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Sample records for optimize biosurfactant production

  1. Response surface optimization of the medium components for the production of biosurfactants by probiotic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J; Oliveira, R; van der Mei, HC

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of the medium for biosurfactants production by probiotic bacteria (Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A) was carried out using response surface methodology. Both biosurfactants were proved to be growth-associated, thus the desired response selected for the optimization

  2. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

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    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST and emulsification index (EI. The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v and glycerol (2% w/v, which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process.

  3. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Darne G; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R(2) = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R(2) = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = -0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm(-1) and 4.19 gL(-1), respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL(-1), respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry.

  4. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Darne G.; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R2 = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R2 = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = −0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm−1 and 4.19 gL−1, respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL−1, respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry. PMID:28223971

  5. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation.

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    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-11-01

    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals.

  6. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

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    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications.

  7. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration

    OpenAIRE

    Dhouha Ghribi; Semia Ellouze-Chaabouni

    2011-01-01

    Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate ...

  8. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  9. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration

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    Dhouha Ghribi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates, glucose enhanced the best surfactin production. The optimum glucose concentration was 40 g/L. Higher amount of biosurfactants was obtained using 5 g/L of urea as organic nitrogen source and applying C/N ratio of 7 with ammonium chloride as inorganic nitrogen source. The highest amount of biosurfactants was recorded with the addition of 2% kerosene. Moreover, it was shown, using an automated full-controlled 2.6 L fermenter, that aeration of the medium, which affected strongly the growth regulated biosurfactants synthesis by the producing cell. So that, low or high aerations lead to a decrease of biosurfactants synthesis yields. It was found that when using dissolved oxygen saturation of the medium at 30%, biosurfactants production reached 4.92 g/L.

  10. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia

    2011-01-01

    Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates, glucose enhanced the best surfactin production. The optimum glucose concentration was 40 g/L. Higher amount of biosurfactants was obtained using 5 g/L of urea as organic nitrogen source and applying C/N ratio of 7 with ammonium chloride as inorganic nitrogen source. The highest amount of biosurfactants was recorded with the addition of 2% kerosene. Moreover, it was shown, using an automated full-controlled 2.6 L fermenter, that aeration of the medium, which affected strongly the growth regulated biosurfactants synthesis by the producing cell. So that, low or high aerations lead to a decrease of biosurfactants synthesis yields. It was found that when using dissolved oxygen saturation of the medium at 30%, biosurfactants production reached 4.92 g/L.

  11. Optimization Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas putida Using Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as Substrate

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    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Masykur, A.; Lindasari

    2017-07-01

    The production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas putida has been studied. P. putida FNCC 0071 was grown in the nutrient broth medium supplemented with NaCl and crude palm oil (CPO). The effect of CPO concentration and fermentation time on the biosurfactant production were evaluated. The biosurfactant production was evaluated every 24 h for 10 days by optical density, surface tension and emulsification index. The best culture medium was found to be medium containing 5% v/v of CPO with 5 days of incubation time. The biosurfactant was identified as rhamnolipids.

  12. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology

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    Foukia E. Mouafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate and validate a statistical model for maximizing biosurfactant productivity by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. In this respect, twenty bacterial isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity, oil spreading technique, and emulsification index (E24. The most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterium (B. brevis was used for construction of the statistical response surface model. The optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by B. brevis were: 33 °C incubation temperature at pH 8 for 10 days incubation period and 8.5 g/L glucose concentration as a sole carbon source. The produced biosurfactant (BS (73% exhibited foaming activity, thermal stability in the range 30–80 °C for 30 min., pH stability, from 4 to 9 and antimicrobial activity against (Escherichia coli. The BS gave a good potential application as an emulsifier.

  13. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Mnif, Ines; Kammoun, Radhouan; Ayadi, Imen; Saadaoui, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaabouni-Ellouze, Semia

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size). Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth. PMID:22536017

  14. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

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    Dhouha Ghribi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size. Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth.

  15. Optimization of biosurfactant production from Vibrio sp. BSM-30 isolated in tropical waters

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    Su, Zengjian; Li, Min; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2017-01-01

    The strain BSM-30 (Vibrio sp.), isolated from Chinese tropical waters, could be a biosurfactant producing bacteria according with results obtained by the oil spreading method. The culture conditions for biosurfactant production were tested respectively such as inoculation (2%,6%,10%,14% as setting), shaking speed(120 r/min,150 r/min,180 r/min as setting), temperature (25°C,30°C,35°C as setting), pH (7,8,9 as setting), salinity (1.5%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, 5.5% as setting), which results showed that the best culture conditions for BS production were 10% inoculation quantity, 180 r/min, 25°C, pH 8, and 3.5% salinity. The optimization of carbon sources (20g/ of glucose, 20g/L of starch, 20g/L of paraffin oil 20g/L of diesel, 20g/L of oil as setting) and nitrogen sources (6g/L of NaNO3,7.1g/L of KNO3,5.6g/L of NH4NO3,9.3g/L of (NH4)2SO4, 4.2g/L of CO(NH2)2 as setting) were also tested, which results showed that the best nitrogen source and carbon source were (NH4) 2SO4 and soluble starch.

  16. Biosurfactant production from novel air isolate NITT6L: screening, characterization and optimization of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanavil, Balakrishnan; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Rao, Ambati Seshagiri

    2013-09-28

    In this paper, an air isolate (NITT6L) has been screened based on hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, drop collapsing test, and oil displacement test, as well as lipase activity. It was found that strain NITT6L was able to reduce the surface tension of the medium from 61.5 to 39.83 mN/m and could form stable emulsions with tested vegetable oils. Morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA sequencing analyses, and fatty acid methyl ester analysis using gas chromatography confirmed that the air isolate under study was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Characterization of the biosurfactant using agar double diffusion assay revealed that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature, and CTAB-methylene blue assay and Molisch test revealed its glycolipid nature. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed that the crude biosurfactant was a rhamnolipid. Using unoptimized medium containing sucrose as the carbon source, the isolate was found to produce 0.3 mg/ml of rhamnolipid in batch cultivation (shake flask) at 37°C and pH 7. Optimization of the medium components was carried out using design of experiments and the yield of rhamnolipid has been enhanced to 4.6 mg/ml in 72 h of fermentation.

  17. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  18. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

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    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants.

  19. Optimization of the Nutritional Parameters for Enhanced Production of B. subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant in Submerged Culture Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Ines Mnif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional requirements can contribute considerably to the production cost and the bioprocess economics. Media optimisation using response surface methodology is one of the used methods to ameliorate the bioprocess economics. In the present study, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 was effectively enhanced by response surface methodology. A Plackett-Burman-based statistical screening procedure was adopted to determine the most important factor affecting lipopeptide production. Eleven variables are screened and results show that glucose, K2HPO4, and urea concentrations influence the most biosurfactant production. A Central Composite Design was conducted to optimize the three selected factors. Statistical analyses of the data of model fitting were done by using NemrodW. Results show a maximum predicted biosurfactant concentration of 2.93 (±0.32 g/L when using 15 g/L glucose, 6 g/L urea, and 1 g/L K2HPO4. The predicted value is approximately 1.65 much higher than the original production determined by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time optimization method.

  20. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

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    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  1. Biosurfactant-Producing Lactobacilli: Screening, Production Profiles, and Effect of Medium Composition

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    Eduardo J. Gudiña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant production was screened in four lactobacilli strains. The highest biosurfactant production (excreted and cell-bound biosurfactants was achieved with Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei A20, a strain isolated from a Portuguese dairy plant, with a decrease in the surface tension of 6.4 mN m−1 and 22.0 mN m−1, respectively. Biosurfactant production by this strain was evaluated under different culture broth compositions. The use of different nitrogen sources revealed that yeast extract is essential for bacterial growth, while peptone is crucial for biosurfactant synthesis. For biosurfactant production, the use of peptone and meat extract yielded a higher production when compared to the standard medium, with a surface tension reduction of 24.5 mN m−1 Furthermore, experiments were also conducted in a reactor with pH and temperature control. Biomass and biosurfactant production in bioreactor was higher comparing with the experiments conducted in shake flaks. The optimization procedure adopted in the current work was found to improve the biosurfactant production and opened new perspectives for the use of L. paracasei ssp. paracasei A20 as a promising biosurfactant-producer.

  2. Preliminary study : optimization of pH and salinity for biosurfactant production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diesel fuel and crude oil medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwani, A. Z. N.; Nurlaila, H. S.; Ferdinand, F. D. K.; Fachria, R.; Hasan, A. E. Z.; Yani, M.; Setyawati, I.; Suryani

    2017-03-01

    Biosurfactant is secondary metabolite surface active compound produced by microorganisms which is nontoxic and eco-friendly. Microorganism producing biosurfactant that is quite potential to use in many applications is from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Good quality of biosurfactant production from microbes is supported by the suitable nutrients and environmental factors. The aim of this research was to obtain preliminary o data upon the optimum pH and salinity for the production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 in diesel fuel and crude oil medium. P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 cultured in diesel fuel and crude oil as carbon source showed biosurfactant activity. P.aeruginosa-derived biosurfactant was capable to form stable emulsion for 24 hours (EI24) in hydrocarbons n-hexane solutions. The particular biosurfactant showed EI24 highest value at pH 7 (31.02%) and 1% NaCl (24.00%) when P. aeruginosa was grown in 10% diesel fuel medium in mineral salt solution. As for the media crude oil, the highest EI24 value was at pH 6 (52.16%) and 1% NaCl (33.30%).

  3. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m(-1) and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m(-1) respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  4. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S.

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes. PMID:27933041

  5. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  6. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC DAIRY STREPTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; NEU, TR; VANDERMEI, HC

    1994-01-01

    Biosurfactant production of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains, isolated from heat exchanger plates in the downstream side of the regenerator section of pasteurizers in the dairy industry has been measured using axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P). Strains were grown in M17 br

  8. Produção de biossurfactante por levedura Biosurfactants production by yeasts

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    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are molecules extracellularly produced by bacteria, yeast and fungi that have significant interfacial activity properties. This review focuses on relevant parameters that influence biosurfactant production by yeasts. Many works have investigated the optimization of yeast biosurfactant production, mainly within the last decade, revealing that the potential of such microorganisms is not well explored in the industrial field. The main points to increase the process viability lays on the reduction of the production costs and enhancement of biosynthesis efficiency through optimization the culture conditions (carbon and nitrogen source, pH, aeration, speed agitation and the selection of inexpensive medium components.

  9. Enhanced biosurfactant production through cloning of three genes and role of esterase in biosurfactant release

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    Khanna Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosurfactants have been reported to utilize a number of immiscible substrates and thereby facilitate the biodegradation of panoply of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Olive oil is one such carbon source which has been explored by many researchers. However, studying the concomitant production of biosurfactant and esterase enzyme in the presence of olive oil in the Bacillus species and its recombinants is a relatively novel approach. Results Bacillus species isolated from endosulfan sprayed cashew plantation soil was cultivated on a number of hydrophobic substrates. Olive oil was found to be the best inducer of biosurfactant activity. The protein associated with the release of the biosurfactant was found to be an esterase. There was a twofold increase in the biosurfactant and esterase activities after the successful cloning of the biosurfactant genes from Bacillus subtilis SK320 into E.coli. Multiple sequence alignment showed regions of similarity and conserved sequences between biosurfactant and esterase genes, further confirming the symbiotic correlation between the two. Biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis SK320 and recombinant strains BioS a, BioS b, BioS c were found to be effective emulsifiers, reducing the surface tension of water from 72 dynes/cm to as low as 30.7 dynes/cm. Conclusion The attributes of enhanced biosurfactant and esterase production by hyper-producing recombinant strains have many utilities from industrial viewpoint. This study for the first time has shown a possible association between biosurfactant production and esterase activity in any Bacillus species. Biosurfactant-esterase complex has been found to have powerful emulsification properties, which shows promising bioremediation, hydrocarbon biodegradation and pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Molecular engineering aspects for the production of new and modified biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Alexander; Doetsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of considerable industrial value as their high tenside activity in combination with their biocompatibility makes them attractive for many applications. In particular members of the lipopeptide family of biosurfactants contain significant potentials for the pharmaceutical industry due to their intrinsic antibiotic characteristics. The high frequency of lipopeptide (LP) production in common soil microorganisms in combination with the enormous structural diversity of the synthesized biosurfactants has created an abundant natural pool of compounds with potentially interesting properties. Unfortunately, the bioactivity of lipopetides against pathogenic microorganisms is often associated with problematic side effects that restrict or even prevent medically relevant applications. The accumulated knowledge of lipopetide biosynthesis and their frequent structural variations caused by natural genetic rearrangements has therefore motivated numerous approaches in order to manipulate biosurfactant composition and production mechanisms. This chapter will give an overview on current engineering strategies that aim to obtain lipopeptide biosurfactants with redesigned structures and optimized properties.

  11. Biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosurfactants are surfactants whose common feature is biodegradability, which provides them with a major advantage over the majority of surfactants currently in the market. Biosurfactants are produced from a wide range of raw materials, and manufactured using chemical, enzymatic, microbial, and a c...

  12. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

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    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  13. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

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    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  14. Assessing Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant effects on the biodegradation of petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Lopes, Paulo Renato Matos; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pollutant removal capabilities can be determined and exploited to accomplish bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted environments. Thus, increasing knowledge on environmental behavior of different petroleum products can lead to better bioremediation strategies. Biodegradation can be enhanced by adding biosurfactants to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism consortia. This work aimed to improve petroleum products biodegradation by using a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis. The produced biosurfactant was added to biodegradation assays containing crude oil, diesel, and kerosene. Biodegradation was monitored by a respirometric technique capable of evaluating CO₂ production in an aerobic simulated wastewater environment. The biosurfactant yielded optimal surface tension reduction (30.9 mN m(-1)) and emulsification results (46.90% with kerosene). Biodegradation successfully occurred and different profiles were observed for each substance. Precise mathematical modeling of biosurfactant effects on petroleum degradation profile was designed, hence allowing long-term kinetics prediction. Assays containing biosurfactant yielded a higher overall CO₂ output. Higher emulsification and an enhanced CO2 production dataset on assays containing biosurfactants was observed, especially in crude oil and kerosene.

  15. Dissolution Coupled Biodegradation of Pce by Inducing In-Situ Biosurfactant Production Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, J.; Nambi, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have proven to enhance the bioavailability and thereby elevate the rate of degradation of Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) such as crude oil and petroleum derivatives. In spite of their superior characteristics, use of these biomolecules for remediation of Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents is still not clearly understood. In this present study, we have investigated the fate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by inducing in-situ biosurfactants production, a sustainable option which hypothesizes increase in bioavailability of LNAPLs. In order to understand the effect of biosurfactants on dissolution and biodegradation under the inducement of in-situ biosurfactant production, batch experiments were conducted in pure liquid media. The individual influence of each process such as biosurfactant production, dissolution of PCE and biodegradation of PCE were studied separately for getting insights on the synergistic effect of each process on the fate of PCE. Finally the dissolution coupled biodegradation of non aqueous phase PCE was studied in conditions where biosurfactant production was induced by nitrate limitation. The effect of biosurfactants was differentiated by repeating the same experiments were the biosurfactant production was retarded. The overall effect of in-situ biosurfactant production process was evaluated by use of a mathematical model. The process of microbial growth, biosurfactant production, dissolution and biodegradation of PCE were translated as ordinary differential equations. The modelling exercise was mainly performed to get insight on the combined effects of various processes that determine the concentration of PCE in its aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Model simulated profiles of PCE with the kinetic coefficients evaluated earlier from individual experiments were compared with parameters fitted for observations in experiments with dissolution coupled biodegradation process using optimization

  16. Use of a greasy effluent floater treatment station from the slaughterhouse for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Wesley da Silva; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; de Resende, Miriam Maria

    2012-01-01

    Most commercially available surfactants are produced from petroleum. However, increasing concerns about the environment have stimulated the search for biosurfactant production. This work examines biosurfactant production from the greasy effluent floater treatment station from the slaughterhouse of poultry and pigs. The biosurfactant production was evaluated using two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa [American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 9027 and 10145] in a kinetic study to determine which strain produces a higher rhamnolipid concentration, which is characterized by the rhamnose concentration. The strain of P. aeruginosa was selected via a central composite design based on the following variables: fat concentration, nitrogen concentration, added ammonium nitrate (AN), and brewery residual yeast (BRY). The preliminary results show that the P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 10145 produced biosurfactant more efficiently than ATCC 9027. After optimizing the variables that were studied, the best fat, BRY, and AN concentrations (in g/L) were found to be 12, 15, and 0, respectively.

  17. Analytical modeling and numerical optimization of the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus fumigatus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.17818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castiglioni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental, analytical and numerical study to optimize the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation of a medium containing rice straw and minced rice bran inoculated with Aspergillus fumigatus. The goal of this work was to analytically model the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation into a column fixed bed bioreactor. The Least-Squares Method was used to adjust the emulsification activity experimental values to a quadratic function semi-empirical model. Control variables were nutritional conditions, the fermentation time and the aeration. The mathematical model is validated against experimental results and then used to predict the maximum emulsification activity for different nutritional conditions and aerations. Based on the semi-empirical model the maximum emulsification activity with no additional hydrocarbon sources was 8.16 UE·g-1 for 112 hours. When diesel oil was used the predicted maximum emulsification activity was 8.10 UE·g-1 for 108 hours.

  18. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Subramanyam Nambaru, V R M; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable resources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3L fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (11.6 mg/ml) and biosurfactant production (8.6 mg/ml) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h respectively. Characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that, it is a lipopeptide with chemical composition of protein (50.2%) and lipid (49.8%). The biosurfactant (1 mg/ml) was able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene, comparatively the emulsification activity was higher than the activity found with Triton X-100 (1 mg/ml). Results obtained in the present study showed the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed its possible application in bioremediation of environments polluted with various hydrocarbons.

  19. Substrate dependent production of extracellular biosurfactant by a marine bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a marine microorganism to utilize different carbon substrates for the production of an extracellular biosurfactant was evaluated. Among the several carbon substrates tested for this purpose, production of the crude biosurfactant was found to be highest with glycerol (2.9+/-0.11 g L(-1)) followed by starch (2.5+/-0.11 g L(-1)), glucose (1.16+/-0.11 g L(-1)) and sucrose (0.94+/-0.07 g L(-1)). The crude biosurfactant obtained from glycerol, starch and sucrose media had significantly higher antimicrobial action than those obtained from glucose containing medium. RP-HPLC resolved the crude biosurfactants into several fractions one of which had significant antimicrobial action. The antimicrobial fraction was found in higher concentrations in biosurfactant obtained using glycerol, starch and sucrose as compared to the biosurfactants from glucose medium, thereby explaining higher antimicrobial activity. The carbon substrate was thus found to affect biosurfactant production both in a qualitative and quantitative manner.

  20. Candida lipolytica UCP0988 Biosurfactant: Potential as a Bioremediation Agent and in Formulating a Commercial Related Product

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    Leonie A. Sarubbo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential application of the biosurfactant from Candida lipolytica grown in low-cost substrates, which has previously been produced and characterized under optimized conditions as an adjunct material to enhance the remediation processes of hydrophobic pollutants and heavy metals generated by the oil industry and propose the formulation of a safe and stable remediation agent. In tests carried out with seawater, the crude biosurfactant demonstrated 80% oil spreading efficiency. The dispersion rate was 50% for the biosurfactant at a concentration twice that of the CMC. The biosurfactant removed 70% of motor oil from contaminated cotton cloth in detergency tests. The crude biosurfactant also removed 30–40% of Cu and Pb from standard sand, while the isolated biosurfactant removed ~30% of the heavy metals. The conductivity of solutions containing Cd and Pb was sharply reduced after biosurfactants' addition. A product was prepared through adding 0.2% potassium sorbate as preservative and tested over 120 days. The formulated biosurfactant was analyzed for emulsification and surface tension under different pH values, temperatures, and salt concentrations and tested for toxicity against the fish Poecilia vivipara. The results showed that the formulation had no toxicity and did not cause significant changes in the tensoactive capacity of the biomolecule while maintaining activity demonstrating suitability for potential future commercial product formulation.

  1. Agro-Industrial Wastes for Production of Biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis ANR 88 and Its Application in Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

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    Ashwini N. Rane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants, surface-active amphiphilic compounds, despite having a wide range of applications, have a high cost of production, which severely restricts their use. For cheaper production of biosurfactant, we investigated the potential of the indigenously isolated biosurfactant producing organism, Bacillus subtilis ANR 88, to grow on different cheap carbon sources (molasses, whey, and extracts of potato peels, orange peels, banana peels, and bagasse. We found that, B. subtilis ANR 88 used significant amounts of total sugar to produce cell biomass and biosurfactant. The biosurfactant production in minimal medium containing glucose as sole source of carbon was 0.207 g/l and the same with molasses as carbon source was 0.241 g/l. With whey as carbon source, isolate failed to produce biosurfactant. Amongst the extracts of the agro-wastes, the extracts of bagasse and orange peels gave 0.127 and 0.089 g/l of biosurfactant respectively. One-variable-at-a-time (OVAT studies carried out to optimize the production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis ANR 88 resulted into maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.513 g/l in medium: molasses 4%, ammonium ferric citrate 0.25%, pH 7. Plackett–Burman design based statistical method for optimization increased the production of biosurfactant to 0.746 g/l, which is 3.6-fold of that produced on glucose. The biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ANR 88 was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR; it showed that the biosurfactant contained alkyl as well as peptide groups. The biosurfactant of B. subtilis ANR 88 was found effective in the synthesis of silver as well as gold nanoparticles in the total absence of conventional chemical reducing agents. Interestingly, nanoparticles produced were almost uniform in their size and shapes i.e., spherical silver (4–18 nm and hexagonal gold nanoparticles (40–60 nm, as evident in TEM images.

  2. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by basidiomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-05-01

    BSs (biosurfactants) produced by various micro-organisms show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared with chemically synthesized surfactants. The numerous advantages of BSs have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries but also in environmental protection and energy-saving technology. Among BSs, glycolipid types are the most promising, owing to their high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. MELs (mannosylerythritol lipids), which are glycolipid BSs abundantly produced by basidiomycetous yeasts such as strains of Pseudozyma, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties, but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukaemia cells. MELs also show high binding affinity towards different immunoglobulins and lectins. Recently, a cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BSs should broaden their application in new advanced technologies. In the present review the current status of research and development on glycolipid BSs, especially their production by Pseudozyma yeasts, is described.

  3. Production of Biosurfactant in 2L Bioreactor Using Sludge Palm Oil as a Substrate

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    P. JAMAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sludge palm oil was utilized as a raw material for process optimization in a stirred tank bioreactor for the biosurfactant production. Optimized parameters include temperature, agitation and aeration while the pH and media compositions such as NaNO3, NaCl, FeSO4, Meat extract, and glucose have been fixed from the previous study. The design of this research was made by using the Design-Expert software (2 level factorial design. Surface tension was used as indirect indicator for biosurfactant production. After model validation, yield of biosurfactant was found to be highest when surface tension was at its lowest value (<24 mN/m at temperature of 300C , agitation 300 rpm and around 0.5 vvm of aeration with percentage error less than 10% between observed value and predicted value. The finding in this research can be applied to produce biosurfactant in large amount from the less expensive material such as sludge palm oil by using the same optimized model equation.ABSTRAK: Dalam kajian ini, enapcemar kelapa sawit digunakan sebagai bahan mentah untuk pengoptimuman proses dalam bioreaktor bagi penghasilan biosurfactant. Parameter yang dioptimumkan termasuk suhu, pergolakan dan pengudaraan manakala pH dan komposisi media seperti NaNO3, NaCl, FeSO4, ekstrak daging, dan glukos telah ditetapkan daripada kajian sebelumnya. Reka bentuk kajian ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan perisian Design Expert (2 Level factorial design. Tegangan permukaan digunakan sebagai penunjuk tidak langsung untuk penghasilan biosurfactant. Selepas pengesahan, hasil biosurfactant didapati terbanyak apabila tegangan permukaan pada nilai terendah (<24 mN/m pada suhu 300C, pergolakan 300 rpm, dan sekitar 0.5 vvm pengudaraan dengan margin perbezaan kurang daripada 10% antara nilai sebenar cerapan dan nilai yang diramalkan. Penemuan dalam kajian ini boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan biosurfactant dalam jumlah yang besar dari bahan yang murah seperti enapcemar kelapa

  4. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  5. Renewable resources for biosurfactant production by yarrowia lipolytica

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    G. C. Fontes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of a biosurfactant synthesized by Yarrowia lipolytica using different renewable resources as carbon source was investigated. Crude glycerol, a biodiesel co-product, and clarified cashew apple juice (CCAJ, an agroindustrial residue, were applied as feedstocks for the microbial surfactant synthesis. The microorganism was able to grow and produce biosurfactant on CCAJ and crude glycerol, achieving maximum emulsification indexes of 68.0% and 70.2% and maximum variations in surface tension of 18.0 mN.m-1and 22.0 mN.m-1, respectively. Different organic solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and chloroform - methanol were tested for biosurfactant extraction. Maximum biosurfactant recovery was obtained with chloroform - methanol (1:1, reaching 6.9 g.L-1for experiments using CCAJ and 7.9 g.L-1for media containing crude glycerol as carbon source.The results herein obtained indicate that CCAJ and the co-product of biodiesel production are appropriate raw materials for biosurfactant production by Y. lipolytica.

  6. Production and applications of biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis MUV4

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    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis MUV4 produced biosurfactant in shake-flask culture (200 rpm at 30oC with modified Mckeen medium containing 1% glucose as a carbon source, 1% monosodium glutamate and 0.3% yeast extract as nitrogen sources. The supernatant of B. subtilis MUV4 reduced the surface tension of the medium from 53.50 mN/m to 33.50 mN/m after 48 h of cultivation. The yield of crude biosurfactant from B. subtilis MUV4 after precipitating the supernatant with 6N HCl was 0.652 g/L. Growth kinetics studies showed the specific growth rate (μ of 0.14 h-1, yield of biomass to substrate (Yx/s of 0.713, yield of product to substrate (Yp/s of 0.072 and yield of product to biomass (Yp/x of 0.101. Moreover, B. subtilis MUV4 produced 0.30 g/L crude biosurfactant after 96 h of cultivation in the fermentor with agitation rate of 200 rpm without aeration and uncontrolled pH condition. The crude biosurfactant was dissolved in methanol and dried by vacuum evaporator (crude methanol. The supernatant, the crude biosurfactant and the crude methanol retained the biosurfactant activity over the pH range of 1-6, 7-10 and 4-10, respectively and the emulsion stability at 24 h (E24 at pH 7 were 66.67%, 33.33% and 33.33%, respectively. The supernatant and the crude biosurfactant showed surface tension activity at 4oC, room temperature (30±2oC and 50oC after incubation for 5 h. However, only crude methanol still retained surface tension activity after 100oC for 5 h. The surface tension activity of the supernatant and the crude biosurfactant was stable in 3-10% (w/v NaCl while crude methanol showed stability in 3-20% (w/v NaCl. However, all samples lost emulsion stability when NaCl concentration was higher than 5% (w/v. With sand pack column technique, crude methanol enhanced the recovery of crude oil and kerosene oil by 41.85% and 75.00%, respectively. In hydrocarbon degradation application study, the crude biosurfactant was added to the culture medium containing 0.3% crude oil

  7. Optimization of fermentation conditions for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis-1101%生物表面活性剂生产Bacillus subtilis-1101发酵过程优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志军; 王艳红; 阮洪生; 黄玉兰

    2012-01-01

    应用中心组合试验设计和响应面分析方法对影响枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis-1101产生表面活性剂的发酵过程进行优化.结果表明,枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis-1101产生表面活性剂的最佳发酵条件为发酵温度29.1℃,初始pH值为4.9,装液量为56mL.在此条件下进行实验,结果最大排油圈为7.08cm,与模型预测值接近.说明响应面分析方法是优化表面活性剂生产的有力工具.%The variables which affect the biosurfactant production of Bacillus subtilis-1101 were investigated through the central composite design combined with response surface methodology. Results indicated that the optimal conditions should be temperature 29.1%, initial pH 4.9, and the liquid volume 56mL respectively, and the maximum diameter of oil expulsion were 7.03 cm. The results showed that the experimental values agreed with the predicted values well. Results of these experiments indicated that response surface methodology was a powerful method for optimization of biosurfactant production.

  8. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Chopra, Harish Kumar

    2013-11-21

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc.

  9. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Lai, Hangxian; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-03

    Lipopeptides are known as promising microbial surfactants and have been successfully used in enhancing oil recovery in extreme environmental conditions. A biosurfactant-producing strain, Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a, was recently isolated from an oil-contaminated soil in the Ansai oilfield, Northwest China. In this study, we evaluated the crude oil removal efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a and their feasibility for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The production of biosurfactants by B. atrophaeus 5-2a was tested in culture media containing eight carbon sources and nitrogen sources. The production of a crude biosurfactant was 0.77 g L(-1) and its surface tension was 26.52 ± 0.057 mN m(-1) in a basal medium containing brown sugar (carbon source) and urea (nitrogen source). The biosurfactants produced by the strain 5-2a demonstrated excellent oil spreading activity and created a stable emulsion with paraffin oil. The stability of the biosurfactants was assessed under a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature (up to 120 °C), pH (2-13), and salinity (0-50 %, w/v). The biosurfactants were found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the biosurfactants were successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery, removing 90.0 and 93.9 % of crude oil adsorbed on sand and filter paper, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the biosurfactants were a mixture of lipopeptides, which are powerful biosurfactants commonly produced by Bacillus species. The study highlights the usefulness of optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and their effects on the biosurfactants production and further emphasizes on the potential of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a for crude oil removal. The favorable properties of the lipopeptide biosurfactants make them good candidates for application in the bioremediation of oil

  10. Production and antimicrobial property of glycolipid biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids such as rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) are an important class of biosurfactants with excellent surface tension-lowering activity. Besides their surfactant- and environment-friendly properties, however, additional value-added property such as bacteriocidal activity is n...

  11. Current status in biotechnological production and applications of glycolipid biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Pessôa, Marina Gabriel; Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Molina, Gustavo; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Biosurfactants are natural compounds with surface activity and emulsifying properties produced by several types of microorganisms and have been considered an interesting alternative to synthetic surfactants. Glycolipids are promising biosurfactants, due to low toxicity, biodegradability, and chemical stability in different conditions and also because they have many biological activities, allowing wide applications in different fields. In this review, we addressed general information about families of glycolipids, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, and trehalose lipids, describing their chemical and surface characteristics, recent studies using alternative substrates, and new strategies to improve of production, beyond their specificities. We focus in providing recent developments and trends in biotechnological process and medical and industrial applications.

  12. Mosquitocidal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, I; Aruna, R; Manonmani, A M

    2014-09-01

    A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. The present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium. Dynamics of growth, sporulation and production of mosquitocidal biosurfactant were studied by standard microbiological methods. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant was precipitated from the culture supernatant and bioassayed against immature stages of mosquito vectors to determine lethal dose and lethal time. The activity, biological and biochemical properties of the biosurfactant have also been studied. The pupal stages of mosquitoes were found to be more vulnerable to the biosurfactant produced by this bacterium with Anopheles stephensi being the most vulnerable species. The median lethal time (LT 50 ) was found to be 1.23 h when the pupal stages of the above species were exposed to lethal concentration LC 90 (9 µg/ml) dosage of the biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was found to increase with incubation time and maximum biomass, maximum quantity of biosurfactant (7.9 mg/ml), maximum biosurfactant activity (6 kBS unit/mg) and maximum mosquitocidal activity (5 µg/ml) were attained by 72 h of growth. The lipopeptide nature of the biosurfactant was confirmed by β-haemolysis, lipase activity, biofilm forming capacity, thermostability and biochemical analysis. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483) may be a prospective alternative molecule for use in mosquito control programmes involving bacterial biopesticides.

  13. Kinetic study and modeling of biosurfactant production using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Heryani

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: For further development and industrial applications, the modified Gompertz equation is proposed to predict the cell mass and biosurfactant production as a goodness of fit was obtained with this model. The modified Gompertz equation was also extended to enable the excellent prediction of the surface tension.

  14. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  15. Selection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for biosurfactant production and studies of its antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are generally microbial metabolites with the typical amphiphilic structure of a surfactant. This study investigated potential biosurfactants production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-10145 and Bacillus subtilis NCTC-1040 using glucose and n-hexadecane as substrates separately and compared it with the production in conventional medium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in BHMS (Bushnell hass mineral salt medium with glucose as substrate decreased the surface tension from 72 of distilled water to 32 mN/m, this strain had higher reduction than Bacillus subtilis among all the substrates tested. The selection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the separation of biosurfactant was determined. The crude biosurfactant was extracted from the supernatant and the yield of the crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Some surface properties of rhamnolipids biosurfactant were evaluated. It also showed antimicrobial activity against different bacteria and fungi strains. The crude biosurfactant showed good action as antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal species.

  16. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  17. Optimization of liquid-liquid extraction of biosurfactants from corn steep liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Devesa-Rey, R; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the optimization of the operational conditions for the chloroform-based extraction of surface-active compounds from corn steep liquor (CSL) was carried out and the nutritional properties of the remnant aqueous phase (CSL-less biosurfactant) was evaluated as microbial fermentation medium. The optimal conditions to obtain biosurfactants from CSL were as follows: chloroform/CSL ratio 2 (v/v), 56 °C at extraction times >30 min. At the optima conditions, 100 % of biosurfactant extract can be obtained from CSL, obtaining 12.0 ± 0.5 g of biosurfactant extract/Kg of CSL. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the biosurfactant extract was 399.4 mg L(-1). This value is similar to the CMC of cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant used in the formulation of nanoparticles. The extraction of biosurfactant can be also carried out at room temperature although in this case, the extraction yield decreased about 15 %. The extraction of surface-active compounds from agroindustrial streams can suppose important advances for the bio-based surfactants industry. Biosurfactants obtained in this work are not only more eco-friendly than chemical detergents but also can be cost competitive with its chemical counterparts. Furthermore, after the extraction of surface-active compounds, CSL-less biosurfactant was found to be suitable as nutritional supplement for lactic acid bacteria, maintaining its nutritional properties in comparison with regular CSL.

  18. Biosurfactant production by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its physico-chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize and optimize the growth media for biosurfactant production from Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea SNAU02, was able to reduce the surface tension to 34.4 mN m(-1) in MSM medium. The biosurfactant was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The GC-MS analysis shows that dirhamnolipid was detected in abundance as predominant congener than monorhamnolipid. The response surface methodology (RSM) -central composite design (CCD) was performed to optimize the media for biosurfactant production. The maximum emulsification index was obtained under the optimal condition of 29.31 g L(-1) mannitol; 2.06 g L(-1) yeast extract, medium pH 6.97 and 5.69 g L(-1) NaCl. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea recovered 92% of used engine oil adsorbed to a sand sample, suggested the potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility.

  20. Mosquitocidal Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: Dynamics of growth & production of novel pupicidal biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Geetha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483 producing mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal biosurfactant was isolated from mangrove forest soil. The present study was aimed at studying the kinetics of growth and production of the mosquitocidal biosurfactant by this bacterium. Methods: Dynamics of growth, sporulation and production of mosquitocidal biosurfactant were studied by standard microbiological methods. The mosquitocidal biosurfactant was precipitated from the culture supernatant and bioassayed against immature stages of mosquito vectors to determine lethal dose and lethal time. The activity, biological and biochemical properties of the biosurfactant have also been studied. Results: The pupal stages of mosquitoes were found to be more vulnerable to the biosurfactant produced by this bacterium with Anopheles stephensi being the most vulnerable species. The median lethal time (LT 50 was found to be 1.23 h when the pupal stages of the above species were exposed to lethal concentration LC 90 (9 µg/ml dosage of the biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was found to increase with incubation time and maximum biomass, maximum quantity of biosurfactant (7.9 mg/ml, maximum biosurfactant activity (6 kBS unit/mg and maximum mosquitocidal activity (5 µg/ml were attained by 72 h of growth. The lipopeptide nature of the biosurfactant was confirmed by β-haemolysis, lipase activity, biofilm forming capacity, thermostability and biochemical analysis. Interpretation & conclusions: The mosquitocidal biosurfactant produced by B. amyloliquefaciens (VCRC B483 may be a prospective alternative molecule for use in mosquito control programmes involving bacterial biopesticides.

  1. Soy molasses as a fermentation substrate for the production of biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marília Silva; Moreira, Felipe Santos; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; de Resende, Miriam Maria

    2017-07-13

    Soy molasses is a product co-generated during soybean processing that has high production and low commercial value. Its use has great potential in fermentative processes due to the high concentration of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. This study investigated the use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to produce biosurfactants in a soy molasses-based fermentation medium. A central composite design (CCD) was prepared with two variables and three replicates at the central point to optimize the production of biosurfactant. The concentration of soy molasses had values between 29.3 and 170.7 g/L and the initial concentration of microorganism varied between 0.2 and 5.8 g/L. All the experiments were performed in duplicate on a shaker table at 30.0 ± 1.0 °C and 120 rpm for 72 h with samples taken every 12 h. Thus, to validate the experiments, the values of 120 g/L for the initial concentration of soy molasses and 4 g/L for the initial concentration of microorganisms were used. In response, the following values were obtained at 48 h of fermentation: surface tension of 31.9 dyne/cm, emulsifying index of 97.4%, biomass concentration of 11.5 g/L, rhamnose concentration of 6.9 g/L and biosurfactant concentration of 11.70 g/L. Further analysis was carried out for critical micelle concentration (CMC) which was obtained at approximately 80 mg/L. The bands found in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis had characteristic glycolipids as reported in the literature. These values show a great potential for biosurfactant production using soy molasses as a substrate and bacteria of the species P. aeruginosa.

  2. Production, characterization, and antifungal activity of a biosurfactant produced by Rhodotorula babjevae YS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suparna; Borah, Siddhartha Narayan; Bora, Arijit; Deka, Suresh

    2017-05-30

    Sophorolipids are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants and have been successfully employed in bioremediation and various other industrial sectors. They have also been described to exhibit antimicrobial activity against different bacterial species. Nevertheless, previous literature pertaining to the antifungal activity of sophorolipids are limited indicating the need for further research to explore novel strains with wide antimicrobial activity. A novel yeast strain, Rhodotorula babjevae YS3, was recently isolated from an agricultural field in Assam, Northeast India. This study was primarily emphasized at the characterization and subsequent evaluation of antifungal activity of the sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by R. babjevae YS3. The growth kinetics and biosurfactant production by R. babjevae YS3 was evaluated by cultivation in Bushnell-Haas medium containing glucose (10% w/v) as the sole carbon source. A reduction in the surface tension of the culture medium from 70 to 32.6 mN/m was observed after 24 h. The yield of crude biosurfactant was recorded to be 19.0 g/l which might further increase after optimization of the growth parameters. The biosurfactant was characterized to be a heterogeneous sophorolipid (SL) with both lactonic and acidic forms after TLC, FTIR and LC-MS analyses. The SL exhibited excellent oil spreading and emulsifying activity against crude oil at 38.46 mm(2) and 100% respectively. The CMC was observed to be 130 mg/l. The stability of the SL was evaluated over a wide range of pH (2-10), salinity (2-10% NaCl) and temperature (at 120 °C for time intervals of 30 up to 120 min). The SL was found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the SL exhibited promising antifungal activity against a considerably broad group of pathogenic fungi viz. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium verticilliodes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, Corynespora cassiicola, and Trichophyton rubrum. The

  3. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...

  4. Optimization of rhamnolipid production by biodegrading bacterial isolates using Plackett-Burman design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mariam; Essam, Tamer; Yassin, Aymen S; Salama, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are biological surfactants produced by microorganisms. Pseudomonas species are well known for the production of the rhamnolipid biosurfactant. In this work, the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas spp. was investigated and further optimized. Two Plackett-Burman designs to study the effect of carbon source, nitrogen source, C/N ratio, iron concentration, magnesium concentration, phenol toxicity, pH, temperature, agitation and sampling time were tested. The first design revealed an optimization that increased biosurfactant productivity by almost two to fivefolds for the tested isolates. However, using the second design showed no remarkable increase in biosurfactant productivity. An additional validation run was adopted using the predicted optimal medium with predicted optimal conditions. The validation run showed remarkable increase in the productivity of the tested isolates. The use of microorganisms with biodegradation ability coupled with optimization of the parameters affecting productivity provides an efficient strategy for biosurfactant production.

  5. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  6. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli Isolated from Mangrove Sediments Using Alternative Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Catter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by a variety of microorganisms. To make biosurfactant production economically feasible, several alternative carbon sources have been proposed. This study describes biosurfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli isolated from mangrove sediments in Northeastern Brazil and cultured in mineral media enriched with waste cooking oil. The biosurfactants were tested for drop collapse, emulsion formation and stability and surface tension. P. aeruginosa performed better both at lowering the surface tension (from 69 to 28 mN/m and at forming stable emulsions (approximately 80% at 48 hours of culture. The strains tested in this study were found to be efficient biosurfactant producers when cultured on substrates enriched with vegetable oil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.771

  7. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  8. Simultaneous production of detergent stable keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis PF1 using agro industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Bhange

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to optimize simultaneous production of keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant from feather meal, potato peel and rape seed cake in a single media by response surface methodology to evaluate their biochemical properties for detergent additive. The optimization was carried out using 20 run, 3 factor and 5-level of central composite design on design expert software which resulted in a 1.2, 0.84 and 2.28 fold increase in protease, amylase and biosurfactant production. The proteolytic activity was found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 60 °C while optimum amylolytic activity was recorded at pH 6.0 and 70 °C respectively. Both enzymes were found to be stable in the presence of organic solvents, ionic and commercial detergent and oxidizing agents. The biosurfactant was extracted with chloroform and was found to be stable at varying pH and temperature; however a reduction in the activity was observed at temperature higher than 70 °C. The isolated enzymes and biosurfactants may find applications in the effective removal of stains.

  9. Production and characterization of biosurfactant produced by a novel Pseudomonas sp. 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, A; Srinikethan, G; Smitha, H

    2012-06-15

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from terrestrial samples collected in areas contaminated with petroleum compounds. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using Cetyl Tri Ammonium Bromide (CTAB)-Methylene blue agar selection medium and the qualitative drop-collapse test. An efficient bacterial strain was selected based on rapid drop collapse activity and highest biosurfactant production. The biochemical characteristics and partial sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate, 2B, identified the bacterium as Pseudomonas sp. Five different low cost carbon substrates were evaluated for their effect on biosurfactant production. The maximum biosurfactant synthesis (4.97 g/L) occurred at 96 h when the cells were grown on modified PPGAS medium containing 1% (v/v) molasses at 30 °C and 150 rpm. The cell free broth containing the biosurfactant could reduce the surface tension to 30.14 mN/m. The surface active compound showed emulsifying activity against a variety of hydrocarbons and achieved a maximum emulsion index of 84% for sunflower oil. Compositional analysis of the biosurfactant reveals that the extracted biosurfactant was a glycolipid type, which was composed of high percentages of lipid (∼65%, w/w) and carbohydrate (∼32%, w/w). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant indicates the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and methoxyl functional groups. The mass spectra (MS) shows that dirhamnolipid (l-rhamnopyranosyl-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-hydroxydecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoate, Rha-Rha-C(10)-C(10)) was detected in abundance with the predominant congener monorhamnolipid (l-rhamnopyranosyl-β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate, Rha-C(10)-C(10)). The crude oil recovery studies using the biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. 2B suggested its potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation.

  10. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria eAntoniou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on biosurfactant production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Results indicate that biosurfactant production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of biosurfactants that enables biodegradation of the crude oil. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of crude oil has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  11. Improved biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 mutant obtained by random mutagenesis and its application in enhanced oil in a sand system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2017-07-31

    Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of the environmental bioremediation as well as the petroleum industry and the enhanced oil recovery. However, the major bottlenecks in biosurfactant production are yield increase and cost reduction. Improving the bioindustrial production processes relies on many issues such as the use of cheap raw materials, the optimization of medium-culture conditions and selecting hyperproducing strains. The present work aimed to obtain a mutant with higher biosurfactant production through mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 using a combination of UV irradiation and nitrous acid treatment. Following mutagenesis and screening on blood agar and subsequent formation of halos, the mutated strains were examined for emulsifying activity of their culture broth. A mutant designated Bacillus subtilis M2 produced biosurfactant at concentration twice higher than the parent strain. The potential of this biosurfactant for industrial uses was shown by studying its stability to environmental stresses such as pH and temperature and its applicability in oil recovery process. It was practically stable at high temperature and at a wide range of pH and it recovered above 90 % of motor oil adsorbed to a sand sample.

  12. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  13. Biosurfactant and enzyme mediated crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Elumalai, Punniyakotti; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Sabarinathan, Devaraj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil...

  14. Utilization of banana peel as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production by Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooklin, Chanika Saenge; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated for biosurfactant production by using banana peel as a sole carbon source. From the 71 strains screened, Halobacteriaceae archaeon AS65 produced the highest biosurfactant activity. The highest biosurfactant production (5.30 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 35 % (w/v) banana peel and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate at 30 °C and 200 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small critical micelle concentration value (10 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity, and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and had the ability to emulsify oil, enhance PAHs solubility, and oil bioremediation.

  15. Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis and its application to oil removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Jardim Pacheco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nutrients on biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis was investigated. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer from 30 up through 150 mmol/L stimulated an increase in biosurfactant production, which reached a maximum concentration of 285 mg/L in shaken flasks. Statistical analysis showed that glycerol, NaNO3,MgSO4 and yeast extract had significant effects on production. The results were confirmed in a batchwise bioreactor, and semi-growth-associated production was detected. Reduction in the surface tension, which indicates the presence of biosurfactant, reached a value of 38 mN/m at the end of 35 hours. Use of the produced biosurfactant for washing crude oil-contaminated soil showed that 2 and 4 times the critical micellar concentration (CMC were able to remove 97 and 99% of the oil, respectively, after 1 month of impregnation.

  16. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOSURFACTANT BY Pseudomonas fluorescens USING CASSAVA FLOUR WASTEWATER AS MEDIA

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    Venty Suryanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant with efficient emulsification properties could be produced by Pseudomonas flourescens using cassava flour wastewater (manipueira as media. The ability of P. flourescens to produce biosurfactant could suggest potential use in industrial and environmental applications. Media containing a mixture of natural manipueira and nutrient broth with 48 h fermentation was the optimum condition for the biosurfactant production. Based on UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra, the biosurfactant was indicated as rhamnolipids containing hydroxyl, ester, carboxylic and aliphatic carbon chain functional groups. Biosurfactant exhibited critical micelle concentration (CMC value of 715 mg/L and reduced the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 59 mN/m. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension about 51-70% when benzyl chloride, palm oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant was able to form stable emulsion until 30 days when paraffin, soybean oil, lubricant oil and kerosene were used as water-immiscible compounds.

  17. Cost effective technologies and renewable substrates for biosurfactants' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; Satpute, Surekha K; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Patil, Rajendra; Nyayanit, Narendra V

    2014-01-01

    Diverse types of microbial surface active amphiphilic molecules are produced by a range of microbial communities. The extraordinary properties of biosurfactant/bioemulsifier (BS/BE) as surface active products allows them to have key roles in various field of applications such as bioremediation, biodegradation, enhanced oil recovery, pharmaceutics, food processing among many others. This leads to a vast number of potential applications of these BS/BE in different industrial sectors. Despite the huge number of reports and patents describing BS and BE applications and advantages, commercialization of these compounds remain difficult, costly and to a large extent irregular. This is mainly due to the usage of chemically synthesized media for growing producing microorganism and in turn the production of preferred quality products. It is important to note that although a number of developments have taken place in the field of BS industries, large scale production remains economically challenging for many types of these products. This is mainly due to the huge monetary difference between the investment and achievable productivity from the commercial point of view. This review discusses low cost, renewable raw substrates, and fermentation technology in BS/BE production processes and their role in reducing the production cost.

  18. Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Richard

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.

  19. Production of biosurfactant by hydrocarbon degrading Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus erythropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicca Flávio Correa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There is world wide concern about the liberation of hydrocarbons in the environment, both from industrial activities and from accidental spills of oil and oilrelated compounds. Biosurfactants, which are natural emulsifiers of hydrocarbons, are produced by some bacteria, fungi and yeast. They are polymers, totally or partially extracellular, with an amphipathyc structure, which allows them to form micelles that accumulate at the interface between liquids of different polarities such as water and oil. This process is based upon the ability of biosurfactants to reduce surface tension, blocking the formation of hydrogen bridges and certain hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The ability of biosurfactant production by five strains of Rhodococcus isolated from oil prospecting sites was evaluated. Surface tension measurement and emulsifying index were used to quantify biosurfactant production. The influence of environmental conditions was also investigated - pH, temperature, medium composition, and type of carbon source - on cell growth and biosurfactant production. Strain AC 239 was shown to be a potential producer, attaining 63% of emulsifying index for a Diesel-water binary system. It could be used, either directly on oil spills in contained environments, or for the biotechnological production of biosurfactant.

  20. Screening of cloud microorganisms isolated at the Puy de Dôme (France) station for the production of biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Pascal; Canet, Isabelle; Sancelme, Martine; Wirgot, Nolwenn; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-01

    A total of 480 microorganisms collected from 39 clouds sampled at the Puy de Dôme station (alt. 1465 m; 45°46'19'' N, 2°57'52'' E; Massif Central, France) were isolated and identified. This unique collection was screened for biosurfactant (surfactants of microbial origin) production by measuring the surface tension (σ) of the crude extracts, comprising the supernatants of the pure cultures, using the pendant drop technique. The results showed that 41 % of the tested strains were active producers (σ biosurfactant producers (σ biosurfactant production (45biosurfactants. We observed some correlations between the chemical composition of cloud water and the presence of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, suggesting the "biogeography" of this production. Moreover, the potential impact of the production of biosurfactants by cloud microorganisms on atmospheric processes is discussed.

  1. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  2. Production of Biosurfactants by Pseudomonas Species for Application in the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Aparecida M; Silva, Aline F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-02-01

      The production of surfactants by microorganisms has become an attractive option in the treatment of oil-contaminated environments because biosurfactants are biodegradable and less toxic than synthetic surfactants, although production costs remain high. With the aim of reducing the cost of biosurfactant production, three strains of Pseudomonas (designated P1, P2, and P3) were cultivated in a low-cost medium containing molasses and corn steep liquor as substrates. Following the selection of the best producer (P3), a rotational central composite design (RCCD) was used to determine the influence of substrates concentration on surface tension and biosurfactant yield. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water to 27.5 mN/m, and its CMC was determined to be 600 mg/L. The yield was 4.0 g/L. The biosurfactant demonstrated applicability under specific environmental conditions and was able to remove 80 to 90% of motor oil adsorbed to sand. The properties of the biosurfactant suggest its potential application in bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants.

  3. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexandecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, E.; Galabova, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Dept. of Microbial Biochemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoimenova, E.; Lalchev, Z. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Sofia Univ. ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-07-15

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g 1{sup -1}) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/water interface by 35 mN m{sup -1} and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg 1{sup -1}, which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. (orig.)

  4. Improvement of bread dough quality by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition: optimized extraction using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Besbes, Souheil; Ellouze-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2013-09-01

    Statistically based experimental designs were applied to Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant extraction. The extracted biosurfactant was tested as an additive in dough formulation. The Plackett-Burman screening method showed that methanol volume, agitation speed and operating temperature affect biosurfactant extraction. The effect was studied and adjusted using response surface methodology. The optimal values were identified as 5 mL methanol, 180 rpm and 25 °C, yielding predicted responses of 2.1 ± 0.06 for the purification factor and 87.47% ± 1.58 for the retention yield. Study of the incorporation of purified lipopeptide powder into the dough preparation in comparison with a commercial surfactant - soya lecithin - reveal that SPB1 biosurfactant significantly improves the textural properties of dough (hardness, springiness, cohesion and adhesion) especially at 0.5 g kg⁻¹. At the same concentration (0.5 g kg⁻¹), the effect of SPB1 biosurfactant was more pronounced than that of soya lecithin. Also, this biosurfactant considerably enhanced the gas retention capacity in the course of fermentation. These results show that SPB1 biosurfactant could be of great interest in the bread-making industry. A method for preparative extraction of lipopeptide biosurfactant with methanol as the extraction solvent has been effectively established. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Utilization of agroindustrial waste for biosurfactant production by native bacteria from chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yañez-Ocampo Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two agro-industrial wastes, namely Waste Cooking Oil (WCO and Coffee Wastewater (CW have been used as the carbon source for the production of biosurfactants, due to their low cost and high availability. Biosurfactant-producing bacterial isolates from the Mexican state of Chiapas were used. The selected biosurfactant-producer strains were evaluated in a liquid medium with 2% (v/v of WCO as the carbon source. The assay was conducted in an Erlenmeyer flask containing 300 mL aliquots of mineral salt media (MSM + residue and incubated at 100 rpm at room temperature for 96 hours. The biosurfactant produced in the samples reduced the surface tension from 50 to 30-29 mN/m. Strains A and 83 showed the maximum emulsification index at 58-59%. Strain A showed the highest biosurfactant yield with a production of 3.7 g/L in comparison with strains B, 83 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853. Our results suggest that the biosurfactant produced by strain A has great potential in the treatment of wastewater with a high content of fatty acids, and of soils contaminated by pesticides or oil hydrocarbons.

  6. Biosurfactant Production by Cultivation of Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 in Semidefined Glucose/Casein-Based Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; de Oliveira, Kátia Silva; Kobayashi, Márcio Junji; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Converti, Attilio

    Biosurfactants are proteins with detergent, emulsifier, and antimicrobial actions that have potential application in environmental applications such as the treatment of organic pollutants and oil recovery. Bacillus atrophaeus strains are nonpathogenic and are suitable source of biosurfactants, among which is surfactin. The aim of this work is to establish a culture medium composition able to stimulate biosurfactants production by B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. Batch cultivations were carried out in a rotary shaker at 150 rpm and 35°C for 24 h on glucose- and/or casein-based semidefined culture media also containing sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate, and soy flour. The addition of 14.0 g/L glucose in a culture medium containing 10.0 g/L of casein resulted in 17 times higher biosurfactant production (B max=635.0 mg/L). Besides, the simultaneous presence of digested casein (10.0 g/L), digested soy flour (3.0 g/L), and glucose (18.0 g/L) in the medium was responsible for a diauxic effect during cell growth. Once the diauxie started, the average biosurfactants concentration was 16.8% less than that observed before this phenomenon. The capability of B. atrophaeus strain to adapt its own metabolism to use several nutrients as energy sources and to preserve high levels of biosurfactants in the medium during the stationary phase is a promising feature for its possible application in biological treatments.

  7. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Raphael Accorsini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  8. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  9. Concurrent biosurfactant and ligninolytic enzyme production by Pleurotus spp. in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2014-10-01

    Pleurotus spp. is known as one of the significant producers of ligninolytic enzymes which efficiently degrade lignocellulosic materials. Recent studies on potential of biosurfactant production by Pleurotus spp. have increased. Biosurfactants have several positive features compared to synthetic ones. We investigated simultaneous and economic biosurfactant and ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase) production by Pleurotus djamore, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus sajor-caju in solid-state fermentation in three different growth media. Sunflower seed shell was used as solid substrate; hence, it was not only an alternative way to reduce environmental pollution but also a potential for production of valuable biotechnological products. During the study, oil spreading efficiency, emulsification index (E), surface tension (ST), and enzyme activities were assessed. Correlations between biosurfactant and enzyme activities were investigated. To results, the most active biosurfactant was produced by P. djamore in medium II (ST = 29.79 ± 0.5 mN m(-1); E 24 = 35.29 ± 2.6 %; diameter of clear zone = 3.5 ± 0.3 cm), and the highest LiP activity was determined as 5,832.26 ± 102 UL(-1). When FTIR was used to confirm the various functional groups, the results may indicate the protein-polysaccharide-lipid complex structure of produced biosurfactant. Degradation of several environmental pollutant compounds is a common usage area of biosurfactant and ligninolytic enzymes.

  10. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  11. Dataset on potential large scale production of biosurfactant using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Heryani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are very important in industry. The cost of commercial surfactant production is still high and the surfactant demand is constantly increasing. Microbial production of surfactant known as biosurfactant shows commercial potency. Utilization of Bacillus sp. strain on glucose fermentation for biosurfactant production was then studied. This type of microbe was isolated from soil contaminated with palm oil. The selection of the strain was based on its ability to form emulsifying zone around the colony and its capability to grow compared with those for commercial bacteria of Bacillus pumilus JCM 2508. The results showed a potentially promising strain with high biosurfactant yields and low surface tension. For further scale-up development, the microbe performance in a fermentor was compared with those in a flask and a proposed model to predict the kinetic profiles of cell mass, biosurfactant and surface tension were also described. The data presented here are related to the research article entitled “Kinetic study and modeling of biosurfactant production using Bacillus sp.” (Heryani and Putra, 2017 [1].

  12. Simultaneous production of lipases and biosurfactants by submerged and solid-state bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Rizzardi, Juliana; Pinto, Marta Heidtmann; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2010-11-01

    Lipases and biosurfactants are compounds produced by microorganisms generally involved in the metabolization of oil substrates. However, the relationship between the production of lipases and biosurfactants has not been established yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between production of lipases and biosurfactants by submerged (SmgB) and solid-state bioprocess (SSB) using Aspergillus spp., which were isolated from a soil contaminated by diesel oil. SSB had the highest production of lipases, with lipolytic activities of 25.22U, while SmgB had 4.52U. The production of biosurfactants was not observed in the SSB. In the SmgB, correlation coefficients of 91% and 87% were obtained between lipolytic activity and oil in water and water in oil emulsifying activities, respectively. A correlation of 84% was obtained between lipolytic activity and reduction of surface tension in the culture medium. The surface tension decreased from 50 to 28mNm(-1) indicating that biosurfactants were produced in the culture medium.

  13. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  14. Applying Neural Network to Dynamic Modeling of Biosurfactant Production Using Soybean Oil Refinery Wastes

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    Shokoufe Tayyebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. Production of biosurfactants via fermentation of immiscible wastes has the dual benefit of creating economic opportunities for manufacturers, while improving environmental health. A predictor system, recommended in such processes, must be scaled-up. Hence, four neural networks were developed for the dynamic modeling of the biosurfactant production kinetics, in presence of soybean oil or refinery wastes including acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soap stock. Each proposed feed forward neural network consists of three layers which are not fully connected. The input and output data for the training and validation of the neural network models were gathered from batch fermentation experiments. The proposed neural network models were evaluated by three statistical criteria (R2, RMSE and SE. The typical regression analysis showed high correlation coefficients greater than 0.971, demonstrating that the neural network is an excellent estimator for prediction of biosurfactant production kinetic data in a two phase liquid-liquid batch fermentation system. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicates that residual oil has the significant effect (i.e. 49% on the biosurfactant in the process.

  15. EFFECTS OF CULTIVATION MEDIA COMPONENTS ON BIOSURFACTANT AND PIGMENT PRODUCTION FROM Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

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    Subhasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiosurfactant and pigment production by P. aeruginosa have been known to be associated with its selfish growth and colonization. However, according to recent studies these products can be exploited for human benefits. In the present work the effects of culture media components on yield of these two products from P. aeruginosa PAO1 have been studied with statistical screening design experiments. Biosurfactant yield was found to be increased by two times in a modified medium. This study will help in further modifying the media composition for cheaper media development, kinetic modelling and fermentation strategy development.

  16. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  17. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL(-1). The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E24) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca(2+) ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca(2+) conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca(2+) concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL(-1) was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  19. Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant by a sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, R; Seghal Kiran, G; Hema, T A; Selvin, Joseph; Rajeetha Raviji, T; Shanmughapriya, S

    2009-10-01

    A sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10 was screened and evaluated for the production of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement method, lipase production and emulsification index. The active compound was extracted with three solvents including ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and dichloromethane. The diethyl ether extract was fractionated by TLC and semi-preparative HPLC to isolate the pure compound. In TLC, a single discrete spot was obtained with the R (f) 0.60 and it was extrapolated as valine. Based on the chemical characterization, the active compound was partially confirmed as lipopeptide. The optimum production was attained at pH 7, temperature 30 degrees C, and 1% salinity with glucose and peptone supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Considering the biosurfactant production potential of N. alba, the strain could be developed for large-scale production of lipopeptide biosurfactant.

  20. Utilization of Paneer Whey Waste for Cost-Effective Production of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed at isolating rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize paneer whey, an abundant waste source as sole medium for the production purpose. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, SR17, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil that could efficiently utilize paneer whey for rhamnolipid production and reduce surface tension of the medium from 52 to 26.5 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant obtained was 2.7 g/l, upgraded to 4.8 g/l when supplemented with 2 % glucose and mineral salts. Biochemical, FTIR, and LC-MS analysis revealed that extracted biosurfactant is a combination of both mono and di-rhamnolipid congeners. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was measured to be 110 mg/l. Emulsification activity of the biosurfactant against n-hexadecane, olive oil, kerosene, diesel oil, engine oil, and crude oil were found to be 83, 88, 81, 92, 86, and 100 %, respectively. The rhamnolipid was detected to be non-toxic against mouse fibroblastic cell line L292.

  1. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  2. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent

  3. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  4. Biofilm lifestyle enhances diesel bioremediation and biosurfactant production in the Antarctic polyhydroxyalkanoate producer Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribelli, Paula M; Di Martino, Carla; López, Nancy I; Raiger Iustman, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    Diesel is a widely distributed pollutant. Bioremediation of this kind of compounds requires the use of microorganisms able to survive and adapt to contaminated environments. Pseudomonas extremaustralis is an Antarctic bacterium with a remarkable survival capability associated to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production. This strain was used to investigate the effect of cell growth conditions--in biofilm versus shaken flask cultures--as well as the inocula characteristics associated with PHAs accumulation, on diesel degradation. Biofilms showed increased cell growth, biosurfactant production and diesel degradation compared with that obtained in shaken flask cultures. PHA accumulation decreased biofilm cell attachment and enhanced biosurfactant production. Degradation of long-chain and branched alkanes was observed in biofilms, while in shaken flasks only medium-chain length alkanes were degraded. This work shows that the PHA accumulating bacterium P. extremaustralis can be a good candidate to be used as hydrocarbon bioremediation agent, especially in extreme environments.

  5. Effect of biosurfactants on laccase production and phenol biodegradation in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Fang; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Li, Hui; Jiang, Li-Li; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2011-05-01

    The effects of two biosurfactants, tea saponin (TS) and rhamnolipid (RL), on the production of laccase and the degradation of phenol by P. simplicissimum were investigated in solid-state fermentation consisting of rice straw, rice bran, and sawdust. Firstly, the effects of phenol on the fermentation process were studied in the absence of surfactants. Then, a phenol concentration of 3 mg/g in the fermentation was selected for detailed research with the addition of biosurfactants. The results showed that TS and RL at different concentrations had stimulative effects on the enzyme activity of laccase. The highest laccase activities during the fermentation were enhanced by 163.7%, 68.2%, and 23.3% by TS at concentrations of 0.02%, 0.06%, and 0.10%, respectively. As a result of the enhanced laccase activity, the efficiency of phenol degradation was also improved by both biosurfactants. RL caused a significant increase of fungal biomass in the early stage of the fermentation, while TS had an inhibitory effect in the whole process. These results indicated that RL could mitigate the negative effects of phenol on fungal growth and consequently improve laccase production and phenol degradation. TS was potentially applicable to phenol-polluted solid-state fermentation.

  6. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepansh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C. Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient.

  7. Genomic and chemical insights into biosurfactant production by the mangrove-derived strain Bacillus safensis CCMA-560.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Daniela Ferreira; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; de Souza Galaverna, Renan; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Greenfield, Paul; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Melo, Itamar Soares; Tran-Dinh, Nai; Midgley, David; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia

    2015-04-01

    Many Bacillus species can produce biosurfactant, although most of the studies on lipopeptide production by this genus have been focused on Bacillus subtilis. Surfactants are broadly used in pharmaceutical, food and petroleum industry, and biological surfactant shows some advantages over the chemical surfactants, such as less toxicity, production from renewable, cheaper feedstocks and development of novel recombinant hyperproducer strains. This study is aimed to unveil the biosurfactant metabolic pathway and chemical composition in Bacillus safensis strain CCMA-560. The whole genome of the CCMA-560 strain was previously sequenced, and with the aid of bioinformatics tools, its biosurfactant metabolic pathway was compared to other pathways of closely related species. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry (MS) were used to characterize the biosurfactant molecule. B. safensis CCMA-560 metabolic pathway is similar to other Bacillus species; however, some differences in amino acid incorporation were observed, and chemical analyses corroborated the genetic results. The strain CCMA-560 harbours two genes flanked by srfAC and srfAD not present in other Bacillus spp., which can be involved in the production of the analogue gramicidin. FTIR and MS showed that B. safensis CCMA-560 produces a mixture of at least four lipopeptides with seven amino acids incorporated and a fatty acid chain with 14 carbons, which makes this molecule similar to the biosurfactant of Bacillus pumilus, namely, pumilacidin. This is the first report on the biosurfactant production by B. safensis, encompassing the investigation of the metabolic pathway and chemical characterization of the biosurfactant molecule.

  8. Production of Glycolipid Biosurfactants, cellobiose lipids, by Cryptococcus humicola JCM 1461 and their interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus humicola JCM 1461 efficiently produced cellobiose lipids (CLs), bolaform biosurfactants. The main product was identified as 16-O-(2″,3″,4″,6'-tetra-O-acetyl-β-cellobiosyl)-2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. The production yield of CLs reached 13.1 g/L under the intermittent feeding of glucose. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the main product at pH 4.0 and 7.0 were 3.3×10(-5) M and 4.1×10(-4) M respectively.

  9. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MSIC02 in cashew apple juice using a 24 full factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Maria Valderez Ponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of biosurfactants from cashew apple juice by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 was investigate by carrying out a 24 full factorial experimental design, using temperature, glucose concentration from cashew apple juice, phosphorous concentration and cultivation time as variables. The response variable was the percentage of reduction in surface tension in the cell-free culture medium, since it indicates the surface-active agent production. Maximum biosurfactant production, equivalent to a 58% reduction in surface tension, was obtained at 37°C, with glucose concentration of 5.0 g/L and no phosphorous supplementation. Surface tension reduction was significant, since low values were observed in the cell-free medium (27.50 dyne/cm, indicating that biosurfactant was produced. The biosurfactant emulsified different hydrophobic sources and showed stability in the face of salinity, exposure to high temperatures and extreme pH conditions. These physiochemical properties demonstrate the potential for using biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa MSIC02 in various applications.

  10. Production of a new glycolipid biosurfactant from marine Nocardiopsis lucentensis MSA04 in solid-state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, G Seghal; Thomas, T Anto; Selvin, Joseph

    2010-06-15

    Considering the need of potential biosurfactant producers and economic production processes using industrial waste, the present study aims to develop solid-state culture (SSC) of a marine actinobacterium for biosurfactant production. A potential biosurfactant producer Nocardiopsis lucentensis MSA04 was isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra. Among the substrates screened, wheat bran increased the production significantly (E(24) 25%) followed by oil seed cake and industrial waste such as tannery pretreated sludge, treated molasses (distillery waste) and pretreated molasses. Enhanced biosurfactant production was achieved under SSC conditions using kerosene as carbon source, beef extract as nitrogen source and wheat bran as substrate. The maximum production of biosurfactant by MSA04 occurred at a C/N ratio of 0.5 envisaging that a higher amount of nitrogen source is required by the strain compared to that of the carbon source. The kerosene and beef extract interactively increase the production and a stable production was attained with the influence of both factors independently. A significant interactive influence of secondary control factors such as copper sulfate and inoculum size was validated in response surface methods-based experiments. The surface active compound produced by MSA04 was characterized as glycolipid with a hydrophobic non-polar hydrocarbon chain (nonanoic acid methyl ester) and hydrophilic sugar, 3-acetyl 2,5 dimethyl furan. In conclusion, the strain N. lucentensis MSA04 was a potential source of glycolipid biosurfactant, could be used for the development of bioremediation processes in the marine environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical review on biosurfactant analysis, purification and characterization using rhamnolipid as a model biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2017-05-01

    Surfactants are one of the most versatile group of chemicals used in various industrial processes. Their market is competitive, and manufacturers will have to expand surfactant production in ecofriendly and cost effective manner. Increasing interest in biosurfactants led to an intense research for environment friendly and cost-efficient production of biosurfactant. Structural diversity and functional properties of biosurfactants make them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in wide variety of industrial, environmental and biotechnological applications. Screening methods make task easier to obtain potential biosurfactant producing microorganisms. Variety of purification and analytical methods are available for biosurfactant structural characterization. This review aims to compile information on types and properties of biosurfactant, microbial screening methods as well as biosynthesis, extraction, purification and structural characterization of biosurfactant using rhamnolipid as a model biosurfactant. It also describes factors affecting rhamnolipid production. It gives an overview of oil recovery using biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  13. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production. PMID:26413070

  14. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  15. Biosurfactants for Microbubble Preparation and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Shiina; Zengshe Liu; Mitsutoshi Nakajima; Qingyi Xu

    2011-01-01

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular im...

  16. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes.

  17. Avaliação cinética da produção de biossurfactantes bacterianos Bacteria biosurfactants production kinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Heidtmann Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants present advantages in relation to the synthetic surfactants, as the biodegradability and low toxicity, and can be applied in the food industry, in pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and in the petroleum recovery. This paper aimed at selecting bacteria for biosurfactant production, evaluating the surface tension and the emulsifying activity and studying the fermentation process kinetics. The pure culture of Corynebacterium aquaticum showed capacity to promote emulsions formation and presented the smallest surface tension (28.8 mN m-1, and, in general, larger kinetic parameters, being selected as biosurfactant producer.

  18. Production of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Novel Bacillus sp. and Its Applicability to Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds derived from varied microbial sources including bacteria and fungi. They are secreted extracellularly and have a wide range of exciting properties for bioremediation purposes. They also have vast applications in the food and medicine industry. With an objective of isolating microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, the study involved screening of organisms from an oil-contaminated site. Morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA analysis of the most promising candidate revealed it to be Bacillus siamensis, which has been associated with biosurfactant production, for the first time. Initial fermentation studies using mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil resulted in a maximum biosurfactant yield of 0.64 g/L and reduction of surface tension to 36.1 mN/m at 96 h. Characterization studies were done using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. FTIR spectra indicated the presence of carbonyl groups, alkyl bonds, and C-H and N-H stretching vibrations, typical of peptides. The extracted biosurfactant was stable at extreme temperatures, pH, and salinity. Its applicability to EOR was further verified by conducting sand pack column studies that yielded up to 60% oil recovery.

  19. Comparison of biosurfactant detection methods reveals hydrophobic surfactants and contact-regulated production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosurfactants are diverse molecules with numerous biological functions and industrial applications. A variety of environments were examined for biosurfactant-producing bacteria using a versatile new screening method. The utility of an atomized oil assay was assessed for a large number of bacteria...

  20. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  1. Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus salmalaya for Lubricating Oil Solubilization and Biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Dadrasnia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the capability of a biosurfactant produced by a novel strain of Bacillus salmalaya to enhance the biodegradation rates and bioavailability of organic contaminants. The biosurfactant produced by cultured strain 139SI showed high physicochemical properties and surface activity in the selected medium. The biosurfactant exhibited a high emulsification index and a positive result in the drop collapse test, with the results demonstrating the wetting activity of the biosurfactant and its potential to produce surface-active molecules. Strain 139SI can significantly reduce the surface tension (ST from 70.5 to 27 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.4%. Moreover, lubricating oil at 2% (v/v was degraded on Day 20 (71.5. Furthermore, the biosurfactant demonstrated high stability at different ranges of salinity, pH, and temperature. Overall, the results indicated the potential use of B. salmalaya 139SI in environmental remediation processes.

  2. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  3. Utilization of response surface for optimization of the production of a biosurfactant with application in the removal of petroleum-derived; Utilizacao de superficie de resposta para a otimizacao da producao de um biossurfactante com aplicacao na remocao de derivado de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Farias, Charles B.B.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The surfactants, amphipathic compounds capable of reducing the surface tension of aqueous media, find application in many industries, especially in the petroleum, cosmetic and food, such as dispersants, emulsifiers and surfactants. With the necessity of environmental preservation, surfactants of micro-organisms origin, in substitution of synthetic surfactants, have become very attractive, since they are biodegradable and less toxic although their production costs are still high because of the substrates used and of the purification processes involved. Considering the need to reduce costs associated with the production of microbial surfactants, a strain of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, isolated from the port area was cultured in medium containing low-cost agro-industrial wastes, molasses and corn steep liquor, as substrates according a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) in order to evaluate the influence of independent variables molasses and corn steep liquor concentrations on the response variable surface tension. The biosurfactant was able to reduce the water surface tension from 71 mN / m to values around 27.5 mN / m. The dispersion ability and the capacity of oil removal of the surfactant was demonstrated. The possibility of application of biosurfactants in the remediation of oil polluted environments motivates the advancement of research to develop this technology for effective use in treatment of contaminated soils and waters. (author)

  4. Biosurfactants for microbubble preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Liu, Zengshe; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-17

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed.

  5. Biosurfactant activity, heavy metal tolerance and characterization of Joostella strain A8 from the Mediterranean polychaete Megalomma claparedei (Gravier, 1906).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Graziano, Marco; De Domenico, Emilio; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2015-08-01

    The effect of heavy metals on the activity of biosurfactants produced by Joostella strain A8 from the polychaete Megalomma claparedei was investigated. Biosurfactant activity was first improved by evaluating the influence of abiotic parameters. Higher E(24) indices were achieved at 25 °C in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2 % glucose, 3 % sodium chloride (w/v) and 0.1 % ammonium chloride (w/v). Considerable surface tension reduction was never recorded. Heavy metal tolerance was preliminarily assayed by plate diffusion method resulting in the order of toxicity Cd > Cu > Zn. The activity of biosurfactants was then evaluated in the presence of heavy metals at different concentrations in liquid cultures that were incubated under optimal conditions for biosurfactant activity. The production of stable emulsions resulted generally higher in the presence of metals. These findings suggest that biosurfactant production could represent a bacterial adaptive strategy to defend cells from a stress condition derived from heavy metals in the bulk environment.

  6. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Anna L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH42SO4 and CH4N2O was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio of 60/1 and use of sodium nitrate as nitrogen source resulted in higher production of the rhamnolipid, expressed by rhamnose (3.16 g/L and by the yield in relation to biomass (Yp/x = 0.70 g/g. Additionally, physical-chemical characteristics of the spent broth with and without cells were studied, providing a low critical micelle concentration of 19 mg/L and toxicity values of 13 and 13.8 mg/L using two test organisms, the micro crustacean Daphnia similis and the bacterium Vibrio fisheri (Microtox, respectively.

  7. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Abdelmoneim, T S; Almaghrabi, O A

    2015-07-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface tension under a wide range of pH, salinities and temperatures gives bacteria isolate an advantage in many applications such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food industries and bioremediation in marine environment. The biosurfactant production by V. salarius decreased surface tension and emulsifying activity (30 mN/m and 80%, respectively). In addition to reducing the production cost of biosurfactants by tested several plant-derived oils such as jatropha oil, castor oils, jojoba oil, canola oil and cottonseed oil. In this respect the feasibility to reusing old frying oil of sunflower for production rhamnolipids and sophorolipids, their use that lead to solve many ecological and industrial problems.

  8. Effects of biosurfactant production by indigenous soil microorganisms on bioremediation of a co-contaminated soil in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, F.; Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The challenge of remediating soils that are contaminated with both hydrocarbon compounds and metals was discussed, with particular reference to an in-situ bioremediation technique that was developed in the 1970s to deal with contaminated soils. The technique involves a two-stage process where water with added oxygen and nutrients is applied onto and injected into a contaminated area to stimulate the indigenous microbial populations in the soil. In addition to using organic pollutants as their carbon source, microorganisms can facilitate the removal of metals from the soil matrix and attenuate the toxicity of certain metals. Extraction wells placed downstream of the contaminated soils are used to remove and treat the water to eliminate any mobilized contaminants. This paper presented the results of batch experiments that evaluated the feasibility of biosurfactant production for the purpose of bioremediating a soil contaminated with aged petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The first phase of the study examined the growth of the native microbial population and the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, the production of biosurfactant and the mobilization of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals into the aqueous phase. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was observed in both soil and soil amended with nitrogen and phosphorous. However, the nutrient-amended soil had higher biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, where 36 per cent of TPH was degraded by the end of the 50 day experiment, compared to 15 per cent for the non-amended soils. The concentration of biosurfactants in the same period increased 3 times their critical micelle concentration. It was concluded that biosurfactant production enhances the bioremediation of co-contaminated soils. 36 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. Isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing strains from the genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibacterial effects of biosurfactant production in vitro

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    Salman Ahmady-Asbchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membranes by a variety of microorganisms. Because of their use in various industries, they are of a particular importance. The aim of this study was to identify a strain of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa biosurfactant producers. Materials and methods: In this study, different samples of oil, water and soil contaminated with oil were prepared. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity and measurement of surface tension were used and selected strains were identified by biochemical tests. The nature and effect of antibacterial biosurfactant was evaluated for strain selection.Results: In this study, eighty eight bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty four strains were isolated from the isolated strains with hemolytic activity. Among which, 14 strains have emulsification activity more than 70% and at last four strains reached surface tension to be less than 40 mN/m. Selected strain based on biochemical tests was recognized as a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nature of biosurfactant was determined by TLC, and proved to be of glycolipid kind. Therefore, the produced biosurfactant of the selected strain had antibacterial activity against six bacterial infectious. Sensitive bacteria to the effects of biosurfactant extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa83, was Staphylococcus aureus and the most resistant bacteria to these extract, was the Proteus mirabilis. The results of MIC, MBC showed that MIC of the extract in concentration of 63 and 125 mg/ml on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Also, the MBC were extract in concentration of 63 and 125mg/ml on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively.Discussion and conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high potential in reducing the surface tension and biosurfactant extracted had high antibacterial effects. Therefore, it

  10. Production of biosurfactants for application in the removal of environmental contaminants generated in the petroleum industry; Producao de biossurfactantes para aplicacao na remocao de contaminantes ambientais gerados na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M. de; Farias, Charles B.B.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the application of microbial surfactants in removing crude oil and marine environment located in the proximity of the Pernambuco Thermoelectric. Two biosurfactants were produced by yeasts Candida sphaerica and C. lipolytica grown in industrial wastes during 72 and 144 hours, respectively. The surface tensions of the biomolecules (25 mN/m) were determined, the production yields were estimated (8 and 9 g/L) and the CMC determined (0.03%). The biosurfactants were applied to samples of sea water and rocks contaminated with petroleum and motor oil. The results demonstrated the oil dispersant action of the biosurfactant from C. sphaerica and the emulsifying ability of the biosurfactant from C. lipolytica. Percentages removals of 100% of oil and petroleum were obtained for both biosurfactants. The possibility of application of biosurfactants in the remediation of oil polluted environments motivates the advancement of research to develop this alternative technology for effective use in the Termope Thermoelectric treatment systems. (author)

  11. Sulfur source-mediated transcriptional regulation of the rhlABC genes involved in biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas sp. strain AK6U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El Nayal, Ashraf M; Ramadan, Ahmed R; Abotalib, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Despite the nutritional significance of sulfur, its influence on biosurfactants production has not been sufficiently studied. We investigated the expression of key biosurfactants production genes, rhlABC, in cultures of Pseudomonas sp. AK6U grown with inorganic or organic sulfur sources. AK6U grew with either inorganic sulfate (MgSO4), dibenzothiophene (DBT), or DBT-sulfone as a sole sulfur source in the presence of glucose as a carbon source. The AK6U cultures produced variable amounts of biosurfactants depending on the utilized sulfur source. Biosurfactants production profile of the DBT cultures was significantly different from that of the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The last two cultures were very similar in terms of biosurfactants productivity. Biosurfactants yield in the DBT cultures (1.3 g/L) was higher than that produced by the DBT-sulfone (0.5 g/L) and the inorganic sulfate (0.44 g/L) cultures. Moreover, the surface tension reduction in the DBT cultures (33 mN/m) was much stronger than that measured in the DBT-sulfone (58 mN/m) or inorganic sulfate (54 mN/m) cultures. RT-qPCR revealed variations in the expression levels of the rhlABC genes depending on the sulfur source. The DBT cultures had higher expression levels for the three genes as compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. There was no significant difference in the expression profiles between the DBT-sulfone and the MgSO4 cultures. The increased expression of rhlC in the DBT cultures is indicative for production of higher amounts of dirhamnolipids compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The gene expression results were in good agreement with the biosurfactants production yields and surface tension measurements. The sulfur source mediates a fine-tuned mechanism of transcriptional regulation of biosurfactants production genes. Our findings can have an impact on industrial production of biosurfactants and other biotechnological processes like

  12. Biosurfactants in plant-Pseudomonas interactions and their importance to biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aes, Jolien; De Maeyer, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Höfte, Monica

    2010-06-01

    Production of biosurfactants is a common feature in bacteria, and in particular in plant-associated species. These bacteria include many plant beneficial and plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., which produce primarily cyclic lipopeptide and rhamnolipid type biosurfactants. Pseudomonas-derived biosurfactants are involved in many important bacterial functions. By modifying surface properties, biosurfactants can influence common traits such as surface motility, biofilm formation and colonization. Biosurfactants can alter the bio-availability of exogenous compounds, such as nutrients, to promote their uptake, and of endogenous metabolites, including phenazine antibiotics, resulting in an enhanced biological activity. Antibiotic activity of biosurfactants towards microbes could play a role in intraspecific competition, self-defence and pathogenesis. In addition, bacterial surfactants can affect plants in different ways, either protecting them from disease, or acting as a toxin in a plant-pathogen interaction. Biosurfactants are involved in the biocontrol activity of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strains. Consequently, further insight into the roles and activities of surfactants produced by bacteria could provide means to optimize the use of biological control as an alternative crop protection strategy.

  13. Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat produces an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Sajith, Sreedharan; Unni, Kizhakkepowathial Nair; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a rumen bacterium, and optimization of parameters required for its production. Initial screening of five parameters (pH, temperature, agitation, incubation, and substrate concentration) was carried out employing Plackett-Burman design, which reduced the number of parameters to 3 (pH, temperature, and incubation) according to their significance on the yield of biosurfactant. A suitable statistical model for the production of biosurfactant by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 was established according to Box-Behnken design, which resulted in 11% increase (at pH 7, 35 °C, incubation 75 h) in the yield (2070 mg L(-1) ) of biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found stable at a wide range of pH (3-9) with 48 mg L(-1) critical micelle concentration; and maintained over 90% of its emulsification ability even after boiling and in presence of sodium chloride (0.5%). The highest cell hydrophobicity (37%) and emulsification (69%) indices were determined with groundnut oil and kerosene, respectively. The biosurfactant was found to inhibit the growth and adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus significantly. From the phytotoxicity studies, the biosurfactant did not show any adverse effect on the germinating seeds of rice and green gram. The structural characterization of biosurfactant employing orcinol method, thin layer chromatography and FT-IR indicated that it is a rhamnolipid (glycolipid). Thus, Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel isolate from Malabari goat is demonstrated as a producer of an efficient rhamnolipid type biosurfactant suitable for application in various industries.

  14. Evaluation of B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactants' potency for diesel-contaminated soil washing: optimization of oil desorption using Taguchi design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Sahnoun, Rihab; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2014-01-01

    Low solubility of certain hydrophobic soil contaminants limits remediation process. Surface-active compounds can improve the solubility and removal of hydrophobic compounds from contaminated soils and, consequently, their biodegradation. Hence, this paper aims to study desorption efficiency of oil from soil of SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant. The effect of different physicochemical parameters on desorption potency was assessed. Taguchi experimental design method was applied in order to enhance the desorption capacity and establish the best washing parameters. Mobilization potency was compared to those of chemical surfactants under the newly defined conditions. Better desorption capacity was obtained using 0.1% biosurfacatnt solution and the mobilization potency shows great tolerance to acidic and alkaline pH values and salinity. Results show an optimum value of oil removal from diesel-contaminated soil of about 87%. The optimum washing conditions for surfactant solution volume, biosurfactant concentration, agitation speed, temperature, and time were found to be 12 ml/g of soil, 0.1% biosurfactant, 200 rpm, 30 °C, and 24 h, respectively. The obtained results were compared to those of SDS and Tween 80 at the optimal conditions described above, and the study reveals an effectiveness of SPB1 biosurfactant comparable to the reported chemical emulsifiers. (1) The obtained findings suggest (a) the competence of Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant in promoting diesel desorption from soil towards chemical surfactants and (b) the applicability of this method in decontaminating crude oil-contaminated soil and, therefore, improving bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. (2) The obtained findings also suggest the adequacy of Taguchi design in promoting process efficiency. Our findings suggest that preoptimized desorption process using microbial-derived emulsifier can contribute significantly to enhancement of hydrophobic pollutants' bioavailability. This study can be

  15. Production of biosurfactants for environment remediation contaminated with oil and derivatives; Producao de biossurfactantes para remediacao de ambiente contaminados com petroleo e derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano Henrique Soares de; Guimaraes, Juliana Aguilar; Hiluy Filho, Joao Jose; Lopes, Ada Amelia Sanders [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: hiluy@ufc.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are emulsifiers of hydrocarbons produced by bacteria, yeast and fungi. They are polymers that form micelles and stay at the interface between liquid of different polarities. This work aim to study the development of the biosurfactant production process and its application related to oil sludge. This research has been done in three different steps: the Acinetobacter iwoffii inoculation, its growth in a nutritive broth and the fermentation under specific conditions. It was used three different kind of substrates: ethanol, glycerol and kerosene for comparison. The surfactant potential was evaluated by the emulsification indexes with suspension biomass and efficiency tests with oil sludge. Preliminary results show that biosurfactant production by Acinetobacter iwoffii can be a feasible process due to the satisfactory emulsification indexes that have been obtained. (author)

  16. Biosurfactants production in biofilm reactor and their recovery by pertraction [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chtioui, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on production and isolation of microbial surfactants with interesting properties for application in agriculture, petrol industry, pollution remediation and pharmaceutical fields. The biosurfactant production was performed by free and immobilized aerobic cells of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. This strain produces lipopeptides of the surfactin and fengycin families. The colonizing behavior of Bacillus subtilis strain was evaluated under several experimental and cultural conditions at different sterile solid materials with modified surface properties. After preliminary screening tests with five polymer materials, polypropylene foamed with powder activated carbon (PPch was selected for cells immobilization and production of lipopeptides. The aims of work are to develop a new technology using the specificity of a biofilm reactor as well as a perspective continuous separation based on a liquid membrane technique (known also as pertraction. Using the classical aerated reactor the lipopeptides generate extensive foaming that imposes difficulties on plant-scale process realization. In order to avoid this drawback, while using the new type reactor conditions, the air was injected over the surface of cultural medium. With this configuration, the biofilm on the solid support and the culture medium are alimented in oxygen directly from the interfaces. The obtained results showed that the production of both lipopeptides and especially of the fengycin was greatly enhanced by the immobilization. The longer time of preliminary cells colonization enhanced highly the production of surfactin, especially at the beginning of fermentation process (the first 24 h. This effect was less evident after 48 h fermentation. To confirm the applicability of the liquid membrane process to lipopeptides recovery from aqueous media, including fermentation broth, extraction behavior of the lipopeptides into organic solvents was studied. For both lipopeptides

  17. Biodegradation of 4-nitrotoluene with biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NT2: metabolic pathway, cell surface properties and toxicological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Debasree; Hazra, Chinmay; Dandi, Navin; Chaudhari, Ambalal

    2013-11-01

    A novel 4-nitrotoluene-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from pesticides contaminated effluent-sediment and identified as Rhodococcus pyridinivorans NT2 based on morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain NT2 degraded 4-NT (400 mg l(-1)) with rapid growth at the end of 120 h, reduced surface tension of the media from 71 to 29 mN m(-1) and produced glycolipidic biosurfactants (45 mg l(-1)). The biosurfactant was purified and characterized as trehalose lipids. The biosurfactant was stable in high salinity (10 % w/v NaCl), elevated temperatures (120 °C for 15 min) and a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). The noticeable changes during biodegradation were decreased hydrophobicity; an increase in degree of fatty acid saturation, saturated/unsaturated ratio and cyclopropane fatty acid. Biodegradation of 4-NT was accompanied by the accumulation of ammonium (NH4 (+)) and negligible amount of nitrite ion (NO2 (-)). Product stoichiometry showed a carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mass balance of 37 and 35 %, respectively. Biodegradation of 4-NT proceeded by oxidation at the methyl group to form 4-nitrobenzoate, followed by reduction and hydrolytic deamination yielding protocatechuate, which was metabolized through β-ketoadipate pathway. In vitro and in vivo acute toxicity assays in adult rat (Rattus norvegicus) showed sequential detoxification and the order of toxicity was 4-NT >4-nitrobenzyl alcohol >4-nitrobenzaldehyde >4-nitrobenzoate > protocatechuate. Taken together, the strain NT2 could be used as a potential bioaugmentation candidate for the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  18. Microbial products (biosurfactant and extracellular chromate reductase) of marine microorganism are the potential agents reduce the oxidative stress induced by toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, A; Kavitha, V; Radhakrishnan, N; Suseela Rajakumar, G; Sekaran, G; Mandal, A B

    2010-09-01

    The present study demonstrates hexavalent chromium reduction and trivalent chromium tolerance behavior of marine Bacillus sp., MTCC 5514 through its extracellular enzyme reductase and biosurfactants production. The isolate reduces 10-2000 mg/L of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium with in 24-96 h respectively and the release of extracellular chromium reductase, found responsible for the reduction. Upon reduction, the concentration of trivalent chromium in the medium found comparatively less. Experimental results reveal, biosurfactants activity found responsible for the less concentration of Cr(III). Hypothetically, trivalent chromium upon formation get entrapped in the micelle of biosurfactants, prevents microbial cells from exposure towards trivalent chromium. Thus, the chosen isolate exhibit tolerance and growth with the increasing concentration of chromium.

  19. Stimulation of diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by aminoglycosides in a novel oil-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas luteola PRO23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is promising technology for dealing with oil hydrocarbons contamination. In this research growth kinetics and oil biodegradation efficiency of Pseudomonas luteola PRO23, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil samples, were investigated under different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 g/L of light and heavy crude oil. More efficient biodegradation and more rapid adaptation and cell growth were obtained in conditions with light oil. The 5 to 10 g/L upgrade of light oil concentration stimulated the microbial growth and the biodegradation efficiency. Further upgrade of light oil concentration and the upgrade of heavy oil concentration both inhibited the microbial growth, as well as biodegradation process. Aminoglycosides stimulated biosurfactant production in P. luteola in the range of sub-inhibitory concentrations (0.3125, 0.625 μg/mL. Aminoglycosides also induced biofilm formation. The production of biosurfactants was the most intense during lag phase and continues until stationary phase. Aminoglycosides also induced changes in P. luteola growth kinetics. In the presence of aminoglycosides this strain degraded 82% of diesel for 96 h. These results indicated that Pseudomonas luteola PRO23 potentially can be used in bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated environments and that aminoglycosides could stimulate this process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31080

  20. Production and characterization of microbial biosurfactants for potential use in oil-spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M E; Colonna, W J; Patra, P; Zhang, H; Green, C; Reznik, G; Pynn, M; Jarrell, K; Nyman, J A; Somasundaran, P; Glatz, C E; Lamsal, B P

    2014-02-05

    Two biosurfactants, surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, were produced from genetically-modified strains of Bacillus subtilis on 2% glucose and mineral salts media in shake-flasks and bioreactors. Biosurfactant synthesis ceased when the main carbohydrate source was completely depleted. Surfactin titers were ∼30-fold higher than fatty acyl-glutamate in the same medium. When bacteria were grown in large aerated bioreactors, biosurfactants mostly partitioned to the foam fraction, which was recovered. Dispersion effectiveness of surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate was evaluated by measuring the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). The CMC values for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate in double deionized distilled water were 0.015 and 0.10 g/L, respectively. However, CMC values were higher, 0.02 and 0.4 g/L for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, respectively, in 12 parts per thousand Instant Ocean®[corrected].sea salt, which has been partly attributed to saline-induced conformational changes in the solvated ionic species of the biosurfactants. The DORs for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate were 1:96 and 1:12, respectively, in water. In Instant Ocean® solutions containing 12 ppt sea salt, these decreased to 1:30 and 1:4, respectively, suggesting reduction in oil dispersing efficiency of both surfactants in saline. Surfactant toxicities were assessed using the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, which is common in estuarine habitats of the Gulf of Mexico. Surfactin was 10-fold more toxic than fatty acyl-glutamate. A commercial surfactant, sodium laurel sulfate, had intermediate toxicity. Raising the salinity from 5 to 25 ppt increased the toxicity of all three surfactants; however, the increase was the lowest for fatty acyl-glutamate.

  1. Production and characterisation of glycolipid biosurfactant by Halomonas sp. MB-30 for potential application in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasayan, Asha; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Halomonas sp. MB-30 was isolated from a marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, and its potency in crude oil recovery from sand pack column was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by the strain MB-30 reduced the surface tension to 30 mN m(-1) in both glucose and hydrocarbon-supplemented minimal media. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactant obtained from glucose-based medium was at 0.25 mg ml(-1) at critical micelle dilution 1:10. The chemical structure of glycolipid biosurfactant was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The emulsification activity of MB-30 biosurfactant was tested with different hydrocarbons, and 93.1 % emulsification activity was exhibited with crude oil followed by kerosene (86.6 %). The formed emulsion was stable for up to 1 month. To identify the effectiveness of biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery in extreme environments, the interactive effect of pH, temperature and salinity on emulsion stability with crude oil and kerosene was evaluated. The stable emulsion was formed at and above pH 7, temperature >80 °C and NaCl concentration up to 10 % in response surface central composite orthogonal design model. The partially purified biosurfactant recovered 62 % of residual crude oil from sand pack column. Thus, the stable emulsifying biosurfactant produced by Halomonas sp. MB-30 could be used for in situ biosurfactant-mediated enhanced oil recovery process and hydrocarbon bioremediation in extreme environments.

  2. Effect of nutrients and fermentation conditions on the production of biosurfactants using rhizobacteria isolated from fique plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To isolate biosurfactant-producing microorganisms from the rhizosphere of fique and to select the best genus to evaluate theeffect of nutritional and fermentation conditions on the production of rhamnolipids. Materials and methods. Rhizospheric soil wassampled in three areas of Cauca. The best genus was selected for the experimental designs (Plackett Burman and 22 factorial and to find theproduction conditions for the growth kinetics at an Erlenmeyer flask scale. Results. Isolates from the rhizosphere of fique plants were fromgroups (or genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Actinomycetes, being Pseudomonas the more responsive in preliminary testing foremulsification. From the results of the experimental designs and the kinetics of production, we found that rhamnose synthesis associatedwith rhamnolipids (3.2 g/l and emulsification (68% EC24 was significantly favored (p <0.0001 by cultivating an inoculum of 10% v/vof Pseudomonas fluorescens in a medium composed of: soybean oil 2% (v/v, K2HPO40.2% (w/v, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, NH4NO33.7 g/l, 1 ml trace elements (CoCl320 mg/l, H3BO330 mg/l, ZnSO410 mg/l, Cu2SO41 mg/l, Na2MoO43 mg/l, FeSO410 mg/l MnSO42,6 mg/l and pH 7.2. Conclusion. Of all the microbial genera isolated from the rhizosphere of fique, Pseudomonas fluorescens had the greatestpotential in the production of biosurfactants of the rhamnolipids family.

  3. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  4. Biosurfactants and their role in oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, Michael J. [University of Oklahoma (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the role of biosurfactants in oil recovery. Types of biosurfactants include, among others, lipopeptides, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids. The process of oil recovery and the involvement of microbes are explained. The objective is to know if lipopeptide biosurfactants lower interfacial tension. Fatty acid composition is important for lipopeptide biosurfactant activity and microbial surfactants are hydrophilic and Interfacial Tension (IFT) values are high. Examples of biosurfactants with lower IFT values with mixtures are also given. An experiment was conducted to determine whether lipopeptides recovery entrapped oil or not. The procedure and experimental setup are shown. It is seen that with higher concentration of biosurfactants, the percentage of residual oil recovery is higher. Another experiment was conducted to see if biosurfactants greater than 40 mg/l can be produced in oil reservoirs. The experimental design and the analysis with the results are given. It was seen that more oil was produced. Conclusions from the study were, among other findings, that, in situ biosurfactant production and inoculation are possible.

  5. Coal induced production of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas stutzeri, isolated from the formation water of Jharia coalbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated form an enrichment of perchlorate reducing bacteria from the formation water collected from an Indian coalbed which solubilized coal and produced copious amount of biosurfactant when coal was added to the medium. It produced maximum biosurfactant with lignite coal followed by olive oil and soybean oil which was able to emulsify several aromatic hydrocarbons including kerosene oil, diesel oil, hexane, toluene etc. Haemolytic test, growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and FTIR analysis showed rhamnolipid nature of the biosurfactant. The stability of the coal induced biosurfactant in pH range of 4-8 and up to 25% NaCl concentration and 100 °C temperature suggests that due to its ability to produce biosurfactant and solubilize coal P. stutzeri may be useful in the coalbed for in situ biotransformation of coal into methane and in the bioremediation of PAHs from oil contaminated sites including marine environments.

  6. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Surfactants are chemical products widely used in our daily life in toothpaste and other personal hygiene and cosmetic products, and in several industries. Biosurfactants are surfactants of biological origin that can be produced by microorganisms and have many advantages, such as low toxicity and high biodegradability, compared to synthetic counterparts. Unfortunately, high production costs limit the use of biosurfactants. Low-cost production is the most important factor for biosurfactants to be able to compete in the global market place. This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications. In addition, industrial products and their wastes used for rhamnolipid production are reviewed in detail based on recent studies.

  7. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, t...

  8. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  9. In-situ production of biosurfactants: An alternative method for dispersing and bioremediating marine oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsen, K.; Sveum, P.; Ramstad, S.; Markussen, S.; Folkvord, K.; Krigsvoll, S.; Aune, R.; Storroe, I. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    A study of surfactant producing bacteria for the dispersion of oil spills was conducted. Isolation procedures, shoreline experiments, flume basin experiments, and simulated open sea meso-scale experiments and results were described. Bacteria strains were obtained from several locations world-wide, though more success was experienced with strains from colder regions. Two strains were used in the meso-scale experiment. A rapid reduction in the aliphatic fraction of the dispersed oil was observed. Most strains were found to be capable of dispersing crude oils with differing compositions. Efforts to emulsify oil-in-water on an artificial shoreline with biosurfactants producing bacteria showed only limited success in mobilizing the oil. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  10. Biomedical activity of biosurfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Krasowska

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of k...

  11. Biosurfactant/s from Lactobacilli species: Properties, challenges and potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Kulkarni, Gauri R; Banpurkar, Arun G; Banat, Ibrahim M; Mone, Nishigandha S; Patil, Rajendra H; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally believed to have positive roles in maintaining good health and immune system in humans. A number of Lactobacilli spp. are known to produce important metabolites, among which biosurfactants in particular have shown antimicrobial activity against several pathogens in the intestinal tract and female urogenital tract partly through interfering with biofilm formation and adhesion to the epithelial cells surfaces. Around 46 reports are documented on biosurfactant production from Lactobacillus spp. of which six can be broadly classified as cell free biosurfactant and 40 as cell associated biosurfactants and only approximately 50% of those have reported on the structural composition which, in order of occurrence were mainly proteinaceous, glycolipidic, glycoproteins, or glycolipopeptides in nature. Due to the proteinaceous nature, most biosurfactant produced by strains of Lactobacillus are generally believed to be surlactin type with high potential toward impeding pathogens adherence. Researchers have recently focused on the anti-adhesive and antibiofilm properties of Lactobacilli-derived biosurfactants. This review briefly discusses the significance of Lactobacilli-derived biosurfactants and their potential applications in various fields. In addition, we highlight the exceptional prospects and challenges in fermentation economics of Lactobacillus spp.-derived biosurfactants' production processes.

  12. Biosurfactant and Degradative Enzymes Mediated Crude Oil Degradation by Bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Preetham, Elumalai; Machuca, Laura L.; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the biodegradation of the crude oil by the potential biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis A1 was investigated. The isolate had the ability to synthesize degradative enzymes such as alkane hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase at the time of biodegradation of hydrocarbon. The biosurfactant producing conditions were optimized as pH 7.0, temperature 40°C, 2% sucrose and 3% of yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources for maximum production of biosurfactant (4.85 g l-1). Specifically, the low molecular weight compounds, i.e., C10–C14 were completely degraded, while C15–C19 were degraded up to 97% from the total hydrocarbon pools. Overall crude oil degradation efficiency of the strain A1 was about 87% within a short period of time (7 days). The accumulated biosurfactant from the biodegradation medium was characterized to be lipopeptide in nature. The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment. PMID:28232826

  13. Production of biosurfactant from Bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery and inhibition the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis has been isolated from oil reservoir; the ability of this bacterium to produce a biosurfactant was detected. Surface properties of the produced biosurfactant were confirmed by determining the emulsification power as well as surface and interfacial tension. The crude biosurfactant has been extracted from supernatant culture growth, and the yield of crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Also, chemical structure of the produced biosurfactant was confirmed using FTIR analysis. Results revealed that, the emulsification power has been increased up to 96% and the surface tension decreased from 72 of distilled water to 36 mN/m after 72 h of incubation. The potential application of this bacterial species in microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR was investigated. The percent of oil recovery was 16.6% upon application in a sand pack column designed to stimulate an oil recovery. It also showed antimicrobial activity against the growth of different strains of SRB (sulfate reducing bacteria. Results revealed that a complete inhibition of SRB growth using 1.0% crude biosurfactant is achieved after 3 h.

  14. Isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria from petroleum contaminated sites and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Batool

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are microbial amphiphilic compounds which can reduce surface tension between aqueous and hydrocarbon mixtures. Bacterial strains isolated from petroleum contaminated soil of various motor workshops were characterized morphologically and biochemically. Biosurfactant producing ability of the strains was determined and their emulsification activity was screened against different oils. All the selected bacterial strains showed enhanced biosurfactants production with yeast extract as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source at optimized conditions. These strains also exhibited multiple metal and antibiotics resistance. Isolated biosurfactants of three most promising strains SF-1, SF-4 and SM-1 were extracted by solvent extraction and subjected to TLC technique. The technique indicates the glycolipid nature of the compounds and presence of rhamnose sugar, which was further confirmed by FT-IR analysis. 16srRNA analysis revealed that SF-1 and SM-1 had close resemblance with Pseudomonas sp. while SF-4 showed homology with Enterobacter sp. Isolation and screening of biosurfactant producing strains from petroleum polluted places proved to be a quick and effective means to find bacterial strains with possible industrial uses.

  15. Metagenomics for the discovery of novel biosurfactants of environmental interest from marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen A; Borchert, Erik; O'Gara, Fergal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-06-01

    Research focused on the search for new biosurfactants aims to replace chemical surfactants, which while being cost-effective are ecologically undesirable. Metagenomics can lead to discovery of novel biosurfactants, tackling issues of low production yields. Recent successes include the heterologous production of biosurfactants. The dearth of biosurfactants discovered to date through metagenomics is puzzling given that good screening systems and heterologous host systems are available.

  16. Capability of a selected bacterial consortium for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20): enzyme and biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; Bücker, Francielle; Salamoni, Sabrina Pinto; Andreazza, Robson; De Oliveira Camargo, Flávio Anastácio; Bento, Fátima Menezes

    2012-01-01

    The search for alternative sources of energy, such as biodiesel, has been stimulated, since this biofuel is highly susceptible for biodegradation and has low toxicity, thus, reducing the impact in ecosystems. The objective of this study was to select a bacterial consortium with potential for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20) obtained from areas contaminated with hydrocarbons/esters. In order to evaluate the biodegrability of the blend, six enzyme assays were conducted: alkane hydroxylase, Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, Protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase, ρ-NPA hydrolysis (esterase), and release of fatty acids through titration (lipase), with estimative of total protein and biosurfactant production (surface tension measurement and emulsifying index E(24)). The best results obtained allowed the selection of four bacteria isolates (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) for compiling a consortium, which will be used for bioaugmentation strategies in soils contaminated with these fuels. This consortium exhibited high potential for biodegradation of biodiesel, and might be an efficient alternative for cleaning up these contaminated environments.

  17. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  18. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-products Spilled in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galdino Freitas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilisation (tyndallisation and the combination of fluent vaporisation with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631.

  19. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-Products Spilled in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Bruno G.; Brito, Juliana G. M.; Brasileiro, Pedro P. F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilization (tyndallization) and the combination of fluent vaporization with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631). PMID:27803697

  20. Bio-surfactants production from low cost substrate and degradation of diesel oil by a Rhodococcus strain; Production de biosurfactants sur un substrat economique et degradation du gasoil par une souche du genre Rhodococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadouk, Z.; Tazerouti, A. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Lab. de Synthese Organique, Faculte de Chimie, Algiers (Algeria); Sadouk, Z.; Hacene, H. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Lab. de Microbiologie, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Algiers (Algeria)

    2008-07-01

    The ability of a Rhodococcus strain to produce surface-active agents from residual sunflower frying oil (RSFO) has been screened in batch cultures. During cultivation with RSFO at the concentration 3% (vol/vol), the strain has synthesized extra-cellular compounds which increase the E{sub 24} emulsion index of the culture medium up to 63%. In their crude form, these substances lower the surface tension of water until 31.9 mN m{sup -1}. The exponential growth with RSFO as the sole carbon source has developed at a specific growth rate {mu} = 0.55 d{sup -1}. The critical micelle concentration of the crude product reached the value 287 mg L{sup -1} ({gamma}CMC = 31.9 mN m{sup -1}). After methyl-esterification, the lipid fraction of bio-surfactants has been analyzed by GC-MS in EI, which reveals the presence of fatty acid methyl esters. The microorganism was also cultivated with the diesel oil as the sole carbon source at the concentration 1% (vol/vol): the active growth phase has developed at rate = 0.02 d{sup -1}, without production of emulsifying substance: the microorganism seems to develop different modes of substrate uptake, according to the nature of the carbon source. The potential use of surface-active agents synthesized on RSFO by Rhodococcus erythropolis 16 LM.USTHB is in the oil industry with minimum purity specification, so that crude preparation could be used, at low cost, in clean-up of hydrocarbons contaminated sites and for enhanced oil recovery. (authors)

  1. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  2. Environmental applications for biosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties. - More information is needed to be able to predict and model the behaviour of biosurfactants.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production in DNA-supplemented Medium E. In addition to DNA or deoxyribonucleosides, nitrate, amino acids and vitamins were all required for anaerobic growth of JF-2. Bacillus mojavensisT (ABO21191), Bacillus mojavensis, strain ROB2 also required DNA or deoxyribonucleosides for anaerobic growth. The improved anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 was a prerequisite for studies that will lead to improved anaerobic biosurfactant production.

  4. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  5. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  6. Environmental applications for biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine N

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surfactants that are produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by bacteria, yeasts and fungi. Examples include Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, one of the few yeasts to produce biosurfactants, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. This review includes environmental applications of these biosurfactants for soil and water treatment. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. However, more information is needed to be able to predict and model their behaviour. Full scale tests will be required. The role of biosurfactants in natural attenuation processes has not been determined. Very little information is available concerning the influence of soil components on the remediation process with biosurfactants. As most of the research until now has been performed with rhamnolipids, other biosurfactants need to be investigated as they may have more promising properties.

  7. Biogeographical distribution analysis of hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing genes suggests that near-equatorial biomes have higher abundance of genes with potential for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg J; Figueiredo, Ricardo M; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; Minnicelli, Carolina; Carlos, Aline Cardoso; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2017-07-27

    Bacterial and Archaeal communities have a complex, symbiotic role in crude oil bioremediation. Their biosurfactants and degradation enzymes have been in the spotlight, mainly due to the awareness of ecosystem pollution caused by crude oil accidents and their use. Initially, the scientific community studied the role of individual microbial species by characterizing and optimizing their biosurfactant and oil degradation genes, studying their individual distribution. However, with the advances in genomics, in particular with the use of New-Generation-Sequencing and Metagenomics, it is now possible to have a macro view of the complex pathways related to the symbiotic degradation of hydrocarbons and surfactant production. It is now possible, although more challenging, to obtain the DNA information of an entire microbial community before automatically characterizing it. By characterizing and understanding the interconnected role of microorganisms and the role of degradation and biosurfactant genes in an ecosystem, it becomes possible to develop new biotechnological approaches for bioremediation use. This paper analyzes 46 different metagenome samples, spanning 20 biomes from different geographies obtained from different research projects. A metagenomics bioinformatics pipeline, focused on the biodegradation and biosurfactant-production pathways, genes and organisms, was applied. Our main results show that: (1) surfactation and degradation are correlated events, and therefore should be studied together; (2) terrestrial biomes present more degradation genes, especially cyclic compounds, and less surfactation genes, when compared to water biomes; and (3) latitude has a significant influence on the diversity of genes involved in biodegradation and biosurfactant production. This suggests that microbiomes found near the equator are richer in genes that have a role in these processes and thus have a higher biotechnological potential. In this work we have focused on the

  8. Production of sophorolipids biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophorolipid production was tested for 26 strains representing 19 species of the Starmerella yeast clade, including S. bombicola and Candida apicola, which were previously reported to produce sophorolipids. Five of the 19 species tested showed significant production of sophorolipids: S. bombicola, ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant production under extreme environmental conditions by alkali-halo-thermophilic bacteria from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elazzazy, Ahmed M.; Abdelmoneim, T.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three morphologically distinct microbial colonies were isolated from soil and sea water samples, which were collected from Jeddah region, Saudi Arabia for screening of the most potent biosurfactant strains. The isolated bacteria were selected by using different methods as drop collapse test, oil displacement test, blue agar test, blood hemolysis test, emulsification activity and surface tension. The results showed that the ability of Virgibacillus salarius to grow and reduce surface te...

  10. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept o...... the relative benefits and of using the state-contingent approach in a norma-tive context, compared to the EV model....

  11. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT, respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  12. Biosurfactants: promising bioactive molecules for oral-related health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-09-01

    Biosurfactants are naturally produced molecules that demonstrate potentially useful properties such as the ability to reduce surface tensions between different phases. Besides having similar properties to their artificial chemical counterparts, they are regarded as environmental friendly, biodegradable and less toxic, which make them desirable candidates for downstream applications. The structure-activity-related properties of the biosurfactants which are directly correlated with potency of the biosurfactants as antimicrobial agents, the ability of the biosurfactants to alter surface energies and their ability to increase bioavailability are particularly what attract researchers to exploit their potential use in the oral-related health applications. Current research into biosurfactant indicates significant future potential for use in cosmetic and therapeutic oral hygiene product formulations and related medical device treatments.

  13. Exponential fed-batch strategy for enhancing biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, G A

    2014-01-01

    Surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis BDCC-TUSA-3 from Maldex-15 was used as a growth-associated product in a conventional batch process. Maldex-15 is a cheap industrial by-product recovered during manufacturing of high fructose syrup from corn starch. Surfactin production was greatly improved in exponential fed-batch fermentation. Maldex-15 and other nutrients were exponentially fed into the culture based on the specific growth rate of the bacterium. In order to maximize surfactin yield and productivity, conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of the Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with the fermentation run supplied with 204 g Maldex-15. Up to 36.1 g l(-1) of surfactin and cell biomass of 31.8 g l(-1) were achieved in 12 h. Also, a marked substrate yield of 0.272 g g(-1) and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.58 g 1(-1) h(-1) were obtained, confirming the establishment of a cost-effective commercial surfactin production.

  14. Alternative methodology for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Krepsky

    Full Text Available Wide biosurfactant application on biorremediation is limited by its high production cost. The search for cheaper biossurfactant production alternatives has guided our study. The use of selective media containing sucrose (10 g.L-1 and Arabian Light oil (2 g.L-1 as carbon sources showed to be effective to screen and maintain biosurfactant-producing consortia isolated from mangrove hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment. The biosurfactant production was assayed by kerosene, gasoline and Arabian Light Emulsification activity and the bacterial growth curve was determined by bacterial quantification. The parameters analyzed for biosurfactant production were the growth curve, salinity concentration, flask shape and oxygenation. All bacteria consortia screened were able to emulsify the petroleum derivatives tested. Biosurfactant production increased according to the incubation time; however the type of emulsification (non-aqueous phase or aqueous phase did not change with time but with the compound tested. The methodology was able to isolate biosurfactant-producing consortia from superficial mangrove sediment contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and was recommended for selection of biosurfactant producing bacteria in tropical countries with low financial resources.

  15. Alternative methodology for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepsky, N; Da Silva, F S; Fontana, L F; Crapez, M A C

    2007-02-01

    Wide biosurfactant application on biorremediation is limited by its high production cost. The search for cheaper biossurfactant production alternatives has guided our study. The use of selective media containing sucrose (10 g x L(-1)) and Arabian Light oil (2 g x L(-1)) as carbon sources showed to be effective to screen and maintain biosurfactant-producing consortia isolated from mangrove hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment. The biosurfactant production was assayed by kerosene, gasoline and Arabian Light Emulsification activity and the bacterial growth curve was determined by bacterial quantification. The parameters analyzed for biosurfactant production were the growth curve, salinity concentration, flask shape and oxygenation. All bacteria consortia screened were able to emulsify the petroleum derivatives tested. Biosurfactant production increased according to the incubation time; however the type of emulsification (non-aqueous phase or aqueous phase) did not change with time but with the compound tested. The methodology was able to isolate biosurfactant-producing consortia from superficial mangrove sediment contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and was recommended for selection of biosurfactant producing bacteria in tropical countries with low financial resources.

  16. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S.

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  17. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  18. Emulsification of Hydrocarbons by Biosurfactant: Exclusive Use of Agrowaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Solomon Amodu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated environments that exclusively utilize agro-waste as their primary carbon source for the expression of biosurfactants. These were quantified using various standardized methods. Among the agro-waste screened, Beta vulgaris (Beetroot proved to be the most suitable substrate, for which the biosurfactants produced by three bacterial isolates–B. licheniformis STK01, B. subtilis STK02, and P. aeruginosa STK03–lowered the surface tension of the culture media to 30.0, 32.98, and 30.37 mN/m, respectively. The biosurfactants achieved considerable emulsification activity, particularly for heavy hydrocarbons, with the highest emulsification indices being 65.5% and 95% for anthracene and lubricant oil, respectively. The emulsion formed with lubricant oil was thermally stable even up to 50 °C for 21 days. The results showed the proficiency of the novel bacterial isolates used, as well as the suitability of solid agro-waste for biosurfactant production, thus suggesting that exclusive utilization of solid agro-waste is a promising option for use in biosurfactant production for environmental remediation. The outstanding emulsification activity and thermal stability demonstrated by the biosurfactants produced showed their potential applications in enhancing bioavailability and bioremediation of recalcitrant and hydrophobic environmental contaminants.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  20. Trehalolipid biosurfactants from nonpathogenic Rhodococcus actinobacteria with diverse immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyukina, Maria S; Ivshina, Irena B; Baeva, Tatiana A; Kochina, Olesia A; Gein, Sergey V; Chereshnev, Valery A

    2015-12-25

    Actinobacteria of the genus Rhodococcus produce trehalolipid biosurfactants with versatile biochemical properties and low toxicity. In recent years, these biosurfactants are increasingly studied as possible biomedical agents with expressed immunological activities. Applications of trehalolipids from Rhodococcus, predominantly cell-bound, in biomedicine are also attractive because their cost drawback could be less significant for high-value products. The review summarizes recent findings in immunomodulatory activities of trehalolipid biosurfactants from nonpathogenic Rhodococcus and related actinobacteria and compares their biomedical potential with well-known immunomodifying properties of trehalose dimycolates from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular mechanisms of trehalolipid interactions with immunocompetent cells are also discussed.

  1. Biosurfactant and Heavy Metal Resistance Activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Saltpan Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmipathy Deepika; Krishnan Kannabiran

    2010-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from the marine soil samples collected at the Ennore saltpan and were screened for biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Biosurfactant activity was evaluated by haemolysis, drop collapsing test and lipase production. Similarly heavy metal resistance was determined by tube method and agar diffusion method. Among them, two actinomycetes isolates VITDDK1 and VITDDK2 exhibited significant biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Based on the Hide...

  2. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene...

  3. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  4. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  5. Microbial biosurfactants and biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen P

    2010-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules having typical molecular weights of 500-1500 Da, made up of peptides, saccharides or lipids or their combinations. In biodegradation processes they mediate solubilisation, mobilization and/or accession of hydrophobic substrates to microbes. They may be located on the cell surface or be secreted into the extracellular medium and they facilitate uptake of hydrophobic molecules through direct cellular contact with hydrophobic solids or droplets or through micellarisation. They are also involved in cell physiological processes such as biofilm formation and detachment, and in diverse biofilm associated processes such as wastewater treatment and microbial pathogenesis. The protection of contaminants in biosurfactants micelles may also inhibit uptake of contaminants by microbes. In bioremediation processes biosurfactants may facilitate release of contaminants from soil, but soils also tend to bind surfactants strongly which makes their role in contaminant desorption more complex. A greater understanding of the underlying roles played by biosurfactants in microbial physiology and in biodegradative processes is developing through advances in cell and molecular biology.

  6. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

  7. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...... the adjoint method. We use an Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method for the integration and a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm for the constrained optimization. We use this algorithm in a numerical case study to optimize the production of oil from an oil...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%....

  8. Optimizing product lines and assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    How should manufacturers and retailers optimize the sets of products they offer? Increasing product proliferation forces firms to solve these complex optimization problems ever more frequently. While the existing literature has made some headway in solving these problems, the three essays in this

  9. Optimizing product lines and assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    How should manufacturers and retailers optimize the sets of products they offer? Increasing product proliferation forces firms to solve these complex optimization problems ever more frequently. While the existing literature has made some headway in solving these problems, the three essays in this di

  10. Evaluation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Arenahalli Ningegowda; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt

    2014-02-01

    The study details the investigations on the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194, an isolate from kanjika, a rice-based ayurvedic fermented product, to produce biosurfactant. Surfactant production, as a function of fermentation time, indicates that the maximum production occurred at 72 h under stationary conditions. Isolation, partial purification, and characterization of the biosurfactant produced have been carried out, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that biosurfactants were constituted by protein and polysaccharide fractions, i.e., possessed the structure typical of glycoprotein, which is affected by the medium composition and the phase of growth of the biosurfactant-synthesizing strain. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the biosurfactant was found to be 6 g l(-1). The emulsification index (EI), emulsification activity (EA), and emulsion stability (ES) values of the biosurfactant have confirmed its emulsification property. Aqueous fractions of the produced biosurfactant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogenic species: Escherichia coli ATCC 31705, E. coli MTCC 108, Salmonella typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica MTCC 859, and Staphylococcus aureus F 722. More importantly, the biosurfactant from L. plantarum showed antiadhesive property against above food-borne pathogens. The results thus indicate the potential for developing strategies to prevent microbial colonization of food contact surfaces and health-care prosthesis using these biosurfactants.

  11. The emulsifying effect of biosurfactants produced by food spoilage organisms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianah O. Ogunmola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food spoilage organisms were isolated using standard procedures on Nutrient Agar, Cetrimide Agar and Pseudomonas Agar Base (supplemented with CFC. The samples were categorized as animal products (raw fish, egg, raw chicken, corned beef, pasteurized milk and plant products (vegetable salad, water leaf (Talinium triangulare, boiled rice, tomatoes and pumpkin leaf (Teifairia occidentalis.They were characterised as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Serratia rubidaea, Corynebacterium pilosum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus laterosporus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus macerans, Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes eutrophus. Preliminary screening for biosurfactant production was done using red blood haemolysis test and confirmed by slide test, drop collapse and oil spreading assay. The biosurfactant produced was purified using acetone and the composition determined initially using Molisch’s test, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The components were found to be ethanol, amino acids, butoxyacetic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, lauryl peroxide, octadecanoic acid and phthalic acid. The producing organisms grew readily on several hydrocarbons such as crude oil, diesel oil and aviation fuel when used as sole carbon sources.  The purified biosurfactants produced were able to cause emulsification of kerosene (19.71-27.14% as well as vegetable oil (16.91-28.12% based on the emulsification index. This result suggests that the isolates can be an asset and further work can exploit their optimal potential in industries.

  12. The emulsifying effect of biosurfactants produced by food spoilage organisms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianah O. Ogunmola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food spoilage organisms were isolated using standard procedures on Nutrient Agar, Cetrimide Agar and Pseudomonas Agar Base (supplemented with CFC. The samples were categorized as animal products (raw fish, egg, raw chicken, corned beef, pasteurized milk and plant products (vegetable salad, water leaf (Talinium triangulare, boiled rice, tomatoes and pumpkin leaf (Teifairia occidentalis.They were characterised as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Serratia rubidaea, Corynebacterium pilosum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus laterosporus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus macerans, Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes eutrophus. Preliminary screening for biosurfactant production was done using red blood haemolysis test and confirmed by slide test, drop collapse and oil spreading assay. The biosurfactant produced was purified using acetone and the composition determined initially using Molisch’s test, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The components were found to be ethanol, amino acids, butoxyacetic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, lauryl peroxide, octadecanoic acid and phthalic acid. The producing organisms grew readily on several hydrocarbons such as crude oil, diesel oil and aviation fuel when used as sole carbon sources.  The purified biosurfactants produced were able to cause emulsification of kerosene (19.71-27.14% as well as vegetable oil (16.91-28.12% based on the emulsification index. This result suggests that the isolates can be an asset and further work can exploit their optimal potential in industries.

  13. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu T. Nguyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  14. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-02-18

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  15. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    of state-contingent production functions and a definition of inputs including both sort of input, activity and alloca-tion technology. It also analyses production decisions where production is combined with trading in state-contingent claims such as insurance contracts. The final part discusses...

  16. Biosurfactants in cosmetic formulations: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R

    2017-01-12

    Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.

  17. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  18. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively...

  19. On optimization of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltenmark, S.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term optimization of power production is treated. It concerns the problem of determining a production schedule for a power system, which minimizes the total cost of production, while satisfying various constraints. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, four chapters that each concerns a specific problem area (economic dispatch, unit commitment, hydro power planning and cogeneration optimization), plus a chapter with relevant theory. The emphasis of the thesis is on the mathematical structures that arise in problems in this field, and how to exploit them algorithmically. A recurring theme is convexification, either implicit, by dualization, or explicit, as in our approach to hydro power optimization. 134 refs

  20. Bacterial biosurfactant in enhancing solubility and metabolism of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoloi, N K; Konwar, B K

    2009-10-15

    Biosurfactant can make hydrocarbon complexes more mobile with the potential use in oil recovery, pumping of crude oil and in bioremediation of crude oil contaminant. In the investigation, bacterial isolates capable of utilizing poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorene were used. A gradual decrease of the supplemented hydrocarbons in the culture medium was observed with corresponding increase in bacterial biomass and protein. The medium having the combined application of fluorine and phenanthrene caused better biosurfactant production (0.45 g l(-1)) and (0.38 g l(-1)) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains MTCC7815 and MTCC7814. The biosurfactant from MTCC7815 (41.0 microg ml(-1)) and MTCC7812 (26 microg ml(-1)) exhibited higher solubilization of pyrene; whereas, MTCC8165 caused higher solubilization of phenanthrene; and that of MTCC7812 (24.45 microg ml(-1)) and MTCC8163 (24.49 microg ml(-1)) caused more solubilzation of fluorene. Higher solubilization of pyrene and fluorene by the biosurfactant of MTCC7815 and MTCC7812, respectively enhanced their metabolism causing sustained growth. Biosurfactants were found to be lipopeptide and protein-starch-lipid complex in nature and they could reduce the surface tension of pure water (72 m Nm(-1)) to 35 m Nm(-1). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was also lower than the chemical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). They differed in quantity and structure. The predominant rhamnolipids present in biosurfactants were Rha-C(8)-C(10) and Rha-C(10)-C(8).

  1. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  2. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in creosote contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezza, Fisseha Andualem; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2016-02-01

    The potential for biological treatment of an environment contaminated by complex petrochemical contaminants was evaluated using creosote contaminated soil in ex situ bio-slurry reactors. The efficacy of biosurfactant application and stimulation of in situ biosurfactant production was investigated. The biosurfactant produced was purified and characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Biosurfactant enhanced degradation of PAHs was 86.5% (with addition of biosurfactant) and 57% in controls with no biosurfactant and nutrient amendments after incubation for 45 days. A slight decrease in degradation rate observed in the simultaneous biosurfactant and nutrient, NH4NO3 and KH2PO4, supplemented microcosm can be attributed to preferential microbial consumption of the biosurfactant supplemented. The overall removal of PAHs was determined to be mass transport limited since the dissolution rate caused by the biosurfactant enhanced the bioavailability of the PAHs to the microorganisms. The consortium culture was predominated by the aromatic ring-cleaving species Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants with biosurfactant produced by a newly isolated petroleum oil degrading bacterial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Borah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based hydrocarbon degrading and biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated from an automobile engine. The strain was identified as Bacillus cereus DRDU1 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. The strain was found to be efficiently degrading 96% of kerosene making it a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum based contaminants. Production and optimization of the biosurfactant produced by the isolate were also carried out. Surface hydrophobicity trait of isolate was found to be 60.67 ± 1.53% and foaming percentage of the crude biosurfactant was found to be 31.33 ± 0.58%. The presence of amino acids and sugar moieties in the biosurfactant was confirmed by biochemical tests and were further validated by FTIR (the Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analysis revealing the presence of υOH, υCOO, υCOOH, υCH (stretching, υNH, υCH2, υCH3, and υCH (bending, and υCO (ester in the surfactant. The decrease in contact angle of hydrocarbon oil from (30.67 ± 1.15° to (21.3 ± 1.53° respectively after 3 and 6 days of incubation reveals its potential to emulsify petroleum oil. Further, emulsification index (E24 of biosurfactant against kerosene, crude oil, and used engine oil were determined to be 55.33 ± 1.53%, 29.67 ± 1.53%, and 20 ± 1% respectively which attracts its future application in MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery process.

  4. Characterization of biosurfactants and their use in pollution removal - state of the art (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, I.M. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al-Ain, Abu-Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Surface-active compounds of biological origin (biosurfactants) have only been described in the past few decades. With the advantage of biodegradability and production on renewable resources, biosurfactants have been gaining prominence and their applications are becoming wider. So far, literature contains mixed reports on the successes of the applications of biosurfactants and their economical viability. They remain compounds which are not very well understood, yet, with several important applications. The target industries for biosurfactant use are the petroleum remediation industries and environmental conservation agencies. These industries, however, seem reluctant to use them for fear of dealing with microbes or microbial products. This includes cleaning up oil spills from the environment, remediation of metal-contamined soils or waste streams, mobilizing heavy oil sludge and enhanced oil recovery. The importance of biosurfactants, their production, characteristics and limited successes and applications in oil pollution remediation and oil storage tank cleaning are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Adsorption-desorption process using wood-based activated carbon for recovery of biosurfactant from fermented distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kirti V; Juwarkar, Asha A; Singh, S K

    2005-01-01

    Methods used for biosurfactant recovery include solvent extraction, precipitation, crystallization, centrifugation and foam fractionation. These methods cannot be used when distillery wastewater (DW) is used as the nutrient medium for biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2, because recovery of biosurfactant by any of these methods imparts color to the biosurfactant. The biosurfactant has a nonaesthetic appearance with lowered surface active properties. These methods cannot be used for continuous recovery of biosurfactant during cultivation. Hence, a new downstream technique for biosurfactant recovery from fermented DW comprised of adsorption-desorption processes using wood-based activated carbon (WAC) was developed. This study involves batch experiments to standardize the factors affecting the rate of biosurfactant adsorption onto WAC. WAC was the most efficient adsorbent among various ones tested (i.e., silica gel, activated alumina and zeolite). The WAC (1% w v(-1)), equilibrium time (90 min), pH range of 5-10 and temperature of 40 degrees C were optimum to achieve 99.5% adsorption efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and intraparticle diffusion studies revealed the involvement of both boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm of WAC indicated the formation of a monolayer coverage of the biosurfactant over a homogeneous carbon surface, while the Freundlich isotherm showed high adsorption at strong solute concentrations and low adsorption at dilute solute concentrations. WAC concentration of 4% w v(-1) facilitated complete removal of the biosurfactant from collapsed foam (contained 5-fold higher concentration of biosurfactant than was present in fermented DW). Biosurfactant adsorption was of chemisorption type. Acetone (polar solvent) was a specific viable eluant screened among various ones tested because it selectively facilitated maximum recovery, i.e., 89% biosurfactant from WAC. By acetone

  6. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by Bacillus subtilis using response surface model-based ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Satya Eswari; M Anand; C Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to obtain data for Lipopeptide and Biomass concentrations from fermentation medium containing the following five components: glucose,monosodium glutamate, yeast extract,MgSO4·7H2O, and K2HPO4. Data was used to develop a second order regression response surface model (RSM) which was coupled with ant colony optimization (ACO) to optimize the media compositions so as to enhance the productivity of lipopeptide. The optimized media by ACO was found to yield 1.501 g/L of lipopeptide concentration which was much higher compared to 1.387 g/L predicted by Nelder–Mead optimization (NMO). The optimum from ACO was validated experimentally. RSM-based ACO is thus shown to be an effective tool for medium optimization of biosurfactant production.

  7. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  8. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  9. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-03-18

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  10. Biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01 isolated from spoiled apples: physicochemical and structural characteristics of isolated biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Habib; Hamedi, Mir Manochehr; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ortiz, Antonio; Amanlou, Massoud; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2012-02-01

    An extensive investigation was conducted to isolate indigenous bacterial strains with outstanding performance for biosurfactant production from different types of spoiled fruits, food-related products and food processing industries. An isolate was selected from 800 by the highest biosurfactant yield in soybean oil medium and it was identified by 16S rRNA and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01. The isolate was able to produce 12 g/l of a glycolipid-type biosurfactant and generally less efficient to emulsify vegetable oils compared to hydrocarbons and could emulsify corn and coconut oils more than 50%. However, emulsification index (E(24)) of different hydrocarbons including hexane, toluene, xylene, brake oil, kerosene and hexadecane was between 55.8% and 100%. The surface tension of pure water decreased gradually with increasing biosurfactant concentration to 32.5 mNm(-1) with critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 10.1mg/l. Among all carbon substrates examined, vegetable oils were the most effective on biosurfactant production. Two glycolipid fractions were purified from the biosurfactant crude extracts, and FTIR and ES-MS were used to determine the structure of these compounds. The analysis indicated the presence of three major monorhamnolipid species: R(1)C(10)C(10), R(1)C(10)C(12:1), and R(1)C(10)C(12); as well as another three major dirhamnolipid species: R(2)C(10)C(10), R(2)C(10)C(12:1), and R(2)C(10)C(12). The strain sweep experiment for measuring the linear viscoelastic of biosurfactant showed that typical behavior characteristics of a weak viscoelastic gel, with storage modulus greater than loss modulus at all frequencies examined, both showing some frequency dependence.

  11. Individually and Synergistic Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirarsalan Kavyanifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing worldwide contamination with hydrocarbons has urged environmental remediation using biological agents such as bacteria. Our goal here was to study the phylogenetic relationship of two crude oil degrader bacteria and investigation of their ability to degrade hydrocarbons. Materials and Methods: Phylogenetic relationship of isolates was determined using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Optimum conditions of each isolate for crude oil degradation were investigated using one factor in time method. The rate of crude oil degradation by individual and consortium bacteria was assayed via Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Biosurfactant production was measured by Du Noüy ring method using Krüss-K6 tensiometer. Results: The isolates were identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 and Dietzia cinnamea AP and clustered separately, while both are closely related to each other and with other isolates of Dietzia cinnamea. The optimal conditions for D. cinnamea KA1 were 35°C, pH9.0, 510 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4. In the case of D. cinnamea AP, the values were 30°C, pH8.0, 170 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 55.8 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4, respectively. Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS analysis showed that both isolates were able to utilize various crude oil compounds, but D. cinnamea KA1 was more efficient individually and consortium of isolates was the most. The isolates were able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil and optimization of MSM conditions lead to increase in biosurfactant production. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of synergistic relationship between two strains of D. cinnamea in biodegradation of crude oil components, including poisonous and carcinogenic compound in a short time.

  12. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review.

  13. Co-produção de lipase e biossurfactante em estado sólido para utilização em biorremediação de óleos vegetais e hidrocarbonetos Lipases and biosurfactant production by solid state fermentation for utilization in bioremediation of vegetable oils and hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilásia Guimarães Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently lipases have been increasing in prominence due to its wide industrial application. The lipase production can be influenced by different variables such as the producing microorganism, carbon sources, aeration and agitation conditions, inductor type and the geometry of the reactor. Biosurfactants are composites of surface active produced by microbial cells which reduce superficial and interfacial tensions. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of different process variables in the lipase production during a fermentative process. The results showed that the concomitant production of lipases and biosurfactant was possible in different cultivation conditions.

  14. Biogenic Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles Using a Biosurfactant Extracted from Corn and Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez-Graña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new and promising biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been used for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs in a one-step procedure induced by temperature. Most of the biosurfactants proposed in the literature are produced by pathogenic microorganisms; whereas the biosurfactant used in the current work was extracted from a liquid stream, fermented spontaneously by lactic acid bacteria, which are “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS microorganisms. The reduction of a gold precursor in the presence of a biosurfactant gives rise to a mixture of nanospheres and nanoplates with distinct optical features. Moreover, the growth of nanoplates can be promoted by increasing the reaction temperature to 60 °C. In the case of silver, the biosurfactant just induces the formation of pseudo-spherical NPs. The biosurfactant plays a key role in the reduction of the metal precursor, as well as in the stabilization of the resulting NPs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the resulting silver colloids has been analyzed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The biosurfactant stabilized NPs slightly increased the inhibition of E. coli in comparison with citrate stabilized Ag NPs. The use of this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor for the synthesis of metal NPs contributes to enhancing the application of green technologies and increasing the utilization of clean, non-toxic and environmentally safe production processes. Therefore, it can help to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency in the field of nanomaterials.

  15. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  16. Synthesis of rhamnolipid biosurfactant and mode of hexadecane uptake by Pseudomonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pooja

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms have devised ways by which they increase the bioavailability of many water immiscible substrates whose degradation rates are limited by their low water solubility. Hexadecane is one such water immiscible hydrocarbon substrate which forms an important constituent of oil. One major mechanism employed by hydrocarbon degrading organisms to utilize such substrates is the production of biosurfactants. However, much of the overall mechanism by which such organisms utilize hydrocarbon substrate still remains a mystery. Results With an aim to gain more insight into hydrocarbon uptake mechanism, an efficient biosurfactant producing and n-hexadecane utilizing Pseudomonas sp was isolated from oil contaminated soil which was found to produce rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant containing a total of 13 congeners. Biosurfactant action brought about the dispersion of hexadecane to droplets smaller than 0.22 μm increasing the availability of the hydrocarbon to the degrading organism. Involvement of biosurfactant was further confirmed by electron microscopic studies. Biosurfactant formed an emulsion with hexadecane thereby facilitating increased contact between hydrocarbon and the degrading bacteria. Interestingly, it was observed that "internalization" of "biosurfactant layered hydrocarbon droplet" was taking place suggesting a mechanism similar in appearance to active pinocytosis, a fact not earlier visually reported in bacterial systems for hydrocarbon uptake. Conclusion This study throws more light on the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report here a new and exciting line of research for hydrocarbon uptake involving internalization of biosurfactant covered hydrocarbon inside cell for subsequent breakdown.

  17. Study on mechanisms of biosurfactant-enhanced composting technology for waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.Y.; Huang, G.H.; Chen, B.; Xi, B.D.; Maqsood, I. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Composting is increasingly being used for solid waste treatment. The efficiency of solid waste composting might be enhanced using biosurfactants produced by microbial activities. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of biosurfactant on solid waste biodegradation throughout the composting process. The method employed involves shredding solid waste, followed by a treatment in an 8-litre (L) batch reactor. Biosurfactant production was monitored daily along with characteristics and maturity degree. Surface tension and emulsification capacity were of particular concern. The measurement of indices such as humic acid carbon (CHA) and fulvic acid carbon (CFA) were used to evaluate the maturity degree. The results indicated that the highest level of biosurfactant concentration was achieved on the third day, and within two days, related emulsification capacity reached its peak. This study confirmed the presence of biosurfactants and their function during the composting process. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  19. Antimicrobial activities of a promising glycolipid biosurfactant from a novel marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, P; Dineshkumar, G; Jayaseelan, T; Deepalakshmi, K; Ganesh Kumar, C; Senthil Balan, S

    2016-12-01

    Biosurfactants have gained a renewed interest in the recent years for their commercial application in diverse research areas. Recent evidences suggest that the antimicrobial activities exhibited by biosurfactants make them promising molecules for the application in the field of therapeutics. Marine microbes are well known for their unique metabolic and functional properties; however, few reports are available till date regarding their biosurfactant production and antimicrobial potential. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a marine Staphylococcus saprophyticus SBPS 15 isolated from the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal site, Puducherry, India, was identified as a promising biosurfactant producer based on multiple screening methods. This bacterium exhibited growth-dependent biosurfactant production and the recorded yield was 1.345 ± 0.056 g/L (on dry weight basis). The biosurfactant was purified and chemically characterized as a glycolipid with a molecular mass of 606.7 Da, based on TLC, biochemical estimation methods, FT-IR spectrum and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Further, the estimated molecular mass was different from the earlier reports on biosurfactants. This new glycolipid biosurfactant exhibited a board range of pH and temperature stability. Furthermore, it revealed a promising antimicrobial activity against many tested human pathogenic bacterial and fungal clinical isolates. Based on these observations, the isolated biosurfactant from the marine S. saprophyticus revealed board physicochemical stabilities and possess excellent antimicrobial activities which proves its significance for possible use in various therapeutic and biomedical applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biosurfactant from the bacterium, S. saprophyticus.

  20. Biosurfactant of marine origin exhibiting heavy metal remediation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-01

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of biosurfactant product isolated from a marine bacterium in removing heavy metals from heavy metal containing solutions. In this study, metal removal was biosurfactant-mediated. Efficiency of metal removal depended on the concentration of the metal as well as that of the biosurfactant. At a concentration 5x, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), almost complete removal of 100 ppm of lead and cadmium occurred. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) studies also showed metal removal at a concentration less than the CMC in contrast to earlier findings that only micelles are involved in metal removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) further substantiated these findings.

  1. Optimizing clinical drug product performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickinson, Paul A.; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid is to facilitate optimization of clinical performance of drug products. BioRAM strategy relies on therapy-driven drug delivery and follows an integrated systems approach for formulating and addressing critical...... questions and decision-making (J Pharm Sci. 2014,103(11): 3777-97). In BioRAM, risk is defined as not achieving the intended in vivo drug product performance, and success is assessed by time to decision-making and action. Emphasis on time to decision-making and time to action highlights the value of well...

  2. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  3. Preliminary characterization of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms isolated from refinery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Emine; Ergene, Aysun

    2010-02-01

    Some bacterial strains isolated from refinery wastewaters were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa RWI, Pseudomonas putida RWII, Pseudomonas fluorescens RWIII and Burkholderia cepacia RWIV, and the biosurfactants produced by these strains were coded as BS-I, BS-II, BS-III and BS-IV, respectively. The bacterial strains were characterized by the following biochemical methods: Gram stain, oxidase activity, indol, lactose and growth at 42 degrees C. Biosurfactant production was evaluated by: emulsification activity, surface tension measurement and critical micelle concentration. Chemical characterization of the biosurfactants was done by: FTIR and analysis of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content. The biosurfactants showed good emulsification activity against different hydrocarbon sources. The initial surface tension of culture broth was determined as 67.3 mN/m, and production of BS-I, BS-II, BS-III and BS-IV lowered this value to 35.9, 49.2, 51.6 and 45.7 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration of the biosurfactants was found to be in the range 10-50 mg/L. From the results of this study it was observed that the refinery wastewaters are a suitable source for isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria, but are not a substrate for biosurfactant production.

  4. Screening of growth conditions of Bacillus subtilis-1101 by Plackett-Burman design for biosurfactant production%Plackett-Burman试验评价Bacillussubtilis-1101产生物表面活性剂条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志军; 王艳红; 韩俊芬; 姚建波; 王彦杰; 陈志宝

    2012-01-01

    采用Plackett-Burman试验设计方法对影响枯草芽孢杆菌BS-1101生物表面活性剂产生的培养条件进行了研究。结果表明,在10个因素中,KCl、装液量、液体石蜡三个因素对表面活性剂的产生有显著影响,其他因素则没有显著影响,其中KCl呈现正效应,装液量、液体石蜡则为负效应,为进一步优化培养条件提供了依据。%The main factors affecting the biosurfactant production of Bacillus subtilis BS-1101 were investigated by the Plackett- Burman design. Results indicated that the concentration of KC1, the volume of liquid in flask, and concentration of liquid paraffin were the main factors affecting the production of biosurfactant, other factors had no significant effects.Among them, KC1 appeared positive effect ,while the other two negative.

  5. Production Planning Based on BOM Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to a prototype enterprise, a rulebased Bill of Materials (BOM) structure is designed in order to get optimal design and management of product BOM. The constraint rules and optional objects for product data structure optimization are considered by associating customer demands with product BOM. Furthermore, the functional model of production planning system for assembling enterprise is given based on customization and BOM optimization.

  6. Screening of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains using glycerol from the biodiesel synthesis as main carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M; Melo, V M M; Rodrigues, S; Sant'ana, H B; Gonçalves, L R B

    2012-08-01

    Glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was evaluated as carbon source for biosurfactant production. For this reason, seven non-pathogenic biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains, isolated from the tank of chlorination at the Wastewater Treatment Plant at Federal University of Ceara, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by determining the surface tension value, as well as the emulsifying capacity of the free-cell broth against soy oil, kerosene and N-hexadecane. Best results were achieved when using LAMI005 and LAMI009 strains, whose biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of the broth to 28.8 ± 0.0 and 27.1 ± 0.1 mN m(-1), respectively. Additionally, at 72 h of cultivation, 441.06 and 267.56 mg L(-1) of surfactin were produced by LAMI005 and LAMI009, respectively. The biosurfactants were capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as soy oil and kerosene. Analyses carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI009 and LAMI005 was compatible with the commercially available surfactin standard. The values of minimum surface tension and the CMC of the produced biosurfactant indicated that it is feasible to produce biosurfactants from a residual and renewable and low-cost carbon source, such as glycerol.

  7. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  8. Environmental applications of biosurfactants: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-18

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  9. Isolation and characterization of halophilic Bacillussp. BS3 able to produce pharmacologically important biosurfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MBS Donio; SFA Ronica; V Thanga Viji; S Velmurugan; J Adlin Jenifer; M Michaelbabu; T Citarasu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the pharmacological importance of biosurfactants isolated from halophilicBacillus spBS3.Methods:HalophilicBacillus sp.BS3 was isolated from solar salt works, identified by16S rRNA sequencing and was used for screening their biosurfactant production.Characters of the biosurfactant and their anticancer activity were analyzed and performed in mammary epithelial carcinoma cell at different concentrations.Results:The biosurfactant were characterized byTLC,FTIR andGC-MS analysis and identified as lipopeptide type.GC-MS analysis revealed that, the biosurfactant had various compounds including13-Docosenamide,(Z);Mannosamine,9- andN,N,N',N'-tetramethyl.Surprisingly the antiviral activity was found against shrimp white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) by suppressing the viral replication and significantly raised shrimp survival(P<0.01).Anticancer activity performed in the mammary epithelial carcinoma cell at different concentrations of biosurfactants, among the various concentrations of biosurfactants such as0.00025,0.0025,0.025,0.25 and2.5μg, the 0.25 μg concentration suppressed the cells significantly(P<0.05) to24.8%.Conclusions:Based on the findings, the present study concluded that, there is a possibility to develop eco-friendly antimicrobial and anticancer drugs from the extremophilic origin.

  10. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  11. Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir E. Elshafie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery was studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v and, corn oil (10%v/v added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24h interval up to 120h and checked for growth (OD660, and biosurfactant production (Surface tension and Interfacial tension. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both surface tension and interfacial tension to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24 with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil. The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids. The potential of sophorolipids in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments, under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor was recovered. This confirmed the potential of sophorolipids for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  12. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  13. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  15. Screening Three Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Prediction of Biosurfactant-Producer Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dehghan-Noudeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The chemical surfactants have some disadvantages; especially, toxicity and no biodegradability. Approach: Biosurfactants were the structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesize by micro-organisms. The microbial surfactants were interesting, because of the biodegradable and have many applications in industry, agriculture, medicine. Results: In the present study, the production of biosurfactant by three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PTCC 1074, 1310 and 1430 was investigated. The hemolytic and foam forming activity of different strains were studied and consequently, P. aeruginosa PTCC 1074 was selected as the suitable strain. P. aeruginosa PTCC 1074 was grown in the nutrient broth medium and biosurfactant production was evaluated every 24 h by emulsification index and surface tension for the best of production time. After that, in order to get maximum production of biosurfactant, the selected strain was grown with different additives in nutrient broth and the best culture medium was found. The biosurfactant was isolated from the supernatant and its amphipathic structure was confirmed by chemical methods. Conclusion: Biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 would be considered as a suitable surfactant in industries due to its low toxicity.

  16. High-Level Culturability of Epiphytic Bacteria and Frequency of Biosurfactant Producers on Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Burch, AY; Do, PT; Sbodio, A; Suslow, TV; Lindow, SE

    2016-01-01

    To better characterize the bacterial community members capable of biosurfactant production on leaves, we distinguished culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria from nonproducers and used community sequencing to compare the composition of these distinct cultured populations with that from DNA directly recovered from leaves. Communities on spinach, romaine, and head lettuce leaves were compared with communities from adjacent samples of soil and irrigation source water. Soil communities were ...

  17. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations.

  18. A model for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Gospodinova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with the optimal production planning is especially relevant in modern industrial enterprises. The most commonly used optimality criteria in this context are: maximizing the total profit; minimizing the cost per unit of production; maximizing the capacity utilization; minimizing the total production costs. This article aims to explore the possibility for optimizing the production of pharmaceutical products through the construction of a mathematical model that can be viewed in two ways – as a single-product model and a multi-product model. As an optimality criterion it is set the minimization of the cost per unit of production for a given planning period. The author proposes an analytical method for solving the nonlinear optimization problem. An optimal production plan of Tylosin tartrate is found using the single-product model.

  19. Produção de biossurfactante por Aspergillus fumigatus utilizando resíduos agroindustriais como substrato Solid-state biosurfactant production by Aspergillus fumigatus using agricultural residues as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Luis Castiglioni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production in solid state by Aspergillus fumigatus in fixed-bed column bioreactors using substrate based on agricultural residues. Without a supplementary carbon source the highest emulsifying activity (EA was 11.17 emulsifying units (EU g-1 of substrate at an aeration rate of 148 mL h-1g-1 but in the presence of diesel oil the highest EA value was 9.99 EU g-1 at an aeration rate of 119 mL h-1g-1 of substrate while supplementation with soya oil resulted in only 8.47 EU g-1 of substrate at an aeration rate of 119 mL h-1g-1.

  20. Functional characterization of biomedical potential of biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus helveticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepansh Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been isolated and screened for biosurfactant production and their biomedical and food applications. Additionally, various different concentrations of the biosurfactant (0.625–25 mg ml−1 were used to evaluate its antimicrobial and antiadhesive potential against a range of pathogenic microorganisms. Biosurfactant was found to be stable to pH changes over a range of 4.0-12.0, being most effective at pH 7 and showed no apparent loss of surface tension and emulsification efficiency after heat treatment at 125 °C for 15 min. Present study demonstrated that biosurfactant obtained from Lactobacillus helveticus has the ability to counteract effectively the initial deposition of biofilm forming pathogens to silicone surfaces and to significantly sluggish biofilm growth.

  1. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) total aerobic count in biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage.

  2. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Swaranjit Singh Cameotra; Zofia Piotrowska-Seget; Magdalena Pacwa-Płociniczak; Grażyna A. Płaza

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide va...

  3. Biosurfactant production by Ochrobactrum sp. with alkane as carbon source%烟碱降解菌以烷烃为碳源产生物表面活性剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯会粉; 杜巧娟; 栾静; 孙玉梅

    2015-01-01

    The influences of alkane carbon sources and fermentation conditions on the biosurfactant production by Ochrobactrum sp. were studied by measuring the biomass and surface tension of the culture broth. The results showed that Ochrobactrum sp. could grow better with tridecane and hexadecane as carbon source while produced more biosurfactant with paraffin as carbon source. And the surface tension of the culture broth could decrease to the lowest of 42. 1 mN/ m when the fermentation was conducted at 30 ℃,120 r/ min in 250 mL shaking flask containing 40% medium with liquid paraffin as carbon source.%通过测定发酵过程中菌体浓度和发酵上清液的表面张力,研究了烷烃碳源和发酵条件对烟碱降解菌(Ochrobactrum sp.)产生物表面活性剂的影响。结果表明,菌株Ochrobactrum sp.以十三烷和十六烷为碳源生长较好,而利用液体石蜡可产生较多生物表面活性剂。以2%液体石蜡为碳源,装液量为40%(250 mL三角瓶),于30℃,120 r/ min 培养4 d 时,发酵液表面张力能降低至42.1 mN/ m。

  4. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  5. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  6. Product model structure for generalized optimal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The framework of the generalized optimization product model with the core of network- and tree-hierarchical structure is advanced to improve the characteristics of the generalized optimal design. Based on the proposed node-repetition technique, a network-hierarchical structure is united with the tree-hierarchical structure to facilitate the modeling of serialization and combination products. The criteria for product decomposition are investigated. Seven tree nodes are defined for the construction of a general product model, and their modeling properties are studied in detail. The developed product modeling system is applied and examined successfully in the modeling practice of the generalized optimal design for a hydraulic excavator.

  7. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  8. OPTIMAL PRICING OF A PERSONALIZED PRODUCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal pricing of a personalized product such as a personal portrait or photo.A new model of the pricing structure inspired by two real-life cases is introduced to the literature and solved to obtain optimal photo sitting fees and the final product price.A sensitivity analysis with respect to the problem parameters is performed.

  9. Chemical characterization of carbohydrate-based biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  10. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  11. Optimization of Biofuel Production From Transgenic Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0145 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Richard Sayre Donald Danforth...Technical 20080815 to 20120630 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE FA9550-08-1-0451 Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant...BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Grant/Contract Number: FA9550-08-1-0451 Reporting Period: Final Report Abstract: We have compared the

  12. Biosurfactant production for application in soil remediation contaminated by oil: study of the virulence factors; Producao de biosurfactantes para aplicacao em remediacao de solos contaminados por petroleo: estudo dos fatores de virulencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Biosurfactants are amphipatic molecules produced by microorganisms. The rhamnolipid (RML) is a group of those molecules, most produced by strains of Pseudomonas. In this present work, the effect of superficial aeration on the production of rhamnolipids and virulence factors, from proteins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, isolated from oil extraction wells, was evaluated. Cell growth, glycerol and nitrate consumption, rhamnolipid production, nonspecific proteases, total proteins and elastases where investigated on different flask volume/medium volume relations (Vf/Vm): 1:0,15, 1:0,30, 1:0,50 and 1:0,70. It was observed that better oxygenation leaded to better results on the rhamnolipid production. Two peaks of elastase activity were noted, showing possible presence of two types of elastases that could be dislocated on fermentation time, due to the oxygenation degree. The major production of rhamnolipid was found on the 1:0,50 condition and different non-specific proteases standards were found due to the oxygenation degrees. (author)

  13. Product Distributions for Distributed Optimization. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    With connections to bounded rational game theory, information theory and statistical mechanics, Product Distribution (PD) theory provides a new framework for performing distributed optimization. Furthermore, PD theory extends and formalizes Collective Intelligence, thus connecting distributed optimization to distributed Reinforcement Learning (FU). This paper provides an overview of PD theory and details an algorithm for performing optimization derived from it. The approach is demonstrated on two unconstrained optimization problems, one with discrete variables and one with continuous variables. To highlight the connections between PD theory and distributed FU, the results are compared with those obtained using distributed reinforcement learning inspired optimization approaches. The inter-relationship of the techniques is discussed.

  14. Biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial action of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by heavy metal tolerant strain Bacillus cereus NK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Gracerosepat, Raja; Srisakthi, Kandasamy; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-07-01

    Biosurfactants are worthful microbial amphiphilic molecules with efficient surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Among them lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. A heavy metal tolerant Bacillus strain has been isolated and the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by the strain have been studied. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by the conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement test, emulsification and lipase production assays. The biosurfactant produced by this strain was a lipopeptide and exhibited strong surface activity. The biosurfactant has been characterized using FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The minimum active dose of this biosurfactant when compared with the other chemical surfactants was found as 0.150±0.06 μg. The critical micelle concentration was found to be 45 mg/l. The biosurfactant was found to be stable and active over a wide range of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration. It was also able to emulsify a wide range of hydrocarbons and oils thereby extending its application for the bioremediation of oil contaminated sites. The biosurfactant exhibited significant reduction in biofilm formation by pathogens and showed potent antimicrobial activity against various gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Agar diffusion assay for heavy metal resistance showed that the isolate was resistant to ferrous, lead and zinc. Considering the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property of biosurfactant, it can be utilized as a potential therapeutic molecule for numerous microbial infections. The heavy metal resistance of the strain can also be harnessed as an invaluable biological tool for in situ bioremediation.

  15. Selection of microorganisms for biosurfactant production using agroindustrial wastes Seleção de microrganismos para a produção de biossurfatantes em resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Nitschke

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant production by some bacterial isolates using molasses, milk whey and cassava flour wastewater (manipueira as substrates was evaluated and compared with the production in conventional medium. Isolates growing in manipueira medium decreased the surface tension around 42%, the highest reduction among all the substrates tested. From the eleven isolates tested, eight were able to decrease the surface tension to levels below 30 mN/m using manipueira as substrate. The isolates LB5a, LB2a, LB262, LBB and LB1a that gave surface tension about 26 mN/m were identified as Bacillus sp. Natural manipueira (high solids content and decanted manipueira (no solids were investigated as culture media for biosurfactant production by selected microorganisms. Natural manipueira medium showed minimum surface tension of 28 mN/m (LB5a isolate whereas for decanted manipueira the lowest value was 26 mN/m (isolate LB2a. Average diameter of growth on manipueira agar was 7.2 cm for isolate LB5a suggesting a high growth capacity on this substrate. Manipueira comprises a potential alternative culture medium for biosurfactant production by the selected isolates.Alguns isolados bacterianos foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de produção de biossurfatantes a partir de melaço, soro de leite e manipueira como substratos. A produção nestes meios alternativos foi comparada com a produção em meio de cultura convencional. Dentre os meios testados, a manipueira demonstrou a maior percentagem de redução na tensão superficial atingindo valores ao redor de 42%. Dos onze isolados testados, oito foram capazes de diminuir a tensão superficial para níveis inferiores à 30mN/m utilizando manipueira como substrato. Os isolados LB 5a, LB2a, LB262, LBB e LB1a apresentaram tensão superficial em torno de 26 mN/m sendo selecionados e posteriormente identificados como pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus sp. A manipueira natural (alto teor de sólidos e a manipueira decantada (aus

  16. The combined use of a biosurfactant and an enzyme preparation to treat an effluent with a high fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Fernanda R C; Cammarota, Magali C; Freire, Denise M G

    2012-06-15

    The combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an enzyme pool produced by solid-state fermentation with Penicillium simplicissimum using babassu cake as culture medium in the anaerobic treatment of an effluent with a high fat content from a poultry processing plant was evaluated. Central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the enzyme pool and biosurfactant concentrations and the treatment temperature of the effluent containing about 2400 mg oil and grease per liter. The combination that yielded the highest specific methane production was 0.19% (w/v) enzyme pool and 114 mg/L biosurfactant at 33 °C. It could therefore be concluded that the combined use of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant with an enzyme preparation obtained from solid-state fermentation may enhance methane production and enable the use of anaerobic technology in this sector, eliminating the need for physicochemical processes or the addition of costly commercial enzymes.

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  19. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  20. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  1. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described.

  2. Lipopeptide biosurfactant from Bacillus thuringiensis pak2310: A potential antagonist against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, R; Jayapradha, R

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of a biosurfactant obtained from a novel Bacillus thuringiensis on Fusarium oxysporum to determine the morphological changes in the structure of the fungi and its biofilm in the presence of the biosurfactant and to evaluate the toxicity of the biosurfactant on HEp-2 human epithelial cell lines. The strain was screened and isolated from petroleum contaminated soil based on the E24 emulsification index. The biosurfactant was produced on glycerol, extracted using chloroform:methanol system and purified using HPLC. The purified fraction showing both surface activity (emulsification and oil-spread activity) and anti-fusarial activity (agar well diffusion method) was studied using FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) were determined using dilution method. The effect of biosurfactant on the morphology of Fusarium oxysporum was monitored using light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (for biofilm). The purified surfactant showed the presence of functional groups like that of surfactin in the FT-IR spectra and MALDI-TOF MS estimated the molecular weight as 700Da. The MIC and BIC were estimated to be 0.05 and 0.5mg/mL, respectively. The molecule was also non-toxic to HEp-2 cell lines at 10× MIC. A non-toxic and effective anti-Fusarium biosurfactant, that is both safe for human use and to the environment, has been characterized. The growth and metabolite production using glycerol (major byproduct of biodiesel and soap industries) also adds up to the efficiency and ecofriendly nature of this biosurfactant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of a bioemulsifier with potential application in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer M; Stamford, Tânia L M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-03-01

    Biosurfactants are of considerable interest due to their biodegradability, low degree of toxicity, and diverse applications. However, the high production costs involved in the acquisition of biosurfactants underscore the need for optimization of the production process to enable viable application on an industrial scale. The aims of the present study were to select a species of Candida that produces a biosurfactant with the greatest emulsifying potential and to investigate the influence of components of the production medium and cultivation conditions. Candida utilis achieved the lowest surface tension (35.53 mN/m), best emulsification index (73%), and highest yield (12.52 g/l) in a medium containing waste canola frying oil as the carbon source and ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source. The best combination of medium components and cultivation conditions was 6% (w/v) glucose, 6% (w/v) waste canola frying oil, 0.2% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.3% (w/v) yeast extract, 150 rpm, 1% inoculum (w/v), and 88 h of fermentation. The greatest biosurfactant production and the lowest surface tension were achieved in the first 24 h of production, and the maximum biomass production was recorded at 72 h. The biosurfactant produced from C. utilis under the conditions investigated in the present study has a potential to be a bioemulsifier for application in the food industry.

  4. Role of a waste-derived polymeric biosurfactant in the sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Vittorio; Perrone, Daniele G.; MAGNACCA, Giuliana; Montoneri, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive polymeric biosurfactant isolated from urban bio-wastes is shown to be a useful chemical aid in the synthesis of nanostructured materials with tunable pore size and surface hydrophilicity. Photocatalytic active TiO2 powders were prepared by sol–gel reaction in the presence of variable amounts of a waste-derived polymeric biosurfactant. The products were characterized for morphology, crystal structures and surface hydrophilicity. The porosity data indicate that an increase of the...

  5. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases.

  6. Characterization and properties of biosurfactants produced by a newly isolated strain Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1 and their applications in enhancing solubility of hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Nawel; Ben Ayed, Hanen; Hmidet, Noomen; Nasri, Moncef

    2016-11-01

    Six biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Sfax, Tunisia. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production by different conventional methods including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop-collapsing and oil displacement tests. All these screening tests show that all the isolates behave differently. Among the isolated bacteria, DCS1 strain was selected for further studies based on its highest activities and it was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus DCS1. This strain was found to be a potent producer of biosurfactant when cultivated in mineral-salts medium supplemented with diesel oil (2 %, v/v) as a sole carbon source. Physicochemical properties and stability of biosurfactants synthesized by B. methylotrophicus DCS1 were investigated. The produced biosurfactants DCS1, from Landy medium, possess high surface activity that could lower the surface tension of water to a value of 31 from 72 mN m(-1) and have a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 100 mg L(-1). Compared with SDS and Tween 80, biosurfactants showed excellent emulsification activities against different hydrocarbon substrates and high solubilization efficiency towards diesel oil. Biosurfactants DCS1 showed good stability in a wide range of temperature, pH and salinity. These results suggested that biosurfactants produced by B. methylotrophicus DCS1 could be an alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants for use in bioremediation processes to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic compounds.

  7. Bioremediation of multi-metal contaminated soil using biosurfactant - a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Dubey, Kirti V; Nair, Anupa; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2008-03-01

    An unconventional nutrient medium, distillery spent wash (1:3) diluted) was used to produce di-rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2. This research further assessed the potential of the biosurfactant as a washing agent for metal removal from multimetal contaminated soil (Cr-940 ppm; Pb-900 ppm; Cd-430 ppm; Ni-880 ppm; Cu-480 ppm). Out of the treatments of contaminated soil with tap water and rhamnolipid biosurfactant, the latter was found to be potent in mobilization of metal and decontamination of contaminated soil. Within 36 hours of leaching study, di-rhamnolipid as compared to tap water facilitated 13 folds higher removal of Cr from the heavy metal spiked soil whereas removal of Pb and Cu was 9-10 and 14 folds higher respectively. Leaching of Cd and Ni was 25 folds higher from the spiked soil. This shows that leaching behavior of biosurfactant was different for different metals. The use of wastewater for production of biosurfactant and its efficient use in metal removal make it a strong applicant for bioremediation.

  8. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Handayani Kurniati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene within 7 days. The result of nested PCR analysis revealed that this isolate possessed the nahAc gene which encodes dioxygenase enzyme for initial degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants which produced by AMP 10 when grown on glucose could lower the surface tension of medium from 71.3 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and formed a stable emulsion in used lubricant oil with an emulsification index (E24 of 74%. According to the results, it is suggested that the bacterial isolates G. cholesterolivorans AMP10 are suitable candidates for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated environments.How to CiteKurniati, T. H.,  Rusmana, I. Suryani, A. & Mubarik, N. R. (2016. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 336-343. 

  9. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    lipopetide biosurfactants in pollutant biodegradation and natural roles in biofilm formation. The work presented is a combination of environmental microbiology and exploiting genetic manipulation of pure cultures to achieve insightinto the effects and mechanisms of lipopeptides on microbial processes......Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...

  10. A novel biosurfactant produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a tiger lily wild flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Shik Kim

    Full Text Available Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m. These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications.

  11. Genomic and functional features of the biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. AM13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaligram, Shraddha; Kumbhare, Shreyas V; Dhotre, Dhiraj P; Muddeshwar, Manohar G; Kapley, Atya; Joseph, Neetha; Purohit, Hemant P; Shouche, Yogesh S; Pawar, Shrikant P

    2016-09-01

    Genomic studies provide deeper insights into secondary metabolites produced by diverse bacterial communities, residing in various environmental niches. This study aims to understand the potential of a biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. AM13, isolated from soil. An integrated approach of genomic and chemical analysis was employed to characterize the antibacterial lipopeptide produced by the strain AM13. Genome analysis revealed that strain AM13 harbors a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) cluster; highly similar with known biosynthetic gene clusters from surfactin family: lichenysin (85 %) and surfactin (78 %). These findings were substantiated with supplementary experiments of oil displacement assay and surface tension measurements, confirming the biosurfactant production. Further investigation using LCMS approach exhibited similarity of the biomolecule with biosurfactants of the surfactin family. Our consolidated effort of functional genomics provided chemical as well as genetic leads for understanding the biochemical characteristics of the bioactive compound.

  12. Antimicrobial and Anti-Swarming Effects of Bacteriocins and Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacterial Strains against Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Goudarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Proteus spp. belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria are Gram-negative and motile microorganisms and known as the third most common causes of urinary tract infections. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of some secondary metabolites from probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. on swarming and growth of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Methods:   After determination of optimal conditions for the growth and production of antimicrobials, bacteriocins and biosurfactants were partially purified from Lactobacillus culture supernatants. Then, effects of the purified compounds on growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. were examined in the presence of various concentrations of semi-purified compounds. Results:  Results showed that the partially purified bacteriocins inhibited Proteus spp. swarming distance and had a significant reduction on the bacterial growth curves. Biosurfactants in a solvent form did not have any considerable effects on factors produced by Proteus spp. Conclusion:  According to the results, the secondary metabolites, especially bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like substances derived from Lactobacillus strains, can inhibit or reduce growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. which are considered as the bacteria major virulence factors.

  13. An Optimization Framework for Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Leyuan Shi; Sigurdur Ólafsson; Qun Chen

    2001-01-01

    An important problem in the product design and development process is to use the part-worths preferences of potential customers to design a new product such that market share is maximized. The authors present a new optimization framework for this problem, the nested partitions (NP) method. This method is globally convergent and may utilize existing heuristic methods to speed its convergence. We incorporate several known heuristics into this framework and demonstrate through numerical experime...

  14. Optimal Product Variety, Scale Effects and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Nahuis, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the social optimality of growth and product variety in a model of endogenous growth. The model contains two sectors, one assembly sector producing a homogenous consumption good, and one intermediate goods sector producing a differentiated input used in the assembly sector. Growth results

  15. Effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactant JBR425 and synthetic surfactant surfyno1465 on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-naphthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rūta, Ivanec-Goranina; Juozas, Kulys

    2013-07-01

    The kinetics of the recombinant Coprinus cinereus peroxidase-catalyzed 2-naphthol oxidation was investigated in the presence of rhamnolipid biosurfactant JBR425 and synthetic surfactant Surfynol465 at pH 5.5 and 250C, with concentrations of (bio)surfactants both less than critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and larger than CMC. It was shown that monomers of JBR425 as well as monomers of Surfynol465 had an enhancing effect on the conversion of 2-naphthol in dose response manner and did not influence the initial rate of 2-naphthol oxidation. The results were accounted by a scheme, which contains a stadium of enzyme inhibition by oligomeric 2-naphthol oxidation products. The action of the biosurfactant's (or synthetic surfactant's) monomers was explained by avoidance of the enzyme active center clothing with oligomers. Similar results have demonstrated the potential of rhamnolipid biosurfactant JBR425 due to its biodegradability. When biosurfactants' concentrations are larger than CMC, (bio)surfactants have an opposite effect on the oxidation of 2-naphthol by peroxidase.

  16. Isolation and functional characterization of a biosurfactant produced by a new and promising strain of Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimmai, Atipan; Rukadee, Onkamon; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2012-10-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from mangrove sediment in southern Thailand. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant production by using the surface tension test. The highest reduction of surface tension was achieved with a bacterial strain which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Oleomonas sagaranensis AT18. It has also been investigated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. It showed that the strain was able to grow and reduce the surface tension of the culture supernatant to 25 mN/m. In all 5.30 g of biosurfactant yield was obtained after 54 h of cultivation by using molasses and NaNO₃ as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The biosurfactant recovery by chloroform:methanol extraction showed a small critical micelle concentration value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction. It also showed emulsification activity and a high level of salt concentration. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid by using a biochemical test, FT-IR and mass spectra. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility.

  17. Distribution of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in undisturbed and contaminated arid Southwestern soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodour, Adria A; Drees, Kevin P; Maier, Raina M

    2003-06-01

    Biosurfactants are a unique class of compounds that have been shown to have a variety of potential applications in the remediation of organic- and metal-contaminated sites, in the enhanced transport of bacteria, in enhanced oil recovery, as cosmetic additives, and in biological control. However, little is known about the distribution of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in the environment. The goal of this study was to determine how common culturable surfactant-producing bacteria are in undisturbed and contaminated sites. A series of 20 contaminated (i.e., with metals and/or hydrocarbons) and undisturbed soils were collected and plated on R(2)A agar. The 1,305 colonies obtained were screened for biosurfactant production in mineral salts medium containing 2% glucose. Forty-five of the isolates were positive for biosurfactant production, representing most of the soils tested. The 45 isolates were grouped by using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR analysis, which yielded 16 unique isolates. Phylogenetic relationships were determined by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of each unique isolate with known sequences, revealing one new biosurfactant-producing microbe, a Flavobacterium sp. Sequencing results indicated only 10 unique isolates (in comparison to the REP analysis, which indicated 16 unique isolates). Surface tension results demonstrated that isolates that were similar according to sequence analysis but unique according to REP analysis in fact produced different surfactant mixtures under identical growth conditions. These results suggest that the 16S rRNA gene database commonly used for determining phylogenetic relationships may miss diversity in microbial products (e.g., biosurfactants and antibiotics) that are made by closely related isolates. In summary, biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were found in most soils even by using a relatively limited screening assay. Distribution was dependent on soil conditions, with gram-positive biosurfactant

  18. High-Level Culturability of Epiphytic Bacteria and Frequency of Biosurfactant Producers on Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Adrien Y.; Do, Paulina T.; Sbodio, Adrian; Suslow, Trevor V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To better characterize the bacterial community members capable of biosurfactant production on leaves, we distinguished culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria from nonproducers and used community sequencing to compare the composition of these distinct cultured populations with that from DNA directly recovered from leaves. Communities on spinach, romaine, and head lettuce leaves were compared with communities from adjacent samples of soil and irrigation source water. Soil communities were poorly described by culturing, with recovery of cultured representatives from only 21% of the prevalent operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (>0.2% reads) identified. The dominant biosurfactant producers cultured from soil included bacilli and pseudomonads. In contrast, the cultured communities from leaves are highly representative of the culture-independent communities, with over 85% of the prevalent OTUs recovered. The dominant taxa of surfactant producers from leaves were pseudomonads as well as members of the infrequently studied genus Chryseobacterium. The proportions of bacteria cultured from head lettuce and romaine leaves that produce biosurfactants were directly correlated with the culture-independent proportion of pseudomonads in a given sample, whereas spinach harbored a wider diversity of biosurfactant producers. A subset of the culturable bacteria in irrigation water also became enriched on romaine leaves that were irrigated overhead. Although our study was designed to identify surfactant producers on plants, we also provide evidence that most bacteria in some habitats, such as agronomic plant surfaces, are culturable, and these communities can be readily investigated and described by more classical culturing methods. IMPORTANCE The importance of biosurfactant production to the bacteria that live on waxy leaf surfaces as well as their ability to be accurately assessed using culture-based methodologies was determined by interrogating epiphytic populations by

  19. Optimization for the production of surfactin with a new synergistic antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two of our long term efforts are to discover compounds with synergistic antifungal activity from metabolites of marine derived microbes and to optimize the production of the interesting compounds produced by microorganisms. In this respect, new applications or mechanisms of already known compounds with a high production yield could be continually identified. Surfactin is a well-known lipopeptide biosurfactant with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial and antiviral activity; however, there is less knowledge on surfactin's antifungal activity. In this study, we investigated the synergistic antifungal activity of C(15-surfactin and the optimization of its production by the response surface method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a synergistic antifungal screening model, we found that the combination of C(15-surfactin and ketoconazole (KTC showed synergistic antifungal effect on Candida albicans SC5314 when the concentrations of C(15-surfactin and KTC were 6.25 µg/mL and 0.004 µg/mL, respectively. These concentrations were lower than their own efficient antifungal concentrations, which are >100 µg/mL and 0.016 µg/mL, respectively. The production of C(15-surfactin from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was optimized by the response surface methodology in shaker flask cultivation. The Plackett-Burman design found sucrose, ammonium nitrate and NaH(2PO(4 x 2H(2O to have significant effects on C(15-surfactin production. The optimum values of the tested variables were 21.17 g/L sucrose, 2.50 g/L ammonium nitrate and 11.56 g/L NaH(2PO(4·2H(2O. A production of 134.2 mg/L, which were in agreement with the prediction, was observed in a verification experiment. In comparison to the production of original level (88.6 mg/L, a 1.52-fold increase had been obtained. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This work first found that C(15-surfactin was an efficient synergistic antifungal agent, and demonstrated that response surface methodology was an effective method

  20. A Novel Biosurfactant Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a Tiger Lily Wild Flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb: e0122917

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong Shik Kim; In Kyoung Lee; Bong Sik Yun

    2015-01-01

      Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability...

  1. Optimizing metabolite production using periodic oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Sowa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods for improving microbial strains for metabolite production remain the subject of constant research. Traditionally, metabolic tuning has been mostly limited to knockouts or overexpression of pathway genes and regulators. In this paper, we establish a new method to control metabolism by inducing optimally tuned time-oscillations in the levels of selected clusters of enzymes, as an alternative strategy to increase the production of a desired metabolite. Using an established kinetic model of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli, we formulate this concept as a dynamic optimization problem over an extended, but finite time horizon. Total production of a metabolite of interest (in this case, phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP is established as the objective function and time-varying concentrations of the cellular enzymes are used as decision variables. We observe that by varying, in an optimal fashion, levels of key enzymes in time, PEP production increases significantly compared to the unoptimized system. We demonstrate that oscillations can improve metabolic output in experimentally feasible synthetic circuits.

  2. An Optimization Model for Product Placement on Product Listing Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Kwang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of product listing pages is a key component of Website design because it has significant influence on the sales volume on a Website. This study focuses on product placement in designing product listing pages. Product placement concerns how venders of online stores place their products over the product listing pages for maximization of profit. This problem is very similar to the offline shelf management problem. Since product information sources on a Web page are typically communicated through the text and image, visual stimuli such as color, shape, size, and spatial arrangement often have an effect on the visual attention of online shoppers and, in turn, influence their eventual purchase decisions. In view of the above, this study synthesizes the visual attention literature and theory of shelf-space allocation to develop a mathematical programming model with genetic algorithms for finding optimal solutions to the focused issue. The validity of the model is illustrated with example problems.

  3. [Optimization of formulations for dietetic pastry products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Uquiche, E; Brito, G; Cancino, M

    2000-03-01

    Optimized formulations of dietetic pastry products such as cake and sponge cake premixes were formulated using the surface response methodology. % Emulsifier agent and baking time were the selected independent variables for cake, as well as % emulsifier agent % chlorinated flour the variables selected for sponge cake. Three different level of each variable summing up thirteen experimental formulae of each product were assessed to optimize the variables that could have some influence in the sensory characteristics of these dietetic products. The total sensory quality was determined for both dietetic products using the composite scoring test and a panel of 18 trained judges. Looking at the contour graphic and considering economic aspects the best combination of variables for cake formulation was 2% emulsifier agent and 48 minutes for baking time, With respect to sponge cake, the best combination was 6% emulsifier agent and 48% chlorinated flour. Shelf life studies showed that both dietetic formulations remained stable during storage conditions of 75 days at 30 degrees C. During this period, significant differences in sensory characteristics were not found (p < 0.05). Data of peroxide values were kept under the critical value reported for detection of organoleptic rancidity. Reported values of hedonic test showed that these dietetics pastry products had good acceptability, and open up marketing opportunities for new products with potential health benefits to consumers.

  4. Biosurfactan Production by Bacillus sp. Isolated from Petroleum Contaminated Soils of Sirri Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Jazeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biosurfactants are active surface components produced by some bacteria and fungi. These molecules reduce surface and interfacial tension in aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. The most important application of biosurfactants is in oil industry to enhance oil quality and facilitate oil extraction. The aim of this study was to isolate biosurfactant producing bacteria and optimize the conditions like temperature and pH for maximum biosurfactant production. Approach: Samples were collected from 8 selected points of oil contaminated soils in Sirri Island-Iran. Primary screening tests including hemolytic activity, Drop collapse technique and Oil Spreading method were preformed and species with the best results were picked for complementary screening tests like emulsification activity, foaming and surface tension measurement. Results: Totally, 160 bacteria species were isolated. During primary and complementary screening tests, 59 species showed hemolytic activity, 46 had drop collapsing ability and 18 species showed positive results in emulsification, foaming and surface tension reduction. Finally, two Bacillus sp. were found to be able to reduce surface tension more than 30 mNm-1. Conclusion: Two strains with a high amount of biosurfactant production and emulsification ability were resulted from the present study. According to the high potential of Bacillus sp. especially for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR and Bioremediation of oil contamination we can hope that further study of the isolates characteristics and looking for new local strains can play an important role in their application in oil industry.

  5. Optimization of Biohydrogen Production with Biomechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive utilization of petroleum and natural gas caused fossil fuel shortages. Consequently, a large amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants are produced and induced environmental impact. Hydrogen is considered a clean and alternative energy source. It contains relatively high amount of energy compared with other fuels and by-product is water. In this study, the combination of ultrasonic mechanical and biological effects is utilized to increase biohydrogen production from dark fermentation bacteria. The hydrogen production is affected by many process conditions. For obtaining the optimal result, experimental design is planned using the Taguchi Method. Four controlling factors, the ultrasonic frequency, energy, exposure time, and starch concentration, are considered to calculate the highest hydrogen production by the Taguchi Method. Under the best operating conditions, the biohydrogen production efficiency of dark fermentation increases by 19.11%. Results have shown that the combination of ultrasound and biological reactors for dark fermentation hydrogen production outperforms the traditional biohydrogen production method. The ultrasonic mechanical effects in this research always own different significances on biohydrogen production.

  6. Microbial biofilms: biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banat, Ibrahim M; De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Quinn, Gerry A

    2014-12-01

    Current microbial inhibition strategies based on planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilm communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. All aspects of biofilm measurement, monitoring, dispersal, control, and inhibition are becoming issues of increasing importance. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms in addition to many other advantages. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival those of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial and yeast biofilms. This makes them suitable candidates for use in new generations of microbial dispersal agents and for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. In this review, we explore aspects of biofilm characteristics and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (biosurfactants) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms.

  7. Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  8. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  9. Bioremediation of polluted beaches with PAHs by using biosurfactant produced by bacterium isolated from Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahand Jorfi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: PAHs was producted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and due to nature of publishing, it was categorized as the soil and beaches pollutant. These compounds are considered in pollutants which have priority, carcinogenic and certain mutagenic. The main difficulty of clearing contaminated areas to PAHs is the nature of highly water repellent of these pollutants and a strong attraction to the soil texture. The main objective of this current study was to determine the efficiency of phenanthrene removal from contaminated soil and beaches by using biosurfactant produced by a bacterium isolated from Persian Gulf. Materials & Methods: with primary screening, a Bacillus sp strain with surfactin production capability was isolated and purified in laboratory. A mixed bacterial consortium isolated which was consists of three bacterial species with of capable of metabolism of phenanthrene from Khark contaminated beaches and was used as a microbial seed. The synthetic soil samples with initial phenanthrene concentration of 100 mg/kg and also natural contaminated samples were subjected to bioremediation during 9 weeks. Results: The phenanthrene removal efficiency in the samples containing biosurfactants and with artificial and natural pollution were 82% and 39% respectively. The removal efficiency for samples without biosurfactant was 11%. Conclusion: The bioremediation process is considered an efficient, eco-friendly and operational for remediation of beache and soil polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons by using bacterial biosurfactant.

  10. Optimal defense strategy: storage vs. new production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Emi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2002-12-07

    If hosts produce defense proteins after they are infected by pathogens, it may take hours to days before defense becomes fully active. By producing defense proteins beforehand, and storing them until infection, the host can cope with pathogens with a short time delay. However, producing and storing defense proteins require energy, and the activated defense proteins often cause harm to the host's body as well as to pathogens. Here, we study the optimal strategy for a host who chooses the amount of stored defense proteins, the activation of the stored proteins upon infection, and the new production of the proteins. The optimal strategy is the one that minimizes the sum of the harm by pathogens and the cost of defense. The host chooses the storage size of defense proteins based on the probability distribution of the magnitude of pathogen infection. When the infection size is predictable, all the stored proteins are to be activated upon infection. The optimal strategy is to have no storage and to rely entirely on new production if the expected infection size n(0) is small, but to have a big storage without new production if n(0) is large. The transition from the "new production" phase to "storage" phase occurs at a smaller n(0) when storage cost is small, activation cost is large, pathogen toxicity is large, pathogen growth is fast, the defense is effective, the delay is long, and the infection is more likely. On the other hand, the storage size to produce for a large n(0) decreases with three cost parameters and the defense effectiveness, increases with the likelihood of infection, the toxicity and the growth rate of pathogens, and it is independent of the time delay. When infection size is much smaller than the expected size, some of the stored proteins may stay unused.

  11. Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Roderick C

    2010-05-12

    Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.

  12. Biodegradation of endosulfan isomers and its metabolite endosulfate by two biosurfactant producing bacterial strains of Bordetella petrii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the investigation was to study the biodegradation of endosulfan isomers and its major metabolite endosulfate by two biosurfactant producing bacterial strains of Bordetella petrii. The significance of the study is to evaluate the capability of biosurfactant producing bacterial strains in enhancing the bioavailability of endosulfan. Sixty bacterial strains were isolated from the endosulfan degrading bacterial consortium and were screened for endosulfan degradation and biosurfactant production. Among those, two strains Bordetella petrii I GV 34 (Gene bank Accession No KJ02262) and Bordetella petrii II GV 36 (Gene bank Accession No KJ022625) were capable of degrading endosulfan with simultaneous biosurfactant production. Bordetella petrii I degraded 89% of α and 84% of β isomers of endosulfan whereas Bordetella petrii II degraded 82% of both the isomers. Both the strains were able to reduce the surface tension up to 19.6% and 21.4% with a minimum observed surface tension of 45 Dynes/cm and 44 Dynes/cm, respectively. The study revealed that the strains have the potential to enhance the degradation endosulfan residues in contaminated sites and water by biosurfactant production.

  13. Treatment of diesel- and kerosene-contaminated water by B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Ines; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayedi, Younes; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of hydrocarbon utilization by B. subtilis SPB1, a biosurfactant-producing strain. Microbial growth, biosurfactant production, and hydrocarbon biodegradation were studied in a liquid mineral medium, supplemented with 2% hydrocarbons in both the absence and in the presence of 0.1% yeast extract. Preliminary studies showed that maximum growth was registered with a 2% hydrocarbon solution. Results showed that the addition of yeast extract greatly stimulated microbial growth and thus induced biosurfactant production. Furthermore, biodegradation efficiencies were higher in the presence of yeast extract. Kerosene fuel was more recalcitrant to biodegradation than diesel oil. This study's findings suggest that the addition of an organic nitrogen source stimulates tension-active agents' production, which emulsifies hydrophobic compounds and enhances their biodegradation and microbial growth.

  14. Methods for investigating biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-06-01

    Microorganisms produce biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifier (BE) with wide structural and functional diversity which consequently results in the adoption of different techniques to investigate these diverse amphiphilic molecules. This review aims to compile information on different microbial screening methods, surface active products extraction procedures, and analytical terminologies used in this field. Different methods for screening microbial culture broth or cell biomass for surface active compounds production are also presented and their possible advantages and disadvantages highlighted. In addition, the most common methods for purification, detection, and structure determination for a wide range of BS and BE are introduced. Simple techniques such as precipitation using acetone, ammonium sulphate, solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, dialysis, ultrafiltration, lyophilization, isoelectric focusing (IEF), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) are described. Other more elaborate techniques including high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), infra red (IR), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), protein digestion and amino acid sequencing are also elucidated. Various experimental strategies including static light scattering and hydrodynamic characterization for micelles have been discussed. A combination of various analytical methods are often essential in this area of research and a numbers of trials and errors to isolate, purify and characterize various surface active agents are required. This review introduces the various methodologies that are indispensable for studying biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

  15. Characterization of a novel biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas koreensis lineage that is endemic to Cuatro Ciénegas Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Jeiry; Escalante, Ana E; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; González-González, Andrea; Zavala, Sergio; Souza, Valeria; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work is the taxonomic characterization of three biosurfactant-producing bacterial isolates from the Churince system at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) in the Mexican State of Coahuila, and the study of the possible role of biosurfactant production in their ecology and evolution. We determined that these isolates belong to a Pseudomonas koreensis lineage endemic to CCB, using standard taxonomical techniques, phylogenetic analysis of three chromosomal loci and phenotypic characterization. This new lineage has the distinct capacity to produce a biosurfactant when compared with previously reported P. koreensis isolates recovered from agricultural soils in Korea. We present evidence suggesting that the biosurfactant secreted by CCB P. koreensis strains is involved in their ability to compete with a CCB Exiguobacterium aurantiacum strain (m5-66) used as a model organism in competition experiments. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate extract of culture supernatant of CCB P. koreensis strains results in growth inhibition not only of E. aurantiacum m5-66, but also of a Bacillus subtilis type strain (ATCC6633). Based on these results we propose that the production of biosurfactant could be of ecological importance and could play a role in the separation of the P. koreensis CCB lineage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on generalized optimization process for mechanical product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯培恩; 邱清盈; 潘双夏; 董黎刚; 李善春

    1999-01-01

    The generalized optimization process for mechanical product is proposed which includes functional optimization phase, conceptual design optimization phase, technical design optimization phase (that is further divided into product modeling phase, optimization process scheduling phase, optimization modeling phase and multi-computer collaborative optimizing phase), and result analysis and evaluation phase. The characteristics of the generalized optimization are incarnated such as oriented to the design of entire system, whole process and overall performance of a product and combined with human intelligent and artificial intelligent optimization. The functions and the achieved strategies of each key phase in the generalized optimization process are discussed. A prototype of the generalized optimization supported system for mechanical product is preliminarily established.

  17. Screening of novel microorganisms for biosurfactant and biocontrol activity against Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Sonica; Singh, B P; Lal, Mehi; Ma, Khan; Hussain, Touseef; Sharma, Sanjeev; Kaushik, S K; Kumar, Satish

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, 95 isolates of bacteria were tested for their biosurfactant as well as biocontrol activity against Phytophthora infestans. The results revealed that only 15.8% isolates showed biosurfactant activity. The emulsification index ranged from 0-68% and 24.2% isolates showed positive reaction for biosurfactant properties. In emulsification assay and oil spreading test, 18.95% and 5.26% isolates, respectively scored positive for biosurfactant production. Among all, only five isolates were found effective against P. infestans, for biocontrol properties. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-1 showed 62.22% inhibition zone after 72 hrs while P. aeruginosa-3 showed 46.42%. Forty-eight hrs old culture supernatants were highly effective in food-poisoning test, tuber slice test and detached leaf method against P. infestans. In whole potato plant test, bacterial cell based formulation, culture supernatant and bacterial cell suspension of P. aeruginosa-1 showed 10.42%, 9.94% and 17.96% diseases severity respectively, as against 53.96% in control. This isolate holds promise as biological control agent against P. infestans in field.

  18. Enhancement of hydrocarbon waste biodegradation by addition of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis O9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, A C; Olivera, N; Commendatore, M; Esteves, J L; Siñeriz, F

    2000-01-01

    A non-sterile biosurfactant preparation (surfactin) was obtained from a 24-h culture of Bacillus subtilis O9 grown on sucrose and used to study its effect on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon wastes by an indigenous microbial community at the Erlenmeyer-flask scale. Crude biosurfactant was added to the cultures to obtain concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Lower concentration affected neither biodegradation nor microbial growth. Higher concentration gave higher cell concentrations. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons increased from 20.9 to 35.5% and in the case of aromatic hydrocarbons from nil to 41%, compared to the culture without biosurfactant. The enhancement effect of biosurfactant addition was more noticeable in the case of long chain alkanes. Pristane and phytane isoprenoids were degraded to the same extent as n-C17 and n-C18 alkanes and, consequently, no decrease in the ratios n-C17/pri and n-C18/phy was observed. Rapid production of surfactin crude preparation could make it practical for bioremediation of ship bilge wastes.

  19. Bioproduction and anticancer activity of biosurfactant produced by the dematiaceous fungus Exophiala dermatitidis SK80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiewpattanakul, Paramaporn; Phonnok, Sirinet; Durand, Alain; Marie, Emmanuelle; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2010-12-01

    A new biosurfactant producer was isolated from palm-oilcontaminated soil and later identified through morphology and DNA sequencing as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. Biosurfactant production was catalyzed by vegetable oil, supplemented with a basal medium. The culture conditions that provided the biosurfactant with the highest surface activity were found to be 5% palm oil with 0.08% NH4NO3, at a pH of 5.3, with shaking at 200 rpm, and a temperature of 30 degrees C for a 14-day period of incubation. The biosurfactant was purified, in accordance with surfactant properties, by solvent fractionation using silica gel column chromatography. The chemical structure of the strongest surface-active compound was elucidated through the use of NMR and mass spectroscopy, and noted to be monoolein, which then went on to demonstrate antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer (HeLa) and leukemia (U937) cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, no cytotoxicity was observed with normal cells even when high concentrations were used. Cell and DNA morphological changes, in both cancer cell lines, were observed to be cell shrinkage, membrane blebbling, and DNA fragmentation.

  20. Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Lin, Weiyun; Cao, Tong

    2014-09-15

    An overview of literature about isolating biosurfactant producers from marine sources indicated no such producers have been reported form North Atlantic Canada. Water and sediment samples were taken from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal and offshore areas in this region. Either n-hexadecane or diesel was used as the sole carbon source for the screening. A modified colony-based oil drop collapsing test was used to cover sessile biosurfactant producers. Fifty-five biosurfactant producers belong to genera of Alcanivorax, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces were isolated. The first three genera were established after 1980s with interesting characteristics and limited relevant publications. Some of the 55 isolated strains were found with properties such as greatly reducing surface tension, stabilizing emulsion and producing flocculant. Isolates P6-4P and P1-5P were selected to demonstrate the performance of biosurfactant production, and were found to reduce the surface tension of water to as low as 28 dynes/cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crop production structure optimization with considering risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Nagy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change are occurring more and more sharply, and because of it – amongst the indisputable genetic and technological development – the yield fluctuation has increased in the crop production past years. Otherwise, this sector is one of the riskiest, so it is obvious to consider risk during the planning, in the phase of decision preparation. Risk programming models are usually applied in agriculture, which take the attitude of the decision-maker to risk into consideration, i.e. these are utility maximization models. First of all, in case of risk programming models the character of risk must be decided. For determining the degree of risk – among others – dispersion indicators are also suitable. If financial portfolios are optimized, most frequently risk is given by the variance of the portfolio. Variance is also applied in the expected value – variance (E-V models. If variance is minimized, the model has a quadratic object function. An alternative for variance in the linear programming model is the application of mean absolute deviation (MAD. The purpose of this article is to present the application of a portfolio model for optimizing crop production structure and minimizing risk that is generally used in financial investment calculations."

  2. PRODUCT OPTIMIZATION METHOD BASED ON ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL VALUES OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STANESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of optimizing products based on the analysis of optimal values of their characteristics . Optimization method comprises statistical model and analytical model . With this original method can easily and quickly obtain optimal product or material .

  3. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes.

  4. An efficient biosurfactant-producing bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium CT2, isolated from mangrove sediment in south of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimmai, Atipan; Onlamool, Theerawat; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria, isolate CT2, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene from isolate CT2 showed 100 % similarity with Selenomonas ruminantium. The highest biosurfactant production (5.02 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on minimal salt medium containing 15 g/l molasses and 1 g/l commercial monosodium glutamate supplemented with 1 g/l NaCl, 0.1 g/l leucine, 5 % (v/v) inoculum size at 30 °C and 150 rpm after 54 h of cultivation. The biosurfactant obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate showed high surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m), a small CMC value (8 mg/l), thermal and pH stability with respect to surface tension reduction and emulsification activity and a high level of salt tolerance. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a lipopeptide by using a biochemical test, FT-IR, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance PAHs solubility.

  5. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis.

  6. Biosurfactants produced by Microbacterium sp., isolated from aquatic macrophytes in hydrocarbon-contaminated area in the Rio Negro, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms., collected in oil contaminated wastewater of effluent generated by Petrobras refinery in Manaus were investigated to determine their potential for producing biosurfactants. Assay with 2.6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP indicator to verify hydrocarbon biodegradation activity; oil emulsification test; drop-collapse method; surface tension and growth curve of biosurfactant production. The M87 Microbacterium sp. strain chosen for this work was identified by the sequencing of the rDNA region and the chemical characterization was performed by FTIR, UFLC/MS and 1H RMN techniques. The selected bacterial isolate provided 3g L-1 of biosurfactant, using diesel oil as sole carbon source, being efficient in biodegrading oil as demonstrated by the DCPIP test. Fractions obtained by column chromatography were efficient in reducing water surface tension around 40 mN m-1, especially fraction 1, which reduced it to 34.17 mN m-1. The different techniques of chemical analysis used for the identification of the biosurfactant isolate indicated that this is probably a long - chain fatty acid lipid type, which may be used in the future as both biosurfactant in decontamination processes of hydrocarbon-polluted areas or as bioemulsifier in countless processes, since it exhibited no toxicity as determined by Alamar Blue assay.

  7. N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone autoinducers control production of an extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant required for swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindum, Peter Wurtz; Anthoni, U; Christophersen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    A nonswarming Serratia liquefaciens mutant deficient in serrawettin W2 production was constructed by transposon mutagenesis. Sequence homology indicated that insertion had occurred in gene swrA, which encodes a putative peptide synthetase. Expression of swrA is controlled by quorum sensing....

  8. Kanban simulation model for production process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchev Riste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the KANBAN system has been established as an efficient method for coping with the excessive inventory. Still, the possibilities for its improvement through its integration with other different approaches should be investigated further. The basic research challenge of this paper is to present benefits of KANBAN implementation supported with Discrete Event Simulation (DES. In that direction, at the beginning, the basics of KANBAN system are presented with emphasis on the information and material flow, together with a methodology for implementation of KANBAN system. Certain analysis on combining the simulation with this methodology is presented. The paper is concluded with a practical example which shows that through understanding the philosophy of the implementation methodology of KANBAN system and the simulation methodology, a simulation model can be created which can serve as a basis for a variety of experiments that can be conducted within a short period of time, resulting with production process optimization.

  9. Biosurfactant produced by novel Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 with biodegradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenjie; Du, Zhifeng; Cui, Qingfeng; Dong, Hao; Wang, Fuyi; He, Panqing; Tang, YongChun

    2014-07-15

    Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have threatened the environment due to toxicity and poor bioavailability. Interest in degradation of these hazardous materials by biosurfactant-producing bacteria has been steadily increasing in recent years. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 was isolated to degrade a wide range of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactant was observed in all biodegradable studies. These lipopeptides were purified and identified by C18 RP-HPLC system and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Results of structural analysis showed that these lipopeptides generated from different hydrocarbons were classified to be surfactin, fengycin and lichenysin. Heavy-oil sludge washing experiments demonstrated that lipopeptides produced by Pseudomonas sp. WJ6 have 92.46% of heavy-oil washing efficiency. The obtained results indicate that this novel bacterial strain and its lipopeptides have great potentials in the environmental remediation and petroleum recovery.

  10. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  11. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    OpenAIRE

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA; Rita De Cássia Freire Soares da Silva; Juliana Moura Luna; Raquel Diniz Rufino; Valdemir Alexandre Santos; Ibrahim M Banat; Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfact...

  12. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black p

  13. Biosurfactants as green stabilizers for the biological synthesis of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph; Manilal, Aseer; Sujith, S

    2011-12-01

    Taking into consideration the needs of greener bioprocesses and novel enhancers for synthesis using microbial processes, biosurfactants, and/or biosurfactant producing microbes are emerging as an alternate source for the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles. A microemulsion technique using an oil-water-surfactant mixture was shown to be a promising approach for nanoparticle synthesis. Biosurfactants are natural surfactants derived from microbial origin composed mostly of sugar and fatty acid moieties, they have higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, and excellent biological activities. The biosurfactant mediated process and microbial synthesis of nanoparticles are now emerging as clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green chemistry" procedures. The biosurfactant-mediated synthesis is superior to the methods of bacterial- or fungal-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, since biosurfactants reduce the formation of aggregates due to the electrostatic forces of attraction and facilitate a uniform morphology of the nanoparticles. In this review, we highlight the biosurfactant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles with relevant details including a greener bioprocess, sources of biosurfactants, and biological synthesized nanoparticles based on the available literature and laboratory findings.

  14. Carbohydrate-based renewable biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, and novel liamocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  15. Research on Design Optimization Strategy in Virtual Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘军; 韩帮军; 范秀敏; 马登哲

    2004-01-01

    Simulation and optimization are the key points of virtual product development (VPD). Traditional engineering simulation software and optimization methods are inadequate to analyze the optimization problems because of its computational inefficiency. A systematic design optimization strategy by using statistical methods and mathematical optimization technologies is proposed. This method extends the design of experiments (DOE) and the simulation metamodel technologies. Metamodels are built to in place of detailed simulation codes based on effectively DOE, and then be linked to optimization routines for fast analysis, or serve as a bridge for integrating simulation software across different domains. A design optimization of composite material structure is used to demonstrate the newly introduced methodology.

  16. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants.

  17. Synthesis of biosurfactants and their advantages to microorganisms and mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Makkar, Randhir S; Kaur, Jasminder; Mehta, S K

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures--lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. The low water solubility of these hydrophobic compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential applications in bioremediation. Not only are the biosurfactants useful in a variety of industrial processes, they are also of vital importance to the microbes in adhesion, emulsification, bioavailability, desorption and defense strategy. These interesting facts are discussed in this chapter.

  18. [Culture medium optimization and primary kinetics analysis for nisin production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Bai, J H; Cai, Z L; Ouyang, F

    2001-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for nisin production of Lactococcus lactis. In the first optimization step the influence of sucrose, soybean peptone, yeast extract, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride, and magnesium sulfur on nisin production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate influenced nisin production positively while soybean peptone affected nisin production negatively. The other components had no significant effect on nisin production. The path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentrations of KH2PO4 and soybean peptone were determined by a central composite design and response surface analysis. The optimized medium allowed nisin production to be increased from 1074 IU/mL to 2150 IU/mL. The kinetic analysis showed that nisin production fashion at optimized and non-optimized media was not changed and maintained partially growth-associated. But the specific growth rates and the specific nisin production rates for the strain at the optimized medium were bigger than the ones at the non-optimized medium after the cells entered the middle of exponential phase.

  19. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment...

  20. Extracellular aromatic biosurfactant produced by Tsukamurella pseudospumae and T. spumae during growth on n-hexadecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Johannes H; Kraft, Axel; Heißler, Stefan; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Schwack, Wolfgang; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-10-10

    Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by microorganisms and show increasing significance in various industrial applications. A great variety of these secondary metabolites are described to occur within actinomycetes, amongst trehalose lipids and oligosaccharide lipids produced by the family Tsukamurellaceae. This study reports on the production of not yet described compounds with surface active behavior by non-pathogenic Tsukamurella pseudospumae and Tsukamurella spumae during growth on hydrophobic carbon sources. Extracts of the purified compounds differ in terms of structure and performance properties to other biosurfactants described within their family. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of aromatic moieties within the surfactant produced, which to date is only known to occur within phenolic glycolipids of some mycobateria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A DYNAMIC OPTIMAL ADVERTISING MODEL FOR NEW PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Many dynamic optimal control models for advertising make efforts to solve the problem of determining optimal advertising expenditures and other variables of interest over time for a firm or several competing firms,However,after analyzing the extant literature,one can find that few dynamic optimal advertising models available consider the problem within the product diffusion framework.Furthermore,the established models involving product diffusion are inspired by the Bass model,which has been out of date.This paper poses a dynamic optimal advertising model for new products,which considers the product diffusion based on the relative newly developed generalized version of the Bass model.In this paper,the optimal control model is used to derive the optimal advertising expenditure policy,which gives some implications to advertising practice.

  2. A DYNAMIC OPTIMAL ADVERTISING MODEL FOR NEW PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rong; HU Qiying

    2003-01-01

    Many dynamic optimal control models for advertising make efforts to solve theproblem of determining optimal advertising expenditures and other variables of interestover time for a firm or several competing firms. However, after analyzing the extantliterature, one can find that few dynamic optimal advertising models available considerthe problem within the product diffusion framework. Furthermore, the established modelsinvolving product diffusion are inspired by the Bass model, which has been out of date.This paper poses a dynamic optimal advertising model for new products, which considersthe product diffusion based on the relative newly developed generalized version of the Bassmodel. In this paper, the optimal control model is used to derive the optimal advertisingexpenditure policy, which gives some implications to advertising practice.

  3. Trehalose lipid biosurfactants produced by the actinomycetes Tsukamurella spumae and T. pseudospumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Johannes H; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Kühl, Boris; Kraft, Axel; Heinzler, Raphael; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Henkel, Marius; Wray, Victor; Luy, Burkhard; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Lang, Siegmund; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    Actinomycetales are known to produce various secondary metabolites including products with surface-active and emulsifying properties known as biosurfactants. In this study, the nonpathogenic actinomycetes Tsukamurella spumae and Tsukamurella pseudospumae are described as producers of extracellular trehalose lipid biosurfactants when grown on sunflower oil or its main component glyceryltrioleate. Crude extracts of the trehalose lipids were purified using silica gel chromatography. The structure of the two trehalose lipid components (TL A and TL B) was elucidated using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight/tandem mass spectroscopy (MALDI-ToF-ToF/MS/MS) and multidimensional NMR experiments. The biosurfactants were identified as 1-α-glucopyranosyl-1-α-glucopyranosid carrying two acyl chains varying of C4 to C6 and C16 to C18 at the 2' and 3' carbon atom of one sugar unit. The trehalose lipids produced demonstrate surface-active behavior and emulsifying capacity. Classified as risk group 1 organisms, T. spumae and T. pseudospumae hold potential for the production of environmentally friendly surfactants.

  4. Hybrid optimization model of product concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Deficiencies of applying the simple genetic algorithm to generate concepts were specified. Based on analyzing conceptual design and the morphological matrix of an excavator, the hybrid optimization model of generating its concepts was proposed, viz. an improved adaptive genetic algorithm was applied to explore the excavator concepts in the searching space of conceptual design, and a neural network was used to evaluate the fitness of the population. The optimization of generating concepts was finished through the "evolution - evaluation" iteration. The results show that by using the hybrid optimization model, not only the fitness evaluation and constraint conditions are well processed, but also the search precision and convergence speed of the optimization process are greatly improved. An example is presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method and associated algorithms.

  5. Optimal production planning for PCB assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, William

    2006-01-01

    Focuses on the optimization of the Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly lines' efficiency. This book integrates the component sequencing and the feeder arrangement problems together for the pick-and-place machine and the chip shooter machines.

  6. Particulate products tailoring properties for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Merkus, Henk G

    2013-01-01

    In this book, experts in different product fields provide information on which particulate aspects are most relevant for behavior and performance of specified industrial products and how optimum results can be obtained.

  7. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, C N; Yong, R N; Gibbs, B F

    2001-07-30

    Batch washing experiments were used to evaluate the feasibility of using biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from sediments. Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and sophorolipid from Torulopsis bombicola were evaluated using a metal-contaminated sediment (110mg/kg copper and 3300mg/kg zinc). A single washing with 0.5% rhamnolipid removed 65% of the copper and 18% of the zinc, whereas 4% sophorolipid removed 25% of the copper and 60% of the zinc. Surfactin was less effective, removing 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and zeta potential measurements were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by the surfactants. It was then postulated that metal removal by the biosurfactants occurs through sorption of the surfactant on to the soil surface and complexation with the metal, detachment of the metal from the soil into the soil solution and hence association with surfactant micelles. Sequential extraction procedures were used on the sediment to determine the speciation of the heavy metals before and after surfactant washing. The carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the sediments. The organic fraction constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the sediments after washing with the various surfactants indicated that the biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. Therefore, heavy metal removal from sediments is feasible and further research will be conducted.

  8. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  9. DESIGN ATTRIBUTES OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR CUSTOMIZED PRODUCT AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Le; Liu Fei; Lei Qi

    2005-01-01

    By formulating the design of customized product as a multi-objective optimization problem,a method for designing customized product according to the relative importance of customer needs is proposed. This method searches for the optimal design that maximizes customer satisfaction by establishing mapping from design attributes to the degree of customer satisfaction on each customer need.A window product is taken as an example for case study. The result indicates that this method is feasible.

  10. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve this pro......In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...

  11. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  12. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    this problem numerically using a single shooting sequential quadratic programming (SQP) based optimization method. Explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) methods are used for integration of the stiff system of differential equations describing the two-phase flow, and the adjoint method...

  13. Codon optimizing for increased membrane protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, K.; Toddo, S.; Nørholm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . As demonstrated with two membrane-embedded transporters in Escherichia coli, the method was more effective than optimizing the entire coding sequence. The method we present is PCR based and requires three simple steps: (1) the design of two PCR primers, one of which is degenerate; (2) the amplification...

  14. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Policy for New Products

    OpenAIRE

    Trichy V. Krishnan; Dipak C. Jain

    2006-01-01

    Advertising is one of the key marketing tools managers have at their disposal to influence their customers into purchasing a new product. The overall objective of new product advertising is to inform and persuade customers. Drawing up an advertising plan for a new product that is under the influence of diffusion phenomenon is not an easy task. Hence, research in this area is very limited. In our research, we use an empirically proven diffusion demand function that explicitly incorporates the ...

  15. Optimal Production and Inventory Policy for Multiple Products Under Resource Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory A. DeCroix; Antonio Arreola-Risa

    1998-01-01

    We show that a modified base-stock policy is optimal for multiproduct, infinite-horizon production-inventory systems, where demand for the products is random and the products share a finite resource every period. We characterize the optimal policy for the case of homogeneous products. Because of the difficulty in computing the optimal base-stock levels for the heterogeneous case, we propose a heuristic that is simple enough for practical applications. We present numerical results that suggest...

  16. An Optimization Study on Syngas Production and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Faraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngas production in Gas-to-liquid (GTL process is focused in past by several researchers to increase the production with minimal capital and operating costs. In this study, syngas production process is simulated and optimized to increase its production and the economic analysis is studied for the proposed optimized process. Aspen HYSYS v8.4 is used for all process simulation work in this article. A new configuration is rigorously simulated while using auto-thermal reforming. Results exhibit a tremendous rise in production of syngas.

  17. Optimizing the order processing of customized products using product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Denkena, B.

    2011-01-01

    . Product configuration based on integrated modular product structure and product family architecture has been recognized as an effective means for implementing mass customization. In order to evaluate the effects of product configuration on order processing, a study has been conducted by the Department...... of Management Engineering and Operations Management of the Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with the Institute of Production Engineering and Machine Tools of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. Thereby, a product configuration system has been modelled for a manufacturer of mass customized products...... and its benefits for the order processing have been evaluated....

  18. Culture medium optimization for pigment production with RSM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for a red-pigmented marine bacterium S-9801 strain (Flavobacterium sp.). In the first optimization step the influence of yeast extract, peptone, glucose and sodium chloride on pigment production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Pigment production was positively influenced by glucose and sodium chloride while other components had no significant effect. In the second step the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentration of glucose and sodium chloride was determined by a central composite design and response analysis. The optimized medium allowed pigment production (A 535~650) to be increased from 0.137 to0.559, being 320% higher than the original medium.

  19. Method of product portfolio analysis based on optimization models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Lozyuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to optimization of the structure of product portfolio of trading company with using the principles of the investment modeling. We further developed the models of investment portfolio optimization, using the known Markowitz and Sharp methods to determine the optimal portfolio of trade company. Adapted to the goods market the models in this study could be applied to the business of trade companies.

  20. Optimal design of a multi-product biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zondervan, E.; Nawaz, Mehboob; de Haan, André B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a biorefinery optimization model that can be used to find the optimal processing route for the production of ethanol, butanol, succinic acid and blends of these chemicals with fossil fuel based gasoline. The approach unites transshipment models with a superstructure...

  1. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hacene

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... The results showed the presence of an alkaline protease with optimal pH and ... significant effect on the production of the enzyme (fructose and malt extract), then defining theirs ..... Urease test. + ..... terminating inhibitors. Proc.

  2. Optimization of fermentation medium for nisin production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    production from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis using ... the optimal medium obtained by ANN-GA was located at the verge of the test region, a further Box- ...... Lactococcus lactis in fed-batch culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 68: 322-. 326.

  3. Evaluation of substrates from renewable-resources in biosurfactants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... in the cosmetic industry (Cameotra and Makkar, 2004). However, biosurfactants ..... recovery from wells, reduce the heavy oil viscosity, clean oil storage tanks, increase ..... and metal cation additions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.

  4. Effect of biosurfactant from two strains of Pseudomonas on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Two Pseudomonas strains isolated from oil-contaminated soil which produce biosurfactant were studied. .... Refinery, Assam, India, each having a varied level of oil conta- mination. ..... Rapid method for monitoring maximum.

  5. Effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactants on removal of phenanthrene from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Ji, Wei; Brusseau, Mark L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    Solubilizing agents may enhance remediation of-soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants by diminishing sorption of the contaminants or increasing desorption rates. The effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactants to enhance the removal of sorbed contaminants from soil was determined

  6. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Bollag, J.M. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (USA). Soil Biochemical Lab.

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by it wide variety of micro-organisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures - lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released to the environment its a result of spillage of oil and byproducts of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of PAHs limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of PAHs has potential applications in bioremediation.

  7. Effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactants on removal of phenanthrene from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, Wouter H.; Ji, Wei; Brusseau, Mark L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    1998-01-01

    Solubilizing agents may enhance remediation of-soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants by diminishing sorption of the contaminants or increasing desorption rates. The effectiveness of rhamnolipid biosurfactants to enhance the removal of sorbed contaminants from soil was determined u

  8. Multicriteria optimization of gluconic acid production using net flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsall-Whitney, H; Taylor, D; Thibault, J

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical process industry is often confronted with the challenge of making decisions in an atmosphere of multiple and conflicting objectives. Recent innovations in the field of operations research and systems science have yielded rigorous multicriteria optimization techniques that can be successfully applied to the field of biochemical engineering. These techniques incorporate the expert's experience into the optimization routine and provide valuable information about the zone of possible solutions. This paper presents a multicriteria optimization strategy that generates a Pareto domain, given a set of conflicting objective criteria, and determines the optimal operating region for the production of gluconic acid using the net flow method (NFM). The objective criteria include maximizing the productivity and concentration of gluconic acid, while minimizing the residual substrate. Three optimization strategies are considered. The first two strategies identify the optimal operating region for the process inputs. The results yielded an acceptable compromise between productivity, gluconic acid concentration and residual substrate concentration. Fixing the process inputs representing the batch time, initial substrate concentration and initial biomass equal to their optimal values, the remaining simulations were used to study the sensitivity of the optimum operating region to changes in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K(L) a, by utilizing a multi-level K(L) a strategy. The results show that controlling K(L) a during the reaction reduced the production of biomass, which in turn resulted in increased productivity and concentration of gluconic acid above that of a fixed K(L) a.

  9. Bioconversion of agro-industrial by-products in rhamnolipids toward applications in enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Alves, Eliana; Domingues, M Rosário; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was optimized using low-cost substrates. The highest biosurfactant production (3.2 g/l) was obtained using a culture medium containing corn steep liquor (10% (v/v)) and molasses (10% (w/v)). The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water up to 30 mN/m, and exhibited a high emulsifying activity (E24=60%), with a critical micelle concentration as low as 50 mg/l. The biosurfactant produced in this alternative medium was characterized as a mixture of eight different rhamnolipid congeners, being the most abundant the mono-rhamnolipid Rha-C10-C10. However, using LB medium, nine different rhamnolipid congeners were identified, being the most abundant the di-rhamnolipid Rha-Rha-C10-C10. The rhamnolipid mixture produced in the alternative medium exhibited a better performance in removing oil from contaminated sand when compared with two chemical surfactants, suggesting its potential use as an alternative to traditional chemical surfactants in enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  11. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  12. Model-based optimization of production systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Gas lifted method is one of the artificial lift technique used in the oil and gas industry.This method is applied most in oil well to improve the oil recovery by lowering the bottomhole pressure. Normally in the field there are multi-gas lifted wells that requires certain amount of gas to be injected to achieve the maximum oil production. Generally the amount of gas available is limited, therefore is has to be allocated per well in the best way possible to achieve maximum oil production in...

  13. Optimized Production of Lignin Peroxidase, Manganese Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences ... lignolytic enzymes production using Rhemazol Brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye, 2,2-azino-bis (3 .... profiles and ability to degrade dyes and .... fungal culture media during its preparation ... formation as a result of oxidation of colored.

  14. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.

    The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process at 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70% volume distribution could produce 11-17.8% more biogas compared to single CSTR process under similar operating conditions. The increased biogas production was mainly from the second reactor of the serial process, which accounted for 16-18% of the total...... biogas production. At 13/87 ratio, no significant increase in biogas production was noticed. Both single and serial CSTR processes were stable when operated 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 or 50/50% volume distributions and also during an organic pulse load (19.6 to 65.3 g/l reactor volume). Results from pilot...

  15. Characterisation and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant extracts produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thando; Rautenbach, Marina; Vosloo, Johann Arnold; Khan, Sehaam; Khan, Wesaal

    2017-12-01

    Biosurfactants are unique secondary metabolites, synthesised non-ribosomally by certain bacteria, fungi and yeast, with their most promising applications as antimicrobial agents and surfactants in the medical and food industries. Naturally produced glycolipids and lipopeptides are found as a mixture of congeners, which increases their antimicrobial potency. Sensitive analysis techniques, such as liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, enable the fingerprinting of different biosurfactant congeners within a naturally produced crude extract. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ST34 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST5, isolated from wastewater, were screened for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant compounds were solvent extracted and characterised using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens ST34 produced C13-16 surfactin analogues and their identity were confirmed by high resolution ESI-MS and UPLC-MS. In the crude extract obtained from P. aeruginosa ST5, high resolution ESI-MS linked to UPLC-MS confirmed the presence of di- and monorhamnolipid congeners, specifically Rha-Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-C10-C10, Rha-Rha-C8-C10/Rha-Rha-C10-C8 and Rha-C8-C10/Rha-C10-C8, as well as Rha-Rha-C12-C10/Rha-Rha-C10-C12 and Rha-C12-C10/Rha-C10-C12. The crude surfactin and rhamnolipid extracts also retained pronounced antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms, including antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. In addition, the rapid solvent extraction combined with UPLC-MS of the crude samples is a simple and powerful technique to provide fast, sensitive and highly specific data on the characterisation of biosurfactant compounds.

  16. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Ligia R.; Teixeira, Jose A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Oliveira, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of the surface active components from the crude biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. A fraction rich in glycolipids was obtained by the fractionation of crude biosurfactant using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Molecular (by

  18. Optimization of levan production by Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K Ananthalakshmy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different fermentation conditions on levan production by Zymomonas mobilis B-4286 was studied. Levan production increased from 5.7-g/l to 12.6-g/l with an increase in initial sucrose concentration (50-150 g/l. Above 15% (20 and 25% sucrose concentration, there was no increase in the biomass. The sucrose hydrolysis and levan production occurred even in the absence of significant growth of cells. Maximum amount of levan was produced (14.5 g/l at pH 5 and 15 g /l at 25(0C temperature. At temperature between 35(0C and 40(0C, levan production was not detected. Presence of glucose in the medium considerably reduced levan production (2.8 g/l than fructose 6.7g/l.O efeito de diferentes condições de fermentação na produção de levan por Zymomonas mobilis B-4286 foi estudado. A produção de Levan aumentou de 5.7-g/l a 12.6-g/l com o aumento da concentração inicial de sacarose (50-150 g/l. Acima de 15%, 20 e 25% a concentração de sacarose, não propiciou nenhum acréscimo na formação de biomassa. A hidrólise da sacarose e produção de Levan ocorreram de forma normal na ausência de um crescimento celular significativo. A concentração máxima de levan produzida foi (14.5 g/l em pH 5, 15 g /l a 25(0 C. Na temperatura entre 35(0C e 40(0 C, não ocorreu a produção de levan. A presença de glicose no meio de cultivo reduziu consideravelmente a produção média de levan (2.8 g/l bem como a de frutose (6.7g/l..

  19. Simulation Based Optimization for World Line Card Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based decision support system is one of the commonly used tool to examine complex production systems. The simulation approach provides process modules which can be adjusted with certain parameters by using data relatively easily obtainable in production process. World Line Card production system simulation is developed to evaluate the optimality of existing production line via using discrete event simulation model with variaty of alternative proposals. The current production system is analysed by a simulation model emphasizing the bottlenecks and the poorly utilized production line. Our analysis identified some improvements and efficient solutions for the existing system.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Immobilized Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cassava Industrial Wastewater into Activated Allophane as an Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Widjonarko, D. M.; Windrawati; Widyaningsih, V.

    2017-02-01

    The immobilization of biosurfactant into activated allophane has been conducted with mass ratio of biosurfactant:allophane of 1:5; 1:7 and 1:10 and contact time of 24 and 48 h. The optimum condition for immobilization was reached when the mass ratio of biosurfactant: allophane of 1:10 with the contact time of 24 h was applied. The result yielded the immobilization product having the specific surface area of 82.42 m2/g and the surface acidity of 9.12 mmol/g. A better adsorbent has been produced. In respect to the activated allophane, there was a decreasing of specific surface area about 20% and increasing of surface acidity value about 120%.

  1. Stimulatory effects of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSZ-07 on rice straw decomposing[G1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiuzhuo; CAI Weimin; WANG Juan

    2008-01-01

    Biosurfactant, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BSZ-07, was added to the rice straw decomposing process to enhance the production of reducing sugars. Observed by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [G2](NMR) analysis, the purified biosurfactant was considered as a mixture of RL1 and RL2, which are two different types of rhamnolipids. Two different adding methods, adding the purified rhamnolipid and the on-site production of it were compared. The results showed that 0.5 g/L was the optimum concentration for adding purified rhamnolipid and the optimum temperature for on-site production was 30℃ for the first 48 h and 34℃ for the next 48 h. Under the optimum conditions, these two adding methods could improve the production of reducing sugar to 2.730 g/L and 2.504 g/L, which was 22.30% and 12.20% higher than that of the rhamnolipid-free sample, respectively, which indicated that both of them were more effective than any other kind of surfactant discussed in this article. As the on-site production of rhamnolipid could omit the purification process, thus reducing the production cost effectively, it seemed to be a prospective adding method of the biosurfactant for enhancing rice straw decomposing.

  2. MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLIED TO SOLVE PRODUCT FAMILY OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chunbao; WANG Liya

    2007-01-01

    The product family design problem solved by evolutionary algorithms is discussed. A successfiil product family design method should achieve an optimal tradeoff among a set of competing objectives, which involves maximizing conunonality across the family of products and optimizing the performances of each product in the family. A 2-level chromosome structured genetic algorithm (2LCGA) is proposed to solve this dass of problems and its performance is analyzed in comparing its results with those obtained with other methods. By interpreting the chromosome as a 2-level linear structure, the variable commonality genetic algorithm (GA) is constructed to vary the amount of platform commonality and automatically searches across varying levels of commonality for the platform while trying to resolve the tradeoff between commonality and individual product performance within the product family during optimization process. By incorporating a commonality assessing index to the problem formulation, the 2LCGA optimize the product platform and its corresponding family of products in a single stage, which can yield improvements in the overall performance of the product family compared with two-stage approaches (the first stage involves determining the best settings for the platform variables and values of unique variables are found for each product in the second stage). The scope of the algorithm is also expanded by introducing a classification mechanism to allow multiple platforms to be considered during product family optimization, offering opportunities for superior overall design by more efficacious tradeoffs between commonality and performance. The effectiveness of 2LCGA is demonstrated through the design of a family of universal electric motors and comparison against previous results.

  3. Produção de biotensoativos a partir de resíduos de óleos e gorduras Fats and oils wastes as substrates for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Georges Valadares Almeida de Oliveira Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou a seleção de microrganismos com capacidade de produzir biotensoativos a partir de resíduos de óleos e gorduras gerados em restaurantes e indústrias alimentícias. Borra de soja, gordura de frango, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e óleo de soja usado em frituras foram estudados como fonte de carbono. Os isolados LMI 6c e LMI 7a, ambos pertencentes ao gênero Pseudomonas, foram selecionados como potenciais produtores de biotensoativos. Dentre os resíduos propostos, a borra de soja foi considerada o melhor substrato, gerando 9,69 g.L-1 de ramnolipídios e uma tensão superficial de 31 mN/m.The purpose of this study was to select microorganisms that were able to produce biosurfactants from fats and oils wastes generated by the food industry and restaurants. Soybean soapstock, chicken fat, hydrogenated vegetable fat and soybean frying oil were evaluated as alternative substrates. Pseudomonas sp. isolates LMI 6c and LMI 7a showed a capacity to utilize the substrates and to produce rhamnolipid surfactants. Soybean soapstock was considered the best substrate, generating 9.69 g.L-1 of rhamnolipids and a surface tension of 31 mN/m.

  4. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  5. Optimization of Cultivating Conditions for Triterpenoids Production from Antrodia cinnmomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Chuan; He, Kai-Ze; Pu, Qiang; Li, Jing; Zhao, Zong-Jie

    2012-12-01

    The submerged cultivating conditions for triterpenoids production from Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized using uniform design method and the one-factor-at-a-time method was adopted to investigate the effect of plants oils and glucose supply on triterpenoids production and mycelia growth. Corn starch and culturing time were identified as more significant variables for triterpenoids production. The optimal conditions for triterpenoids production was 20.0 g/L corn starch, 20.0 g/L wheat bran, 1.85 g/L MgSO4, initial pH 3 and 16 days of cultivation. In addition, investigation of plant oils and glucose supply showed that 0.3 % (v/v) olive oil supply at the beginning of fermentation stimulated mycelia growth and significantly increased triterpenoids production; 0.2 % (w/v) glucose supplement at 10th day enhanced production of triterpenoids with slight effect on biomass, which is reported for the first time. The triterpenoids production experimentally obtained under the optimal conditions was 7.23 % (w/w). The uniform design method may be used to optimize many environmental and genetic factors such as temperature and agitation that can also affect the triterpenoids production from A. cinnamomea.

  6. The Process of Optimizing Mechanical Sound Quality in Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Holst, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    clarify the importance of product sound, defining perceptive demands identified by users, and, finally, how to suggest mechanical principles for modification of an existing sound design. The optimized mechanical sound design is followed by tests on users of the product in its use context. The result......The research field concerning optimizing product sound quality is a relatively unexplored area, and may become difficult for designers to operate in. To some degree, sound is a highly subjective parameter, which is normally targeted sound specialists. This paper describes the theoretical...... and practical background for managing a process of optimizing the mechanical sound quality in a product design by using simple tools and workshops systematically. The procedure is illustrated by a case study of a computer navigation tool (computer mouse or mouse). The process is divided into 4 phases, which...

  7. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    of the Pseudomonas lipopeptides belonging to different structural groups on important biodegradation parameters, mainly; solubilization and emulsification of hydrophobic pollutants (alkanes and PAHs) and increase of cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial degraders. Ultimately, it was tested if these parameters led......Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... in biofilm formation, however, detailed studies of these roles have not yet been carried out. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to elucidate in more depth the roles played by Pseudomonas lipopetides in pollutant biodegradation and biofilm formation. This study investigated the effect...

  8. Multiple Roles of Biosurfactants in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satputea, Surekha K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Patil, Rajendra H; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-01-01

    Microbial growth and biofilms formation are a continuous source of contamination on most surfaces with biological, inanimate, natural or man-made. The use of chemical surfactants in daily practice to control growth, presence or adhesion of microorganisms and ultimately the formation of biofilms and biofouling is therefore becoming essential. Synthetic surfactants are, however, not preferred or ideal and biologically derived surface active biosurfactants (BSs) molecules produced mainly by microorganisms are therefore becoming attractive and sought by many industries. The search for innovative and interesting BS molecules that have effective antimicrobial activities and to use as innovative alternatives to chemical surfactants with added antimicrobial value among many other advantages has been ongoing for some time. This review discusses the various roles of BS molecules in association with biofilm formation. Recent updates on several mechanisms involved in biofilm development and control are presented vide this article.

  9. Mixed integer simulation optimization for optimal hydraulic fracturing and production of shale gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, B.; Wang, H. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimal development of shale gas fields involves designing a most productive fracturing network for hydraulic stimulation processes and operating wells appropriately throughout the production time. A hydraulic fracturing network design-determining well placement, number of fracturing stages, and fracture lengths-is defined by specifying a set of integer ordered blocks to drill wells and create fractures in a discrete shale gas reservoir model. The well control variables such as bottom hole pressures or production rates for well operations are real valued. Shale gas development problems, therefore, can be mathematically formulated with mixed-integer optimization models. A shale gas reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the production performance for a hydraulic fracturing and well control plan. To find the optimal fracturing design and well operation is challenging because the problem is a mixed integer optimization problem and entails computationally expensive reservoir simulation. A dynamic simplex interpolation-based alternate subspace (DSIAS) search method is applied for mixed integer optimization problems associated with shale gas development projects. The optimization performance is demonstrated with the example case of the development of the Barnett Shale field. The optimization results of DSIAS are compared with those of a pattern search algorithm.

  10. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes: regulation and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are a class of secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of structures that can be produced from renewable feedstock by a wide variety of micro-organisms. They have (potential) applications in the medical world, personal care sector, mining processes, food industry, cosmetics, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, bio-remediation, household detergents, paper and pulp industry, textiles, paint industries, etc. Especially glycolipid BSs like sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and cellobioselipids (CBLs) have been described to provide significant opportunities to (partially) replace chemical surfactants. The major two factors currently limiting the penetration of BSs into the market are firstly the limited structural variety and secondly the rather high production price linked with the productivity. One of the keys to resolve the above mentioned bottlenecks can be found in the genetic engineering of natural producers. This could not only result in more efficient (economical) recombinant producers, but also in a diversification of the spectrum of available BSs as such resolving both limiting factors at once. Unraveling the genetics behind the biosynthesis of these interesting biological compounds is indispensable for the tinkering, fine tuning and rearrangement of these biological pathways with the aim of obtaining higher yields and a more extensive structural variety. Therefore, this review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of the biosynthesis, genetics and regulation of some important members of the family of the eukaryotic glycolipid BSs (MELs, CBLs and SLs). Moreover, recent biotechnological achievements and the industrial potential of engineered strains are discussed.

  11. The study of cuckoo optimization algorithm for production planning problem

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarzadeh, Afsane; Shadkam, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Constrained Nonlinear programming problems are hard problems, and one of the most widely used and common problems for production planning problem to optimize. In this study, one of the mathematical models of production planning is survey and the problem solved by cuckoo algorithm. Cuckoo Algorithm is efficient method to solve continues non linear problem. Moreover, mentioned models of production planning solved with Genetic algorithm and Lingo software and the results will compared. The Cucko...

  12. The inhibitory effect of a Lactobacillus acidophilus derived biosurfactant on Serratia marcescens biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Shokouhfard

    2015-10-01

    Results: The FTIR analysis of derived biosurfactant revealed the composition as protein component. Because of the release of such biosurfactants, L. acidophilus was able to interfere with the adhesion and biofilm formation of the S. marcescens strains. In co- incubation method this biosurfactant in 2.5 mg/ml concentration showed anti-adhesive activity against all tested strains of S. marcescens (P

  13. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG.

  14. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased.

  15. Optimal production policy for multi-product with inventory-level-dependent demand in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yogender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation has emerged as the primary means by which firms achieve optimal production policy. In this paper, we use market segmentation approach in multi-product inventory system with inventory-level-dependent demand. The objective is to make use of optimal control theory to solve the inventory-production problem and develop an optimal production policy that minimizes the total cost associated with inventory and production rate in segmented market. First, we consider a single production and inventory problem with multi-destination demand that vary from segment to segment. Further, we describe a single source production and multi destination inventory and demand problem under the assumption that firm may choose independently the inventory directed to each segment. The optimal control is applied to study and solve the proposed problem.

  16. Income Optimization of Dairy Farm to Increase National Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uka Kusnadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The program to improve national milk production over the past years has not been well targeted. This is indicated by the slow increase of dairy population and milk production that could not meet the increasing demand. It should be apparently focus on income generation of dairy farmers to increase their welfare so that they are willing to improve their dairy business that will affect national milk production. Implementation of economical dairy management and technology, could increase milk production, hence improve the farmer’s income. This could be done through several ways, i.e.: economical dairy composition, optimization of dry period and improvement milk hygiene. All these aspects including technical aspect are discussed in this paper. Apart from above, income optimalization could also be done by reducing the price of feed concentrate, raising only productive dairy cows and managing milk cooperative efficiently.

  17. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil field. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable significant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate...... the injections and oil production such that flow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water flooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved...... for sensitivity computation. We demonstrate the procedure on a water ooding example with conventional injectors and producers....

  18. Improvement of spergualin production by mutation and medium optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yingzi; MA Guangpeng; WU Xiangjin; JIANG Ling; WANG Xiangjing; BAI Hua

    2007-01-01

    In order to screen a high-yield spergualin-production strain and an optimal fermentation medium, large numbers of isolates were selected after ultraviolet (UV) mutation and self-tolerant mutation of Bacillus laterosporus A7. A high-yield strain A-94-7 was obtained and the spergualin productivity was 4.1-fold of the parent strain. The genetic stability of the high-yield strain Bacillus laterosporus A-94-7 was very good. After fermentation medium optimization, Bacillus laterosporus A-94-7 was able to produce 380 mg·L-1. The spergualin productivity in Bacillus laterosporus A7 was increased 4.75-fold by mutation and medium optimization.

  19. Modular production line optimization: The exPLORE architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinellis Diomidis D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The general design problem in serial production lines concerns the allocation of resources such as the number of servers, their service rates, and buffers given production-specific constraints, associated costs, and revenue projections. We describe the design of exPLOre: a modular, object-oriented, production line optimization software architecture. An abstract optimization module can be instantiated using a variety of stochastic optimization methods such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Its search space is constrained by a constraint checker while its search direction is guided by a cost analyser which combines the output of a throughput evaluator with the business model. The throughput evaluator can be instantiated using Markovian, generalised queueing network methods, a decomposition, or an expansion method algorithm.

  20. Modular production line optimization: The exPLORE architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomidis D. Spinellis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The general design problem in serial production lines concerns the allocation of resources such as the number of servers, their service rates, and buffers given production-specific constraints, associated costs, and revenue projections. We describe the design of exPLOre: a modular, object-oriented, production line optimization software architecture. An abstract optimization module can be instantiated using a variety of stochastic optimization methods such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Its search space is constrained by a constraint checker while its search direction is guided by a cost analyser which combines the output of a throughput evaluator with the business model. The throughput evaluator can be instantiated using Markovian, generalised queueing network methods, a decomposition, or an expansion method algorithm.

  1. Production Cost Optimization Model Based on CODP in Mass Customization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key for enterprises to implement the postponement strategy is the right decision on the location of Customer Order Decoupling Point (CODP so as to achieve the scope economics of mass customization and scale economics of mass production fully. To deal with production cost optimization problem of postponement system based on various situation of CODP, a basic model of production cost and its M/M/1 extended model are proposed and compared so as to optimize the overall production cost of the postponement system. The production modes can be classified as MTS (make to stock, ATO (assemble to order, MTO (make to order and ETO (engineering to order according to the inventory location, and the postponed production system considered here includes manufacturing cost, semi-finished inventory cost and customer waiting cost caused by delaying delivery. By Matlab simulation, we can compute the optimal location of CODP in each production mode, which can provide some management insight for the manufacturer to decide the right production mode and utilize the resources efficiently.

  2. Optimal Maintenance of a Production System with Intermediate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos C. Karamatsoukis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a production-inventory system that consists of an input-generating installation, a production unit and L intermediate buffers. It is assumed that the installation transfers the raw material to buffer and the production unit pulls the raw material from buffer We consider the problem of the optimal preventive maintenance of the installation if the installation deteriorates stochastically with usage and the production unit is always in operative condition. We also consider the problem of the optimal preventive maintenance of the production unit if the production unit deteriorates stochastically with usage and the installation is always in operative condition. Under a suitable cost structure and for given contents of the buffers, it is proved that the average-cost optimal policy for the first (second problem initiates a preventive maintenance of the installation (production unit if and only if the degree of deterioration of the installation (production unit exceeds some critical level. Numerical results are presented for both problems.

  3. Bio-oil Production - Process Optimization and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica

    and pharmaceutical products, it will become a high-cost commodity. Therefore it is of great importance to develop a sustainable and marketable process for the conversion of biomass, which is feedstock flexible and energy efficient and offers high conversion efficiency. Only a process like this has the ability......, fossil fuels still accounted for 87% of global and 81% of EU primary energy consumption. In an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of a continued supply of liquid fuels, processes utilizing biomass in general, and lignocellulosic biomass in particular, are being developed to replace their fossil...... to produce a drop-in product that is commercially compatible to conventional fuels as wells as has the capability to endure. Furthermore, liquid biofuels in future need to be produced in bulk to meet demand; thus, the challenge becomes one of finding the right process with high feedstock flexibility. One...

  4. Optimization of biogas production from coffee production waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Federico; Fino, Debora; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical pretreatments on biogas production from coffee waste. After the preparation of a mixture of coffee waste with a TS concentration of 10%w/w, basic and acid pretreatments were conducted in batch mode and their performances were compared with the biogas produced from a mixture without any pretreatment stage. The basic pretreatment demonstrated a very good action on the hydrolysis of the lignin and cellulose, and permitted a biogas production of about 18NL/L with a methane content of almost 80%v/v. Thus, the basic pretreatment has been used to scale-up the process. The coffee refuse was has been carried out in a 45L anaerobic reactor working in continuous mode and in a mesophilic condition (35°C) with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of about 40days. A high biogas production of 1.14NL/Ld, with a methane percentage of 65%v/v was obtained, thus permitting a process yield of about 83% to be obtained.

  5. Analysis of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by methylene blue complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    Rhamnolipids, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, represent an important group of biosurfactants having various industrial, environmental, and medical applications. Current methods for rhamnolipid quantification involve the use of strong hazardous acids/chemicals, indirect measurement of the concentration of sugar moiety, or require the availability of expensive equipment (HPLC-MS). A safer, easier method that measures the whole rhamnolipid molecules would significantly enhance strain selection, metabolic engineering, and process development for economical rhamnolipid production. A semi-quantitative method was reported earlier to differentiate between the rhamnolipid-producing and non-producing strains using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In this study, a rapid and simple method for rhamnolipid analysis was developed by systematically investigating the complexation of rhamnolipids and methylene blue, with and without the presence of CTAB. The method relies on measuring the absorbance (at 638 nm) of the rhamnolipid-methylene blue complex that partitions into the chloroform phase. With P. aeruginosa fermentation samples, the applicability of this method was verified by comparison of the analysis results with those obtained from the commonly used anthrone reaction technique.

  6. The anionic biosurfactant rhamnolipid does not denature industrial enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kvist Madsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. Their combination of useful properties and sustainable production make them promising industrial alternatives to petrochemical and oleochemical surfactants. Here we compare the impact of the anionic BS rhamnolipid (RL and the conventional/synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the structure and stability of three different commercially used enzymes, namely the cellulase Carezyme® (CZ, the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra® (LT and the α-amylase Stainzyme® (SZ. Our data reveal a fundamental difference in their mode of interaction. SDS shows great diversity of interaction towards the different enzymes. It efficiently unfolds both LT and CZ, but LT is unfolded by SDS through formation of SDS clusters on the protein well below the cmc, while CZ is only unfolded by bulk micelles and on average binds significantly less SDS than LT. SDS binds with even lower stoichiometry to SZ and leads to an increase in thermal stability. In contrast, RL does not affect the tertiary or secondary structure of any enzyme at room temperature, has little impact on thermal stability and only binds detectably (but at low stoichiometries to SZ. Furthermore all enzymes maintain activity at both monomeric and micellar concentrations of RL. We conclude that RL, despite its anionic charge, is a surfactant that does not compromise the structural integrity of industrially relevant proteins. This makes RL a promising alternative to current synthetic anionic surfactants in a wide range of commercial applications.

  7. Blood platelet production: a novel approach for practical optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Nico; Haijema, René; van der Wal, Jan; Sibinga, Cees Smit

    2009-03-01

    The challenge of production and inventory management for blood platelets (PLTs) is the requirement to meet highly uncertain demands. Shortages are to be minimized, if not to be avoided at all. Overproduction, in turn, leads to high levels of outdating as PLTs have a limited "shelf life." Outdating is to be minimized for ethical and cost reasons. Operations research (OR) methodology was applied to the PLT inventory management problem. The problem can be formulated in a general mathematical form. To solve this problem, a five-step procedure was used. This procedure is based on a combination of two techniques, a mathematical technique called stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) and computer simulation. The approach identified an optimal production policy, leading to the computation of a simple and nearly optimal PLT production "order-up-to" rule. This rule prescribes a fixed order-up-to level for each day of the week. The approach was applied to a test study with actual data for a regional Dutch blood bank. The main finding in the test study was that outdating could be reduced from 15-20 percent to less than 0.1 percent with virtually no shortages. Blood group preferences and extending the shelf life of more than 5 days appeared to be of marginal effect. In this article the worlds of blood management and the mathematical discipline of OR are brought together for the optimization of blood PLT production. This leads to simple nearly optimal blood PLT production policies that are suitable for practical implementation.

  8. APECS: A family of optimization products for least cost generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrill, E.; Stallings, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shea, S. [Praxis Engineering, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Reducing costs of power generation is the primary focus of many power generators today in efforts to prepare for competition in a deregulated market, to increase profitability, or to retain customers. To help power generators track and manage power generation costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) offers APECS{sup plus}, one of EPRI`s APECS - Advisory Plant and Environmental Control System - family of optimization products for fossil power plants. The APECS family of products provides tools and techniques to optimize costs, as well as NO{sub x} emissions and performance, in fossil power plants. These products include APECS{sup plus}, GNOCIS, and ULTRAMAX{reg_sign}. The products have varying degrees of functionality and their application at a power plant will depend on the site-specific needs and resources in each case. This paper describes APECS{sup plus}, the cost management product of the APECS family of optimization products. The other key products in this family, GNOCIS and ULTRAMAX{reg_sign}, are mentioned here and described in more detail in the literature.

  9. Possibilities and challenges for biosurfactants use in petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfumo, Amedea; Rancich, Ivo; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid/liquid (e.g., oil/water), solid/ liquid (e.g., rock/oil and rock/water) and gas/liquid. Therefore, the possibilities of exploiting these bioproducts in oil-related sciences are vast and made petroleum industry their largest possible market at present. The role of biosurfactants in enhancing oil recovery from reservoirs is certainly the best known; however they can be effectively applied in many other fields from transportation of crude oil in pipeline to the clean-up of oil storage tanks and even manufacturing of fine petrochemicals. When properly used, biosurfactants are comparable to traditional chemical analogues in terms of performances and offer advantages with regard to environment protection/conservation. This chapter aims at providing an up-to-date overview of biosurfactant roles, applications and possible future uses related to petroleum industry.

  10. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  11. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of biosurfactant on the remediation of HOC-contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guangming; ZHONG Hua; HUANG Guohe; FU Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds using biosurfactants as additives involves interactions between soil matrix, hydrophobic organic compound contaminants, biosurfactants and microorganisms. In this paper, the mechanism for biosurfactants to enhance the contaminant degradation is basically revealed. Biosurfactants can enhance solubilization of the contaminants in the soil matrix, change their mass transfer properties into the aqueous phase, as well as affect their sorption properties. Furthermore, biosurfactants can act on microorganisms and change their surface properties, accordingly cause new growth and uptake behavior of the bacteria in the soil matrix. Both the physicochemical and the microbiological effects can basically increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and enhance their degradation.

  12. Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Gumus, Cansu Ekin

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing consumer pressure for commercial products that are more natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, including foods, cosmetics, detergents, and personal care products. Industry has responded by trying to identify natural alternatives to synthetic functional ingredients within these products. The focus of this review article is on the replacement of synthetic surfactants with natural emulsifiers, such as amphiphilic proteins, polysaccharides, biosurfactants, phospholipids, and bioparticles. In particular, the physicochemical basis of emulsion formation and stabilization by natural emulsifiers is discussed, and the benefits and limitations of different natural emulsifiers are compared. Surface-active polysaccharides typically have to be used at relatively high levels to produce small droplets, but the droplets formed are highly resistant to environmental changes. Conversely, surface-active proteins are typically utilized at low levels, but the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Certain phospholipids are capable of producing small oil droplets during homogenization, but again the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Biosurfactants (saponins) can be utilized at low levels to form fine oil droplets that remain stable over a range of environmental conditions. Some nature-derived nanoparticles (e.g., cellulose, chitosan, and starch) are effective at stabilizing emulsions containing relatively large oil droplets. Future research is encouraged to identify, isolate, purify, and characterize new types of natural emulsifier, and to test their efficacy in food, cosmetic, detergent, personal care, and other products.

  13. Ectoine production by Halomonas boliviensis: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Thuoc, Doan; Guzmán, Héctor; Thi-Hang, Mai; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2010-10-01

    Two cultivation steps were used for production of biomass and ectoine by Halomonas boliviensis, respectively. The optimization of some nutrient parameters in each step was investigated by using response surface methodology. Twenty and 12 experiments were performed to attain optimal conditions for biomass and ectoine production, respectively. The model predicted a maximum biomass concentration of 3.34 g/L on optimization of NH(4)Cl, K(2)HPO(4), and MgSO(4)•7H(2)O concentrations during the first cultivation, while a maximum ectoine concentration of 1.27 g/L was predicted on optimizing NaCl and monosodium glutamate concentrations in the second cultivation. The experimental values obtained (3.36 g biomass/L and 1.25 g ectoine/L) were in good agreement with the predicted values. The optimized conditions were also used for two-step 1.5-L fed-batch fermentations. In the first step, biomass concentration of 28.7 g/L was obtained while in the second step biomass concentration increased to 63 g/L. Ectoine concentration of 9.2 g/L was obtained, and the overall ectoine productivity was 6.3 g/L/day, being among the highest reported so far.

  14. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  15. Optimization of (-galactosidase production from lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    β-galactosidase, commonly known as lactase, represents commercially important enzyme that is prevalently used for lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey. To the date, it has been isolated from various sources. In this study different strains of lactic acid bacteria were assessed for their β-galactosidase productivity, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 resulted with the highest production potential. Thereafter, optimal conditions for accomplishing high yi...

  16. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  17. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  18. Optimizing Growth Conditions for Digoxin Production in Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herman A. van Wietmarschen; Hansjo¨ rg Hagels; Ron Peters; Jolanda Heistek; Jan van der Greef; Mei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Digoxin is a therapeutic cardenolide widely used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and heart failure in both Western as well as Chinese medicine. Digoxin is extracted from cultivated Digitalis lanata Ehrh. plants, known as Mao Hua Yang Di Huang in Chinese medicine. This manuscript presents two studies that were conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for digoxin production in the TCM Mao Hua Yan Di Huang in a greenhouse under GAP conditions. Methods: Two experiments were designed in which 4 growth conditions were compared. Levels of digoxin, gitoxin, digitoxin, α-acetyl-digoxin,β-acetyl-digoxin were measured using HPLC-UV and compared between the conditions. Results: Normal soil, no CO2 enrichment combined with a cold shock was found to be the optimal condition for producing digoxin in the first experiment. Gitoxin content was significantly lower in plants grown in this condition. Mechanical stress as well as the time of harvesting showed no statistically significant differences in the production of cardenolides. In the second experiment the optimal condition was found to be a combination of cold nights, sun screen, fertilizer use and no milled soil. Conclusion: This study shows that digoxin production can be increased by controlling the growth conditions of D. lanata Ehrh. The effect of cold was important in both experiments for improving digoxin production. Cultivating Chinese herbal medicines in optimized greenhouse conditions might be an economically attractive alternative to regular open air cultivation.

  19. Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes b

  20. Optimizing nitrogen and water inputs for greenhouse vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Gallardo, M.; Voogt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production systems require high N and irrigation inputs. Commonly, these systems are associated with environmental problems caused by nitrate leaching. Given increasing societal pressure to reduce these problems, there is a requirement to optimally use N and water inputs. Opt

  1. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the european bioeconomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; Linden, van der Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; Weijde, van der Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and s

  2. Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus ... size and nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen ratio, mediators and metal ions). ... manganese peroxidase (MnP), 2700 IU/ml for lignins peroxidase (LiP) and 345 IU/ml ...

  3. Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes

  4. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  5. Behaviour - The keystone in optimizing free-ranging ungulate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-ranging animal behaviour is a keystone to optimizing free-ranging domestic animal production. This chapter focuses on several aspects that emanate from foraging including defining terms, concepts and the complexity that underlie managing animals and landscapes. Behaviour is investigated in li...

  6. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of SAGD wellbore completions : short production tubing string sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokar, M.; Graham, J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study investigated the effects of changing the landing position of short production tubing strings near the heel of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production wells. A homogenous discretized wellbore model was used to model the reservoir and wellbore simultaneously in order to study wellbore and reservoir interactions. The aim of the study was to develop a method of optimizing bitumen production and determining the most economical position for wellbore strings. Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of shortening the production tubing string and examine the impact of extending the tubing string beyond the heel of the well on bitumen bitumen production rates and the steam oil ratio (SOR). Results of the study showed that a shortened string decreased bitumen production rates, while the amounts of steam produced through the tubing string increased. When the tubing string was extended past the heel of the well, bitumen production rates remained the same, but steam injection rates and SOR decreased. A lower pressure differential between the injector and producer wells was also observed. The study showed that SAGD producers can re-position production tubing strings in order to determine ratios of liquid production. It was concluded that although placing the short production tubing string close to the heel increased oil production, a longer tubing string improved production rates while lowering operating costs. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 35 figs.

  8. Biochemical, Molecular, and Transcriptional Highlights of the Biosynthesis of an Effective Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus safensis PHA3, a Petroleum-Dwelling Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Shaban, Mouhnad; Almousally, Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum crude oil (PCO)-dwelling microorganisms have exceptional biological capabilities to tolerate the toxicity of petroleum contaminants and are therefore promising emulsifier and/or degraders of PCO. This study describes a set of PCO-inhabiting bacterial species, one of which, identified as Bacillus safensis PHA3, produces an efficient biosurfactant which was characterized as a glycolipid. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, nuclear magnetic resonance, Thin layer chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the extracted molecule under investigation is likely a mannolipid molecule with a hydrophilic part as mannose and a hydrophobic part as hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). The data reveal that: (i) PHA3 is a potential producer of biosurfactant (9.8 ± 0.5 mg mL-1); (ii) pre-adding 0.15% of the purified glycolipid enhanced the degradation of PCO by approximately 2.5-fold; (iii) the highest emulsifying activity of biosurfactant was found against the PCO and the lowest was against the naphthalene; (iv) the optimal PCO-emulsifying activity was found at 30–60°C, pH 8 and a high salinity. An orthologous gene encodes a putative β-diglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase (β-DGS) was identified in PHA3 and its transcripts were significantly up-regulated by exogenous PAHs, i.e., pyrene and benzo(e)pyrene but much less by mid-chain n-alkanes (ALKs) and fatty acids. Subsequently, the accumulation of β-DGS transcripts coincided with an optimal growth of bacteria and a maximal accumulation of the biosurfactant. Of particular interest, we found that PHA3 actively catalyzed the degradation of PAHs notably the pyrene and benzo(e)pyrene but was much less effective in the mono-terminal oxidation of ALKs. Such characteristics make Bacillus safensis PHA3 a promising model for enhanced microbial oil recovery and environmental remediation. PMID:28179901

  9. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria and characteristics of selected biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria were isolated from oil-spilled seawater collected from harbors and docks in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Haemolytic activity, emulsification activity toward nhexadecane,emulsion of weathered crude oil, drop collapsing test as well as oil displacement test were used to determine biosurfactant producing activity of marine bacteria. Among two-hundred different strains, 40strains exhibited clear zone on blood agar plates. Only eight strains had haemolytic activity and were able to emulsify weathered crude oil in marine broth during cultivation. Eight strains named SM1-SM8 wereidentified by 16S rRNA as Myroides sp. (SM1; Vibrio paraheamolyticus (SM2; Bacillus subtilis (SM3; Micrococcus luteus (SM4; Acinetobacter anitratus (SM6; Vibrio paraheamolyticus (SM7 and Bacilluspumilus (SM8. However, SM5 could not be identified. Strain SM1 showed the highest emulsification activity against weathered crude oil, by which the oil was emulsified within 24 h of cultivation. In addition, strainSM1 exhibited the highest activity for oil displacement test and emulsification test toward n-hexadecane. The emulsification activity against n-hexadecane of crude extract of strain SM1 was stable over a broadrange of temperature (30-121oC, pH (5-12 and salt concentration (0-9% NaCl, whereas CaCl2 showed an adverse effect on emulsifying activity.

  10. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production....

  12. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate...... (both the vegetable oil and alcohol) feed rate/concentration is manipulated simultaneously. The results of the simulation were tested in the laboratory and are sufficiently positive to suggest the implementation of a feeding strategy for large scale enzymatic biodiesel production...

  13. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  14. Regularity of optimal transport maps on multiple products of spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Figalli, Alessio; McCann, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses regularity of optimal transport maps for cost="squared distance" on Riemannian manifolds that are products of arbitrarily many round spheres with arbitrary sizes and dimensions. Such manifolds are known to be non-negatively cross-curved [KM2]. Under boundedness and non-vanishing assumptions on the transfered source and target densities we show that optimal maps stay away from the cut-locus (where the cost exhibits singularity), and obtain injectivity and continuity of optimal maps. This together with the result of Liu, Trudinger and Wang [LTW] also implies higher regularity (C^{1,\\alpha}/C^\\infty) of optimal maps for more smooth (C^\\alpha /C^\\infty)) densities. These are the first global regularity results which we are aware of concerning optimal maps on non-flat Riemannian manifolds which possess some vanishing sectional curvatures. Moreover, such product manifolds have potential relevance in statistics (see [S]) and in statistical mechanics (where the state of a system consisting of m...

  15. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Salehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs and fructosyltransferase (ftf genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016 culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes. Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.

  16. Optimization of electrical supply systems of oil production installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Tsekhnov, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of optimization of electrical system assumes determination of the method for constructing the system, the functioning of which would assure minimal values of the technical-economic criterion -- costs, which are the basic economic factor in construction and exploitation of the system. When designing electro-supply systems for oil production installations, in particular, the pump stations, three principal versions of the optimization problem are possible, which are determined by the different conditions of the system, the type of minimizing criteria and volume of optimizing parameters. The most difficult optimization of an electrical system is when it is characterized only by assumed values of active power flow, which are determined by the specific energy requirements of the planned technological processes and the type of equipment used. Second, the more common optimization problem is improvement of the existing electrical network, with established processes and equipment use. The third version is a developing system, in which as a result of introduction of new technological installations, or remodeling of old ones, and which may result in a sharp change or re-distribution of the active power supply. Determining operating regimen of the system and optimization of economic-technical criteria should be a result of large-scale calculation and simulation using a digital computer, and use of iteration and non-linear programming methods.

  17. Optimization of Nonlinear Transport-Production Task of Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlowicz, Edward

    2012-09-01

    The paper reflects on optimization of transportation - production tasks for the processing of medical waste. For the existing network of collection points and processing plants, according to its algorithm, the optimal allocation of tasks to the cost of transport to the respective plants has to be determined. It was assumed that the functions determining the processing costs are polynomials of the second degree. To solve the problem, a program written in MatLab environment equalization algorithm based on a marginal cost JCC was used.

  18. Linear Optimization Techniques for Product-Mix of Paints Production in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many paint producers in Nigeria do not lend themselves to flexible production process which is important for them to manage the use of resources for effective optimal production. These goals can be achieved through the application of optimization models in their resources allocation and utilisation. This research focuses on linear optimization for achieving product- mix optimization in terms of the product identification and the right quantity in paint production in Nigeria for better profit and optimum firm performance. The computational experiments in this research contains data and information on the units item costs, unit contribution margin, maximum resources capacity, individual products absorption rate and other constraints that are particular to each of the five products produced in the company employed as case study. In data analysis, linear programming model was employed with the aid LINDO 11 software to analyse the data. The result has showed that only two out of the five products under consideration are profitable. It also revealed the rate to which the company needs to reduce cost incurred on the three other products before making them profitable for production.

  19. Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Seafood Product Delivery Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Yao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a real-life vehicle delivery routing problem, which is a seafood product delivery routing problem. Considering the features of the seafood product delivery routing problem, this paper formulated this problem as a multi-depot open vehicle routing problem. Since the multi-depot open vehicle routing problem is a very complex problem, a method is used to reduce the complexity of the problem by changing the multi-depot open vehicle routing problem into an open vehicle routing problem with a dummy central depot in this paper. Then, ant colony optimization is used to solve the problem. To improve the performance of the algorithm, crossover operation and some adaptive strategies are used. Finally, the computational results for the benchmark problems of the multi-depot vehicle routing problem indicate that the proposed ant colony optimization is an effective method to solve the multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Furthermore, the computation results of the seafood product delivery problem from Dalian, China also suggest that the proposed ant colony optimization is feasible to solve the seafood product delivery routing problem.

  20. Optimization of a photobioreactor biomass production using natural light

    CERN Document Server

    Grognard, Frédéric; Pierre, Masci; Bernard, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of optimization of the biomass long term productivity in the framework of microalgal biomass production in photobioreactors under the influence of day/night cycles. For that, we propose a simple bioreactor model accounting for light attenuation in the reactor due to biomass density and obtain the control law that optimizes productivity over a single day through the application of Pontryagin's maximum principle, with the dilution rate being the control. An important constraint on the obtained solution is that the biomass in the reactor should be at the same level at the beginning and at the end of the day so that the same control can be applied everyday and optimizes the long term productivity. Several scenarios are possible depending on the microalgae's strain parameters and the maximal admissible value of the dilution rate: bang-bang or bang-singular-bang control or, if the growth rate of the algae is very strong in the presence of light, constant maximal dilution. A bifurcation diagr...

  1. Optimization of agitation and aeration conditions for maximum virginiamycin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, S; Morikawa, M; Kajihara, Y; Shimizu, H

    1999-02-01

    To maximize the productivity of virginiamycin, which is a commercially important antibiotic as an animal feed additive, an empirical approach was employed in the batch culture of Streptomyces virginiae. Here, the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and agitation speed on the maximum cell concentration at the production phase, as well as on the productivity of virginiamycin, were investigated. To maintain the DO concentration in the fermentor at a certain level, either the agitation speed or the inlet oxygen concentration of the supply gas was manipulated. It was found that increasing the agitation speed had a positive effect on the antibiotic productivity independent of the DO concentration. The optimum DO concentration, agitation speed and addition of an autoregulator, virginiae butanolide C (VB-C), were determined to maximize virginiamycin productivity. The optimal strategy was to start the cultivation at 450 rpm and to continue until the DO concentration reached 80%. After reaching 80%, the DO concentration was maintained at this level by changing the agitation speed, up to a maximum of 800 rpm. The addition of an optimal amount of the autoregulator VB-C in an experiment resulted in the maximal production of virginiamycin M (399 mg/l), which was about 1.8-fold those obtained previously.

  2. Avaliação da biodegradação de parafinas e da produção de biosurfactante por Bacillus subtilis na presença de petróleo Evaluation of paraffins biodegradation and biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis in the presence of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Queiroga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos com Bacillus subtilis para avaliação da tensão superficial foram realizados com meio de cultivo contendo como nutrientes básicos 0,4% de ions nitrato e 4% de glicose, na presença de petróleo. A produção de surfactina foi observada pela redução da tensão superficial do meio de cultura fermentado. Surfactina foi isolada a partir do meio de cultura fermentado por B. subtilis, por precipitação ácida seguida de extração com clorofórmio-metanol. A avaliação da composição dos alcanos lineares (parafinas foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa. Observamos uma significativa redução da tensão superficial do meio de cultura indicando que a produção de biosurfactante não foi inibida pela presença de parafina, e que as parafinas leves podem ter sido consumidas.Bacillus subtilis experiments for surface tension evaluation were accomplished with culture medium containing 0.4% nitrate ions and 4% glucose basic nutrient in the presence of crude oil. Surfactin production was observed by surface tension reduction of the culture broth. Surfactin was isolated from Bacillus subtilis fermented broth, by acid-precipitation followed by extraction with chloroform-methanol. Evaluation of the linear alkanes composition was performed by capillary gas chromatography. We observed a significant reduction of the surface tension of the fermented broth indicating that the biosurfactant production was not inhibited by the crude oil presence, and that the light paraffins might have been consumed.

  3. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadielly R. Andrade Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW and corn steep liquor (CSL as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24 of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w, carbohydrates (35.2% w/w and protein (20.3% w/w. In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1% demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2. The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v. The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes.

  4. Biosurfactant-and-bioemulsifier produced by a promising Cunninghamella echinulata isolated from Caatinga soil in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Silva, Nadielly R; Luna, Marcos A C; Santiago, André L C M A; Franco, Luciana O; Silva, Grayce K B; de Souza, Patrícia M; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D C; da Silva, Carlos A Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2014-09-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E₂₄) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm², which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm²). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%-6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes.

  5. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  6. FUZZY OPTIMIZATION MODEL OF MAINTENANCE DESIGN FOR PRODUCT LEVEL REUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhen; Xu Guohua

    2004-01-01

    Most used products must be maintained before they are reused.The modeling method for maintenance design of product level reuse based on quality function deployment is presented.A fuzzy linear optimization model is developed under financial uncertainty.Objective of the model is to maximize improvement rate of customer satisfaction level.Maintenance cost constrain is fuzzy.The algorithm for solution to the model is given.Its optimized results not only give attention to satisfaction degree of cost constraint,but also maximize objective value.An illustrative example involved water bump reuse is studied and the results show that the proposed model can effectively help maintenance planner determine the better design scheme.

  7. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  8. Studies on statistical optimization of sulforaphane production from broccoli seed

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Mao, Jianwei; Mei,Lehe; Liu, Shiwang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural sulforaphane (SF) has been of increasing interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries due to its anti-cancer effect. The main objective of the present work was to optimize the production of SF from broccoli seed using response surface methodology. Results: Three major factors (hydrolysis time, water volume and ethyl acetate volume) were screened out through Plackett-Burman (PB) factorial design. The methods of steepest ascent combined with central composite des...

  9. Optimizing Growth Conditions for Digoxin Production in Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A. van Wietmarschen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Digoxin is a therapeutic cardenolide widely used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and heart failure in both Western as well as Chinese medicine. Digoxin is extracted from cultivated Digitalis lanata Ehrh. plants, known as Mao Hua Yang Di Huang in Chinese medicine. This manuscript presents two studies that were conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for digoxin production in the TCM Mao Hua Yan Di Huang in a greenhouse under GAP conditions.

  10. Cost Evaluation and Portfolio Management Optimization for Biopharmaceutical Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, W.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is suffering from declining R&D productivity and yet biopharmaceutical firms have been attracting increasing venture capital investment. Effective R&D portfolio management can deliver above average returns under increasing costs of drug development and the high risk of clinical trial failure. This points to the need for advanced decisional tools that facilitate decision-making in R&D portfolio management by efficiently identifying optimal solutions while accounting...

  11. Optimization of Substrate Feeding for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    to be effective in mitigating the effects of substrate inhibition. Using enzymatic biodiesel production as a case study, the volumetric productivity of the reactor is increased while minimizing inactivation of the enzyme due to the alcohol. This is done by using a simple optimization routine where the substrate......Many traditional bio-processes are operated in semi-batch mode, in which, a feed stream containing substrate and or nutrients is fed into the reactor during the course of the reaction. One key advantage of a semi-batch operation is that regulation of the substrate concentration has been found...

  12. Cost Optimization of Product Families using Analytic Cost Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysing the cost structure of a mass customized product family. The method uses linear regression and backwards selection to reduce the complexity of a data set describing a number of historical product configurations and incurred costs. By reducing the data...... set, the configuration variables which best describe the variation in product costs are identified. The method is tested using data from a Danish manufacturing company and the results indicate that the method is able to identify the most critical configuration variables. The method can be applied...... in product family redesign projects focusing on cost reduction to identify which modules contribute the most to cost variation and should thus be optimized....

  13. Multivariate Statistical Process Optimization in the Industrial Production of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna

    ultrafiltration operation is limited by the membrane fouling phenomenawhere the production capacity - monitored as flow through the membrane or flux -decreases over time. The flux varies considerably from run to run within the sameproduct and likewise between different products. This variability clearly affects......, the study revealed that the less demanding in-line flow cellsetup outperformed the on-line arrangement. The former worked satisfactory robusttowards different products (amylases and proteases) and associated processingparameters such temperature and processing speed.This dissertation work shows......In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result...

  14. Cost Optimization of Product Families using Analytic Cost Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analysing the cost structure of a mass customized product family. The method uses linear regression and backwards selection to reduce the complexity of a data set describing a number of historical product configurations and incurred costs. By reducing the data...... set, the configuration variables which best describe the variation in product costs are identified. The method is tested using data from a Danish manufacturing company and the results indicate that the method is able to identify the most critical configuration variables. The method can be applied...... in product family redesign projects focusing on cost reduction to identify which modules contribute the most to cost variation and should thus be optimized....

  15. Optimization of light use efficiency for biofuel production in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionato, Diana; Basso, Stefania; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge for next decades is development of competitive renewable energy sources, highly needed to compensate fossil fuels reserves and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different possibilities, which are currently under investigation, there is the exploitation of unicellular algae for production of biofuels and biodiesel in particular. Some algae species have the ability of accumulating large amount of lipids within their cells which can be exploited as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Strong research efforts are however still needed to fulfill this potential and optimize cultivation systems and biomass harvesting. Light provides the energy supporting algae growth and available radiation must be exploited with the highest possible efficiency to optimize productivity and make microalgae large scale cultivation energetically and economically sustainable. Investigation of the molecular bases influencing light use efficiency is thus seminal for the success of this biotechnology. In this work factors influencing light use efficiency in algal biomass production are reviewed, focusing on how algae genetic engineering and control of light environment within photobioreactors can improve the productivity of large scale cultivation systems. © 2013.

  16. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP, a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  17. Research on operation optimization of multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y.; Gong, J.; Kang, Z.; Yang, F. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). College of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In order to operate complex, long-distance pipelines safely and efficiently while meeting energy demands, operators require offline optimization simulation software. This paper presented the newly developed STROBER software for simulating the operations of multi-product pipelines whose hydraulic characteristics vary continuously with batch movement in the pipeline. The software was based on a mathematical model that optimized the configuration of pumps in order to minimize the electricity costs associated with operating a multi-product pipeline. The energy conservation equation met the following restraining factors: the flow rate in an initial pumping station was as stable as possible for specific periods of time; the inlet and outlet pressures of the pumping stations and the pressures of some special points were within the preset limits; and, the off-take task was completed during a prescribed time. The optimization theory was solved using dynamic programming. The peak-to-valley ratio of electricity price was also taken into consideration in order to encourage pipeline companies to consume most electricity during off-peak periods of the electrical network. The STROBER software was successfully applied in the start-up and current operation of the LanZhou-ChengDu-ChongQing multi-product pipeline in China. This complex pipeline includes 13 off-take stations, 2 pressure-reducing stations and 4 pumping stations. The software provided off-take plans and information on pressure control. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  19. Biosurfactant-enhanced removal of phenanthrene from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, WH; Ji, W; Brusseau, ML; Janssen, DB

    1997-01-01

    The possibility to use rhamnolipid biosurfactants for enhancing the elution of phenanthrene from a soil column was tested. Removal of 90% of the phenanthrene was achieved in a 3.6-fold shorter time period when the feed solution contained 500 mg/L rhamnolipid compared to treatment without

  20. Utilization of sophorolipids as biosurfactants for postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophorolipids are carbohydrate-based, amphiphilic biosurfactants produced by several species of the Starmerella yeast clade. Most sophorolipids are partially acetylated sophorose sugars O-ß-glycosidically linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta9-octadecenoic acid, where typically the acyl carboxyl group forms...

  1. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released by Lactobacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velraeds, MMC; vanderMei, HC; Reid, G; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54 and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were isolated from bacteria in their mid-exponential (4-5 h) and stationary growth phases (18 h) and physicochemical and biochemical properties of the freeze-drie

  2. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsions using biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-10-01

    Nanoemulsions are used in the food, cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical industries to provide desirable optical, textural, stability, and delivery characteristics. In many industrial applications, it is desirable to formulate nanoemulsions using natural ingredients so as to develop label-friendly products. Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants isolated from certain microorganisms using fermentation processes. They are glycolipids that have a polar head consisting of rhamnose units and a non-polar tail consisting of a hydrocarbon chain. In this study, the interfacial characteristics of this natural surfactant at medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil-water interfaces were characterized, and its ability to form nanoemulsions was compared to that of another natural surfactant (quillaja saponins). The influence of rhamnolipid concentration, homogenization pressure, and oil type on the mean droplet diameter of emulsions produced by microfluidization was determined. Rhamnolipids were highly effective at forming small droplets (d32<0.15μm) at low surfactant-to-oil ratios (SOR<1:10) for MCT oil. Rhamnolipids could also be used to form small droplets using long chain triglyceride oils, such as corn and fish oil. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets were stable to aggregation over a range of pH values (5-9), salt concentrations (<100mM NaCl) and temperatures (20-90°C). However, droplet aggregation was observed at highly acidic (pH 2-4) and high ionic strength (200-500mM NaCl) conditions. These effects were attributed to a reduction in electrostatic repulsion at low pH and high salt levels. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets had a high negative charge at neutral pH that decreased in magnitude with decreasing pH. These results indicate that rhamnolipids are effective natural surfactants that may be able to replace synthetic surfactants in certain commercial applications.

  3. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect of Mixed Cultures of White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria on DDT Biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Ashari, Khoirul; Hermansyah, Farizha Triyogi

    2017-07-28

    DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane) is one of the organic synthetic pesticides that has many negative effects for human health and the environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of mixed cutures of white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, on DDT biodegradation. Bacteria were added into the P. ostreatus culture (mycelial wet weight on average by 8.53 g) in concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 ml (1 ml ≈ 1.25 × 10(9) bacteria cells/ml culture). DDT was degraded to approximately 19% by P. ostreatus during the 7-day incubation period. The principal result of this study was that the addition of 3 ml of P. aeruginosa into P. ostreatus culture gave the highest DDT degradation rate (approximately 86%) during the 7-day incubation period. This mixed culture combination of the fungus and bacteria also gave the best ratio of optimization of 1.91. DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene), and DDMU (1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene) were detected as metabolic products from the DDT degradation by P. ostreatus and P. aeruginosa. The results of this study indicate that P. aeruginosa has a synergistic relationship with P. ostreatus and can be used to optimize the degradation of DDT by P. ostreatus.

  4. Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-08-01

    This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF THE OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR RHAMNOLIPID PRODUCTION USING SLAUGHTERHOUSE-GENERATED INDUSTRIAL FLOAT AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Borges

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiosurfactants have a wide range of applications in emulsions, separations, and solubilization because these chemicals reduce the surface tension and viscosity of solutions. This work studied rhamnolipid production using a batch bioreactor with a working volume of 1.5 liters, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC (American Type Culture Collection 10145 strain, and the greasy effluent from the slaughter of poultry and pigs as the substrate. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the level of aeration, agitation speed and inoculum concentration using a Central Composite Design (CCD. Experimental conditions were selected using the surface response technique obtained from the CCD, and the results were validated to test the reproducibility. The following operating conditions were selected: 1.2 vvm level of aeration, 600 rpm agitation speed, and 1.0 g/L biomass inoculum concentration. Under these conditions, the following results were obtained: the rhamnose production, surface tension and emulsifying index were 5.37 g/L, 25.6 dyne/cm and 100%, respectively.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Grown on Whey Tofu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Marliyana, S. D.; Suratmi, S.

    2017-02-01

    The research aims to examine the physicochemical properties of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biosurfactant was produced in whey tofu media containing 8 g/L nutrient broth and 5 g/L NaCl which was fermented for 2 days at room temperature. Biosurfactant was identified as rhamnolipids which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 638 mg/L and surface tension of 54 mN/m. The biosurfactant had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. The biosurfactant was able to decrease the interfacial tension more than 40% for emulsion of water with hexane, pentane, benzene, lubricants or kerosene. The stable emulsions were reached up to 30 days with the E24 value of about 50% when paraffin, toluene, lubricants or palm oil was used as an immiscible compound. Commercial surfactants, such as Triton X-100 and Tween-80 were investigated to compare their emulsification activities and emulsion stabilities with the produced biosurfactant.

  7. Optimization of Schwinger pair production in colliding laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hebenstreit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of Schwinger pair production have demonstrated that the asymptotic particle spectrum is extremely sensitive to the applied field profile. We extend the idea of the dynamically assisted Schwinger effect from single pulse profiles to more realistic field configurations to be generated in an all-optical experiment searching for pair creation. We use the quantum kinetic approach to study the particle production and employ a multi-start method, combined with optimal control theory, to determine a set of parameters for which the particle yield in the forward direction in momentum space is maximized. We argue that this strategy can be used to enhance the signal of pair production on a given detector in an experimental setup.

  8. Optimization of Schwinger pair production in colliding laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebenstreit, F., E-mail: hebenstreit@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fillion-Gourdeau, F., E-mail: francois.fillion@emt.inrs.ca [Université du Québec, INRS–Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-12-12

    Recent studies of Schwinger pair production have demonstrated that the asymptotic particle spectrum is extremely sensitive to the applied field profile. We extend the idea of the dynamically assisted Schwinger effect from single pulse profiles to more realistic field configurations to be generated in an all-optical experiment searching for pair creation. We use the quantum kinetic approach to study the particle production and employ a multi-start method, combined with optimal control theory, to determine a set of parameters for which the particle yield in the forward direction in momentum space is maximized. We argue that this strategy can be used to enhance the signal of pair production on a given detector in an experimental setup.

  9. Bioremediation of multi-metal contaminated soil using biosurfactant — a novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Juwarkar, Asha A.; Dubey, Kirti V.; Nair, Anupa; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2008-01-01

    An unconventional nutrient medium, distillery spent wash (1:3) diluted) was used to produce di-rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2. This research further assessed the potential of the biosurfactant as a washing agent for metal removal from multimetal contaminated soil (Cr-940 ppm; Pb-900 ppm; Cd-430 ppm; Ni-880 ppm; Cu-480 ppm). Out of the treatments of contaminated soil with tap water and rhamnolipid biosurfactant, the latter was found to be potent in mobilization ...

  10. Lipase and biosurfactant from Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MZV101 isolated by washing powder for detergent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarinviarsagh, Mina; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2017-09-18

    Alkaline thermostable lipase and biosurfactant producing bacteria are very interested at detergent applications, not only because of their eco-friendly characterize, but alsoproduction lipase and biosurfactant by using cheap materials. Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MZV101 was isolated as washing powder resistant, alkaline thermostable lipase and biosurfactant producing bacterium in order to use at detergent applications. O. intermedium strain MZV101 produces was lipase and biosurfactant in the same media with pH 10 and temperature of 60 °C. Washing test and some detergent compatibility character of lipase enzyme and biosurfactant were assayed. The antimicrobial activity evaluated against various bacteria and fungi. Lipase and biosurfactant produced by O. intermedium strain MZV101 exhibited high stability at pH 10-13 and temperature of 70-90 °C, biosurfactant exhibits good stability at pH 9-13 and thermostability in all range. Both lipase and biosurfactant were found to be stable in the presence of different metal ions, detergents and organic solvents. The lipase enzyme extracted using isopropanol with yield of 69.2% and biosurfactant with ethanol emulsification index value of 70.99% and yield of 9.32 (g/l). The single band protein after through from G-50 Sephadex column on SDS-PAGE was calculated to be 99.42 kDa. Biosurfactant O. intermedium strain MZV101 exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and against various bacterial pathogens. Based upon washing test biosurfactant and lipase O. intermedium strain MZV101considered being strong oil removal. The results of this study indicate that isolated lipase and biosurfactant with strong oil removal, antimicrobial activity and good stability could be useful for detergent applications.

  11. Optimization of polyphosphate production by Bacillus megaterium strain G11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Emtiazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polyphosphates, also called volutin granules, are linear polymers from orthophosphates linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bands that have been seen in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants and animals. These polymers are completely safe and nontoxic, and have numerous applications in food and drug industries.Materials and methods: Due to the great importance and wide range of the utilization of these polymers in various industries, several factors such as various carbon sources, carbon source concentration and phosphorus concentration were studied and optimized. In order to increase polyphosphate production in Bacillus megaterium strain G11. The optimization process was carried out with determination of the amount of polyphosphate accumulated in cell and phosphorus removed from the medium. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used in order to determine whether there was a significant difference between data obtained in this research.Results: Growth of B. megaterium in the presence of sucrose (OD=3.026 was better than glucose (OD=2.616 whereas polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium were higher in the presence of glucose (0.033 g g-1 dry cell weight and 1.61 g l-1, respectively. On the other hand, polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium coordinately were decreased with increasing glucose concentration. Furthermore, in studying the effects of phosphorus, we faced two phases of rising and falling. Actually, the increase of phosphorus concentration (0.25-1 g l-1 in medium caused an increase in polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium whereas both of them were decreased with a more increase in amount of phosphorus (1-4 g l-1. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.01 between data obtained at each optimization step and the best glucose and dipotassium phosphate concentrations for polyphosphate production were 5 and 0.5 g l-1 respectively

  12. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    on the value of the uncertain parameters. In this case, a problem reformulation is needed to properly define the optimization problem. In this paper we describe the concept of risk and we explore how to handle the risk by using appropriate risk measures. We provide a review on various risk measures reporting...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk.......In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values depending...

  13. Increase Productivity and Cost Optimization in CNC Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musca, Gavril; Mihalache, Andrei; Tabacaru, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    The advantage of the technological assisted design consists in easy modification of the machining technologies for obtaining machine alternation, tool changing, working parameters variation or the modification of loads to which the tools are subjected. By determining tool movement inside machining and by using tool related moving speeds needed for both positioning and manufacturing we are able to compute the required machining time for each component of the machining operation in progress. The present study describes a cost optimization model for machining operations which uses the following components: machine and its operator related cost, set-up and adjustment, unproductive costs (idle state), direct and indirect costs. By using manufacturing technologies assisted design procedures we may obtain various variants for the technological model by modifying the machining strategy, tooling, working regimes or the machine-tool that are used. Simulating those variants allows us to compare and establish the optimal manufacturing variant as well as the most productive one.

  14. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  15. Optimization of asparaginase production from Zymomonas mobilis by continuous fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Bortoluzzi Menegat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in clinical treatments as a chemotherapeutic agent and in food technology to prevent acrylamide formation in fried and baked foods. Asparaginase is industrially produced by microorganisms, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon source and has been known for its efficiency in producing ethanol, sorbitol, levan, gluconic acid and has recently aroused interest for asparaginase production. Current assay optimizes the production of Z. mobilis asparaginase by continuous fermentation using response surface experimental design and methodology. The studied variables comprised sucrose, yeast extract and asparagine. Optimized condition obtained 117.45 IU L-1 with dilution rate 0.20 h-1, yeast extract 0.5 g L-1, sucrose 20 g L-1 and asparagine 1.3 g L-1. Moreover, carbon:nitrogen ratio (1:0.025 strongly affected the response of asparaginase activity. The use of Z. mobilis by continuous fermentation has proved to be a promising alternative for the biotechnological production of asparaginase.

  16. Optimal pattern distributions in Rete-based production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen L.

    1994-01-01

    Since its introduction into the AI community in the early 1980's, the Rete algorithm has been widely used. This algorithm has formed the basis for many AI tools, including NASA's CLIPS. One drawback of Rete-based implementation, however, is that the network structures used internally by the Rete algorithm make it sensitive to the arrangement of individual patterns within rules. Thus while rules may be more or less arbitrarily placed within source files, the distribution of individual patterns within these rules can significantly affect the overall system performance. Some heuristics have been proposed to optimize pattern placement, however, these suggestions can be conflicting. This paper describes a systematic effort to measure the effect of pattern distribution on production system performance. An overview of the Rete algorithm is presented to provide context. A description of the methods used to explore the pattern ordering problem area are presented, using internal production system metrics such as the number of partial matches, and coarse-grained operating system data such as memory usage and time. The results of this study should be of interest to those developing and optimizing software for Rete-based production systems.

  17. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF PROTEASE PRODUCTION FROM FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sethi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungal strains isolated from soil by serial dilution method were screened for alkaline protease production. Isolate Penicillium chrysogenum the most potent producer of alkaline protease was identified. The isolate showed highest activity in the optimized medium at pH 9.0, temperature 35ºC, with 1% soycake and peptone incubated for 7 days. Proteases represent one of the largest groups of industrial enzymes and find application in detergents, leather industry, food industry, pharmaceutical industry and bioremediation processes.

  19. Halomonas sp. BS4, A biosurfactant producing halophilic bacterium isolated from solar salt works in India and their biomedical importance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Ronica, Fernando Arul; Viji, Vijayaragavan Thanga; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Jenifer, John Selesteen Charles Adlin; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Dhar, Prasenjit; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic bacteria were isolated from Thamaraikulam solar salt works in India. After routine biosurfactant screening by various methods, the biosurfactant producing bacteria, Halomonas sp BS4 was confirmed by 16 S rRNA sequencing...

  20. Optimizing Terminal Delivery of Perishable Products considering Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness of products and timeliness of delivery are two critical factors which have impact on customer satisfaction in terminal delivery of perishable products. This paper investigates how to make a cost-saving vehicle scheduling for perishable products by maximizing customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is defined from the two aspects of freshness and time window. Then we develop a priority function based on customer satisfaction and use the hierarchical clustering method to identify customer service priority. Based on the priority, a multiobjective vehicle scheduling optimization model for perishable products is formulated to maximize customer satisfaction and minimize total delivery costs. To solve the proposed model, a priority-based genetic algorithm (PB-GA is designed. Numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are performed to show the validity and advantage of our approach. Results indicate that PB-GA can achieve better solutions than traditional genetic algorithm. The improvement of customer satisfaction is higher than the decrease rate of total costs within a certain shelf life range, which reveals that the proposed method is applicable to the terminal delivery of perishable products.

  1. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Karla J.; Viana, Jaime dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C.; Pereira, Jamile Q.; dos Santos, Daniel M.; Oliveira, Jamil S.; Velho, Renata V.; Crispim, Silvia M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances. PMID:28197131

  2. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Karla J; Viana, Jaime Dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C; Pereira, Jamile Q; Dos Santos, Daniel M; Oliveira, Jamil S; Velho, Renata V; Crispim, Silvia M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M D

    2017-01-01

    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na](+)) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na](+)) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances.

  3. Optimization of extracellular fungal peroxidase production by 2 Coprinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Keisuke; Pickard, Michael A; Buchanan, Ian D; Smith, Daniel W

    2004-12-01

    Optimum culture conditions for the batch production of extracellular peroxidase by Coprinus cinereus UAMH 4103 and Coprinus sp. UAMH 10067 were explored using 2 statistical experimental designs, including 2-level, 7-factor fractional factorial design and 2-factor central composite design. Of the 7 factors examined in the screening study, the concentrations of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (peptone or casitone) sources showed significant effects on the peroxidase production by Coprinus sp. UAMH 10067. The optimum glucose and peptone concentrations were determined as 2.7% and 0.8% for Coprinus sp. UAMH 10067, and 2.9% and 1.4% for C. cinereus UAMH 4103, respectively. Under the optimized culture condition the maximum peroxidase activity achieved in this study was 34.5 U x mL(-1) for Coprinus sp. UAMH 10067 and 68.0 U x mL(-1) for C. cinereus UAMH 4103, more than 2-fold higher than the results of previous studies.

  4. MEDIA OPTIMIZATION FOR BIOPROTEINS PRODUCTION FROM CHEAPER CARBON SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. JAMAL

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are high demands for animal and human food supply especially protein, which is an important dietary component. Agricultural wastes, cheap carbon sources- which are rich and have high energy, can be used for producing the value added bioprotein. A lab scale study was carried out to optimize the media composition for bioprotein production from a cheaper carbon source - wheat flour using potential strain, which was selected earlier by screening different microorganisms. The performance of the selected strain was enhanced by media optimization with varied substrate concentration, nitrogen sources and nutrient supplementation according to the central composite design from STATISTICA software. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the polynomial regression model through effect of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The maximum biomass produced was 21.89 g/L with optimum fermentation conditions of wheat flour (4 g/L, nitrogen concentration (0.5 g/L, nutrient concentration (0.1 g/L, and four days of fermentation.

  5. Multi Product Inventory Optimization using Uniform Crossover Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Narmadha, S; Sathish, G

    2010-01-01

    Inventory management is considered to be an important field in Supply Chain Management because the cost of inventories in a supply chain accounts for about 30 percent of the value of the product. The service provided to the customer eventually gets enhanced once the efficient and effective management of inventory is carried out all through the supply chain. The precise estimation of optimal inventory is essential since shortage of inventory yields to lost sales, while excess of inventory may result in pointless storage costs. Thus the determination of the inventory to be held at various levels in a supply chain becomes inevitable so as to ensure minimal cost for the supply chain. The minimization of the total supply chain cost can only be achieved when optimization of the base stock level is carried out at each member of the supply chain. This paper deals with the problem of determination of base stock levels in a ten member serial supply chain with multiple products produced by factories using Uniform Crosso...

  6. Multivariate Statistical Process Optimization in the Industrial Production of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna

    In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result of the deman......In modern biotech production, a massive number of diverse measurements, with a broad diversity in information content and quality, is stored in data historians. The potential of this enormous amount of data is currently under-employed in process optimization efforts. This is a result...... and difficulties related to ‘recycling’ of historical data from a full-scale manufacturing of industrial enzymes. First, the crucial and tedious step of retrieving the data from the systems is presented. The prerequisites that need to be comprehended are discussed, such as sensors accuracy and reliability, aspects...... related to the actual measuring frequency and non-equidistance retaining strategies in data storage. Different regimes of data extraction can be employed, and some might introduce undesirable artifacts in the final analysis results (POSTER II1). Several signal processing techniques are also briefly...

  7. On the optimal production capacity for influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslid, Rikard; Herzing, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyzes the profit maximizing capacity choice of a monopolistic vaccine producer facing the uncertain event of a pandemic in a homogenous population of forward-looking individuals. For any capacity level, the monopolist solves the intertemporal price discrimination problem within the dynamic setting generated by the standard mathematical epidemiological model of infectious diseases. Even though consumers are assumed to be identical, the monopolist will be able to exploit the ex post heterogeneity between infected and susceptible individuals by raising the price of vaccine in response to the increasing hazard rate. The monopolist thus bases its investment decision on the expected profits from the optimal price path given the infection dynamics. It is shown that the monopolist will always choose to invest in a lower production capacity than the social planner. Through numerical simulation, it is demonstrated how the loss to society of having a monopoly producer decreases with the speed of infection transmission. Moreover, it is illustrated how the monopolist's optimal vaccination rate increases as its discount rate rises for cost parameters based on Swedish data. However, the effect of the firm discount rate on its investment decision is sensitive to assumptions regarding the cost of production capacity.

  8. Computational study of elements of stability of a four-helix bundle protein biosurfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Andrea; Connors, Natalie K.; Dwyer, Mirjana Dimitrijev; Oelmeier, Stefan A.; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Middelberg, Anton P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active molecules produced principally by microorganisms. They are a sustainable alternative to chemically-synthesized surfactants, having the advantages of being non-toxic, highly functional, eco-friendly and biodegradable. However they are currently only used in a few industrial products due to costs associated with production and purification, which exceed those for commodity chemical surfactants. DAMP4, a member of a four-helix bundle biosurfactant protein family, can be produced in soluble form and at high yield in Escherichia coli, and can be recovered using a facile thermal phase-separation approach. As such, it encompasses an interesting synergy of biomolecular and chemical engineering with prospects for low-cost production even for industrial sectors. DAMP4 is highly functional, and due to its extraordinary thermal stability it can be purified in a simple two-step process, in which the combination of high temperature and salt leads to denaturation of all contaminants, whereas DAMP4 stays stable in solution and can be recovered by filtration. This study aimed to characterize and understand the fundamental drivers of DAMP4 stability to guide further process and surfactant design studies. The complementary use of experiments and molecular dynamics simulation revealed a broad pH and temperature tolerance for DAMP4, with a melting point of 122.4 °C, suggesting the hydrophobic core as the major contributor to thermal stability. Simulation of systematically created in silico variants of DAMP4 showed an influence of number and location of hydrophilic mutations in the hydrophobic core on stability, demonstrating a tolerance of up to three mutations before a strong loss in stability occurred. The results suggest a consideration of a balance of stability, functionality and kinetics for new designs according to their application, aiming for maximal functionality but at adequate stability to allow for cost-efficient production using thermal

  9. Optimal Control Approaches to the Aggregate Production Planning Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of production planning and control, the aggregate production planning (APP problem represents a great challenge for decision makers in production-inventory systems. Tradeoff between inventory-capacity is known as the APP problem. To address it, static and dynamic models have been proposed, which in general have several shortcomings. It is the premise of this paper that the main drawback of these proposals is, that they do not take into account the dynamic nature of the APP. For this reason, we propose the use of an Optimal Control (OC formulation via the approach of energy-based and Hamiltonian-present value. The main contribution of this paper is the mathematical model which integrates a second order dynamical system coupled with a first order system, incorporating production rate, inventory level, and capacity as well with the associated cost by work force in the same formulation. Also, a novel result in relation with the Hamiltonian-present value in the OC formulation is that it reduces the inventory level compared with the pure energy based approach for APP. A set of simulations are provided which verifies the theoretical contribution of this work.

  10. Optimization of desferrioxamine E production by Streptomyces parvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Tamás; Lehoczki, Gábor; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Emri, Tamás; Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Balla, György; Balla, József; Pócsi, István

    2016-12-01

    Siderophores are produced by a number of microbes to capture iron with outstandingly high affinity, which property also generates biomedical and industrial interests. Desferrioxamine E (DFO-E) secreted by streptomycetes bacteria can be an ideal candidate for iron chelation therapy, which necessitates its cost-effective production for in vitro and animal studies. This study focused on the optimization of DFO-E production by Streptomyces parvulus CBS548.68. Different combinations of various carbon and nitrogen sources as well as the addition of 3-morpholinopropane-1-sulfonic acid (MOPS) markedly affected DFO-E yields, which were attributed, at least in part, to the higher biomass productions found in MOPS-supplemented cultures. In MOPS-supplemented glucose and sodium glutamate medium, DFO-E productions as high as 2,009 ± 90 mg/l of culture medium were reached. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that a simple two-step purification process yielded DFO-E preparations with purities of ∼97%. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis showed that purified DFO-E always contained traces of desferrioxamine D2.

  11. The Optimal Price Policy of Congener Software Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the viewpoint of market behavior to a certain softwaredevelopment company, it's very important to decide the suitable price to deploy its product. Especially face to the opponents who sale the congener product in the current market. According to the requirement of market economy and software engineering , accurate estimation of software price and its amount of sales are useful to a certain software provider to build a proper development project and software pro ducts' target parameters. Here we analysis the factors which affect the price of the congener software product in the same market, and calculate the weight of t hese factors to it's price on the current market. With the help of principles of the non-cooperative games, we built a model base on AHP methods. Use this model , we can get the optimal price to release our software product and the biggest turnover. At the end of this paper, we use a numerical example to explain how to use our model

  12. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Turner, Tom (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); August, Andrew (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  13. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  14. Microbiology and optimization of hydrogen fermentation and bioelectricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigated dark fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and bioelectricity production from carbohydrates. Meso- and thermophilic fermentative and mesophilic exoelectrogenic bacteria were enriched from different natural sources. The H{sub 2} production from different hexoses and pentoses, them main constituents of lignocellulose, was studied in batch assays. H{sub 2} production from xylose was examined in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Operational parameters for H{sub 2} production were optimized. Bioelectricity production was studied in microbial fuel cells and process parameters were optimized. Dynamics of microbial communities in H{sub 2} and bioelectricity production processes were determined. A novel thermophilic dark fermentative H{sub 2} producing bacterium, Thermovorax subterraneus, was enriched and isolated from geothermal underground mine. T. subterraneus had the optimum growth temperature of 72 deg C and the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.4 mol/mol glucose in batch assay. The main soluble fermentative end products of T. subterraneus were acetate and ethanol. Thermophilic dark fermentative mixed culture enriched from hot spring (Hisarlan, Turkey) had the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.7 mol/mol glucose. The optimal environmental parameters to maximize H{sub 2} yield were temperature 52 deg C, initial pH 6.5, 40 mg/L Fe{sup 2+}, 4.5 g/L yeast extract and glucose concentration of 4 g/L. Increasing the glucose concentration to 18 g/L increased the maximum H{sub 2} production rate to 56.2 mmol H{sub 2}/h/L. Environmental parameters had a significant effect on metabolic pathways of fermentation. Another hot spring (Hisarkoy, Turkey) enrichment culture was able to ferment different sugars to H{sub 2} favoring pentoses over hexoses. The best H{sub 2} yields in batch assays were obtained from pentoses: xylose, arabinose and ribose yielded 21, 15 and 8 % of the theoretical yield, respectively; whilst on glucose the yield was only 2 % of the theoretical

  15. Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Whan; Kim, Young-Bum; Shin, Jae-Dong; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Effectiveness of a microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid, was evaluated in washing and biodegradation of model hydrocarbons and crude oil in soil. Thirty percent of 2-methylnaphthalene was effectively washed and solubilized with 10 g/L of sophorolipid with similar or higher efficiency than that of commercial surfactants. Addition of sophorolipid in soil increased biodegradation of model compounds: 2-methylnaphthalene (95% degradation in 2 days), hexadecane (97%, 6 days), and pristane (85%, 6 days). Also, effective biodegradation method of crude oil in soil was observed by the addition of sophorolipid, resulting in 80% biodegradation of saturates and 72% aromatics in 8 weeks. These results showed the potentials of the microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid, as an effective surfactant for soil washing and as an in situ biodegradation enhancer.

  16. Sophorolipid biosurfactants: Possible uses as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz De Rienzo, Mayri A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dolman, Ben; Winterburn, James; Martin, Peter J

    2015-12-25

    Biosurfactants are amphipathic, surface-active molecules of microbial origin which accumulate at interfaces reducing interfacial tension and leading to the formation of aggregated micellular structures in solution. Some biosurfactants have been reported to have antimicrobial properties, the ability to prevent adhesion and to disrupt biofilm formation. We investigated antimicrobial properties and biofilm disruption using sophorolipids at different concentrations. Growth of Gram negative Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699 and Gram positive Bacillus subtilis BBK006 were inhibited by sophorolipids at concentrations of 5% v/v with a bactericidal effect. Sophorolipids (5% v/v) were also able to disrupt biofilms formed by single and mixed cultures of B. subtilis BBK006 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 under static and flow conditions, as was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that sophorolipids may be promising compounds for use in biomedical application as adjuvants to other antimicrobial against some pathogens through inhibition of growth and/or biofilm disruption.

  17. Review: Sophorolipids A Promising Biosurfactant and it’s Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SLPs are the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced in large quantity by several nonpathogenic yeast species, among these Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 is the most studied SLP producing yeast. SLPs composed by the disaccharide sophorose (2’-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glycopyranose linked (β – glycosidically to a long fatty acid chain with generally 16 to 18 atoms of carbon with one or more unsaturation. These compounds have characteristics, which are similar or even superior to the other biosurfactants and surfactants. Some of these advantages are environmental compatibility, high biodegradability, low toxicity, high selectivity and specific activity in a broad range of temperature, pH and salinity conditions. They fulfill the eco-friendly criteria combine Green chemistry and a lower carbon footprint. SLP possess a great potential for application in areas such as: Agriculture, Food, Biomedicine, Bioremediation, Cosmetics and Enhanced Oil Recovery.

  18. Achieving optimal growth through product feedback inhibition in metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha Goyal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the metabolism of some organisms, such as Escherichia coli, is remarkably efficient, producing close to the maximum amount of biomass per unit of nutrient consumed. This observation raises the question of what regulatory mechanisms enable such efficiency. Here, we propose that simple product-feedback inhibition by itself is capable of leading to such optimality. We analyze several representative metabolic modules--starting from a linear pathway and advancing to a bidirectional pathway and metabolic cycle, and finally to integration of two different nutrient inputs. In each case, our mathematical analysis shows that product-feedback inhibition is not only homeostatic but also, with appropriate feedback connections, can minimize futile cycling and optimize fluxes. However, the effectiveness of simple product-feedback inhibition comes at the cost of high levels of some metabolite pools, potentially associated with toxicity and osmotic imbalance. These large metabolite pool sizes can be restricted if feedback inhibition is ultrasensitive. Indeed, the multi-layer regulation of metabolism by control of enzyme expression, enzyme covalent modification, and allostery is expected to result in such ultrasensitive feedbacks. To experimentally test whether the qualitative predictions from our analysis of feedback inhibition apply to metabolic modules beyond linear pathways, we examine the case of nitrogen assimilation in E. coli, which involves both nutrient integration and a metabolic cycle. We find that the feedback regulation scheme suggested by our mathematical analysis closely aligns with the actual regulation of the network and is sufficient to explain much of the dynamical behavior of relevant metabolite pool sizes in nutrient-switching experiments.

  19. Biosurfactant-facilitated remediation of metal-contaminated soils.

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Miller

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation of metal-contaminated wastestreams has been successfully demonstrated. Normally, whole cells or microbial exopolymers are used to concentrate and/or precipitate metals in the wastestream to aid in metal removal. Analogous remediation of metal-contaminated soils is more complex because microbial cells or large exopolymers do not move freely through the soil. The use of microbially produced surfactants (biosurfactants) is an alternative with potential for remediation of metal-con...

  20. Determining the optimal product-mix using integer programming: An application in audio speaker production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Bin Mohamed Nadhar; Ahmarofi, Ahmad Afif Bin

    2014-12-01

    In manufacturing sector, production planning or scheduling is the most important managerial task in order to achieve profit maximization and cost minimization. With limited resources, the management has to satisfy customer demand and at the same time fulfill company's objective, which is to maximize profit or minimize cost. Hence, planning becomes a significant task for production site in order to determine optimal number of units for each product to be produced. In this study, integer programming technique is used to develop an appropriate product-mix planning to obtain the optimal number of audio speaker products that should be produced in order to maximize profit. Branch-and-bound method is applied to obtain exact integer solutions when non-integer solutions occurred. Three major resource constraints are considered in this problem: raw materials constraint, demand constraint and standard production time constraint. It is found that, the developed integer programming model gives significant increase in profit compared to the existing method used by the company. At the end of the study, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of changes in objective function coefficient and available resources on the developed model. This will enable the management to foresee the effects on the results when some changes happen to the profit of its products or available resources.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF PSEUDOZYMA HUBEIENSIS Y10BS025 AS A POTENT PRODUCER OF GLYCOLIPID BIOSURFACTANT MANNOSYLERYTHRITOL LIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Sari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol Lipids (MEL’s are glycolipid biosurfactants that contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-meso-erythritol as a hydrophilic moiety and fatty acids as a hydrophobic moiety. MEL’s are abundantly produced by several kinds of microorganism and are one of the most promising biosurfactants currently known. The search for a novel endogenous producer of MEL’s was undertaken based on the available collection of the yeast strains from the genus Pseudozyma. Using thin layer chromatography and based on morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit 26S rRNA gene, Pseudozyma hubeiensis Y10BS025 was found to be a potential producer of MEL’s from soybean oil. The structure of the major glycolipid produced by the strain was analyzed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and was found to be similar to those of well known MEL-A, -B and -C respectively. Under improved shaking culture conditions, using yeast extract as nitrogen source and soybean oil as substrate, a maximum yield of 115±3.2 g.L-1 of MEL’s for 8 days of fermentation was achieved. The major fatty acids of MEL’s produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 were C-18 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The main product, MEL-C produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 exhibited surface-tension-lowering activity. The results demonstrated that the newly isolated P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 provided high efficiency in MEL’s production and would thus be highly advantageous in commercial production of promising biosurfactants.

  2. Optimizing continuous miner coal production systems based on production and production cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Moharana, A. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Minerals Resources Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to develop a face production cost model for room-and-pillar mining, to integrate the model with SIU-Suboleski production (SSP) modeling software, and to show that combining face production cost with ROM production provides a better indicator for comparing equipment costs. Several production planning scenarios were modeled. An SSP model was developed that incorporates capital, operating, and production costs for each option and calculates an estimate of face production cost on a raw coal basis. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Modeling and optimization for oil well production scheduling☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Lang; Jiao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an oil wel production scheduling problem for the light load oil wel during petroleum field exploi-tation was studied. The oil well production scheduling was to determine the turn on/off status and oil flow rates of the wel s in a given oil reservoir, subject to a number of constraints such as minimum up/down time limits and well grouping. The problem was formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model that minimized the total production operating cost and start-up cost. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, an improved par-ticle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a new velocity updating formula was developed to solve the problem approximately. Computational experiments on randomly generated instances were carried out to eval-uate the performance of the model and the algorithm's effectiveness. Compared with the commercial solver CPLEX, the improved PSO can obtain high-quality schedules within a much shorter running time for all the instances.

  4. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey. The biosurfactant was investigated for potential antimicrobial activity by using the disc-diffusion method against different Gram-positive bacteria {B subtilis, B. thuringiensis (two strains, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus (two strains and Listeria monocytogenes}, Gram-negative bacteria {(Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli (two strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteous vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae and a yeast (Candida albicans}. The biosurfactant showed profoundly distinct antibacterial activity toward tested bacteria and displayed an antifungal activity against the tested yeast. Maximum antimicrobial activity of the biosurfactant was shown against S. aureus ATCC 25928. The biosurfactant had a broad inhibition effect on intracellular components of S. aureus ATCC 25928. The antimicrobial effect of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by B. licheniformis strain M104 was time and concentration dependent. When biosurfactant was added to S. aureus medium in a concentration of (48 μg / ml, the maximum reduction of acid soluble phosphorous (53.06 %, total lipid (90.47 % total proteins (53.43%, RNA (83.29 % and DNA (48.50% were recorded after 12 h of incubation period. From the preliminary characterization results, it could be concluded that biosurfactants were a suitable alternative in potential applications of medical fields.

  6. Characterization and properties of the biosurfactant produced by Candida lipolytica UCP 0988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Diniz Rufino

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The isolated biosurfactant showed no toxicity against different vegetable seeds: Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo and Lactuca sativa L. and the micro-crustacean Artemia salina. The properties of the biosurfactant produced suggest its potential application in industries that require the use of effective compounds at low cost.

  7. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  8. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil.

  9. Biosurfactants from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03 enhance the solubility and biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2009-03-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03, with a biosurfactant-producing capability, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil with an improved procedure which employed the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. naphthalene in agar plate, as a selection criterion. Crude biosurfactant was recovered from the culture of BU03 by extraction with n-hexane, and its properties were investigated. Biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 constitute a thermo-stable mixture, composed of different agents with surface activities. At their critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 152.4 mg L(-1), the crude biosurfactants produced from A. calcoaceticus BU03 decreased the air-water surface tension to 38.4 mN m(-1). In thermophilic conditions, the emulsifying activity is 2.8 times that of Tween 80. The effects of the biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus on the solubility and biodegradation of PAHs were investigated in batch systems. Biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus BU03 at 25 times their CMC significantly increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) to 54.3, 6.33 and 2.08 mg L(-1), respectively. In aqueous system, the biosurfactants at concentrations of 0.5 CMC and 1 CMC slightly enhanced the biodegradation of PHE by a consortium of PAH-degrading microrganisms. Results indicate that biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 have potential to enhance the removal of PAHs from contaminated sites.

  10. Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identif

  11. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velraeds, MMC; vanderMei, HC; Reid, G; Busscher, HJ

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 15 Lactobacillus isolates were found to produce biosurfactants in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases. The stationary-phase biosurfactants from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 36 and ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus fermentum B54, and Lactobacillus acidophilus RC14 were inve

  12. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  13. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

    2009-07-31

    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  14. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  15. Biosurfactants and increased bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants: Measurements using a biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Applegate, B.; Saylor, G.S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic materials that sorb onto the soil matrix is very difficult due to reduced microbial (bio)availability. Following biosurfactant addition, we have measured an increase in contaminant bioavailability by using a lux biosensor. Direct microbial bioavailability was determined by using a genetically engineered microbial bioreporter strain of Pseudomonas putida. This strain was engineered so the lux genes, which code for light production, are transcriptionally fused with genes that code for contaminant degradation and are thus induced in the presence of specific compounds. By using a bioreporter we can quantify the actual microbial bioavailability of the contaminants and compare it to concentrations measured by other analytical methods (e.g. gas chromatograph). It is possible that these values are not equal to each other. Thus, bioremediation rates may not be accurately predicted if bioavailability is not considered.

  16. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.

    2016-11-01

    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  17. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton

    2006-09-30

    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and processing. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Center in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify benefits. In the current project, the primary objective was to adapt Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The first phase of this work was carried out at the Bealeton Quarry near Fredericksburg, Virginia. The second phase was carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Both quarries are operated by Luck Stone Corporation of Richmond, Virginia. As a result of the work, several conclusions can be drawn from the project which should assist DOE in assessing the applicability of the Mine-to-Mill approach to the aggregates industry. 1. Implementation of MTM guidelines at Pittsboro has resulted in tangible improvements in productivity. It is clear that MTM guidelines represent an energy savings of around 5% (primary and secondary) and an overall energy savings of 1%. This 1-5% energy savings is also consistent with simulated results for Bealeton had side-by-side shots used to evaluate the technology been carried out in the same rockmass. 2. Luck Stone clearly runs their operations at a high standard. Hence the percentage improvement realized in this project may represent the lower end of what might be expected overall in the aggregates industry. 3. Variability in ore types across both Bealeton and Pittsboro suggests a 2:1 difference in hardness which contradicts the misconception that quarry rock is homogenous. Therefore, the idea of comparing side-by-side blasts

  18. Unifying time evolution and optimization with matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegeman, Jutho; Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We show that the time-dependent variational principle provides a unifying framework for time-evolution methods and optimization methods in the context of matrix product states. In particular, we introduce a new integration scheme for studying time evolution, which can cope with arbitrary Hamiltonians, including those with long-range interactions. Rather than a Suzuki-Trotter splitting of the Hamiltonian, which is the idea behind the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method or time-evolving block decimation, our method is based on splitting the projector onto the matrix product state tangent space as it appears in the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. We discuss how the resulting algorithm resembles the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for finding ground states so closely that it can be implemented by changing just a few lines of code and it inherits the same stability and efficiency. In particular, our method is compatible with any Hamiltonian for which ground-state DMRG can be implemented efficiently. In fact, DMRG is obtained as a special case of our scheme for imaginary time evolution with infinite time step.

  19. An optimized protocol for the production of high purity maltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, P N; Shah, N K; Ramamurthy, V; Kothari, R M

    1992-07-01

    An economical protocol, which is simple, rapid and reproducible for the production of maltose by enzymatic hydrolysis of tapioca starch, has been optimized. The protocol involves liquefaction of 35% (w/w) tapioca starch by bacterial α-amylase at 78±2°C to 3 to 5% (w/w) reducing sugars, followed by maximal (85±3% w/w maltose equivalent) saccharification with barley β-amylase and pullulanase at 50°C for 24 to 30 h. The post-saccharification recovery protocol comprised decolourization by charcoal, de-dextrinization by denatured spirit precipitation, de-ionization by passage through cation and anion exchangers and dehydration by vacuum drying. A white crystalline maltose powder was obtained with specifications comparable to commercial high purity maltose. The protocol yields at least 60% (w/w) recovery of maltose and is suitable for use by the pharmaceutical industry. The protocol is unique in that it utilizes cheap and easily hydrolysed tapioca starch, leaves no mother liquor, enabling higher recovery of maltose, and allows almost quantitative recovery of limit maltodextrins, a value-added marketable by-product.

  20. Optimization of β-galactosidase production from lac