecommunications, and the optimization developments that are frequently applied to telecommunications. This book aims to provide a reference tool for scientists and engineers in telecommunications who depend upon optimization.

  6. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  7. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  8. Optimization of Metronidazole Emulgel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize the emulgel system for MTZ (Metronidazole, a poorly water soluble drug. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of Capmul 908 P, Acconon MC8-2, and propylene glycol. The emulgel was optimized using a three-factor, two-level factorial design, the independent variables selected were Capmul 908 P, and surfactant mixture (Acconon MC8-2 and gelling agent, and the dependent variables (responses were a cumulative amount of drug permeated across the dialysis membrane in 24 h ( and spreadability (. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The regression equations were generated for responses and . The statistical validity of the polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected. Validation of the optimization study with 3 confirmatory runs indicated a high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Emulgel system of MTZ was developed and optimized using 23 factorial design and could provide an effective treatment against topical infections.

  9. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2016-02-25

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  10. Moon Landing Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustafa MEHEDI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory optimization is a crucial process during the planning phase of a spacecraft landing mission. Once a trajectory is determined, guidance algorithms are created to guide the vehicle along the given trajectory. Because fuel mass is a major driver of the total vehicle mass, and thus mission cost, the objective of most guidance algorithms is to minimize the required fuel consumption. Most of the existing algorithms are termed as “near-optimal” regarding fuel expenditure. The question arises as to how close to optimal are these guidance algorithms. To answer this question, numerical trajectory optimization techniques are often required. With the emergence of improved processing power and the application of new methods, more direct approaches may be employed to achieve high accuracy without the associated difficulties in computation or pre-existing knowledge of the solution. An example of such an approach is DIDO optimization. This technique is applied in the current research to find these minimum fuel optimal trajectories.

  11. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  12. Attenuation of fluorocarbons released from foam insulation in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Dote, Yukata; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have been used as blowing agents (BAs) for foam insulation in home appliances and building materials, which after the end of their useful life are disposed of in landfills. The objective of this project...... in any of the experiments within a run time of up to 200 days. The obtained degradation rate coefficients were used as input for an extended version of an existing landfill fate model incorporating a time dependent BA release from co-disposed foam insulation waste. Predictions with the model indicate...

  13. Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, PO Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

  14. Photoluminescence of silicone oil treated by fluorocarbon plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tian; Ye Chao; Yuan Ying; Deng Yan-Hong; Ge Shui-Bin; Xu Yi-Jun; Ning Zhao-Yuan; Pan Xiao-Ping; Wang Zhen-Ming

    2012-01-01

    We investigated photoluminescence characteristics of silicone oils treated by C2F6 and CHF3 plasma.The silicone oil treated by the C2F6 plasma emitted a white light mainly composed of 415 nm,469 nm,and 554 nm emissions,while that treated by the CHF3 plasma emitted a pink light (415 nm).Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies showed that the photoluminescence was correlated with the Si-C bond,the carbon-related defects and the oxygen vacancies.It was suggested that the light emitting at 554 nm was related to the Si-C bond and the carbon-related defects,while the pink emission at 415 nm was related to the oxygen vacancies.

  15. The dissociative recombination of fluorocarbon ions: II. CF{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, O [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Mitchell, J B A [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); LeGarrec, J L [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Florescu-Mitchell, A I [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Rebrion-Rowe, C [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Svendsen, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); El Ghazaly, M A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Andersen, L H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ehlerding, A [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Viggiano, A A [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Hellberg, F [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Thomas, R D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhaunerchyk, V [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Geppert, W D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Montaigne, H [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Kaminska, M [Swietokrzyska Academy, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Oesterdahl, F [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, M [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-28

    The dissociative recombination and excitation of CF{sup +} have been measured at the ASTRID and CRYRING storage rings. Though examination of the available potential energy curves would suggest that the recombination rate would be large for this ion, in fact a rate constant of 5.2 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup -8} (T{sub e}/300){sup -0.8} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} was found. The recombination cross section at low energies falls off to a minimum at 0.5 eV centre-of-mass collision energy but exhibits resonances at energies above this. The dissociative excitation cross section leading to C{sup +} + F was also measured and this displays an onset beginning at about 7 eV.

  16. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, B K [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K N [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes-MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-14

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8} and CF{sub 3}I and the CF{sub x} (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF{sub x} (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  17. Use of fluorocarbons in the cooling of LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenta dos Santos, M

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorochemicals sold by 3M under the trade name 3M Fluorinert Electronic Liquids have been used for many years as heat transfer media in a variety of industries. The suitability of these liquids for the cooling of LHC experiment originates from their high dielectric strength as well as from their chemical stability under ionizing radiation. The Fluorinerts are clear, colorless, non-flammable with low toxicity and low corrosiveness. Additionally, they offer low global waming potential – GWP – and zero ozone-depletion potential – ODP. Some examples of fluorinert application in the cooling of LHC experiments will be presented : (a) the ATLAS Inner detector C3F8 evaporative cooling system (b) the ATLAS TRF C6F14 monophase cooling system and (c) the ALICE SPD “active heat pipe” C4F10 evaporative cooling system. A brief comparison of evaporative and monophase cooling systems will be outlined.

  18. Synthesis of Fluorinated Polyacrylate Emulsion and Water -Repelling Capability of Fluorocarbon Paint and Coating Made of the Emulsion%氟代聚丙烯酸酯乳液的合成及其用于氟碳涂料的防水性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁姣姣; 安秋凤; 吴婧; 雷宁

    2013-01-01

    A kind of quaternary irregularly - copolymerized fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion (abridged as FSHC) was prepared by emulsion copolymerization of perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate (FA) , octadecyl methacrylate (SMA) , 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (HPA) and 4 - chloromethyl styrene (CMS) in the presence of anionic/ nonionic surfactants as the mixed emulsifier and ( NH4)2S2O8 as the initiator. As-synthesized FSHC emulsion was then used to prepare water - borne paint and coating with desired water-repelling capability. The chemical structure of as - synthesized FSHC emulsion was analyzed by infrared spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and its size distribution and Zeta potential were determined with a nanoscale particle analyzer and a Zeta potential analyzer. Moreover, the chemical states of typical elements on the surface of the coating made of FSHC emulsion were analyzed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the water contact angle of the coating was measured with a contact angle meter. It was found that as - synthesized FSHC emulsion had anticipated chemical structure, and its average size and Zeta potential were 146.2 nm and -21.2 mV. Besides, the coating made of FSHC emulsion contained a large amount of F on the surface, due to transfer of F-containing groups to the coating surface. As a result, as-obtained fluorocarbon coating had excellent water-repelling capability. Moreover, the paint and coating made of FSHC emulsion had good water resistance, showing a water contact angle of 128.6° .%为了制备一种廉价且具有优异防水性的水性涂料,用氟碳乳液,以阴/非离子复合表面活性剂为乳化剂,过硫酸铵为引发剂,通过乳液聚合法制得了全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(FA)-甲基丙烯酸十八醇酯(SMA)-丙烯酸羟丙酯(HPA)-对氯甲基苯乙烯(CMS)四元无规共聚氟代聚丙烯酸酯乳液(FSHC),采用红外光谱仪(IR),核磁共振氢谱(1H-NMR),纳米粒度仪及Zeta电位分析仪,光电

  19. High-Pressure Plasma Deposition of a-C:H Films by Dielectric-Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌俊; 李阳; 杜海燕; 艾宝都

    2003-01-01

    The fabrication of a-C:H films from methane has been performed using dielectric-barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. The effect of combined-feed gas, such as carbon dioxide,carbon monoxide or acetylene on the formation of a-C:H films has been investigated. It hasbeen demonstrated that the addition of carbon monoxide or acetylene into methane leads to aremarkable improvement in the fabrication of a-C:H films. The characterization of carbon filmobtained has been conducted using FT-IR, Raman and SEM.

  20. Enhanced adhesion over aluminum solid substrates by controlled atmospheric plasma deposition of amine-rich primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Julien; Fouquet, Thierry; Michel, Marc; Toniazzo, Valérie; Dinia, Aziz; Ruch, David; Bomfim, João A S

    2012-02-01

    Controlled chemical modification of aluminum surface is carried by atmospheric plasma polymerization of allylamine. The amine-rich coatings are characterized and tested for their behavior as adhesion promoter. The adhesion strength of aluminum-epoxy assemblies is shown to increase according to primary amino group content and coating thickness, which in turn can be regulated by plasma power parameters, allowing tailoring the coating chemical properties. The increase in adherence can be correlated to the total and primary amino group contents in the film, indicating covalent bonding of epoxy groups to the primer as the basis of the mechanical improvement.

  1. Electrical properties of plasma-deposited silicon oxide clarified by chemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, A.Y.; Boogaard, A.; Brunets, I.; Aarnink, A.A.I.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Our study is focused on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon dioxide films at low temperatures (< 150 oC) using Inductively Coupled (IC) High-Density (HD) plasma source. We recently fabricated Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with high-quality ICPECVD gate oxides, which exhibited

  2. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Raghavender [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Guduru, Ramesh K., E-mail: rkguduru@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Mohanty, Pravansu S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal {alpha}-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be {approx}2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 {+-} 0.188 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm) was comparable with the literature values. These nanostructured polycrystalline CdS films could be useful in sensing and solar applications.

  3. Plasma deposition of organosilicon polymer thin films with embedded nanosilver for prevention of microbial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulou, Claire [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INPT, LISBP, 135 Av. de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Despax, Bernard; Raynaud, Patrice [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Zanna, Sandrine; Marcus, Philippe [LPCS, UMR CNRS/ENSCP 7045, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Mercier-Bonin, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.mercier-bonin@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INPT, LISBP, 135 Av. de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2009-11-15

    Composite thin films ({approx}170 nm) containing silver nanoclusters embedded in an organosilicon matrix were deposited by PE-CVD onto stainless steel in order to prevent microbial adhesion. The process originality relies on a dual strategy combining silver sputtering and simultaneous plasma polymerization in argon-hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma, using an asymmetrical RF glow discharge. The metal content in the film was controlled by varying the HMDSO flow rate. Investigation of the physico-chemical properties of the obtained films was conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma-mediated coatings were composed of C, O, Si and Ag which was predominantly under metallic form, as indicated by XPS analysis. The presence of Si-H, Si-O-Si, Si-(CH){sub n}-Si and C-H groups was established by FTIR. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected as the model for eukaryotic microorganisms. The maximal anti-adhesive efficiency was achieved for the organosilicon matrix alone. When nanosilver was incorporated into the organic matrix, the efficiency was reduced, especially for high metal contents. Silver antimicrobial property was assumed to be related to Ag{sup +} progressive release from the embedded nanoparticles into the surrounding medium. This release was confirmed by ICP-MS measurements. Moreover, silver-containing film antifungal activity was observed towards sessile cells.

  4. Thickness-dependent stress in plasma-deposited silicon dioxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, V.; Charles, C.; Bulla, D. A. P.; Love, J. D.; Boswell, R. W.

    2005-04-01

    Thick silicon dioxide (SiO2) films up to 5 μm have been deposited by helicon activated reactive evaporation (plasma assisted deposition with electron beam evaporation source) as both bilayer and trilayer structures, and the film stress was investigated in the context of optical waveguide fabrication. A model for stress in the SiO2-Si bilayer as a function of film thickness is formulated and interpreted in terms of Volmer-Weber film growth mechanisms. We find that island coalescence begins at a film thickness of less than 165 nm and continues until about 700 nm. Above approximately 1 μm thickness, the film continues growth as a continuous film. The stress in a deposited SiO2 film in an SiO2-Si-SiO2 trilayer structure was investigated by adapting the established Stoney's equation for a trilayer system, and comparing it with a thermally grown SiO2 trilayer. A constant value of stress is obtained for the deposited SiO2 film for film thickness >1μm which was consistently less than both measured and previously reported values of stress in thermally grown SiO2.

  5. Carbon Nanofibers Functionalized with Active Screen Plasma-Deposited Metal Nanoparticles for Electrical Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corujeira Gallo, Santiago; Li, Xiaoying; Fütterer, Klaus; Charitidis, Constantinos A; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-07-12

    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices with higher energy densities than conventional capacitors but lower than batteries or fuel cells. There is a strong interest in increasing the volumetric and gravimetric capacitance of these devices to meet the growing demands of the electrical and electronic sectors. The capacitance depends largely on the electrode material, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted much attention because of their relatively low cost, large surface area, and good electrical conductivity as well as chemical and thermal stability. The deposition of metal nanoparticles on CNFs is a promising way to increase their surface properties and, ultimately, the capacitance of the devices. In this study, nickel and silver nanoparticles were deposited on CNFs using the active screen plasma technology. The CNFs were characterized, and their electrochemical performance was assessed in a three-electrode cell. The results show significant improvements over the untreated CNFs, particularly after functionalization with silver nanoparticles.

  6. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  7. On the intrinsic moisture permeation rate of remote microwave plasma-deposited silicon nitride layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, F.J.H. Van; Unnikrishnan, S.; Michels, J.J.; Mol, A.M.B. van; Weijer, P. van de; Sanden, M.C.M. van de; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a low substrate temperature (110°C) remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process of silicon nitride barrier layers against moisture permeation for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other moisture sensitive devices such as organic photovoltaic cells

  8. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and -negative (Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation.

  9. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and -negative (Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation. PMID:26166926

  10. Effective passivation of Si surfaces by plasma deposited SiOx/a-SiNx:H stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, G.; Mandoc, M. M.; Bordihn, S.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2011-05-01

    Very low surface recombination velocities field-effect passivation was absent for a reference stack comprising thermally grown SiO2. The results indicate that hydrogenation of interface states played a key role in the passivation and remained effective up to annealing temperatures >800 °C.

  11. Intermittent Very High Frequency Plasma Deposition on Microcrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Enabling High Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuoki Hishida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stopping the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD once and maintaining the film in a vacuum for 30 s were performed. This was done several times during the formation of a film of i-layer microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H used in thin-film silicon tandem solar cells. This process aimed to reduce defect regions which occur due to collision with neighboring grains as the film becomes thicker. As a result, high crystallinity (Xc of μc-Si:H was obtained. Eventually, a solar cell using this process improved the conversion efficiency by 1.3% (0.14 points, compared with a normal-condition cell. In this paper, we propose an easy method to improve the conversion efficiency with PECVD.

  12. Modelling of a large scale reactor for plasma deposition of silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, G. J.; W. Goedheer,

    1999-01-01

    A 2D fluid model for RF discharges in a mixture of silane and hydrogen is applied to a cylindrically symmetric reactor with an electrode radius large compared to the electrode separation. In the model the electron kinetics are included by solving the two-term Boltzmann equation to obtain the electro

  13. Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon thin films: From amorphous to crystalline

    OpenAIRE

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Cariou, Romain; Labrune, Martin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We report on the epitaxial growth of crystalline silicon films on (100) oriented crystalline silicon substrates by standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 175 °C. Such unexpected epitaxial growth is discussed in the context of deposition processes of silicon thin films, based on silicon radicals and nanocrystals. Our results are supported by previous studies on plasma synthesis of silicon nanocrystals and point toward silicon nanocrystals being the most p...

  14. Optical properties of plasma deposited amorphous carbon nitride films on polymer substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, S.H., E-mail: abo_95@yahoo.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Gamal, G.A.; Kahlid, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, 83523 Qena (Egypt)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nitride thin films were deposited on polymer substrates using radio frequency (rf) plasma in a mixture of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) gasses. The samples were prepared at different rf plasma power (350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 W), at constant plasma exposure time of 10 min, and constant N{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ratio of 50%. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the prepared samples were examined using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis, respectively. The absence of the carbon nitride diffraction peaks confirms the amorphous nature of these films. The root mean square roughness of the films increased from 3.77 to 25.22 nm as the power increased from 350 to 550 W. The thickness and the deposition rate were found to increase with increasing plasma power. Over the whole studied wavelength range, from 200 to 2500 nm, the transmittance decreased with increasing plasma power. A shift in the onset of absorption towards higher wavelengths with increasing plasma power, indicating a decrease in the optical band gap, has been observed. The refractive index values were found to decrease while the extinction coefficient increased with increasing plasma power.

  15. Cell adhesion to cathodic arc plasma deposited CrAlSiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu, E-mail: skim@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong-Hyun [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Osteoblast cell response (cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton and focal contact adhesion as well as cell proliferation) to CrN, CrAlSiN and Ti thin films was evaluated in vitro. Cell adhesion and actin stress fibers organization depended on the film composition significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of vinculin in osteoblast cells showed good focal contact adhesion on the CrAlSiN and Ti thin films but not on the CrN thin films. Cell proliferation was significantly greater on the CrAlSiN thin films as well as on Ti thin films than on the CrN thin films.

  16. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  17. Kinetic study of solid phase crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma deposited a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, F., E-mail: felixlaw@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Hoex, B. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Wang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Luther, J. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sharma, K.; Creatore, M.; Van de Sanden, M.C.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-06-30

    In-situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the dynamics of the solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited by expanding thermal plasma technique. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used for the analysis of the dynamic data and the activation energy associated with the SPC process was 2.9 eV, which was lower than a-Si:H films deposited by other techniques. Relationships between the Avrami exponent n, the SPC process stability and the subsequent grain structure were demonstrated. Under certain conditions, the films exhibited columnar grain structure with indications of good grain quality, suggesting that these films are suitable to be further developed into solar cell devices. Structure of the grains and the SPC dynamics in this work lend support to prior work that vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are related to nucleation sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma (ETP) deposited a-Si:H was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used to model the crystallisation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energy of the solid phase crystallisation process was 2.9 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are suggested nucleation sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETP is promising in the fabrication process of pc-Si thin film solar cells.

  18. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of SiO2 Films for Adhesion Promoting Layers on Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kotte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the deposition of silica layers at atmospheric pressure as a pretreatment for the structural bonding of titanium (Ti6Al4V, Ti15V3Cr3Sn3Al in comparison to an anodizing process (NaTESi process. The SiO2 film was deposited using the LARGE plasma source, a linearly extended DC arc plasma source and applying hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO as a precursor. The morphology of the surface was analyzed by means of SEM, while the characterization of the chemical composition of deposited plasma layers was done by XPS and FTIR. The long-term durability of bonded samples was evaluated by means of a wedge test in hot/wet condition. The almost stoichiometric SiO2 film features a good long-term stability and a high bonding strength compared to the films produced with the wet-chemical NaTESi process.

  19. Open air plasma deposited antimicrobial SiOx/TiOx composite films for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapp Christin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ enhanced chemical vapour deposition process was used to deposit biocompatible SiOx/TiOx composite coatings. The as deposited films are hydrophilic and show visible light induced photocatalytic effect, which is a consequence of the formation of defects in the TiOx structure due to the plasma process. This photocatalytic effect was verified by the demonstration of an antimicrobial effect under visible light on E. coli as well as by degradation of Rhodamine B. The films are non-cytotoxic as shown by the cytocompatibility tests. The films are conductive to cell growth and are stable in DMEM and isopropanol. The structural evaluation using SEM, EDS and XPS shows a dispersion of TiOx phase in a SiOxCyHz matrix. These analyses were used to correlate the structure-property relationship of the composite coating.

  20. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Amanatides, E., E-mail: lef@plasmatech.gr; Mataras, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Plasma Technology Laboratory, University of Patras, P.O. Box 140, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalampounias, A. G. [University of Ioannina, Dep. of Chemistry, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Spiliopoulos, N. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, P.O. Box 140, 26504 Patras (Greece); Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A. [Air Liquide CRCD,1 chemin de la porte des Loges, Les Loges en Josas, 78354 Jouy en Josas (France)

    2016-07-15

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted and sensitive process window where the disilane effect appears.

  1. Plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes with a controlled retention of organic bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Wienk, I.M.; Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-03-05

    Hybrid organically bridged silica membranes are suitable for energy-efficient molecular separations under harsh industrial conditions. Such membranes can be useful in organic solvent nanofiltration if they can be deposited on flexible, porous and large area supports. Here, we report the proof of concept for applying an expanding thermal plasma to the synthesis of perm-selective hybrid silica films from an organically bridged monomer, 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane. This membrane is the first in its class to be produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By tuning the plasma and process parameters, the organic bridging groups could be retained in the separating layer. This way, a defect free film could be made with pervaporation performances of an n-butanol-water mixture comparable with those of conventional ceramic supported membranes made by sol-gel technology (i.e. a water flux of [similar]1.8 kg m'-{sup 2} h{sup -1}, a water concentration in the permeate higher than 98% and a separation factor of >1100). The obtained results show the suitability of expanding thermal plasma as a technology for the deposition of hybrid silica membranes for molecular separations.

  2. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  3. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...

  4. Optimal Bitter Coil Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Kobelev, V

    2016-01-01

    Bitter coil is an electromagnet used for the generation of exceptionally strong magnetic fields. The upper bound of magnet flux density is restricted by several factors. One principal restriction is the high stresses due to Lorentz forces in the coil. The Lorentz forces generate the distributed body force, which acts as the pressure of magnetic field. The common radial thickness profile of the Bitter coil is constant. In this paper the possibility of optimization by means of non-constant radial thickness profile of the Bitter coil is studied. The close form expression for optimal thickness profile is obtained. Both designs are compared and the considerable improvement of magnetic flux density is demonstrated. Moreover, the optimal design improves the shape of cooling channels. Namely, the highest cross-section of cooling channel is at the most thermally loaded inner surface of the coil.

  5. Submodular functions and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fujishige, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    It has widely been recognized that submodular functions play essential roles in efficiently solvable combinatorial optimization problems. Since the publication of the 1st edition of this book fifteen years ago, submodular functions have been showing further increasing importance in optimization, combinatorics, discrete mathematics, algorithmic computer science, and algorithmic economics, and there have been made remarkable developments of theory and algorithms in submodular functions. The 2nd edition of the book supplements the 1st edition with a lot of remarks and with new two chapters: "Submodular Function Minimization" and "Discrete Convex Analysis." The present 2nd edition is still a unique book on submodular functions, which is essential to students and researchers interested in combinatorial optimization, discrete mathematics, and discrete algorithms in the fields of mathematics, operations research, computer science, and economics. Key features: - Self-contained exposition of the theory of submodular ...

  6. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus;

    ], or are applicable only to analytically solvable geometries[4]. In addition, some questions remained fundamentally unanswered, such as how to segment a given design into N uniformly magnetized pieces.Our method calculates the globally optimal shape and magnetization direction of each segment inside a certain......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... designarea with an optional constraint on the total amount of magnetic material. The method can be applied to any objective functional which is linear respect to the field, and with any combination of linear materials. Being based on an analytical-optimization approach, the algorithm is not computationally...

  7. Optimization by record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record...... dynamics optimization,or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order...... to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards–Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popularand highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT...

  8. Optimal Composite Curing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Paul; Guerin, Daniel

    The Optimal Composite Curing System (OCCS) is an intelligent control system which incorporates heat transfer and resin kinetic models coupled with expert knowledge. It controls the curing of epoxy impregnated composites, preventing part overheating while maintaining maximum cure heatup rate. This results in a significant reduction in total cure time over standard methods. The system uses a cure process model, operating in real-time, to determine optimal cure profiles for tool/part configurations of varying thermal characteristics. These profiles indicate the heating and cooling necessary to insure a complete cure of each part in the autoclave in the minimum amount of time. The system coordinates these profiles to determine an optimal cure profile for a batch of thermally variant parts. Using process specified rules for proper autoclave operation, OCCS automatically controls the cure process, implementing the prescribed cure while monitoring the operation of the autoclave equipment.

  9. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Fernando; de Diego, David Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher-dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical and a practical examples, e.g. the control of an underwater vehicle, will illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  10. Discrete Variational Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Fernando; Kobilarov, Marin; Martín de Diego, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper develops numerical methods for optimal control of mechanical systems in the Lagrangian setting. It extends the theory of discrete mechanics to enable the solutions of optimal control problems through the discretization of variational principles. The key point is to solve the optimal control problem as a variational integrator of a specially constructed higher dimensional system. The developed framework applies to systems on tangent bundles, Lie groups, and underactuated and nonholonomic systems with symmetries, and can approximate either smooth or discontinuous control inputs. The resulting methods inherit the preservation properties of variational integrators and result in numerically robust and easily implementable algorithms. Several theoretical examples and a practical one, the control of an underwater vehicle, illustrate the application of the proposed approach.

  11. Multicriteria VMAT optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David; Wala, Jeremiah; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new optimization technique for planning single arc VMAT (volumetric modulated arc therapy). The technique allows the planner to first navigate the ideal dose distribution space created by forming a 180-beam IMRT Pareto optimal surface. The plan that is selected is then made VMAT deliverable by a simple fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm. Our approach offers significant improvements over existing algorithms. The first is the multicriteria planning aspect, which greatly speeds up planning time and allows the user to select the plan which represents the most desirable compromise between target coverage and organ at risk sparing. The second is the (user-chosen) epsilon-optimality guarantee of the final VMAT plan. Finally, the user can explore the tradeoff between delivery time and plan quality, which is a fundamental aspect of VMAT that cannot be easily investigated with current commercial planning systems.

  12. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  13. Anxiety and unrealistic optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, C; Ing, M; James, S; Nixon, M; Richardson, S

    1990-04-01

    Substantial evidence suggest that people tend to be unrealistically optimistic that positive events will happen to them and that negative events will not. However, recent research indicates that under certain conditions they may be unrealistically pessimistic. Variations in the levels of optimism and pessimism experienced towards events are generally given cognitive explanations. A relation between optimism and pessimism and anxiety, a variable related to emotion as well as cognition, was investigated in the present study. An inverse correlation was found between how anxious female students in England felt about certain negative events and how unrealistically optimistic they were about the occurrence of those events. It was concluded that the degree of anxiety experienced toward a negative event may affect the level of unrealistic optimism or pessimism toward it.

  14. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process inuence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity and life...... expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980 and 2000....

  15. Torsional friction damper optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shaochun; Williams, Keith A.

    2006-06-01

    A new approach for the analysis of friction dampers is presented in this work. The exact form of the steady-state solution for a friction damper implemented on a primary system is developed and numerical solutions are used to determine the optimum friction in a friction damper applied to a specific primary system. When compared to classical results presented by earlier authors, the new approach provides a more optimal solution. In addition, viscous damping in the primary system may be included with the new analysis approach. The ability to optimize a friction damper when viscous damping is included in the primary system is a significant improvement over earlier methods and shows potential for serving as a guide to realizing a more accurate estimate of the optimal damping for friction dampers.

  16. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  17. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity...

  18. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  19. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  20. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  1. Momentum particle swarm optimizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yu; Qin Zheng; Wang Xianghua; He Xingshi

    2005-01-01

    The previous particle swarm optimizers lack direct mechanism to prevent particles beyond predefined search space, which results in invalid solutions in some special cases. A momentum factor is introduced into the original particle swarm optimizer to resolve this problem. Furthermore, in order to accelerate convergence, a new strategy about updating velocities is given. The resulting approach is mromentum-PSO which guarantees that particles are never beyond predefined search space without checking boundary in every iteration. In addition, linearly decreasing wight PSO (LDW-PSO) equipped with a boundary checking strategy is also discussed, which is denoted as LDWBC-PSO. LDW-PSO, LDWBC-PSO and momentum-PSO are compared in optimization on five test functions. The experimental results show that in some special cases LDW-PSO finds invalid solutions and LDWBC-PSO has poor performance, while momentum-PSO not only exhibits good performance but also reduces computational cost for updating velocities.

  2. Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    This introductory book on optimization (mathematical programming) includes coverage on linear programming, nonlinear programming, integer programming and heuristic programming; as well as an emphasis on model building using Excel and Solver.  The emphasis on model building (rather than algorithms) is one of the features that makes this book distinctive. Most books devote more space to algorithmic details than to formulation principles. These days, however, it is not necessary to know a great deal about algorithms in order to apply optimization tools, especially when relying on the sp

  3. Terascale Optimal PDE Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Keyes

    2009-07-28

    The Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) Integrated Software Infrastructure Center (ISIC) was created to develop and implement algorithms and support scientific investigations performed by DOE-sponsored researchers. These simulations often involve the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) on terascale computers. The TOPS Center researched, developed and deployed an integrated toolkit of open-source, optimal complexity solvers for the nonlinear partial differential equations that arise in many DOE application areas, including fusion, accelerator design, global climate change and reactive chemistry. The algorithms created as part of this project were also designed to reduce current computational bottlenecks by orders of magnitude on terascale computers, enabling scientific simulation on a scale heretofore impossible.

  4. Analytical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this text surveys the classical theory of the calculus of variations. It takes the approach most appropriate for applications to problems of optimizing the behavior of engineering systems. Two of these problem areas have strongly influenced this presentation: the design of the control systems and the choice of rocket trajectories to be followed by terrestrial and extraterrestrial vehicles.Topics include static systems, control systems, additional constraints, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the accessory optimization problem. Prereq

  5. Code Optimization in FORM

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, J; Vermaseren, J A M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  6. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  7. Optimization of Truss Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ulitinas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the task in truss height and in the optimization of the cross-sections of their elements. Element cross-sections are designed of steel profiles considering requirements for strength, stability and rigidity. A mathematical model is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem. It is solved as an iterative process, using mathematical software package “MATLAB” routine “fmincon”. The ratio of buckling is corrected in the each iteration. Optimization results are compared with those obtained applying software package “Robot Millennium”.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors...... to benefit from their personal preferences and to remain rational actors in the financial market....

  9. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  10. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  11. Advanced backend optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Touati, Sid

    2014-01-01

    This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipe

  12. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  13. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R

    2013-01-01

    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  14. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  15. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible......Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...

  16. Optimal exploration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew T.

    This dissertation studies optimal exploration, defined as the collection of information about given objects of interest by a mobile agent (the explorer) using imperfect sensors. The key aspects of exploration are kinematics (which determine how the explorer moves in response to steering commands), energetics (which determine how much energy is consumed by motion and maneuvers), informatics (which determine the rate at which information is collected) and estimation (which determines the states of the objects). These aspects are coupled by the steering decisions of the explorer. We seek to improve exploration by finding trade-offs amongst these couplings and the components of exploration: the Mission, the Path and the Agent. A comprehensive model of exploration is presented that, on one hand, accounts for these couplings and on the other hand is simple enough to allow analysis. This model is utilized to pose and solve several exploration problems where an objective function is to be minimized. Specific functions to be considered are the mission duration and the total energy. These exploration problems are formulated as optimal control problems and necessary conditions for optimality are obtained in the form of two-point boundary value problems. An analysis of these problems reveals characteristics of optimal exploration paths. Several regimes are identified for the optimal paths including the Watchtower, Solar and Drag regime, and several non-dimensional parameters are derived that determine the appropriate regime of travel. The so-called Power Ratio is shown to predict the qualitative features of the optimal paths, provide a metric to evaluate an aircrafts design and determine an aircrafts capability for flying perpetually. Optimal exploration system drivers are identified that provide perspective as to the importance of these various regimes of flight. A bank-to-turn solar-powered aircraft flying at constant altitude on Mars is used as a specific platform for

  17. An introduction to optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Edwin K P

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "". . . guides and leads the reader through the learning path . . . [e]xamples are stated very clearly and the results are presented with attention to detail.""  -MAA Reviews  Fully updated to reflect new developments in the field, the Fourth Edition of Introduction to Optimization fills the need for accessible treatment of optimization theory and methods with an emphasis on engineering design. Basic definitions and notations are provided in addition to the related fundamental background for linear algebra, geometry, and calculus.  This new

  18. QUADRATIC OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION ON OPTIMIZING MECHANISM PARAMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun; CHEN Jianneng; YU Yaxin; YU Gaohong; ZHU Jianping

    2006-01-01

    In order that the mechanism designed meets the requirements of kinematics with optimal dynamics behaviors, a quadratic optimization method is proposed based on the different characteristics of kinematic and dynamic optimization. This method includes two steps of optimization, that is, kinematic and dynamic optimization. Meanwhile, it uses the results of the kinematic optimization as the constraint equations of dynamic optimization. This method is used in the parameters optimization of transplanting mechanism with elliptic planetary gears of high-speed rice seedling transplanter with remarkable significance. The parameters spectrum, which meets to the kinematic requirements, is obtained through visualized human-computer interactions in the kinematics optimization, and the optimal parameters are obtained based on improved genetic algorithm in dynamic optimization. In the dynamic optimization, the objective function is chosen as the optimal dynamic behavior and the constraint equations are from the results of the kinematic optimization. This method is suitable for multi-objective optimization when both the kinematic and dynamic performances act as objective functions.

  19. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector...

  20. Duality based contact shape optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Vít; Dostal, Zdenek; Rasmussen, John

    2001-01-01

    An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization.......An implementation of semi-analytic method for the sensitivity analysis in contact shape optimization without friction is described. This method is then applied to the contact shape optimization....

  1. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  2. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...

  3. Optimal Ski Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebilas, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Consider a skier who goes down a takeoff ramp, attains a speed "V", and jumps, attempting to land as far as possible down the hill below (Fig. 1). At the moment of takeoff the angle between the skier's velocity and the horizontal is [alpha]. What is the optimal angle [alpha] that makes the jump the longest possible for the fixed magnitude of the…

  4. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  5. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  6. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  7. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  8. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, P; Lublin, H; Taylor, D

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  9. Optimality-theoretic pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutner, R.; Zeevat, H.; Benz, A; Blutner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to give an overview about the application of Optimality Theory (OT) to the domain of pragmatics. In the introductory part we discuss different ways to view the division of labor between semantics and pragmatics. Rejecting the doctrine of literal meaning we conform to (i) semantic un

  10. Danfoss: Scroll Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Henriksen, Christian; Howell, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The standard scroll compressor consists of two identical spirals (circle involutes) running inside each other.The task from Danfoss was to investigate how a change in the basic geometry of the scrolss and the orbit influence the compressor performnce and efficiency, and then try to optimize...

  11. Topology optimization approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Maute, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Topology optimization has undergone a tremendous development since its introduction in the seminal paper by Bendsøe and Kikuchi in 1988. By now, the concept is developing in many different directions, including “density”, “level set”, “topological derivative”, “phase field”, “evolutionary...

  12. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  13. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  14. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... research....

  15. Is Optimism Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P.; Massey, Cade

    2012-01-01

    Is optimism real, or are optimistic forecasts just cheap talk? To help answer this question, we investigated whether optimistic predictions persist in the face of large incentives to be accurate. We asked National Football League football fans to predict the winner of a single game. Roughly half (the partisans) predicted a game involving their…

  16. Optimalization of IGBT Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents IGBT switch off process in order to reduce power loss in the structure. The soft switching method using switch-off after current reduction is used. Process mentioned above is optimized to minimize the power loss that is determined by experiment. Results obtained in the experiment can be helpful in a converter and controller design process.

  17. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  18. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  19. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in ...

  20. Optimizing Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widule, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    The optimization of step length and step rate (frequency) is essential for sprinters. This article analyzes data that compare step rate and step length to height, as a function of running speed, for ten elite runners. How results of such analyses can be used in training runners is also discussed. (IAH)

  1. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  2. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  3. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    COPs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high-performance computing, mobile ad hoc network, optimization, constraint, satisfaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...France): INRA Editions; 1996. p. 111–150. Black PE. Branch-and-bound. US national institute of standards and technology dictionary of algorithms

  4. Advanced BDD optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ebendt, Rudiger; Drechsler, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    BDD and SAT are major concepts in VLSI CADNew objective functions for design space exploration require new algorithms for BDD optimizationLatest trend: fusion of the concepts BDD and SATMajor impulses come from Artificial Intelligence (AI)Unifying view, transfers the latest theoretical insights into practical applications.

  5. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  6. (Too) optimistic about optimism: the belief that optimism improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Elizabeth R; Logg, Jennifer M; Moore, Don A

    2015-03-01

    A series of experiments investigated why people value optimism and whether they are right to do so. In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants prescribed more optimism for someone implementing decisions than for someone deliberating, indicating that people prescribe optimism selectively, when it can affect performance. Furthermore, participants believed optimism improved outcomes when a person's actions had considerable, rather than little, influence over the outcome (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 tested the accuracy of this belief; optimism improved persistence, but it did not improve performance as much as participants expected. Experiments 5A and 5B found that participants overestimated the relationship between optimism and performance even when their focus was not on optimism exclusively. In summary, people prescribe optimism when they believe it has the opportunity to improve the chance of success-unfortunately, people may be overly optimistic about just how much optimism can do. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The optimal elastic flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Motile eukaryotic cells propel themselves in viscous fluids by passing waves of bending deformation down their flagella. An infinitely long flagellum achieves a hydrodynamically optimal low-Reynolds number locomotion when the angle between its local tangent and the swimming direction remains constant along its length. Optimal flagella therefore adopt the shape of a helix in three dimensions (smooth) and that of a sawtooth in two dimensions (nonsmooth). Physically, biological organisms (or engineered microswimmers) must expend internal energy in order to produce the waves of deformation responsible for the motion. Here we propose a physically motivated derivation of the optimal flagellum shape. We determine analytically and numerically the shape of the flagellar wave which leads to the fastest swimming for a given appropriately defined energetic expenditure. Our novel approach is to define an energy which includes not only the work against the surrounding fluid, but also (1) the energy stored elastically in the bending of the flagellum, (2) the energy stored elastically in the internal sliding of the polymeric filaments which are responsible for the generation of the bending waves (microtubules), and (3) the viscous dissipation due to the presence of an internal fluid. This approach regularizes the optimal sawtooth shape for two-dimensional deformation at the expense of a small loss in hydrodynamic efficiency. The optimal waveforms of finite-size flagella are shown to depend on a competition between rotational motions and bending costs, and we observe a surprising bias toward half-integer wave numbers. Their final hydrodynamic efficiencies are above 6%, significantly larger than those of swimming cells, therefore indicating available room for further biological tuning.

  8. Optimization Algorithms for Fully Automatic Optimizing Cross-cut Saw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaochun; DING Qingxin; ZHAO Honglin; SUN Guangbin; XI Jiaxing

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of boards by grades plays an important role in the production for cross cutting boards, and the outturn rate and utilization of boards are directly affected by the optimization results of boards by grades. At present, the OptiCut series fully automatic optimizing cross-cut saw(FAOCCS) from Germany Weinig Group occupies the main markets in the world, but no report about the relative theories on the optimization technology and its algorithms is available. There exist some disadvantages in woodworking machinery and equipment used for cross cutting boards in China, for example, low sawing precision, outturn rate of boards and productivity, and difficulty in making statistics on the sawing results. Three optimization modes are presented for the optimization algorithms for FAOCCS, namely, optimization of fixed length, optimization of finger-jointed lumber and mixed optimization. Mathematical models are then established for these three optimization modes, and the corresponding software for realizing the optimization is prepared. Finally, Synthetic evaluation on the established mathematical models is presented through three practical examples. The results of synthetic evaluation indicate that FAOCCS using the optimization modes may raise the outturn rate of boards approximately 8% and the productivity obviously, and allows accurate statistics on the cross cut products of boards. The mathematical models of above three optimization modes are useful for increasing the outturn rate and utilization ratio of boards.

  9. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  10. EAF Management Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the main advantages of electric arc furnace (EAF): it has a great contribution to reintroduce significant quantities of reusable metallic materials in the economic circuit, it constitutes itself as an important part in the Primary Materials and Energy Recovery (PMER), good productivity, good quality / price ratio, the possibility of developing a wide variety of classes and types of steels, including special steels and high alloy. In this paper it is presented some important developments of electric arc furnace: vacuum electric arc furnace, artificial intelligence expert systems for pollution control Steelworks. Another important aspect presented in the article is an original block diagram for optimization the EAF management system. This scheme is based on the original objective function (criterion function) represented by the price / quality ratio. The article presents an original block diagram for optimization the control system of the EAF. For designing this concept of EAF management system, many principles were used.

  11. NEMO Oceanic Model Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epicoco, I.; Mocavero, S.; Murli, A.; Aloisio, G.

    2012-04-01

    NEMO is an oceanic model used by the climate community for stand-alone or coupled experiments. Its parallel implementation, based on MPI, limits the exploitation of the emerging computational infrastructures at peta and exascale, due to the weight of communications. As case study we considered the MFS configuration developed at INGV with a resolution of 1/16° tailored on the Mediterranenan Basin. The work is focused on the analysis of the code on the MareNostrum cluster and on the optimization of critical routines. The first performance analysis of the model aimed at establishing how much the computational performance are influenced by the GPFS file system or the local disks and wich is the best domain decomposition. The results highlight that the exploitation of local disks can reduce the wall clock time up to 40% and that the best performance is achieved with a 2D decomposition when the local domain has a square shape. A deeper performance analysis highlights the obc_rad, dyn_spg and tra_adv routines are the most time consuming routines. The obc_rad implements the evaluation of the open boundaries and it has been the first routine to be optimized. The communication pattern implemented in obc_rad routine has been redesigned. Before the introduction of the optimizations all processes were involved in the communication, but only the processes on the boundaries have the actual data to be exchanged and only the data on the boundaries must be exchanged. Moreover the data along the vertical levels are "packed" and sent with only one MPI_send invocation. The overall efficiency increases compared with the original version, as well as the parallel speed-up. The execution time was reduced of about 33.81%. The second phase of optimization involved the SOR solver routine, implementing the Red-Black Successive-Over-Relaxation method. The high frequency of exchanging data among processes represent the most part of the overall communication time. The number of communication is

  12. Multistage stochastic optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pflug, Georg Ch

    2014-01-01

    Multistage stochastic optimization problems appear in many ways in finance, insurance, energy production and trading, logistics and transportation, among other areas. They describe decision situations under uncertainty and with a longer planning horizon. This book contains a comprehensive treatment of today’s state of the art in multistage stochastic optimization.  It covers the mathematical backgrounds of approximation theory as well as numerous practical algorithms and examples for the generation and handling of scenario trees. A special emphasis is put on estimation and bounding of the modeling error using novel distance concepts, on time consistency and the role of model ambiguity in the decision process. An extensive treatment of examples from electricity production, asset liability management and inventory control concludes the book

  13. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.

    2012-12-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the \\'outside in\\' with the focus on how the system is perceived by the end-user. As a consequence, very little consideration is given to the interconnections or power of the devices within the system with a mentality of \\'just make it fit\\'. In this paper we discuss the challenges of Notebook system design and the steps by which system floor-planning tools and algorithms can be used to provide an automated method to optimize this process to ensure all required components most optimally fit inside the Notebook system. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  15. Heliostat cost optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reeken, Finn; Weinrebe, Gerhard; Keck, Thomas; Balz, Markus

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a heliostat cost optimization study. First different variants of small, medium sized and large heliostats are designed. Then the respective costs, tracking and optical quality are determined. For the calculation of optical quality a structural model of the heliostat is programmed and analyzed using finite element software. The costs are determined based on inquiries and from experience with similar structures. Eventually the levelised electricity costs for a reference power tower plant are calculated. Before each annual simulation run the heliostat field is optimized. Calculated LCOEs are then used to identify the most suitable option(s). Finally, the conclusions and findings of this extensive cost study are used to define the concept of a new cost-efficient heliostat called `Stellio'.

  16. Optimality of Gaussian discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Braunstein, Samuel L; Cerf, Nicolas J; Lloyd, Seth

    2014-10-03

    In this Letter we exploit the recently solved conjecture on the bosonic minimum output entropy to show the optimality of Gaussian discord, so that the computation of quantum discord for bipartite Gaussian states can be restricted to local Gaussian measurements. We prove such optimality for a large family of Gaussian states, including all two-mode squeezed thermal states, which are the most typical Gaussian states realized in experiments. Our family also includes other types of Gaussian states and spans their entire set in a suitable limit where they become Choi matrices of Gaussian channels. As a result, we completely characterize the quantum correlations possessed by some of the most important bosonic states in quantum optics and quantum information.

  17. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... investment model identified. Implications of the altered investment problem are investigated when the dynamics between portfolio risk, expected return and responsibility is considered. Relying on the definition of a responsible investor, it is shown how superior investment opportunities can emerge when...... standards. This paper considers optimal responsible investment for a small retail investor. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal-value based investment decision. Preferences for responsibility are defined in the framework of mean-variance analysis and an optimal responsible...

  18. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.

    2013-01-10

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the \\'outside in\\' with the focus on how the system is perceived by the end-user. As a consequence, very little consideration is given to the interconnections or power of the devices within the system with a mentality of \\'just make it fit\\'. In this paper we discuss the challenges of Notebook system design and the steps by which system floor-planning tools and algorithms can be used to provide an automated method to optimize this process to ensure all required components most optimally fit inside the Notebook system.

  19. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  20. Squeaky Wheel Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, D P; 10.1613/jair.561

    2011-01-01

    We describe a general approach to optimization which we term `Squeaky Wheel' Optimization (SWO). In SWO, a greedy algorithm is used to construct a solution which is then analyzed to find the trouble spots, i.e., those elements, that, if improved, are likely to improve the objective function score. The results of the analysis are used to generate new priorities that determine the order in which the greedy algorithm constructs the next solution. This Construct/Analyze/Prioritize cycle continues until some limit is reached, or an acceptable solution is found. SWO can be viewed as operating on two search spaces: solutions and prioritizations. Successive solutions are only indirectly related, via the re-prioritization that results from analyzing the prior solution. Similarly, successive prioritizations are generated by constructing and analyzing solutions. This `coupled search' has some interesting properties, which we discuss. We report encouraging experimental results on two domains, scheduling problems that ari...

  1. Optimization of structural shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durelli, A. J.

    1981-04-01

    The direct design of shapes of two dimensional structures, loaded in their plane, within specified design constraints and exhibiting optimum distribution of stresses is studied. Photoelasticity and a large field diffused polariscope is used. The optimization process involves the removal of material (with a hand file or router) from the low stress portions of the hole boundary of the model till an isochromatic fringe coincides with the boundary both on the tensile and compressive segments. Applications are also shown to the design of dove tails and slots in turbine blades and rotors, and to the design of star shaped solid propellant grains for rockets, both for the case of parallel side rays and enlarged tip of rays. The use of other methods, in particular the method using finite elements, to optimize structural forms is discussed.

  2. XPath Whole Query Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Maneth, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Previous work reports about SXSI, a fast XPath engine which executes tree automata over compressed XML indexes. Here, reasons are investigated why SXSI is so fast. It is shown that tree automata can be used as a general framework for fine grained XML query optimization. We define the "relevant nodes" of a query as those nodes that a minimal automaton must touch in order to answer the query. This notion allows to skip many subtrees during execution, and, with the help of particular tree indexes, even allows to skip internal nodes of the tree. We efficiently approximate runs over relevant nodes by means of on-the-fly removal of alternation and non-determinism of (alternating) tree automata. We also introduce many implementation techniques which allows us to efficiently evaluate tree automata, even in the absence of special indexes. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the impact of the different optimization techniques.

  3. Risk Based Optimal Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.; Kroon, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    Optimal fatigue life testing of materials is considered. Based on minimization of the total expected costs of a mechanical component a strategy is suggested to determine the optimal stress range levels for which additional experiments are to be performed together with an optimal value of the maxi......Optimal fatigue life testing of materials is considered. Based on minimization of the total expected costs of a mechanical component a strategy is suggested to determine the optimal stress range levels for which additional experiments are to be performed together with an optimal value...

  4. Optimal control for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Upreti, Simant Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle.The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, de

  5. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  6. Lifecycle-Based Swarm Optimization Method for Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired optimization algorithms have been widely used to solve various scientific and engineering problems. Inspired by biological lifecycle, this paper presents a novel optimization algorithm called lifecycle-based swarm optimization (LSO. Biological lifecycle includes four stages: birth, growth, reproduction, and death. With this process, even though individual organism died, the species will not perish. Furthermore, species will have stronger ability of adaptation to the environment and achieve perfect evolution. LSO simulates Biological lifecycle process through six optimization operators: chemotactic, assimilation, transposition, crossover, selection, and mutation. In addition, the spatial distribution of initialization population meets clumped distribution. Experiments were conducted on unconstrained benchmark optimization problems and mechanical design optimization problems. Unconstrained benchmark problems include both unimodal and multimodal cases the demonstration of the optimal performance and stability, and the mechanical design problem was tested for algorithm practicability. The results demonstrate remarkable performance of the LSO algorithm on all chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful optimization techniques.

  7. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  8. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  9. Optimized Electroactive Polymer Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    electrochromic device (ECD). ECDs were chosen for this demonstration for three reasons. First, ECDs have low operational power requirements and can be switched...switching an electrochromic device . Osterholm A.M.; Shen, D. E.; Dyer, A. L.; Reynolds, J. R. Optimization ofPEDOT Films in Ionic Liquid Supercapacitors...Demonstration as a Power Source for Polymer Electrochromic Devices ", ACS Appl. Mater. Interf. , 2013, 5, 13432. Enhancing Aqueous Compatability The

  10. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  11. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept o...... the relative benefits and of using the state-contingent approach in a norma-tive context, compared to the EV model....

  12. Trajectory Optimization: OTIS 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John P.; Sjauw, Waldy K.; Falck, Robert D.; Paris, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    The latest release of the Optimal Trajectories by Implicit Simulation (OTIS4) allows users to simulate and optimize aerospace vehicle trajectories. With OTIS4, one can seamlessly generate optimal trajectories and parametric vehicle designs simultaneously. New features also allow OTIS4 to solve non-aerospace continuous time optimal control problems. The inputs and outputs of OTIS4 have been updated extensively from previous versions. Inputs now make use of objectoriented constructs, including one called a metastring. Metastrings use a greatly improved calculator and common nomenclature to reduce the user s workload. They allow for more flexibility in specifying vehicle physical models, boundary conditions, and path constraints. The OTIS4 calculator supports common mathematical functions, Boolean operations, and conditional statements. This allows users to define their own variables for use as outputs, constraints, or objective functions. The user-defined outputs can directly interface with other programs, such as spreadsheets, plotting packages, and visualization programs. Internally, OTIS4 has more explicit and implicit integration procedures, including high-order collocation methods, the pseudo-spectral method, and several variations of multiple shooting. Users may switch easily between the various methods. Several unique numerical techniques such as automated variable scaling and implicit integration grid refinement, support the integration methods. OTIS4 is also significantly more user friendly than previous versions. The installation process is nearly identical on various platforms, including Microsoft Windows, Apple OS X, and Linux operating systems. Cross-platform scripts also help make the execution of OTIS and post-processing of data easier. OTIS4 is supplied free by NASA and is subject to ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) restrictions. Users must have a Fortran compiler, and a Python interpreter is highly recommended.

  13. MONOTONIZATION IN GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHIYOU; BAI FUSHENG; ZHANG LIANSHENG

    2005-01-01

    A general monotonization method is proposed for converting a constrained programming problem with non-monotone objective function and monotone constraint functions into a monotone programming problem. An equivalent monotone programming problem with only inequality constraints is obtained via this monotonization method. Then the existingconvexification and concavefication methods can be used to convert the monotone programming problem into an equivalent better-structured optimization problem.

  14. Optimal Internet Media Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Danaher; Janghyuk Lee; Laoucine Kerbache

    2010-01-01

    In this study we develop a method that optimally selects online media vehicles and determines the number of advertising impressions that should be purchased and then served from each chosen website. As a starting point, we apply Danaher's [Danaher, P. J. 2007. Modeling page views across multiple websites with an application to Internet reach and frequency prediction. (3) 422–437] multivariate negative binomial distribution (MNBD) for predicting online media exposure distributions. The MNBD is...

  15. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  16. Portfolio Optimization in R

    OpenAIRE

    M. Andrecut

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding the efficient frontier associated with the risk-return portfolio optimization model. We derive the analytical expression of the efficient frontier for a portfolio of N risky assets, and for the case when a risk-free asset is added to the model. Also, we provide an R implementation, and we discuss in detail a numerical example of a portfolio of several risky common stocks.

  17. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to optimize the marketing mix, because of how its combines and integrates company policies relating to the product, price, distribution and promotion, depends the success or the failure on its market. The practice has shown that if an element of the marketing mix is wrong implemented, marketing strategies and programs do not achieve their objectives, and the company can not generate the expected profit. To optimize the marketing mix, companies should consider the following issues: the resources (materials, financial and human, which will be properly allocated to all the elements of the marketing mix, the specific marketing tools and the relationship of interdependence of all the methods and tools used to optimize the marketing mix.

  18. AC Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-04

    In this work, we have implemented and developed the simulation software to implement the mathematical model of an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of generation subject to constraints of node power balance (both real and reactive) and line power flow limits (MW, MVAr, and MVA). We have currently implemented the polar coordinate version of the problem. In the present work, we have used the optimization solver, Knitro (proprietary and not included in this software) to solve the problem and we have kept option for both the native numerical derivative evaluation (working satisfactorily now) as well as for analytical formulas corresponding to the derivatives being provided to Knitro (currently, in the debugging stage). Since the AC OPF is a highly non-convex optimization problem, we have also kept the option for a multistart solution. All of these can be decided by the user during run-time in an interactive manner. The software has been developed in C++ programming language, running with GCC compiler on a Linux machine. We have tested for satisfactory results against Matpower for the IEEE 14 bus system.

  19. Optimization by record dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record dynamics optimization, or RDO. RDO uses the Metropolis rule to accept or reject candidate solutions depending on the value of a parameter akin to the temperature and minimizes the cost function of the problem at hand through cycles where its ‘temperature’ is raised and subsequently decreased in order to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popular and highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT), is applied to the same problem as a benchmark. RDO and PT turn out to produce solutions of similar quality for similar numerical effort, but RDO is simpler to program and additionally yields geometrical information on the system’s configuration space which is of interest in many applications. In particular, the effectiveness of RDO strongly indicates the presence of the above mentioned hierarchically organized configuration space, with metastable regions indexed by the cost (or energy) of the transition states connecting them.

  20. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  1. Multiple optimal solutions to a sort of nonlinear optimization problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Shengjia

    2007-01-01

    The optimization problem is considered in which the objective function is pseudolinear(both pseudoconvex and pseudoconcave) and the constraints are linear. The general expression for the optimal solutions to the problem is derived with the representation theorem of polyhedral sets, and the uniqueness condition of the optimal solution and the computational procedures to determine all optimal solutions ( ifthe uniqueness condition is not satisfied ) are provided. Finally, an illustrative example is also given.

  2. THE OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS OF NONCONVEX SET-VALUED VECTOR OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛保怀; 刘三阳

    2002-01-01

    The concepts of α-order Clarke's derivative, α-order Adjacent derivative and α-order G.Bouligand derivative of set-valued mappings are introduced, their properties are studied, with which the Fritz John optimality condition of set-valued vector optimization is established. Finally, under the assumption of pseudoconvexity, the optimality condition is proved to be sufficient.

  3. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  4. Optimal Power Flow Pursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Past works that focused on addressing power-quality and reliability concerns related to renewable energy resources (RESs) operating with business-as-usual practices have looked at the design of Volt/VAr and Volt/Watt strategies to regulate real or reactive powers based on local voltage measurements, so that terminal voltages are within acceptable levels. These control strategies have the potential of operating at the same time scale of distribution-system dynamics, and can therefore mitigate disturbances precipitated fast time-varying loads and ambient conditions; however, they do not necessarily guarantee system-level optimality, and stability claims are mainly based on empirical evidences. On a different time scale, centralized and distributed optimal power flow (OPF) algorithms have been proposed to compute optimal steady-state inverter setpoints, so that power losses and voltage deviations are minimized and economic benefits to end-users providing ancillary services are maximized. However, traditional OPF schemes may offer decision making capabilities that do not match the dynamics of distribution systems. Particularly, during the time required to collect data from all the nodes of the network (e.g., loads), solve the OPF, and subsequently dispatch setpoints, the underlying load, ambient, and network conditions may have already changed; in this case, the DER output powers would be consistently regulated around outdated setpoints, leading to suboptimal system operation and violation of relevant electrical limits. The present work focuses on the synthesis of distributed RES-inverter controllers that leverage the opportunities for fast feedback offered by power-electronics interfaced RESs. The overarching objective is to bridge the temporal gap between long-term system optimization and real-time control, to enable seamless RES integration in large scale with stability and efficiency guarantees, while congruently pursuing system-level optimization objectives. The

  5. Optimization of compound gear pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾振辉

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the performances of compound gear pump. Based on the target of having the smallest mass per unit volume, the paper established a mathematical model of optimization, and obtained the results of optimization of the pump.

  6. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topolo

  7. Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Klein, William M. P.; Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have used terms such as unrealistic optimism and optimistic bias to refer to concepts that are similar but not synonymous. Drawing from three decades of research, we critically discuss how researchers define unrealistic optimism and we identify four types that reflect different measurement approaches: unrealistic absolute optimism at the individual and group level and unrealistic comparative optimism at the individual and group level. In addition, we discuss methodological criticisms leveled against research on unrealistic optimism and note that the criticisms are primarily relevant to only one type—the group form of unrealistic comparative optimism. We further clarify how the criticisms are not nearly as problematic even for unrealistic comparative optimism as they might seem. Finally, we note boundary conditions on the different types of unrealistic optimism and reflect on five broad questions that deserve further attention. PMID:26045714

  8. Time-Space Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    A method for space-time topology optimization is outlined. The space-time optimization strategy produces structures with optimized material distributions that vary in space and in time. The method is demonstrated for one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic bar that has a time-dependent Young......’s modulus and is subjected to a transient load. In the example an optimized dynamic structure is demonstrated that compresses a propagating Gauss pulse....

  9. Solving Optimization Problems via Vortex Optimization Algorithm and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fields which require finding the most appropriate value, optimization became a vital approach to employ effective solutions. With the use of optimization techniques, many different fields in the modern life have found solutions to their real-world based problems. In this context, classical optimization techniques have had an important popularity. But after a while, more advanced optimization problems required the use of more effective techniques. At this point, Computer Science took an important role on providing software related techniques to improve the associated literature. Today, intelligent optimization techniques based on Artificial Intelligence are widely used for optimization problems. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative study on the employment of classical optimization solutions and Artificial Intelligence solutions for enabling readers to have idea about the potential of intelligent optimization techniques. At this point, two recently developed intelligent optimization algorithms, Vortex Optimization Algorithm (VOA and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA, have been used to solve some multidisciplinary optimization problems provided in the source book Thomas' Calculus 11th Edition and the obtained results have compared with classical optimization solutions. 

  10. Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do not in itself...

  11. Optimism and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reivich, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Dictionary definitions of optimism encompass two related concepts. The first of these is a hopeful disposition or a conviction that good will ultimately prevail. The second, broader conception of optimism refers to the belief, or the inclination to believe, that the world is the best of all possible worlds. In psychological research, optimism has…

  12. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  13. Optimality criteria: A basis for multidisciplinary design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkayya, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of what is frequently referred to in the literature as the optimality criteria approach in structural optimization. This generalization includes a unified presentation of the optimality conditions, the Lagrangian multipliers, and the resizing and scaling algorithms in terms of the sensitivity derivatives of the constraint and objective functions. The by-product of this generalization is the derivation of a set of simple nondimensional parameters which provides significant insight into the behavior of the structure as well as the optimization algorithm. A number of important issues, such as, active and passive variables, constraints and three types of linking are discussed in the context of the present derivation of the optimality criteria approach. The formulation as presented in this paper brings multidisciplinary optimization within the purview of this extremely efficient optimality criteria approach.

  14. Multicriteria VMAT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David; McQuaid, Dualta; Wala, Jeremiah; Chen, Wei; Salari, Ehsan; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To make the planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) faster and to explore the tradeoffs between planning objectives and delivery efficiency. Methods: A convex multicriteria dose optimization problem is solved for an angular grid of 180 equi-spaced beams. This allows the planner to navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus organ at risk sparing. The selected plan is then made VMAT deliverable by a fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm, which combines neighboring fluence maps based on a similarity score and then delivers the merged maps together, simplifying delivery. Successive merges are made as long as the dose distribution quality is maintained. The complete algorithm is called VMERGE. Results:VMERGE is applied to three cases: a prostate, a pancreas, and a brain. In each case, the selected Pareto-optimal plan is matched almost exactly with the VMAT merging routine, resulting in a high quality plan delivered with a single arc in less than 5 min on average. Conclusions:VMERGE offers significant improvements over existing VMAT algorithms. The first is the multicriteria planning aspect, which greatly speeds up planning time and allows the user to select the plan, which represents the most desirable compromise between target coverage and organ at risk sparing. The second is the user-chosen epsilon-optimality guarantee of the final VMAT plan. Finally, the user can explore the tradeoff between delivery time and plan quality, which is a fundamental aspect of VMAT that cannot be easily investigated with current commercial planning systems. PMID:22320778

  15. Optimizing Methods in Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    exploited by Kiefer and Wolfowitz -; (1959). Wald (1943) used the criterion of D-optimality - in some other context and was so named by Kiefer and...of discrepency between the observed and expected value A is obtained in terms of mean squared errors ( MSE ). i Consider the model, E(Ylx) = a + ex and...V(YIX) = 0 2 Let L < x < U, be the interval of possible x values. The MSE (x) is the mean squared error of x as obtained from y. Let w(x) be a weight

  16. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  17. Optimization leads to symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenghong WANG; Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG

    2004-01-01

    The science of complexity studies the behavior and properties of complex systems in nature and human society.Particular interest has been put on their certain simple common properties.Symmetry is one of such properties.Symmetric phenomena can be found in many complex systems.The purpose of this paper is to reveal the internal reason of the symmetry.Using some physical systems and geometric objects,the paper shows that many symmetries are caused by optimization under certain criteria.It has also been revealed that an evolutional process may lead to symmetry.

  18. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-12-01

    We provide a class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4×4 case, it reproduces the well-known Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e., they are able to detect the “weakest” quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition. Equivalently, we provide a construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2k×2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062105 (2008)].

  19. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speedup...... over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike prior theoretical packed string matching work. We adapt the standard RAM model and only use its AC0 instructions (i.e., no multiplication) plus two specialized AC0 packed string...

  20. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...... algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  1. ACHIEVING OPTIMAL SCHOOL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar SHIHADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of optimal school climate is the basis of educational, social and moral work in school. Optimal educa-tional climate in a school is a condition for learning and development of all those attending the educational establishment (pupils, teachers and parents. The school is responsible for the personal, cognitive, emotional, social and moral develop-ment of pupils. The educational team has the ability and commitment to promote an educational climate. Improvement of study achievements of pupils is related, as well as conditional, to optimal climate. "A climate in an educational establishment is a key factor that affects the creation of environment which develops personal security and sense of affiliation, value and mutual respect" [12].FORMAREA UNEI ATMOSFERE OPTIMALE ÎN ŞCOALĂ Formarea unei atmosfere optimale în şcoala medie este baza lucrului educaţional, social şi moral în şcoală. Atmosfera educaţională în şcoală este o condiţie pentru instruirea şi dezvoltarea tuturor celor înrolaţi în instituţia educaţională (elevi, profesori şi părinţi. Şcoala poartă răspundere de condiţiile favorabile în dezvoltarea personală, cognitivă, emoţională, socială şi morală a elevilor. Echipa de profesori are abilitatea şi angajamentul de a promova condiţii educaţionale favorabile. Îmbunătăţirea realizărilor elevilor la învăţătură este legată şi condiţionată de climatul optim. „Atmosfera în instituţia educaţională este factorul-cheie care afectează crearea unui mediu ce dezvoltă securitatea personală şi sentimentul de afiliere, valoarea şi respectul reciproc" [12].

  2. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  3. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    baseline including on- and off-axis effective area curves are presented. We find that the use of linear graded multilayers can increas by 37% the integraed effective area of ATHENA in the energy range between 0.1 keV and 15keV.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE......The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...

  4. Constrained optimization using CODEQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omran, Mahamed G.H. [Department of Computer Science, Gulf University for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 7207, Hawally 32093 (Kuwait)], E-mail: omran.m@gust.edu.kw; Salman, Ayed [Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)], E-mail: ayed@eng.kuniv.edu.kw

    2009-10-30

    Many real-world optimization problems are constrained problems that involve equality and inequality constraints. CODEQ is a new, parameter-free meta-heuristic algorithm that is a hybrid of concepts from chaotic search, opposition-based learning, differential evolution and quantum mechanics. The performance of the proposed approach when applied to five constrained benchmark problems is investigated and compared with other approaches proposed in the literature. The experiments conducted show that CODEQ provides excellent results with the added advantage of no parameter tuning.

  5. Duality in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2009-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and comprehensive results regarding duality for scalar, vector and set-valued optimization problems in a general setting. After a preliminary chapter dedicated to convex analysis and minimality notions of sets with respect to partial orderings induced by convex cones a chapter on scalar conjugate duality follows. Then investigations on vector duality based on scalar conjugacy are made. Weak, strong and converse duality statements are delivered and connections to classical results from the literature are emphasized. One chapter is exclusively consecrated to the s

  6. Optimized joystick controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D; Cooper, R A; Spaeth, D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an optimized joystick control interface for electric powered wheelchairs and thus provide safe and effective control of electric powered wheelchairs to people with severe physical disabilities. The interface enables clinicians to tune joystick parameters for each individual subject through selecting templates, dead zones, and bias axes. In terms of hand tremor usually associated with people with traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis, fuzzy logic rules were applied to suppress erratic hand movements and extract the intended motion from the joystick. Simulation results were presented to show the graphical tuning interface as well as the performance of the fuzzy logic controller.

  7. Search Engine Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2006-01-01

    SEO--short for Search Engine Optimization--is the art, craft, and science of driving web traffic to web sites. Web traffic is food, drink, and oxygen--in short, life itself--to any web-based business. Whether your web site depends on broad, general traffic, or high-quality, targeted traffic, this PDF has the tools and information you need to draw more traffic to your site. You'll learn how to effectively use PageRank (and Google itself); how to get listed, get links, and get syndicated; and much more. The field of SEO is expanding into all the possible ways of promoting web traffic. This

  8. Optimization of frequency quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Tibabishev, V N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the functional defining the price and quality of sample readings of the generalized velocities. It is shown that the optimal sampling frequency, in the sense of minimizing the functional quality and price depends on the sampling of the upper cutoff frequency of the analog signal of the order of the generalized velocities measured by the generalized coordinates, the frequency properties of the analog input filter and a maximum sampling rate for analog-digital converter (ADC). An example of calculating the frequency quantization for two-tier ADC with an input RC filter.

  9. Hybrid Optimization Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search for Preventive Maintenance Period Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwen Guo; Zhenzhong Sun; Hong Tang; Xuejun Jia; Song Wang; Xiaohui Yan; Guoliang Ye; Guohong Wu

    2016-01-01

    All equipment must be maintained during its lifetime to ensure normal operation. Maintenance is one of the critical roles in the success of manufacturing enterprises. This paper proposed a preventive maintenance period optimization model (PMPOM) to find an optimal preventive maintenance period. By making use of the advantages of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm, a hybrid optimization algorithm of PSO and CS is proposed to solve the PMPOM problem. The test fun...

  10. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  11. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively...

  12. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  13. Optimization techniques for Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthaman.P

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper infers about optimization technique for various problems in transportation engineering. While for pavement engineering, maintenance is priority issue, for traffic it is signalling which is priority issue. Many optimization methods are discussed though given importance of genetic algorithm approach. While optimization techniques nearly approach practicality, research works are on for modern optimization techniques which not only adds ease of structure but also provide compatibility to modern day problems encountered in transportation engineering. Some of the modern tools are discussed to employ optimization techniques which are quite simple to use and implement once it is calibrated to the desired objective.

  14. Optimization Design for Digital Binoculars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN Jun-bo; CHEN Wei-min; LI Hui; HUANG Shang-lian

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop competitive and high performance/cost ratio of digital binoculars, design scheme should be optimized in term of technical capacity, economic benefit, product performance, risk management, etc. The common optimization method is limited in qualitative analysis, and the parameter optimization method is limited in obtaining optimal parameter only from technical side. Each method has its limitation. Based on the analysis of digital binoculars parameters, optional design schemes are laid down.Analytic hierarchy process combined the qualitative analysis with the quantitative analysis together. The design schemes are optimized, and result is worked out.

  15. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...... that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation...

  16. Optimizing IA-64 performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S

    2001-01-01

    Examines key features of the Itanium processor architecture and microarchitecture. The Itanium, originally known as the IA-64, is a 64-bit processor designed by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. In addition to the obvious performance gains that 64-bit addressing brings, the Itanium also supports performance-enhancing techniques such as predication, speculation, rotating registers, a wide parallel execution core, high clock speed, fast bus architecture, multiple execution units, and the like. Moreover, the Itanium is designed from the ground up around parallelism and uses a new kind of instruction set based on the Explicit Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) specification, which allows the processing of Windows-based and UNIX- based applications, among other features. Operating-system support for the IA-64 has been announced for 64-bit Windows, HP-UX, varieties of Linux, and AIX 51. The author shows how to achieve optimal code generation by a compiler or generate optimized sequences ofIA-64 assembly code to ensure ...

  17. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  18. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  19. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  20. Optimal Antihypertensive Combination Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Volpe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades it has been consistently shown that optimal blood pressure (BP control significantly reduced cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality [1]. Despite solid evidence in favour of benefits derived from BP reductions, however, hypertension control in treated hypertensive patients remains suboptimal worldwide [2, 3]. In addition, proportions of diagnosed and treated hypertensive patients remain largely unchanged over the last two decades[4]. Multiple factors may be advocated to explain this observation, including variation in healthcare access and availability [5, 6], attitudes amongst clinicians towards hypertension [7, 8], inaccuracy in BP measurements [9] and underuse or under dosage of antihypertensive drugs in both monotherapy and in combination therapy [10, 11].On the basis of these considerations, it is beyond the aim of this article to discuss the socioeconomic impact on healthcare and BP measurement techniques. Instead it will seek to explain the importance of attaining early optimal BP control and the use of combination therapy as a new paradigm for the modern clinical management of hypertension.

  1. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  2. E85 Optimized Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Stanley [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2011-12-31

    A 5.0L V8 twin-turbocharged direct injection engine was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of assessing the fuel economy and performance in the F-Series pickup of the Dual Fuel engine concept and of an E85 optimized FFV engine. Additionally, production 3.5L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) EcoBoost engines were converted to Dual Fuel capability and used to evaluate the cold start emissions and fuel system robustness of the Dual Fuel engine concept. Project objectives were: to develop a roadmap to demonstrate a minimized fuel economy penalty for an F-Series FFV truck with a highly boosted, high compression ratio spark ignition engine optimized to run with ethanol fuel blends up to E85; to reduce FTP 75 energy consumption by 15% - 20% compared to an equally powered vehicle with a current production gasoline engine; and to meet ULEV emissions, with a stretch target of ULEV II / Tier II Bin 4. All project objectives were met or exceeded.

  3. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  4. Application of Nontraditional Optimization Techniques for Airfoil Shape Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of optimization algorithms is one of the most important parameters which will strongly influence the fidelity of the solution during an aerodynamic shape optimization problem. Nowadays, various optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm (GA, simulated annealing (SA, and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are more widely employed to solve the aerodynamic shape optimization problems. In addition to the optimization method, the geometry parameterization becomes an important factor to be considered during the aerodynamic shape optimization process. The objective of this work is to introduce the knowledge of describing general airfoil geometry using twelve parameters by representing its shape as a polynomial function and coupling this approach with flow solution and optimization algorithms. An aerodynamic shape optimization problem is formulated for NACA 0012 airfoil and solved using the methods of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm for 5.0 deg angle of attack. The results show that the simulated annealing optimization scheme is more effective in finding the optimum solution among the various possible solutions. It is also found that the SA shows more exploitation characteristics as compared to the GA which is considered to be more effective explorer.

  5. Strong Combination of Ant Colony Optimization with Constraint Programming Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichane, Madjid; Albert, Patrick; Solnon, Christine

    We introduce an approach which combines ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) and IBM ILOG CP Optimizer for solving COPs (Combinatorial Optimization Problems). The problem is modeled using the CP Optimizer modeling API. Then, it is solved in a generic way by a two-phase algorithm. The first phase aims at creating a hot start for the second: it samples the solution space and applies reinforcement learning techniques as implemented in ACO to create pheromone trails. During the second phase, CP Optimizer performs a complete tree search guided by the pheromone trails previously accumulated. The first experimental results on knapsack, quadratic assignment and maximum independent set problems show that this new algorithm enhances the performance of CP Optimizer alone.

  6. GrassmannOptim: An R Package for Grassmann Manifold Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Placid Adragni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of a real-valued objective function f(U, where U is a p X d,p > d, semi-orthogonal matrix such that UTU=Id, and f is invariant under right orthogonal transformation of U, is often referred to as a Grassmann manifold optimization. Manifold optimization appears in a wide variety of computational problems in the applied sciences. In this article, we present GrassmannOptim, an R package for Grassmann manifold optimization. The implementation uses gradient-based algorithms and embeds a stochastic gradient method for global search. We describe the algorithms, provide some illustrative examples on the relevance of manifold optimization and finally, show some practical usages of the package.

  7. Multiobjective Optimization Based Vessel Collision Avoidance Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vessel collision accidents cause a great loss of lives and property. In order to reduce the human fault and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic, collision avoidance strategy optimization is proposed to achieve this. In the paper, a multiobjective optimization algorithm NSGA-II is adopted to search for the optimal collision avoidance strategy considering the safety as well as economy elements of collision avoidance. Ship domain and Arena are used to evaluate the collision risk in the simulation. Based on the optimization, an optimal rudder angle is recommended to navigator for collision avoidance. In the simulation example, a crossing encounter situation is simulated, and the NSGA-II searches for the optimal collision avoidance operation under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS. The simulation studies exhibit the validity of the method.

  8. Strategic Material Shortfall Risk Mitigation Optimization Model (OPTIM-SM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    contracts, could be added to the existing mix . Market 40 responses to supply and demand shocks could be modeled more explicitly as could...Model (OPTIM-SM) James S. Thomason, Project Leader D. Sean Barnett James P. Bell Jerome Bracken Eleanor L. Schwartz INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850...Risk Mitigation Optimization Model (OPTIM-SM) James S. Thomason, Project Leader D. Sean Barnett James P. Bell Jerome Bracken Eleanor L. Schwartz iii

  9. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  10. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often......, these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient...... translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  11. Optimality in Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey; Yatheendradas, Soni

    2016-04-01

    It costs a lot more to develop and launch an earth-observing satellite than it does to build a data assimilation system. As such, we propose that it is important to understand the efficiency of our assimilation algorithms at extracting information from remote sensing retrievals. To address this, we propose that it is necessary to adopt completely general definition of "optimality" that explicitly acknowledges all differences between the parametric constraints of our assimilation algorithm (e.g., Gaussianity, partial linearity, Markovian updates) and the true nature of the environmetnal system and observing system. In fact, it is not only possible, but incredibly straightforward, to measure the optimality (in this more general sense) of any data assimilation algorithm as applied to any intended model or natural system. We measure the information content of remote sensing data conditional on the fact that we are already running a model and then measure the actual information extracted by data assimilation. The ratio of the two is an efficiency metric, and optimality is defined as occurring when the data assimilation algorithm is perfectly efficient at extracting information from the retrievals. We measure the information content of the remote sensing data in a way that, unlike triple collocation, does not rely on any a priori presumed relationship (e.g., linear) between the retrieval and the ground truth, however, like triple-collocation, is insensitive to the spatial mismatch between point-based measurements and grid-scale retrievals. This theory and method is therefore suitable for use with both dense and sparse validation networks. Additionally, the method we propose is *constructive* in the sense that it provides guidance on how to improve data assimilation systems. All data assimilation strategies can be reduced to approximations of Bayes' law, and we measure the fractions of total information loss that are due to individual assumptions or approximations in the

  12. Optimal Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe an R package for determining the optimal price of an asset which is perishable in a certain sense, given the intensity of customer arrivals and a time-varying price sensitivity function which speci?es the probability that a customer will purchase an asset o?ered at a given price at a given time. The package deals with the case of customers arriving in groups, with a probability distribution for the group size being speci?ed. The methodology and software allow for both discrete and continuous pricing. The class of possible models for price sensitivity functions is very wide, and includes piecewise linear models. A mechanism for constructing piecewise linear price sensitivity functions is provided.

  13. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages......., these query languages are implemented by translating temporal queries into standard relational queries. However, the compiled queries are often quite cumbersome and expensive to execute even using state-of-the-art relational products. This paper presents an optimization technique that produces more efficient......Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often...

  14. Optimal Sound Absorbing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Fu, Caixing; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Causal nature of the acoustic response, for any materials or structures, dictates an inequality that relates the absorption spectrum of the sample to its thickness. We present a general recipe for constructing sound-absorbing structures that can attain near-equality for the causal relation with very high absorption performance; such structures are denoted optimal. Our strategy involves using carefully designed acoustic metamaterials as backing to a thin layer of conventional sound absorbing material, e.g., acoustic sponge. By using this design approach, we have realized a 12 cm-thick structure that exhibits broadband, near-perfect flat absorption spectrum starting at around 400 Hz. From the causal relation, the calculated minimum sample thickness is 11.5 cm for the observed absorption spectrum. We present the theory that underlies such absorption performance, involving the evanescent waves and their interaction with a dissipative medium, and show the excellent agreement with the experiment.

  15. Optimally Sparse Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    Frames have established themselves as a means to derive redundant, yet stable decompositions of a signal for analysis or transmission, while also promoting sparse expansions. However, when the signal dimension is large, the computation of the frame measurements of a signal typically requires a large number of additions and multiplications, and this makes a frame decomposition intractable in applications with limited computing budget. To address this problem, in this paper, we introduce sparsity of a frame as a new paradigm. In our terminology, a sparse frame is a frame whose elements have a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis, thereby enabling low-complexity frame decompositions. To introduce a precise meaning of optimality, we take the sum of the numbers of vectors needed of this orthonormal basis when expanding each frame vector as sparsity measure. We then analyze the recently introduced algorithm Spectral Tetris for construction of unit norm tight frames and prove that the tight frames generated...

  16. Optimization of plasma amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, James D.; Trines, Raoul M. Â. G. Â. M.; Tabak, Max; Haberberger, Dan; Froula, Dustin H.; Davies, Andrew S.; Bucht, Sara; Silva, Luís O.; Alves, E. Paulo; Fiúza, Frederico; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Kasim, Muhammad F.; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter A.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma amplifiers offer a route to side-step limitations on chirped pulse amplification and generate laser pulses at the power frontier. They compress long pulses by transferring energy to a shorter pulse via the Raman or Brillouin instabilities. We present an extensive kinetic numerical study of the three-dimensional parameter space for the Raman case. Further particle-in-cell simulations find the optimal seed pulse parameters for experimentally relevant constraints. The high-efficiency self-similar behavior is observed only for seeds shorter than the linear Raman growth time. A test case similar to an upcoming experiment at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics is found to maintain good transverse coherence and high-energy efficiency. Effective compression of a 10 kJ , nanosecond-long driver pulse is also demonstrated in a 15-cm-long amplifier.

  17. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  18. Optimising Optimal Image Subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, H; Schuh, S; Israel, Holger; Hessman, Frederic V.; Schuh, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Difference imaging is a technique for obtaining precise relative photometry of variable sources in crowded stellar fields and, as such, constitutes a crucial part of the data reduction pipeline in surveys for microlensing events or transiting extrasolar planets. The Optimal Image Subtraction (OIS) algorithm permits the accurate differencing of images by determining convolution kernels which, when applied to reference images of particularly good quality, provide excellent matches to the point-spread functions (PSF) in other images of the time series to be analysed. The convolution kernels are built as linear combinations of a set of basis functions, conventionally bivariate Gaussians modulated by polynomials. The kernel parameters must be supplied by the user and should ideally be matched to the PSF, pixel-sampling, and S/N of the data to be analysed. We have studied the outcome of the reduction as a function of the kernel parameters using our implementation of OIS within the TRIPP package. From the analysis o...

  19. Optimized measurement of gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin; Ramamurthy, Rajesh

    2017-05-01

    Gaps are important in a wide range of measurements in manufacturing, from the fitting of critical assemblies too cosmetic features on cars. There are a variety of potential sensors that can measure a gap opening, each with aspects of gap measurements that they do well and other aspects where the technology may lack capability. This paper provides a review of a wide range of optical gages from structured light to passive systems and from line to area measurement. Each technology is considered relative to the ability to accurately measure a gap, including issues of edge effects, edge shape, surface finish, and transparency. Finally, an approach will be presented for creating an optimize measurement off gap openings for critical assembly applications.

  20. Optimized nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

  1. [Myth of optimal pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, E J; Maltha, J C

    2000-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement always follows the same pattern. Four phases can be distinguished. During the last phase, the linear phase, the tooth moves through the alveolar bone. One could assume that the rate of tooth displacement is related to the magnitude of the force or to the pressure in the periodontal ligament. No consensus exists on the optimal pressure for orthodontic tooth movement. In literature pressures are advocated, ranging from 2 to 30 KPa. Animal experiments show that a large range of force magnitudes results in an equal rate of tooth movement. A dose-response relation is only feasible when forces are used which are far below those used in an everyday practice.

  2. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  3. Power, control and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Vasant, Pandian; Barsoum, Nader

    2013-01-01

    The book consists of chapters based on selected papers of international conference „Power, Control and Optimization 2012”, held in Las Vegas, USA. Readers can find interesting chapters discussing various topics from the field of power control, its distribution and related fields. Book discusses topics like energy consumption impacted by climate, mathematical modeling of the influence of thermal power plant on the aquatic environment, investigation of cost reduction in residential electricity bill using electric vehicle at peak times or allocation and size evaluation of distributed generation using ANN model and others.  Chapter authors are to the best of our knowledge the originators or closely related to the originators of presented ideas and its applications. Hence, this book certainly is one of the few books discussing the benefit from intersection of those modern and fruitful scientific fields of research with very tight and deep impact on real life and industry. This book is devoted to the studies o...

  4. PLZT Microfibers Technology Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozielski L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocaloric (EC structures for a new generation of cooling or heating elements utilize the temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization in some ferroelectric materials to convert waste heat into electricity and vice versa. A (Pb0.93La0.07 (Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 material, have the largest recorded pyroelectric coefficient. An effective predicted form for such applications is fiber, due to small heat capacitance and quick response time, even for nano second laser excitation. Consequently, the presented work provides a description of the optimization of structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of obtained fibers, finally concluding on necessity of sintering temperature reduction in 100°C in contrast to bulk form to effectively prevent its destruction.

  5. Optimal mixing enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Froyland, Gary

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a general-purpose method for optimising the mixing rate of advective fluid flows. An existing velocity field is perturbed in a $C^1$ neighborhood to maximize the mixing rate for flows generated by velocity fields in this neighborhood. Our numerical approach is based on the infinitesimal generator of the flow and is solved by standard linear programming methods. The perturbed flow may be easily constrained to preserve the same steady state distribution as the original flow, and various natural geometric constraints can also be simply applied. The same technique can also be used to optimize the mixing rate of advection-diffusion flow models by manipulating the drift term in a small neighborhood.

  6. Portfolio optimization retail investor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. А. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article notes that the task of the investor's risk management is to, on the one hand, as much as possible to strive to achieve the criterion of risk level, and on the other hand, in any case not exceed it. Since the domestic theory of risk management is under development, the problem of the optimal ratio of "risk-income" becomes now of particular relevance. This article discusses the different distribution areas of the private investor in order to obtain the maximum profit. The analysis showed us the overall economic and political system of the country, as well as the legislative provision of guarantees to the investor. To obtain sufficient income and reduce losses it is important to maintain the optimum value found between the amount of the investor's risk and capital transactions. Model of optimal placement of funds led to the conclusion about inexpediency strong increase in the diversification of the investment portfolio (more than 10 different types of assets in the portfolio, since it increases the complexity of its practical form, while the portfolio characteristics are improved significantly. It is concluded that it is impossible to increase revenue without increasing the risk or reduce risk without reducing income. The analysis shows that there is no single best asset portfolio. It is impossible to increase revenue without increasing the risk or reduce risk without reducing income. Possible combination of the "riskincome" will depend on the objective function. Most diversified and bringing the best return per unit of risk, is a portfolio that contains the most risky assets.

  7. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  8. Optimal PMU Placement By Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved method of binary particle swarm optimization (IBPSO) technique for optimal phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement in a power network for complete system observability. Various effective improvements have been proposed to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate...... of conventional particle swarm optimization method. The proposed method of IBPSO ensures optimal PMU placement with and without consideration of zero injection measurements. The proposed method has been applied to standard test systems like 17 bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, IEEE 57-bus system...

  9. Optimization of mechanical structures using particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Victor C.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: victor.coppo.leite@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (LMP/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao de Processos

    2015-07-01

    Several optimization problems are dealed with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, there is a wide kind of optimization problems, it may be applications related to logistics or the reload of nuclear reactors. This paper discusses the use of the PSO in the treatment of problems related to mechanical structure optimization. The geometry and material characteristics of mechanical components are important for the proper functioning and performance of the systems were they are applied, particularly to the nuclear field. Calculations related to mechanical aspects are all made using ANSYS, while the PSO is programed in MATLAB. (author)

  10. Optimization strategies for discrete multi-material stiffness optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Christian Frier; Lund, Erik; Stolpe, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Design of composite laminated lay-ups are formulated as discrete multi-material selection problems. The design problem can be modeled as a non-convex mixed-integer optimization problem. Such problems are in general only solvable to global optimality for small to moderate sized problems. To attack...... larger problem instances we formulate convex and non-convex continuous relaxations which can be solved using gradient based optimization algorithms. The convex relaxation yields a lower bound on the attainable performance. The optimal solution to the convex relaxation is used as a starting guess...

  11. Constrained Optimization and Optimal Control for Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Leugering, Günter; Griewank, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This special volume focuses on optimization and control of processes governed by partial differential equations. The contributors are mostly participants of the DFG-priority program 1253: Optimization with PDE-constraints which is active since 2006. The book is organized in sections which cover almost the entire spectrum of modern research in this emerging field. Indeed, even though the field of optimal control and optimization for PDE-constrained problems has undergone a dramatic increase of interest during the last four decades, a full theory for nonlinear problems is still lacking. The cont

  12. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation, the gover......This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  13. Recent advances in computational optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Optimization is part of our everyday life. We try to organize our work in a better way and optimization occurs in minimizing time and cost or the maximization of the profit, quality and efficiency. Also many real world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization. This book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real world problems like parameter settings for con- trolling processes in bioreactor, robot skin wiring, strip packing, project scheduling, tuning of PID controller and so on. Some of them can be solved by applying traditional numerical methods, but others need a huge amount of computational resources. For them it is shown that is appropriate to develop algorithms based on metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming etc...

  14. The Structural Optimization of Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheck, C.; Bethge, K.

    1998-01-01

    Optimization methods are presented for engineering design based on the axiom of uniform stress. The principle of adaptive growth which biological structures use to minimize stress concentrations has been incorporated into a computer-aided optimization (CAO) procedure. Computer-aided optimization offers the advantage of three-dimensional optimization for the purpose of designing more fatigue-resistant components without mathematical sophistication. Another method, called computer-aided internal optimization (CAIO), optimizes the performance of fiber-composite materials by aligning the fiber distribution with the force flow, again mimicking the structure of trees. The lines of force flow, so-called principal stress trajectories, are not subject to shear stresses. Avoiding shear stresses in the technical components can lead to an increase in maximum load capacity. By the use of a new testing device strength distributions in trees can be determined and explained based on a new mechanical wood model.

  15. GAPS IN SUPPORT VECTOR OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEINWART, INGO [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HUSH, DON [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCOVEL, CLINT [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIST, NICOLAS [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    We show that the stopping criteria used in many support vector machine (SVM) algorithms working on the dual can be interpreted as primal optimality bounds which in turn are known to be important for the statistical analysis of SVMs. To this end we revisit the duality theory underlying the derivation of the dual and show that in many interesting cases primal optimality bounds are the same as known dual optimality bounds.

  16. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  17. Optimal Control of Evolutionary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Raj; McLendon, George

    2008-01-01

    Elucidating the fitness measures optimized during the evolution of complex biological systems is a major challenge in evolutionary theory. We present experimental evidence and an analytical framework demonstrating how biochemical networks exploit optimal control strategies in their evolutionary dynamics. Optimal control theory explains a striking pattern of extremization in the redox potentials of electron transport proteins, assuming only that their fitness measure is a control objective functional with bounded controls.

  18. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vadim Azhmyakov

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some ...

  19. STochastic OPTimization library in C++

    OpenAIRE

    Gevret, Hugo; Lelong, Jerome; Warin, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The STochastic OPTimization library (StOpt) aims at providing tools in C++ for solving somestochastic optimization problems encountered in finance or in the industry.A python binding is available for some C++ objects provided permitting to easily solve an optimization problem by regression.Different methods are available : dynamic programming methods based on Monte Carlo with regressions (global, local and sparse regressors), for underlying states following some uncontrolled Stochastic Differ...

  20. Solving Optimal Timing Problems Elegantly

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Few textbooks in mathematical economics cover optimal timing problems. Those which cover them do it scantly or in a rather clumsy way, making it hard for students to understand and apply the concept of optimal time in new contexts. Discussing the plentiful illustrations of optimal timing problems, we present an elegant and simple method of solving them. Whether the present value function is exponential or logarithmic, a convenient way to solve it is to convert the base to the exponential numb...

  1. Evolution Strategies in Optimization Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Pedro A F

    2007-01-01

    Evolution Strategies are inspired in biology and part of a larger research field known as Evolutionary Algorithms. Those strategies perform a random search in the space of admissible functions, aiming to optimize some given objective function. We show that simple evolution strategies are a useful tool in optimal control, permitting to obtain, in an efficient way, good approximations to the solutions of some recent and challenging optimal control problems.

  2. Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in making this planet a better place to live. In the past, researchers have explored behavior of several animals separately. But there is scope to explore in the direction where various artificial animals together solve the optimization problem. In this paper, Satish Gajawada proposed The AnimalPlanet Optimization. The concept of this paper is to imitate all the animals on this planet. The idea is to solve the optimization problem where al...

  3. Characteristics for Software Optimization Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian NITESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of the software systems complexity imposes the identification and implementation of some methods and techniques in order to manage it. The software optimization project is a way in which the software complexity is controlled. The software optimization project must face to the organization need to earn profit. The software optimization project is an integrated part of the application cycle because share same resources, depends on other stages and influences next phases. The optimization project has some particularities because it works on an finished product around its quality. The process is quality and performance oriented and it assumes that the product life cycle is almost finished.

  4. Portfolio optimization and performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Based on an exclusive business-to-business database comprising nearly 1,000 customers, the applicability of portfolio analysis is documented, and it is examined how such an optimization analysis can be used to explore the growth potential of a company. As opposed to any previous analyses, optimal...... customer portfolios are determined, and it is shown how marketing decision-makers can use this information in their marketing strategies to optimize the revenue growth of the company. Finally, our analysis is the first analysis which applies portfolio based methods to measure customer performance......, and it is shown how these performance measures complement the optimization analysis....

  5. Optimal Reconfiguration of Tetrahedral Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Geoffrey; Rao, Anil V.; Hughes, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of minimum-fuel formation reconfiguration for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission is studied. This reconfiguration trajectory optimization problem can be posed as a nonlinear optimal control problem. In this research, this optimal control problem is solved using a spectral collocation method called the Gauss pseudospectral method. The objective of this research is to provide highly accurate minimum-fuel solutions to the MMS formation reconfiguration problem and to gain insight into the underlying structure of fuel-optimal trajectories.

  6. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guihot, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Today's Android apps developers are often running into the need to refine, improve and optimize their apps performances. As more complex apps can be created, it is even more important for developers to deal with this critical issue. Android allows developers to write apps using Java, C or a combination of both with the Android SDK and the Android NDK. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization reveals how to fine-tune your Android apps, making them more stable and faster. In this book, you'll learn the following: * How to optimize your Java code with the SDK, but also how to write and optimize

  7. Optimization methods for logical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Chandru, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in

  8. Jordan algebraic approach to symmetric optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, M.V.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we present a generalization of interior-point methods for linear optimization based on kernel functions to symmetric optimization. It covers the three standard cases of conic optimization: linear optimization, second-order cone optimization and semi-definite optimization. We give an

  9. Stability versus Optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is considered to be the largest inland body of water in the world, which located between the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. The Caspian Sea has been a source of the most contentious international conflicts between five littoral states now borders the sea: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. The conflict over the legal status of this international body of water as an aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then the parties have been negotiating without coming up with any agreement neither on the ownerships of waters, nor the oil and natural gas beneath them. The number of involved stakeholders, the unusual characteristics of the Caspian Sea in considering it as a lake or a sea, and a large number of external parties are interested in the valuable resources of the Sea has made this conflict complex and unique. This paper intends to apply methods to find the best allocation schemes considering acceptability and stability of selected solution to share the Caspian Sea and its resources fairly and efficiently. Although, there are several allocation methods in solving such allocation problems, however, most of those seek a socially optimal solution that can satisfy majority of criteria or decision makers, while, in practice, especially in multi-nation problems, such solution may not be necessarily a stable solution and to be acceptable to all parties. Hence, there is need to apply a method that considers stability and acceptability of solutions to find a solution with high chance to be agreed upon that. Application of some distance-based methods in studying the Caspian Sea conflict provides some policy insights useful for finding solutions that can resolve the dispute. In this study, we use methods such as Goal Programming, Compromise Programming, and considering stability of solution the logic of Power Index is used to find a division rule that is stable negotiators. The results of this study shows that the

  10. Optimism and adaptation to multiple sclerosis: what does optimism mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, M.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the meaning of optimism by explicating the dimensions underlying the notion and their links to adjusting to MS. Seventy-three patients responded to optimism questionnaires (i.e., the LOT, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale) and outcome questionnaires. In co

  11. Optimism and Adaptation to Multiple Sclerosis: What Does Optimism Mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, M.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Bensing, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the meaning of optimism by explicating the dimensions underlying the notion and their links to adjusting to MS. Seventy-three patients responded to optimism questionnaire s (i.e., the LOT, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale) and outcome questionnaires. In c

  12. Optimal control, optimization and asymptotic analysis of Purcell's microswimmer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezel, Oren; Or, Yizhar

    2016-11-01

    Purcell's swimmer (1977) is a classic model of a three-link microswimmer that moves by performing periodic shape changes. Becker et al. (2003) showed that the swimmer's direction of net motion is reversed upon increasing the stroke amplitude of joint angles. Tam and Hosoi (2007) used numerical optimization in order to find optimal gaits for maximizing either net displacement or Lighthill's energetic efficiency. In our work, we analytically derive leading-order expressions as well as next-order corrections for both net displacement and energetic efficiency of Purcell's microswimmer. Using these expressions enables us to explicitly show the reversal in direction of motion, as well as obtaining an estimate for the optimal stroke amplitude. We also find the optimal swimmer's geometry for maximizing either displacement or energetic efficiency. Additionally, the gait optimization problem is revisited and analytically formulated as an optimal control system with only two state variables, which can be solved using Pontryagin's maximum principle. It can be shown that the optimal solution must follow a "singular arc". Numerical solution of the boundary value problem is obtained, which exactly reproduces Tam and Hosoi's optimal gait.

  13. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  14. Optimism and adaptation to multiple sclerosis: what does optimism mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, M.; Ridder, D. de; Bensing, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the meaning of optimism by explicating the dimensions underlying the notion and their links to adjusting to MS. Seventy-three patients responded to optimism questionnaires (i.e., the LOT, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale) and outcome questionnaires. In

  15. Ant colony search algorithm for optimal reactive power optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an (ACSA Ant colony search Algorithm for Optimal Reactive Power Optimization and voltage control of power systems. ACSA is a new co-operative agents’ approach, which is inspired by the observation of the behavior of real ant colonies on the topic of ant trial formation and foraging methods. Hence, in the ACSA a set of co-operative agents called "Ants" co-operates to find good solution for Reactive Power Optimization problem. The ACSA is applied for optimal reactive power optimization is evaluated on standard IEEE, 30, 57, 191 (practical test bus system. The proposed approach is tested and compared to genetic algorithm (GA, Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA.

  16. Drilling Path Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyu; ZHANG Weibo; DU Yuexiang

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for solving the drilling path optimization problem belonging to discrete space. Because the standard PSO algorithm is not guaranteed to be global convergence or local convergence, based on the mathematical algorithm model, the algorithm is improved by adopting the method of generate the stop evolution particle over again to get the ability of convergence to the global optimization solution. And the operators are improved by establishing the duality transposition method and the handle manner for the elements of the operator, the improved operator can satisfy the need of integer coding in drilling path optimization. The experiment with small node numbers indicates that the improved algorithm has the characteristics of easy realize, fast convergence speed, and better global convergence characteristics, hence the new PSO can play a role in solving the problem of drilling path optimization in drilling holes.

  17. Complex System Optimization Using Biogeography-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems are frequently found in modern industry. But with their multisubsystems, multiobjectives, and multiconstraints, the optimization of complex systems is extremely hard. In this paper, a new algorithm adapted from biogeography-based optimization (BBO is introduced for complex system optimization. BBO/Complex is the combination of BBO with a multiobjective ranking system, an innovative migration approach, and effective diversity control. Based on comparisons with three complex system optimization algorithms (multidisciplinary feasible (MDF, individual discipline feasible (IDF, and collaborative optimization (CO on four real-world benchmark problems, BBO/Complex demonstrates competitive performance. BBO/Complex provides the best performance in three of the benchmark problems and the second best in the fourth problem.

  18. Hybrid Optimization Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search for Preventive Maintenance Period Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All equipment must be maintained during its lifetime to ensure normal operation. Maintenance is one of the critical roles in the success of manufacturing enterprises. This paper proposed a preventive maintenance period optimization model (PMPOM to find an optimal preventive maintenance period. By making use of the advantages of particle swarm optimization (PSO and cuckoo search (CS algorithm, a hybrid optimization algorithm of PSO and CS is proposed to solve the PMPOM problem. The test functions show that the proposed algorithm exhibits more outstanding performance than particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages of strong optimization ability and fast convergence speed to solve the PMPOM problem.

  19. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  20. Optimizing management of glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-06-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model. From diagnosis, intensive glycaemic control and individualised care is aimed at reducing complications. In older people, the goal is maintaining quality of life and minimizing morbidity, especially as overtreatment increases hypoglycaemia risk. Maintaining durable glycaemic control is challenging and complex to achieve without hypoglycaemia, weight gain and other significant adverse effects. Overcoming patient and physician barriers can help ensure adequate treatment initiation and intensification. Cardiovascular safety studies with newer glucose-lowering agents are now mandatory, with a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin), and two glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide and semaglutide) being the first to demonstrate superior CV outcomes compared with placebo.