#### Sample records for optimality experimental results

1. Optimal experimental design with R

CERN Document Server

Rasch, Dieter; Verdooren, L R; Gebhardt, Albrecht

2011-01-01

Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis te...

2. Three-dimensional shape optimization of a cemented hip stem and experimental validations.

Science.gov (United States)

Higa, Masaru; Tanino, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Ikuya; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Matsuno, Takeo; Ito, Hiroshi

2015-03-01

This study proposes novel optimized stem geometry with low stress values in the cement using a finite element (FE) analysis combined with an optimization procedure and experimental measurements of cement stress in vitro. We first optimized an existing stem geometry using a three-dimensional FE analysis combined with a shape optimization technique. One of the most important factors in the cemented stem design is to reduce stress in the cement. Hence, in the optimization study, we minimized the largest tensile principal stress in the cement mantle under a physiological loading condition by changing the stem geometry. As the next step, the optimized stem and the existing stem were manufactured to validate the usefulness of the numerical models and the results of the optimization in vitro. In the experimental study, strain gauges were embedded in the cement mantle to measure the strain in the cement mantle adjacent to the stems. The overall trend of the experimental study was in good agreement with the results of the numerical study, and we were able to reduce the largest stress by more than 50% in both shape optimization and strain gauge measurements. Thus, we could validate the usefulness of the numerical models and the results of the optimization using the experimental models. The optimization employed in this study is a useful approach for developing new stem designs.

3. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on different...... in algorithm design, statistical design, optimization and heuristics, and most chapters provide theoretical background and are enriched with case studies. This book is written for researchers and practitioners in operations research and computer science who wish to improve the experimental assessment......In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However...

4. Optimality-theoretic pragmatics meets experimental pragmatics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Blutner, R.; Benz, A.; Blutner, R.

2009-01-01

The main concern of this article is to discuss some recent findings concerning the psychological reality of optimality-theoretic pragmatics and its central part - bidirectional optimization. A present challenge is to close the gap between experimental pragmatics and neo-Gricean theories of

5. Experimental validation of a topology optimized acoustic cavity

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

2015-01-01

This paper presents the experimental validation of an acoustic cavity designed using topology optimization with the goal of minimizing the sound pressure locally for monochromatic excitation. The presented results show good agreement between simulations and measurements. The effect of damping...

6. Evolutionary optimization of an experimental apparatus

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Geisel, Ilka; Cordes, Kai; Mahnke, Jan

2013-01-01

algorithm based on differential evolution. We demonstrate that this algorithm optimizes 21 correlated parameters and that it is robust against local maxima and experimental noise. The algorithm is flexible and easy to implement. Thus, the presented scheme can be applied to a wide range of experimental...

7. Computational and experimental optimization of the exhaust air energy recovery wind turbine generator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Studying the viability of harvesting wasted energy by exhaust air recovery generator. • Optimizing the design using response surface methodology. • Validation of optimization and computation result by performing experimental tests. • Investigation of flow behaviour using computational fluid dynamic simulations. • Performing the technical and economic study of the exhaust air recovery generator. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of an innovative exhaust air recovery wind turbine generator through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy generation and simultaneously guarantee that it does not violate the cooling tower performance in terms of decreasing airflow intake and increasing fan motor power consumption. The wind turbine rotor position, modifying diffuser plates, and introducing separator plates to the design are considered as the variable factors for the optimization. The generated power coefficient is selected as optimization objective. Unlike most of previous optimizations in field of wind turbines, in this study, response surface methodology (RSM) as a method of analytical procedures optimization has been utilised by using multivariate statistic techniques. A comprehensive study on CFD parameters including the mesh resolution, the turbulence model and transient time step values is presented. The system is simulated using SST K-ω turbulence model and then both computational and optimization results are validated by experimental data obtained in laboratory. Results show that the optimization strategy can improve the wind turbine generated power by 48.6% compared to baseline design. Meanwhile, it is able to enhance the fan intake airflow rate and decrease fan motor power consumption. The obtained optimization equations are also validated by both CFD and experimental results and a negligible deviation in range of 6–8.5% is observed.

8. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

KAUST Repository

Huan, Xun

2011-01-04

Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

9. Concepts to optimize stent-grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on results of experimental studies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chavan, A.; Kirchhoff, T.; Baus, S.; Galanski, M.; Pichlmaier, M.

2001-01-01

Purpose. In the endoluminal therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysms, a short proximal aneurysm neck, endoleaks and the large size and stiffness of the introducer systems are responsible for many of the complications and sub-optimal outcomes. The purpose of the present review article is to to suggest strategies to minimize these complications based on the results of experimental studies in animals. Material and methods. After implanting various types of stents across the renal artery origins, the functional and morphological changes in the kidneys and renal vessels were studied by various authors. In order to prevent progressive widening of the proximal aneurysmal neck and graft dislocation, Sonesson et al. performed a laparoscopic banding around the proximal neck in pigs. To study the effects of endoleaks, Marty, Schurink and Pitton carried out pressure measurements in experimental aneurysms with and without endoleaks. Sakaguchi and Pavcnik developed the 'Twin-tube endografts' (TTEG) and the 'Bifurcated drum occluder endografts' (BDOEG) and tested them in dogs. Results. Up to 3 months after suprarenal stent placement, Chavan et al. detected no significant fall in the mean inulin clearance in sheep (140±46 ml/min before, 137±58 ml/min after). Nasim et al. and Malina et al. reported similar observations with respect to renal function. Suprarenal fixation may result in isolated thrombotic occlusions of the renal arteries and microinfarcts in the kidneys. Mean aortic diameters at the level of banding were significantly smaller in the animals with aortic banding as opposed to those in the control group without banding (8 mm vs 11 mm, p=0.004). The banding caused a secure proximal fixation of the stent-graft. Persistent endoleaks resulted in significantly higher intraaneurysmal pressures. Although the TTEG and the BDOEG stent-grafts required smaller sheaths, occlusions were observed in 8% (TTEG) and 60% (BDOEG) of the graft limbs. (orig.) [de

10. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan

2015-01-07

We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

11. Experimental validation of additively manufactured optimized shapes for passive cooling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lazarov, Boyan S.; Sigmund, Ole; Meyer, Knud E.

2018-01-01

This article confirms the superior performance of topology optimized heat sinks compared to lattice designs and suggests simpler manufacturable pin-fin design interpretations. The development is driven by the wide adoption of light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps for industrial and residential lighting....... The presented heat sink solutions are generated by topology optimization, a computational morphogenesis approach with ultimate design freedom, relying on high-performance computing and simulation. Optimized devices exhibit complex and organic-looking topologies which are realized with the help of additive...... manufacturing. To reduce manufacturing cost, a simplified interpretation of the optimized design is produced and validated as well. Numerical and experimental results agree well and indicate that the obtained designs outperform lattice geometries by more than 21%, resulting in a doubling of life expectancy and...

12. Topology Optimization for Wave Propagation Problems with Experimental Validation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk

designed using the proposed method is provided. A novel approach for designing meta material slabs with selectively tuned negative refractive behavior is outlined. Numerical examples demonstrating the behavior of a slab under different conditions is provided. Results from an experimental studydemonstrating...... agreement with numerical predictions are presented. Finally an approach for designing acoustic wave shaping devices is treated. Three examples of applications are presented, a directional sound emission device, a wave splitting device and a flat focusing lens. Experimental results for the first two devices......This Thesis treats the development and experimental validation of density-based topology optimization methods for wave propagation problems. Problems in the frequency regime where design dimensions are between approximately one fourth and ten wavelengths are considered. All examples treat problems...

13. Optimizing Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using Bayesian Experimental Design

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toussaint, Udo von; Schwarz-Selinger, Thomas; Gori, Silvio

2008-01-01

Nuclear Reaction Analysis with 3 He holds the promise to measure Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths. However, the extraction of the depth profile from the measured data is an ill-posed inversion problem. Here we demonstrate how Bayesian Experimental Design can be used to optimize the number of measurements as well as the measurement energies to maximize the information gain. Comparison of the inversion properties of the optimized design with standard settings reveals huge possible gains. Application of the posterior sampling method allows to optimize the experimental settings interactively during the measurement process.

14. Experimental determination of optimal clamping torque for AB-PEM Fuel cell

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Noor Ul Hassan

2016-04-01

Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte Membrane (PEM fuel cell is an electrochemical device producing electricity by the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen without combustion. PEM fuel cell stack is provided with an appropriate clamping torque to prevent leakage of reactant gases and to minimize the contact resistance between gas diffusion media (GDL and bipolar plates. GDL porous structure and gas permeability is directly affected by the compaction pressure which, consequently, drastically change the fuel cell performance. Various efforts were made to determine the optimal compaction pressure and pressure distributions through simulations and experimentation. Lower compaction pressure results in increase of contact resistance and also chances of leakage. On the other hand, higher compaction pressure decreases the contact resistance but also narrows down the diffusion path for mass transfer from gas channels to the catalyst layers, consequently, lowering cell performance. The optimal cell performance is related to the gasket thickness and compression pressure on GDL. Every stack has a unique assembly pressure due to differences in fuel cell components material and stack design. Therefore, there is still need to determine the optimal torque value for getting the optimal cell performance. This study has been carried out in continuation of deve­lopment of Air breathing PEM fuel cell for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV application. Compaction pressure at minimum contact resistance was determined and clamping torque value was calcu­la­ted accordingly. Single cell performance tests were performed at five different clamping torque values i.e 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 N m, for achieving optimal cell per­formance. Clamping pressure distribution tests were also performed at these torque values to verify uniform pressure distribution at optimal torque value. Experimental and theoretical results were compared for making inferences about optimal cell perfor­man­ce. A

15. Experimental methods for the analysis of optimization algorithms

CERN Document Server

Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Paquete, Luis; Preuss, Mike

2010-01-01

In operations research and computer science it is common practice to evaluate the performance of optimization algorithms on the basis of computational results, and the experimental approach should follow accepted principles that guarantee the reliability and reproducibility of results. However, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on diffe

16. Bayesian optimal experimental design for the Shock-tube experiment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terejanu, G; Bryant, C M; Miki, K

2013-01-01

The sequential optimal experimental design formulated as an information-theoretic sensitivity analysis is applied to the ignition delay problem using real experimental. The optimal design is obtained by maximizing the statistical dependence between the model parameters and observables, which is quantified in this study using mutual information. This is naturally posed in the Bayesian framework. The study shows that by monitoring the information gain after each measurement update, one can design a stopping criteria for the experimental process which gives a minimal set of experiments to efficiently learn the Arrhenius parameters.

17. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

Science.gov (United States)

Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

2012-11-19

Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

18. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

1996-05-17

An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

19. Entropy-Based Experimental Design for Optimal Model Discrimination in the Geosciences

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wolfgang Nowak

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Choosing between competing models lies at the heart of scientific work, and is a frequent motivation for experimentation. Optimal experimental design (OD methods maximize the benefit of experiments towards a specified goal. We advance and demonstrate an OD approach to maximize the information gained towards model selection. We make use of so-called model choice indicators, which are random variables with an expected value equal to Bayesian model weights. Their uncertainty can be measured with Shannon entropy. Since the experimental data are still random variables in the planning phase of an experiment, we use mutual information (the expected reduction in Shannon entropy to quantify the information gained from a proposed experimental design. For implementation, we use the Preposterior Data Impact Assessor framework (PreDIA, because it is free of the lower-order approximations of mutual information often found in the geosciences. In comparison to other studies in statistics, our framework is not restricted to sequential design or to discrete-valued data, and it can handle measurement errors. As an application example, we optimize an experiment about the transport of contaminants in clay, featuring the problem of choosing between competing isotherms to describe sorption. We compare the results of optimizing towards maximum model discrimination with an alternative OD approach that minimizes the overall predictive uncertainty under model choice uncertainty.

20. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

1. Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes

Science.gov (United States)

Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

2014-05-01

Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

2. Hydrogen production system from photovoltaic panels: experimental characterization and size optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferrari, M.L.; Rivarolo, M.; Massardo, A.F.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Plant optimization for hydrogen generation from renewable sources. • Experimental tests on a 42 kW alkaline electrolyser. • Time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic optimization. • Italian case for electricity costs and solar irradiation (Savona). - Abstract: In this paper an approach for the determination of the optimal size and management of a plant for hydrogen production from renewable source (photovoltaic panels) is presented. Hydrogen is produced by a pressurized alkaline electrolyser (42 kW) installed at the University Campus of Savona (Italy) in 2014 and fed by electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to analyze the performance curve of the electrolyser in different operative conditions, investigating the influence of the different parameters on the efficiency. The results have been implemented in a software tool in order to describe the behavior of the systems in off-design conditions. Since the electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels and used to feed the electrolyser is strongly variable because of the random nature of the solar irradiance, a time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic analysis is carried out to evaluate both the optimal size and the management approach related to the system, considering a fixed size of 1 MW for the photovoltaic panels. The thermo-economic analysis is performed with the software tool W-ECoMP, developed by the authors’ research group: the Italian energy scenario is considered, investigating the impact of electricity cost on the results as well.

3. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

KAUST Repository

Kim, Daesang

2015-01-07

A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

4. Optimality models in the age of experimental evolution and genomics.

Science.gov (United States)

Bull, J J; Wang, I-N

2010-09-01

Optimality models have been used to predict evolution of many properties of organisms. They typically neglect genetic details, whether by necessity or design. This omission is a common source of criticism, and although this limitation of optimality is widely acknowledged, it has mostly been defended rather than evaluated for its impact. Experimental adaptation of model organisms provides a new arena for testing optimality models and for simultaneously integrating genetics. First, an experimental context with a well-researched organism allows dissection of the evolutionary process to identify causes of model failure--whether the model is wrong about genetics or selection. Second, optimality models provide a meaningful context for the process and mechanics of evolution, and thus may be used to elicit realistic genetic bases of adaptation--an especially useful augmentation to well-researched genetic systems. A few studies of microbes have begun to pioneer this new direction. Incompatibility between the assumed and actual genetics has been demonstrated to be the cause of model failure in some cases. More interestingly, evolution at the phenotypic level has sometimes matched prediction even though the adaptive mutations defy mechanisms established by decades of classic genetic studies. Integration of experimental evolutionary tests with genetics heralds a new wave for optimality models and their extensions that does not merely emphasize the forces driving evolution.

5. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan

2015-01-01

We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration

6. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

2014-10-16

The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

7. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Norsuhaili Kamairudin

2014-10-01

Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

8. Experimental Hydraulic Optimization of the Wave Energy Converter Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kofoed, Jens Peter

This report presents the results of a experimental hydraulic optimization of the wave energy convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). SSG is a WEC utilizing wave overtopping in multiple reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs has been used. Model tests have been performed...

9. Optimal trajectories for flexible-link manipulator slewing using recursive quadratic programming: Experimental verification

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parker, G.G.; Eisler, G.R.; Feddema, J.T.

1994-01-01

Procedures for trajectory planning and control of flexible link robots are becoming increasingly important to satisfy performance requirements of hazardous waste removal efforts. It has been shown that utilizing link flexibility in designing open loop joint commands can result in improved performance as opposed to damping vibration throughout a trajectory. The efficient use of link compliance is exploited in this work. Specifically, experimental verification of minimum time, straight line tracking using a two-link planar flexible robot is presented. A numerical optimization process, using an experimentally verified modal model, is used for obtaining minimum time joint torque and angle histories. The optimal joint states are used as commands to the proportional-derivative servo actuated joints. These commands are precompensated for the nonnegligible joint servo actuator dynamics. Using the precompensated joint commands, the optimal joint angles are tracked with such fidelity that the tip tracking error is less than 2.5 cm

10. Optimizing an experimental design for an electromagnetic experiment

Science.gov (United States)

Roux, Estelle; Garcia, Xavier

2013-04-01

Most of geophysical studies focus on data acquisition and analysis, but another aspect which is gaining importance is the discussion on acquisition of suitable datasets. This can be done through the design of an optimal experiment. Optimizing an experimental design implies a compromise between maximizing the information we get about the target and reducing the cost of the experiment, considering a wide range of constraints (logistical, financial, experimental …). We are currently developing a method to design an optimal controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment to detect a potential CO2 reservoir and monitor this reservoir during and after CO2 injection. Our statistical algorithm combines the use of linearized inverse theory (to evaluate the quality of one given design via the objective function) and stochastic optimization methods like genetic algorithm (to examine a wide range of possible surveys). The particularity of our method is that it uses a multi-objective genetic algorithm that searches for designs that fit several objective functions simultaneously. One main advantage of this kind of technique to design an experiment is that it does not require the acquisition of any data and can thus be easily conducted before any geophysical survey. Our new experimental design algorithm has been tested with a realistic one-dimensional resistivity model of the Earth in the region of study (northern Spain CO2 sequestration test site). We show that a small number of well distributed observations have the potential to resolve the target. This simple test also points out the importance of a well chosen objective function. Finally, in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study, we might be interested in maximizing the information we get about the reservoir layer. In that case, we show how the combination of two different objective functions considerably improve its resolution.

11. The optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus in angiography: an experimental study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bai Yuan; Zong Gongjun; Wang Hongru; Qin Yongwen; Huang Xinmiao; Jiang Haibin

2009-01-01

Objective: To explore the optimal project position for demonstrating tricuspid annulus angiographically in experimental goats. Methods: Eight healthy goats underwent right atrial angiography by using 6 F pig tail catheters. Under fluoroscopic monitoring the contrast media (total 110 ml, flow rate 12 ml/ s, pressure 800 psi) was injected continuously while a serious exposures were performed from RAO position to LAO position (totally 180 degree rotation). The maximum diameter of the tricuspid annulus in every picture was measured and the results were compared with that obtained from sonography. Results: The procedure was successful in all 8 experimental goats. The optimal project position to display the tricuspid annulus was at 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO position. Conclusion: In angiography, the tricuspid annulus can be best demonstrated at the project position of 27 degree ± 3 degree in RAO. (authors)

12. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan

2016-01-08

In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

13. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

KAUST Repository

Ghattas, Omar

2014-01-06

We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

14. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

Science.gov (United States)

Hartshom, Fletcher

2012-01-01

Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

15. Optimality models in the age of experimental evolution and genomics

OpenAIRE

Bull, J. J.; Wang, I.-N.

2010-01-01

Optimality models have been used to predict evolution of many properties of organisms. They typically neglect genetic details, whether by necessity or design. This omission is a common source of criticism, and although this limitation of optimality is widely acknowledged, it has mostly been defended rather than evaluated for its impact. Experimental adaptation of model organisms provides a new arena for testing optimality models and for simultaneously integrating genetics. First, an experimen...

16. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

2010-01-01

The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

17. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

KAUST Repository

Huan, Xun

2013-01-01

The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

18. Time-oriented experimental design method to optimize hydrophilic matrix formulations with gelation kinetics and drug release profiles.

Science.gov (United States)

Shin, Sangmun; Choi, Du Hyung; Truong, Nguyen Khoa Viet; Kim, Nam Ah; Chu, Kyung Rok; Jeong, Seong Hoon

2011-04-04

A new experimental design methodology was developed by integrating the response surface methodology and the time series modeling. The major purposes were to identify significant factors in determining swelling and release rate from matrix tablets and their relative factor levels for optimizing the experimental responses. Properties of tablet swelling and drug release were assessed with ten factors and two default factors, a hydrophilic model drug (terazosin) and magnesium stearate, and compared with target values. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 21 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings for gelation were PEO, LH-11, Syloid, and Pharmacoat with weight ratios of 215.33 (88.50%), 5.68 (2.33%), 19.27 (7.92%), and 3.04 (1.25%), respectively. The optimal settings for drug release were PEO and citric acid with weight ratios of 191.99 (78.91%) and 51.32 (21.09%), respectively. Based on the results of matrix swelling and drug release, the optimal solutions, target values, and validation experiment results over time were similar and showed consistent patterns with very small biases. The experimental design methodology could be a very promising experimental design method to obtain maximum information with limited time and resources. It could also be very useful in formulation studies by providing a systematic and reliable screening method to characterize significant factors in the sustained release matrix tablet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

19. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.

2008-01-01

This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design ...... tested. The test showed that control over the minimum length scale in the design process greatly improves the yield rate and reduces the performance deviation....... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

20. Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions.

Science.gov (United States)

Djuris, J; Vasiljevic, D; Jokic, S; Ibric, S

2014-02-01

This study investigates the application of D-optimal mixture experimental design in optimization of O/W cosmetic emulsions. Cetearyl glucoside was used as a natural, biodegradable non-ionic emulsifier in the relatively low concentration (1%), and the mixture of co-emulsifiers (stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate) was used to stabilize the formulations. To determine the optimal composition of co-emulsifiers mixture, D-optimal mixture experimental design was used. Prepared emulsions were characterized with rheological measurements, centrifugation test, specific conductivity and pH value measurements. All prepared samples appeared as white and homogenous creams, except for one homogenous and viscous lotion co-stabilized by stearic acid alone. Centrifugation testing revealed some phase separation only in the case of sample co-stabilized using glyceryl stearate alone. The obtained pH values indicated that all samples expressed mild acid value acceptable for cosmetic preparations. Specific conductivity values are attributed to the multiple phases O/W emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated samples exhibited non-Newtonian thixotropic behaviour. To determine the influence of each of the co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties, the obtained results were evaluated by the means of statistical analysis (ANOVA test). On the basis of comparison of statistical parameters for each of the studied responses, mixture reduced quadratic model was selected over the linear model implying that interactions between co-emulsifiers play the significant role in overall influence of co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties. Glyceryl stearate was found to be the dominant co-emulsifier affecting emulsions properties. Interactions between the glyceryl stearate and other co-emulsifiers were also found to significantly influence emulsions properties. These findings are especially important

1. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

KAUST Repository

Huan, Xun; Marzouk, Youssef M.

2013-01-01

The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical

2. Optimization of chest radiography. Experimental and clinical studies using rare earths screen

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bergonzini, R; Robecchi, D; Amato, M; Gallini, R; Giugni, V

1986-01-01

The optimization of chest radiography is a still unresolved problem, as it must answer to various clinical requirements. Even if sometimes the choice is not difficult, it becomes hard when the best film-screen combination is needed. In order to assess the optimization image quality and exposition, different experimental and clinical conditions have been investigated referring to the various combination of screen, film and tension. The Trimax system has been chosen for our investigations, performed in two different phases: the former on an anthropomorphous chest phantom, the latter on 25 patients affected by lung interstitial diseases, mainly nodular. The results are discussed.

3. A new self-firing MOS-thyristor device: optimization of the turn-off performance and experimental results

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Breil, M.; Sanchez, J.L.; Austin, P.; Laur, J.P.

1998-12-01

In this paper, a new integrated self-firing and controlled turn-off MOS-thyristor structure is investigated. An analytical model describing the turn-off operation and parasitic latch-up has been developed, allowing to highlight and optimize the physical and geometrical parameters acting upon main electrical characteristics. The analytical model is validated by 2D simulations using PISCES. The technological fabrication process is optimized by 2D simulations using SUPREM IV. Electrical characterization results of fabricated test structures are presented. (authors) 6 refs.

4. Experimental design for optimizing MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of palladium complexes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rakić-Kostić Tijana M.

2017-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents optimization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI time-of-flight (TOF mass spectrometer (MS instrumental parameters for the analysis of chloro(2,2'',2"-terpyridinepalladium(II chloride dihydrate complex applying design of experiments methodology (DoE. This complex is of interest for potential use in the cancer therapy. DoE methodology was proved to succeed in optimization of many complex analytical problems. However, it has been poorly used for MALDI-TOF-MS optimization up to now. The theoretical mathematical relationships which explain the influence of important experimental factors (laser energy, grid voltage and number of laser shots on the selected responses (signal to noise – S/N ratio and the resolution – R of the leading peak is established. The optimal instrumental settings providing maximal S/N and R are identified and experimentally verified. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172052 and Grant no. 172011

5. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

KAUST Repository

Ghattas, Omar

2014-01-01

We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation

6. Interpretation of PISCES -- A RF antenna system experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rothweil, D.A.; Phelps, D.A.; Doerner, R.

1995-10-01

The paper describes experimental data from rf coupling experiments using one to four coil antenna arrays that encircle a linear magnetized plasma column. Experimental results using single turn coil that produce symmetric (i.e. m = 0), dipole (m = 1), and radial rf magnetic fields for coupling to ion waves are compared. By operating without a Faraday shield, it was observed for the first time that the plasma resistive load seen by these different antenna types tends to increase with the number of turns to at least the second power. A four-turn m = 0 coil experienced a record 3--5 Ω loading, corresponding to over 90% power coupling to the plasma. A four-turn m = 1 coil experienced up to 1--1.5 Ω loading, also higher than previous observations. First time observations using a two coil array of m = 0 coil are also reported. As predicted, the loading decreases with increasing phase between coil from 0 degree to 180 degree. Experiments using four coil arrays were difficult to optimize and interpret primarily due to complexity of the manual tuning. To facilitate this optimization in the future, a proposed feedback control system that automatically matches load variations between 0.2 and 10 Ω is described

7. Optimization of aspergillus niger nutritional conditions using statistical experimental methods for bio-recovery of manganese from pyrolusite

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mujeeb-ur-Rahman; Yasinzai, M.M.; Tareen, R.B.; Iqbal, A.; Gul, S.; Odhano, E.A.

2011-01-01

Optimization of aspergillus niger nutritional conditions using statistical experimental methods for bio-recovery of manganese from pyrolusite Mujeeb-ur-rahman, Mohammed Masoom Yasinzai, Rasool Bakhsh Tareen, Asim Iqbal, Ejaz Ali Odhano, Shereen Gul. The nutritional requirements for Aspergillus niger PCSIR-06 for bio-recovery of manganese from pyrolusite ore were optimized. Box-Bhenken design and response surface methodology were used for designing of experiment and statistical analysis of the results. This procedure limited the number of actual experiments to 54 for studying the possible interaction between six nutrients. The optimum concentration of the nutrients were Sucrose 148.5 g/L, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 0.50 g/L, NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ 0.33 g/L, MgSO/sub 4/ 0.41 g/L, Zn 23.76 mg/L, Fe 0.18 mg/L for Aspergillus niger to achieve maximum bio-recovery of manganese (82.47 +- 5.67%). The verification run confirmed the predicted optimized concentration of all the six ingredients for maximum bio leaching of manganese and successfully confirmed the use of Box-Bhenken experimental design for maximum bio-recovery. Results also revealed that small and less time consuming experimental designs could be efficient for optimization of bio-recovery processes. (author)

8. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Farouk Odeim

2015-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, with its slow dynamics, controls the state-of-charge of the battery. The parameters of the power management strategy are optimized by a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis in a framework of multi-objective optimization, taking into account the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading and the acceleration performance. The optimization results are validated on a test bench composed of a fuel cell system (1.2 kW, 26 V, lithium polymer battery (30 Ah, 37 V, and a supercapacitor (167 F, 48 V.

9. Experimental design and multicriteria decision making methods for the optimization of ice cream composition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cristian Rojas

2012-03-01

Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to optimize the sensorial and technological features of ice cream. The experimental work was performed in two stages: 1 optimization of lactose enzymatic hydrolysis, and 2 optimization of the process and product. For the first stage a complete factorial design was developed, optimized using both response surface and the steepest ascent method. In the second stage a mixture design was performed, combining the process variables. The product with the best sensorial acceptance, high yield and low cost was selected. The acceptance of the product was developed by an untrained taster’s panel. As a main result the sensorial and technological features of the final product were improved, establishing the optimum parameters for its elaboration.

10. Thermodynamic properties of indan: Experimental and computational results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.; Kazakov, Andrei F.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range (5 to 445) K. • Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range (338 to 495) K. • Densities at saturation pressure were measured from T = (323 to 523) K. • Computed and experimentally derived properties for ideal gas entropies are in excellent accord. • Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state for indan (Chemical Abstracts registry number [496-11-7], 2,3-dihydro-1H-indene) are reported. Experimental methods were adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, and vibrating-tube densitometry. Molar thermodynamic functions (enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies) for the condensed and ideal-gas states were derived from the experimental studies at selected temperatures. Statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) level of theory. Computed ideal-gas properties derived with the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation are shown to be in excellent accord with ideal-gas entropies derived from thermophysical property measurements of this research, as well as with experimental heat capacities for the ideal-gas state reported in the literature. Literature spectroscopic studies and ab initio calculations report a range of values for the barrier to ring puckering. Results of the present work are consistent with a large barrier that allows use of the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation for ideal-gas entropy and heat-capacity calculations, even with the stringent uncertainty requirements imposed by the calorimetric and physical property measurements reported here. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature.

11. Global Energy-Optimal Redundancy Resolution of Hydraulic Manipulators: Experimental Results for a Forestry Manipulator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jarmo Nurmi

2017-05-01

Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy-inefficiency problem of four-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF hydraulic manipulators through redundancy resolution in robotic closed-loop controlled applications. Because conventional methods typically are local and have poor performance for resolving redundancy with respect to minimum hydraulic energy consumption, global energy-optimal redundancy resolution is proposed at the valve-controlled actuator and hydraulic power system interaction level. The energy consumption of the widely popular valve-controlled load-sensing (LS and constant-pressure (CP systems is effectively minimised through cost functions formulated in a discrete-time dynamic programming (DP approach with minimum state representation. A prescribed end-effector path and important actuator constraints at the position, velocity and acceleration levels are also satisfied in the solution. Extensive field experiments performed on a forestry hydraulic manipulator demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution. Approximately 15–30% greater hydraulic energy consumption was observed with the conventional methods in the LS and CP systems. These results encourage energy-optimal redundancy resolution in future robotic applications of hydraulic manipulators.

12. Experimental design: Case studies of diagnostics optimization for W7-X

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dreier, H.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.; Pasch, E.; Turkin, Yu.

2005-01-01

The preparation of diagnostics for Wendelstein 7-X is accompanied by diagnostics simulations and optimization. Starting from the physical objectives, the design of diagnostics should incorporate predictive modelling (e.g. transport modelling) and simulations of respective measurements. Although technical constraints are governing design considerations, it appears that several design parameters of different diagnostics can be optimized. However, a general formulation for fusion diagnostics design in terms of optimization is lacking. In this paper, first case studies of Bayesian experimental design aiming at applications on W7-X diagnostics preparation are presented. The information gain of a measurement is formulated as a utility function which is expressed in terms of the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Then, the expected range of data is to be included and the resulting expected utility represents the objective for optimization. Bayesian probability theory gives a framework allowing us for an appropriate formulation of the design problem in terms of probability distribution functions. Results are obtained for the information gain from interferometry and for the design of polychromators for Thomson scattering. For interferometry, studies of the choice of line-of-sights for optimum signal and for the reproduction of gradient positions are presented for circular, elliptical and W7-X geometries. For Thomson scattering, the design of filter transmissions for density and temperature measurements are discussed. (author)

13. A new experimental design method to optimize formulations focusing on a lubricant for hydrophilic matrix tablets.

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Du Hyung; Shin, Sangmun; Khoa Viet Truong, Nguyen; Jeong, Seong Hoon

2012-09-01

A robust experimental design method was developed with the well-established response surface methodology and time series modeling to facilitate the formulation development process with magnesium stearate incorporated into hydrophilic matrix tablets. Two directional analyses and a time-oriented model were utilized to optimize the experimental responses. Evaluations of tablet gelation and drug release were conducted with two factors x₁ and x₂: one was a formulation factor (the amount of magnesium stearate) and the other was a processing factor (mixing time), respectively. Moreover, different batch sizes (100 and 500 tablet batches) were also evaluated to investigate an effect of batch size. The selected input control factors were arranged in a mixture simplex lattice design with 13 experimental runs. The obtained optimal settings of magnesium stearate for gelation were 0.46 g, 2.76 min (mixing time) for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The optimal settings for drug release were 0.33 g, 7.99 min for a 100 tablet batch and 1.54 g, 6.51 min for a 500 tablet batch. The exact ratio and mixing time of magnesium stearate could be formulated according to the resulting hydrophilic matrix tablet properties. The newly designed experimental method provided very useful information for characterizing significant factors and hence to obtain optimum formulations allowing for a systematic and reliable experimental design method.

14. Crack identification method in beam-like structures using changes in experimentally measured frequencies and Particle Swarm Optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Khatir, Samir; Dekemele, Kevin; Loccufier, Mia; Khatir, Tawfiq; Abdel Wahab, Magd

2018-02-01

In this paper, a technique is presented for the detection and localization of an open crack in beam-like structures using experimentally measured natural frequencies and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The technique considers the variation in local flexibility near the crack. The natural frequencies of a cracked beam are determined experimentally and numerically using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The optimization algorithm is programmed in MATLAB. The algorithm is used to estimate the location and severity of a crack by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated frequencies. The method is verified using experimentally measured data on a cantilever steel beam. The Fourier transform is adopted to improve the frequency resolution. The results demonstrate the good accuracy of the proposed technique.

15. Experimental results for characterization of a tapered plastic optical fiber sensor based on SPR

Science.gov (United States)

Cennamo, N.; Galatus, R.; Zeni, L.

2015-05-01

The experimental results obtained with two different Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) geometries, tapered and not-tapered, for a sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) are presented. SPR is used for determining the refractive index variations at the interface between a gold layer and a dielectric medium (aqueous medium). In this work SPR sensors in POF configurations, useful for bio-sensing applications, have been realized for the optimization of the sensitivity and experimentally tested. The results show as the sensitivity increases with the tapered POF configuration, when the refractive index of aqueous medium increases.

16. Experimental research of UWB over fiber system employing 128-QAM and ISFA-optimized scheme

Science.gov (United States)

He, Jing; Xiang, Changqing; Long, Fengting; Chen, Zuo

2018-05-01

In this paper, an optimized intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband over fiber (UWBoF) system. According to the channel responses of three MB-OFDM UWB sub-bands, the optimal ISFA window size for each sub-band is investigated. After 60-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, the experimental results show that, at the bit error rate (BER) of 3.8 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of 128-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) can be improved by 1.9 dB using the proposed enhanced ISFA combined with training sequence (TS)-based channel estimation scheme, compared with the conventional TS-based channel estimation. Moreover, the spectral efficiency (SE) is up to 5.39 bit/s/Hz.

17. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

OpenAIRE

Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

2012-01-01

The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2), and direct compression aid ...

18. The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

2016-07-01

19. Experimental transport phenomena and optimization strategies for thermoelectrics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ehrlich, A C; Gillespie, D J

1997-07-01

When a new and promising thermoelectric material is discovered, an effort is undertaken to improve its figure of merit. If the effort is to be more efficient than one of trial and error with perhaps some rule of thumb guidance then it is important to be able to make the connection between experimental data and the underlying material characteristics, electronic and phononic, that influence the figure of merit. Transport and fermiology experimental data can be used to evaluate these material characteristics and thus establish trends as a function of some controllable parameter, such as composition. In this paper some of the generic-materials characteristics, generally believed to be required for a high figure of merit, will be discussed in terms of the experimental approach to their evaluation and optimization. Transport and fermiology experiments will be emphasized and both will be outlined in what they can reveal and what can be obscured by the simplifying assumptions generally used in their interpretation.

20. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

2013-09-09

We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

1. An equivalent method for optimization of particle tuned mass damper based on experimental parametric study

Science.gov (United States)

Lu, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying

2018-04-01

A particle tuned mass damper (PTMD) is a creative combination of a widely used tuned mass damper (TMD) and an efficient particle damper (PD) in the vibration control area. The performance of a one-storey steel frame attached with a PTMD is investigated through free vibration and shaking table tests. The influence of some key parameters (filling ratio of particles, auxiliary mass ratio, and particle density) on the vibration control effects is investigated, and it is shown that the attenuation level significantly depends on the filling ratio of particles. According to the experimental parametric study, some guidelines for optimization of the PTMD that mainly consider the filling ratio are proposed. Furthermore, an approximate analytical solution based on the concept of an equivalent single-particle damper is proposed, and it shows satisfied agreement between the simulation and experimental results. This simplified method is then used for the preliminary optimal design of a PTMD system, and a case study of a PTMD system attached to a five-storey steel structure following this optimization process is presented.

2. Issues and recent advances in optimal experimental design for site investigation (Invited)

Science.gov (United States)

Nowak, W.

2013-12-01

3. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco

2006-01-01

The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography

4. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan

2015-07-01

We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

5. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan

2016-01-06

We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

6. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

KAUST Repository

Long, Quan; Motamed, Mohammad; Tempone, Raul

2016-01-01

We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

7. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines: Numerical Methods, Applications, and Experimental Validation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jonas Asprion

2014-01-01

become complex systems. The exploitation of any leftover potential during transient operation is crucial. However, even an experienced calibration engineer cannot conceive all the dynamic cross couplings between the many actuators. Therefore, a highly iterative procedure is required to obtain a single engine calibration, which in turn causes a high demand for test-bench time. Physics-based mathematical models and a dynamic optimisation are the tools to alleviate this dilemma. This paper presents the methods required to implement such an approach. The optimisation-oriented modelling of diesel engines is summarised, and the numerical methods required to solve the corresponding large-scale optimal control problems are presented. The resulting optimal control input trajectories over long driving profiles are shown to provide enough information to allow conclusions to be drawn for causal control strategies. Ways of utilising this data are illustrated, which indicate that a fully automated dynamic calibration of the engine control unit is conceivable. An experimental validation demonstrates the meaningfulness of these results. The measurement results show that the optimisation predicts the reduction of the fuel consumption and the cumulative pollutant emissions with a relative error of around 10% on highly transient driving cycles.

8. Fast Synthesis of Gibbsite Nanoplates and Process Optimization using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xianwen; Graham, Trenton R.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Mehdi, Beata L.; N' Diaye, Alpha T.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Browning, Nigel D.; Clark, Sue B.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2017-10-26

Developing the ability to synthesize compositionally and morphologically well-defined gibbsite particles at the nanoscale with high yield is an ongoing need that has not yet achieved the level of rational design. Here we report optimization of a clean inorganic synthesis route based on statistical experimental design examining the influence of Al(OH)3 gel precursor concentration, pH, and aging time at temperature. At 80 oC, the optimum synthesis conditions of gel concentration at 0.5 M, pH at 9.2, and time at 72 h maximized the reaction yield up to ~87%. The resulting gibbsite product is composed of highly uniform euhedral hexagonal nanoplates within a basal plane diameter range of 200-400 nm. The independent roles of key system variables in the growth mechanism are considered. On the basis of these optimized experimental conditions, the synthesis procedure, which is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, has the potential for mass production scale-up of high quality gibbsite material for various fundamental research and industrial applications.

9. Using Central Composite Experimental Design to Optimize the Degradation of Tylosin from Aqueous Solution by Photo-Fenton Reaction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Abd Elaziz Sarrai

2016-05-01

Full Text Available The feasibility of the application of the Photo-Fenton process in the treatment of aqueous solution contaminated by Tylosin antibiotic was evaluated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD was used to evaluate and optimize the effect of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion concentration and initial pH as independent variables on the total organic carbon (TOC removal as the response function. The interaction effects and optimal parameters were obtained by using MODDE software. The significance of the independent variables and their interactions was tested by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. Results show that the concentration of the ferrous ion and pH were the main parameters affecting TOC removal, while peroxide concentration had a slight effect on the reaction. The optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum TOC removal were determined. The model prediction for maximum TOC removal was compared to the experimental result at optimal operating conditions. A good agreement between the model prediction and experimental results confirms the soundness of the developed model.

10. Experimental study and numerical optimization of tensegrity domes - A case study

Science.gov (United States)

Winkelmann, Karol; Kłos, Filip; Rąpca, Mateusz

2018-01-01

The paper deals with the design, experimental analysis and numerical optimization of tensegrity dome models. Two structures are analyzed - a Geiger system dome (preliminary dome), with PVC-U bars and PA6/PP/PET tendons and a Fuller system dome (target dome), with wooden bars and steel cables as tendons. All used materials are experimentally tested in terms of Young's modulus and yield stress values, the compressed bars are also tested for the limit length demarcating the elastic buckling from plastic failure. The data obtained in experiments is then implemented in SOFiSTiK commercial software FE model. The model's geometrical parameters are considered uniform random variables. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis is carried out. Based on the obtained structural response (displacements), a Monte Carlo simulation - based approach is incorporated for both structural design point formulation and the SLS requirements fulfillment analysis. Finally, an attempt is made to erect the Fuller dome model in order to compare the numerical results of an experimentally-derived model with the in situ measurements of an actual structure.

11. Factorial experimental design intended for the optimization of the alumina purification conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Brahmi, Mounaouer; Ba, Mohamedou; Hidri, Yassine; Hassen, Abdennaceur

2018-04-01

The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions by using the experimental design methodology for the removal of some impurities associated with the alumina. So, three alumina qualities of different origins were investigated under the same conditions. The application of full-factorial designs on the samples of different qualities of alumina has followed the removal rates of the sodium oxide. However, a factorial experimental design was developed to describe the elimination of sodium oxide associated with the alumina. The experimental results showed that chemical analyze followed by XRF prior treatment of the samples, provided a primary idea concerning these prevailing impurities. Therefore, it appeared that the sodium oxide constituted the largest amount among all impurities. After the application of experimental design, analysis of the effectors different factors and their interactions showed that to have a better result, we should reduce the alumina quantity investigated and by against increase the stirring time for the first two samples, whereas, it was necessary to increase the alumina quantity in the case of the third sample. To expand and improve this research, we should take into account all existing impurities, since we found during this investigation that the levels of partial impurities increased after the treatment.

12. Further optimization studies of experimental dynamic responses measured on the HTGC Dragon reactor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cummins, J.D.

1968-04-01

This report considers some measurements made of the dynamics of the HTGC Dragon reactor and the optimization of a mathematical model which represents the reactor, by altering the parameters until a least squares fit between the experimental responses and the mathematical model is obtained. The experimental information was processed in various ways. The experimental response to an impulse, step or periodic sine wave change in reactivity was processed as an impulse, step or periodic sine wave response respectively and compared with a similar response from the model. In other studies the result of a binary cross correlation experiment (effectively an impulse response input) was processed as a frequency response and this experimental frequency response was compared with the frequency response from the mathematical model. It was possible therefore to compare the optimum values of parameters, obtained for different forms of perturbing signal and for different methods of processing and to relate the optima obtained to the problem of parameter estimation. (author)

13. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

Science.gov (United States)

As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

14. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

KAUST Repository

Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Long, Quan; Scavino, Marco; Tempone, Raul

2015-01-01

Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

15. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

KAUST Repository

Ben Issaid, Chaouki

2015-01-07

Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

16. Molecular identification of potential denitrifying bacteria and use of D-optimal mixture experimental design for the optimization of denitrification process.

Science.gov (United States)

Ben Taheur, Fadia; Fdhila, Kais; Elabed, Hamouda; Bouguerra, Amel; Kouidhi, Bochra; Bakhrouf, Amina; Chaieb, Kamel

2016-04-01

Three bacterial strains (TE1, TD3 and FB2) were isolated from date palm (degla), pistachio and barley. The presence of nitrate reductase (narG) and nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) genes in the selected strains was detected by PCR technique. Molecular identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing method was applied to identify positive strains. In addition, the D-optimal mixture experimental design was used to optimize the optimal formulation of probiotic bacteria for denitrification process. Strains harboring denitrification genes were identified as: TE1, Agrococcus sp LN828197; TD3, Cronobacter sakazakii LN828198 and FB2, Pedicoccus pentosaceus LN828199. PCR results revealed that all strains carried the nirS gene. However only C. sakazakii LN828198 and Agrococcus sp LN828197 harbored the nirK and the narG genes respectively. Moreover, the studied bacteria were able to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces with different degree. Process optimization showed that the most significant reduction of nitrate was 100% with 14.98% of COD consumption and 5.57 mg/l nitrite accumulation. Meanwhile, the response values were optimized and showed that the most optimal combination was 78.79% of C. sakazakii LN828198 (curve value), 21.21% of P. pentosaceus LN828199 (curve value) and absence (0%) of Agrococcus sp LN828197 (curve value). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Experimental task-based optimization of a four-camera variable-pinhole small-animal SPECT system

Science.gov (United States)

Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.

2005-04-01

We have previously utilized lumpy object models and simulated imaging systems in conjunction with the ideal observer to compute figures of merit for hardware optimization. In this paper, we describe the development of methods and phantoms necessary to validate or experimentally carry out these optimizations. Our study was conducted on a four-camera small-animal SPECT system that employs interchangeable pinhole plates to operate under a variety of pinhole configurations and magnifications (representing optimizable system parameters). We developed a small-animal phantom capable of producing random backgrounds for each image sequence. The task chosen for the study was the detection of a 2mm diameter sphere within the phantom-generated random background. A total of 138 projection images were used, half of which included the signal. As our observer, we employed the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Laguerre-Gauss channels. The signal-to-noise (SNR) of this observer was used to compare different system configurations. Results indicate agreement between experimental and simulated data with higher detectability rates found for multiple-camera, multiple-pinhole, and high-magnification systems, although it was found that mixtures of magnifications often outperform systems employing a single magnification. This work will serve as a basis for future studies pertaining to system hardware optimization.

18. DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. Design and experimental validation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sechilariu, Manuela; Wang, Bao Chao; Locment, Fabrice; Jouglet, Antoine

2014-01-01

Highlights: • DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control. • Power balancing following power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. • Optimization under constraints: storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing. • Experimental validation of DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. • DC microgrid able to perform peak shaving, to avoid undesired injection, and to make full use of locally energy. - Abstract: Urban areas have great potential for photovoltaic (PV) generation, however, direct PV power injection has limitations for high level PV penetration. It induces additional regulations in grid power balancing because of lacking abilities of responding to grid issues such as reducing grid peak consumption or avoiding undesired injections. The smart grid implementation, which is designed to meet these requirements, is facilitated by microgrids development. This paper presents a DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control which handles instantaneous power balancing following the power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. The optimization takes into account forecast of PV power production and load power demand, while satisfying constraints such as storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing and grid peak hour. Optimization, whose efficiency is related to the prediction accuracy, is carried out by mixed integer linear programming. Experimental results show that the proposed microgrid structure is able to control the power flow at near optimum cost and ensures self-correcting capability. It can respond to issues of performing peak shaving, avoiding undesired injection, and making full use of locally produced energy with respect to rigid element constraints

19. Optimization of Polyplex Formation between DNA Oligonucleotide and Poly(l-Lysine): Experimental Study and Modeling Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Vasiliu, Tudor; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Rotaru, Alexandru; Pricope, Gabriela; Pinteala, Mariana; Clima, Lilia

2017-01-01

The polyplexes formed by nucleic acids and polycations have received a great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In our study, we report experimental results and modeling outcomes regarding the optimization of polyplex formation between the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and poly(l-Lysine) (PLL). The quantification of the binding efficiency during polyplex formation was performed by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The design of experiments (DoE) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to investigate the coupling effect of key factors (pH and N/P ratio) affecting the binding efficiency. According to the experimental observations and response surface analysis, the N/P ratio showed a major influence on binding efficiency compared to pH. Model-based optimization calculations along with the experimental confirmation runs unveiled the maximal binding efficiency (99.4%) achieved at pH 5.4 and N/P ratio 125. To support the experimental data and reveal insights of molecular mechanism responsible for the polyplex formation between dsDNA and PLL, molecular dynamics simulations were performed at pH 5.4 and 7.4. PMID:28629130

20. Optimization of Polyplex Formation between DNA Oligonucleotide and Poly(ʟ-Lysine): Experimental Study and Modeling Approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Vasiliu, Tudor; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Rotaru, Alexandru; Pricope, Gabriela; Pinteala, Mariana; Clima, Lilia

2017-06-17

The polyplexes formed by nucleic acids and polycations have received a great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In our study, we report experimental results and modeling outcomes regarding the optimization of polyplex formation between the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and poly(ʟ-Lysine) (PLL). The quantification of the binding efficiency during polyplex formation was performed by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The design of experiments (DoE) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to investigate the coupling effect of key factors (pH and N/P ratio) affecting the binding efficiency. According to the experimental observations and response surface analysis, the N/P ratio showed a major influence on binding efficiency compared to pH. Model-based optimization calculations along with the experimental confirmation runs unveiled the maximal binding efficiency (99.4%) achieved at pH 5.4 and N/P ratio 125. To support the experimental data and reveal insights of molecular mechanism responsible for the polyplex formation between dsDNA and PLL, molecular dynamics simulations were performed at pH 5.4 and 7.4.

1. Experimental and Numerical Design and Optimization of a Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bahrami Salman

2018-01-01

Full Text Available A new inexpensive counter-flow heat exchanger has been designed and optimized for a vapor-compression cooling system in this research. The main aim is to experimentally and numerically evaluate the effect of an internal heat exchanger (IHX adaptation in an automotive air conditioning system. In this new design of IHX, the high-pressure liquid passes through the central channel and the low-pressure vapor flows in several parallel channels in the opposite direction. The experimental set-up has been made up of original components of the air conditioning system of a medium sedan car, specially designed and built to analyze vehicle A/C equipment under real operating conditions. The results show that this compact IHX may achieve up to 10% of the evaporator capacity while low pressure drop will be imposed on this refrigeration cycle. Also, they confirm considerable decrease of compressor power consumption (CPC, which is intensified at higher evaporator air flow. A significant improvement of the coefficient of performance (COP is achieved with the IHX employment too. The influence of operating conditions has been also discussed in this paper. Finally, numerical analyses have been briefly presented, which bring more details of the flow behavior and heat transfer phenomena, and help to determine the optimal arrangement of channels.

2. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

2017-01-01

The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

3. Experimental design, modeling and optimization of polyplex formation between DNA oligonucleotides and branched polyethylenimine.

Science.gov (United States)

Clima, Lilia; Ursu, Elena L; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Rotaru, Alexandru; Barboiu, Mihail; Pinteala, Mariana

2015-09-28

The complexes formed by DNA and polycations have received great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In this study, the binding efficiency between double-stranded oligonucleotides (dsDNA) and branched polyethylenimine (B-PEI) has been quantified by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The central composite experimental design has been employed to investigate the effects of controllable factors on the binding efficiency. On the basis of experimental data and the response surface methodology, a multivariate regression model has been constructed and statistically validated. The model has enabled us to predict the binding efficiency depending on experimental factors, such as concentrations of dsDNA and B-PEI as well as the initial pH of solution. The optimization of the binding process has been performed using simplex and gradient methods. The optimal conditions determined for polyplex formation have yielded a maximal binding efficiency close to 100%. In order to reveal the mechanism of complex formation at the atomic-scale, a molecular dynamic simulation has been carried out. According to the computation results, B-PEI amine hydrogen atoms have interacted with oxygen atoms from dsDNA phosphate groups. These interactions have led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between macromolecules, stabilizing the polyplex structure.

4. An optimal generic model for multi-parameters and big data optimizing: a laboratory experimental study

Science.gov (United States)

Utama, D. N.; Ani, N.; Iqbal, M. M.

2018-03-01

Optimization is a process for finding parameter (parameters) that is (are) able to deliver an optimal value for an objective function. Seeking an optimal generic model for optimizing is a computer science study that has been being practically conducted by numerous researchers. Generic model is a model that can be technically operated to solve any varieties of optimization problem. By using an object-oriented method, the generic model for optimizing was constructed. Moreover, two types of optimization method, simulated-annealing and hill-climbing, were functioned in constructing the model and compared to find the most optimal one then. The result said that both methods gave the same result for a value of objective function and the hill-climbing based model consumed the shortest running time.

5. Multifactorial optimization of the decolorisation parameters of wastewaters resulting from dyeing flowers.

Science.gov (United States)

Pavas, Edison Gil; Gómez-García, Miguel Angel

2009-01-01

This work deals with the treatment of the wastewaters resulting from the process of dyeing flowers. In some local cases for growing flowers near to Medellín (Colombia), wastewater color was found to be one of the main problems in meeting local effluent standards. Wastewaters were treated by photodegradation process (which includes photocatalysis) to achieve the degradation of dyes mixture and organic matter in the wastewater. A multifactorial experimental design was proposed, including as experimental factors the following variables: pH, and the concentration of both catalyst (TiO(2)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). According to the obtained results, at the optimized variables values, it is possible to reach a 99% reduction of dyes, a 76.9% of mineralization (TOC) and a final biodegradability of 0.834. Kinetic analysis allows proposing a pseudo first order reaction for the reduction, the mineralization, and the biodegradation processes.

6. Application of mixture experimental design in the formulation and optimization of matrix tablets containing carbomer and hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose.

Science.gov (United States)

Petrovic, Aleksandra; Cvetkovic, Nebojsa; Ibric, Svetlana; Trajkovic, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Popadic, Dragica; Popovic, Radmila

2009-12-01

Using mixture experimental design, the effect of carbomer (Carbopol((R)) 971P NF) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel((R)) K100M or Methocel((R)) K4M) combination on the release profile and on the mechanism of drug liberation from matrix tablet was investigated. The numerical optimization procedure was also applied to establish and obtain formulation with desired drug release. The amount of TP released, release rate and mechanism varied with carbomer ratio in total matrix and HPMC viscosity. Increasing carbomer fractions led to a decrease in drug release. Anomalous diffusion was found in all matrices containing carbomer, while Case - II transport was predominant for tablet based on HPMC only. The predicted and obtained profiles for optimized formulations showed similarity. Those results indicate that Simplex Lattice Mixture experimental design and numerical optimization procedure can be applied during development to obtain sustained release matrix formulation with desired release profile.

7. Experimental and numerical analysis of the optimized finned-tube heat exchanger for OM314 diesel exhaust exergy recovery

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

2015-01-01

Highlights: • An optimized finned-tube heat exchanger is modeled. • Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm are applied. • Exergy recovery from exhaust of a diesel engine is studied. - Abstract: In this research, a multi objective optimization based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) are applied on the obtained results from numerical outcomes for a finned-tube heat exchanger (HEX) in diesel exhaust heat recovery. Thirty heat exchangers with different fin length, thickness and fin numbers are modeled and those results in three engine loads are optimized with weight functions for pressure drop, recovered heat and HEX weight. Finally, two cases of HEXs (an optimized and a non-optimized) are produced experimentally and mounted on the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine to compare their results in heat and exergy recovery. All experiments are done for five engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of full load) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). Results show that maximum exergy recovers occurs in high engine loads and optimized HEX with 10 fins have averagely 8% second law efficiency in exergy recovery

8. Characterization and optimization of the RA-3 experimental dosimetry for normal sheep lung radio-tolerance study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soto, M.S.; Gonzalez, S.J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Gadan, M.; Miller, Marcelo; Farias, R.

2009-01-01

In the spirit of the novel technique proposed by the University of Pavia group (Italy) to irradiate an isolated organ using BNCT, the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in collaboration with the Fundacion Favaloro has initiated a project that aims to investigate the feasibility of BNCT for ex-situ treatment of diffuse metastatic disease in the lungs. The present work was carried out in the framework of the undergoing experimental study of the radio tolerance of normal sheep lung. With the purpose of characterizing and optimizing the resulting experimental dosimetry in normal lung subjected to neutron irradiation in the BNCT facility of the RA-3 reactor (CNEA), we have performed a series of experiments to find the optimum configuration of the container-lung system deriving a dose distribution preferentially uniform throughout the organ. Once the optimal set-up was established, we measured the total gamma dose rate and estimated the irradiation time compatible with the maximum tolerable dose of normal lung resulting from previous studies in rats. This estimation was performed using RBE, CBE and tolerance dose values derived from radiobiological studies with BNCT. In parallel with the experimental characterization, we built two different computational models of the container-lung system to perform Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP and Treatment Planning System NCTPlan. (author)

9. Plasma exhaust purification by thermal swing adsorption: Experimental results and modeling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ricapito, I.; Malara, R.C.

1996-01-01

For several years at the Joint Research Centre-Ispra laboratories, cyclic adsorption processes have been developed for the purification of the plasma exhaust stream of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. A purification process consisting of two coupled thermal swing adsorption systems seemed to be the most convenient process. In this context, a screening study was carried out to select the most suitable adsorbent materials and appropriate working temperatures. This was mainly done by experimental measurements of adsorption isotherms of the single components of the plasma exhaust stream and by a careful evaluation of the multicomponent adsorption equilibria. Experiments on adsorption dynamics were carried out in a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the performance of the process. The experimental apparatus was designed to treat gas mixture flow rates up to 20 to 30 standard temperature and pressure l/h. A mathematical model was developed and tested against the experimental results to describe the adsorption process and, in particular, to evaluate and to optimize the process cycle time. 27 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

10. Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.

Science.gov (United States)

Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

2007-05-01

We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system.

11. Computations for a condenser. Experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Walden, Jean.

1975-01-01

Computations for condensers are presented with experimental results. The computations are concerned with the steam flux at the condenser input, and inside the tube bundle. Experimental results are given for the flux inside the condenser sleeve and the flow passing through the tube bundle [fr

12. Tuning PID attitude stabilization of a quadrotor using particle swarm optimization (experimental

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Khodja Mohammed Abdallah

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID controllers are the most popular type of controller used in industrial applications because of their notable simplicity and effective implementation. However, manual tuning of these controllers is tedious and often leads to poor performance. The conventional Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N method of PID tuning was done experimentally enables easy identification stable PID parameters in a short time, but is accompanied by overshoot, high steady-state error, and large rise time. Therefore, in this study, the modern heuristics approach of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO was employed to enhance the capabilities of the conventional Z-N technique. PSO with the constriction coefficient method experimentally demonstrated the ability to efficiently and effectively identify optimal PID controller parameters for attitude stabilization of a quadrotor.

13. Experimental optimization of exposure index and quality of service in WLAN networks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plets, David; Vermeeren, Gunter; Poorter, Eli De; Moerman, Ingrid; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Goudos, Sotirios K.

2017-01-01

This paper presents the first real-life optimization of the Exposure Index (EI). A genetic optimization algorithm is developed and applied to three real-life Wireless Local Area Network scenarios in an experimental test-bed. The optimization accounts for down-link, uplink and uplink of other users, for realistic duty cycles, and ensures a sufficient Quality of Service to all users. EI reductions up to 97.5% compared to a reference configuration can be achieved in a down-link-only scenario, in combination with an improved Quality of Service. Due to the dominance of uplink exposure and the lack of WiFi power control, no optimizations are possible in scenarios that also consider uplink traffic. However, future deployments that do implement WiFi power control can be successfully optimized, with EI reductions up to 86% compared to a reference configuration and an EI that is 278 times lower than optimized configurations under the absence of power control. (authors)

14. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluids based on experimental data by selecting optimal artificial neural networks

Science.gov (United States)

Vafaei, Masoud; Afrand, Masoud; Sina, Nima; Kalbasi, Rasool; Sourani, Forough; Teimouri, Hamid

2017-01-01

In this paper, the thermal conductivity ratio of MgO-MWCNTs/EG hybrid nanofluids has been predicted by an optimal artificial neural network at solid volume fractions of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% in the temperature range of 25-50 °C. In this way, at the first, thirty six experimental data was presented to determine the thermal conductivity ratio of the hybrid nanofluid. Then, four optimal artificial neural networks with 6, 8, 10 and 12 neurons in hidden layer were designed to predict the thermal conductivity ratio of the nanofluid. The comparison between four optimal ANN results and experimental showed that the ANN with 12 neurons in hidden layer was the best model. Moreover, the results obtained from the best ANN indicated the maximum deviation margin of 0.8%.

15. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

2013-01-01

In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2 k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

16. Towards optimal experimental tests on the reality of the quantum state

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knee, George C

2017-01-01

The Barrett–Cavalcanti–Lal–Maroney (BCLM) argument stands as the most effective means of demonstrating the reality of the quantum state. Its advantages include being derived from very few assumptions, and a robustness to experimental error. Finding the best way to implement the argument experimentally is an open problem, however, and involves cleverly choosing sets of states and measurements. I show that techniques from convex optimisation theory can be leveraged to numerically search for these sets, which then form a recipe for experiments that allow for the strongest statements about the ontology of the wavefunction to be made. The optimisation approach presented is versatile, efficient and can take account of the finite errors present in any real experiment. I find significantly improved low-cardinality sets which are guaranteed partially optimal for a BCLM test in low Hilbert space dimension. I further show that mixed states can be more optimal than pure states. (paper)

17. Optimal Learning for Efficient Experimentation in Nanotechnology and Biochemistry

Science.gov (United States)

2015-12-22

AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0018 Optimal Learning for Efficient Experimentation in Nanotechnology, Biochemistry Warren Powell TRUSTEES OF PRINCETON... Biochemistry 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0200 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Warren Powell 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e...scientists. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biochemistry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF 19a.  NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Warren

18. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shi Jie

2010-01-01

The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

19. A novel experimental design method to optimize hydrophilic matrix formulations with drug release profiles and mechanical properties.

Science.gov (United States)

Choi, Du Hyung; Lim, Jun Yeul; Shin, Sangmun; Choi, Won Jun; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Lee, Sangkil

2014-10-01

To investigate the effects of hydrophilic polymers on the matrix system, an experimental design method was developed to integrate response surface methodology and the time series modeling. Moreover, the relationships among polymers on the matrix system were studied with the evaluation of physical properties including water uptake, mass loss, diffusion, and gelling index. A mixture simplex lattice design was proposed while considering eight input control factors: Polyethylene glycol 6000 (x1 ), polyethylene oxide (PEO) N-10 (x2 ), PEO 301 (x3 ), PEO coagulant (x4 ), PEO 303 (x5 ), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) 100SR (x6 ), HPMC 4000SR (x7 ), and HPMC 10(5) SR (x8 ). With the modeling, optimal formulations were obtained depending on the four types of targets. The optimal formulations showed the four significant factors (x1 , x2 , x3 , and x8 ) and other four input factors (x4 , x5 , x6 , and x7 ) were not significant based on drug release profiles. Moreover, the optimization results were analyzed with estimated values, targets values, absolute biases, and relative biases based on observed times for the drug release rates with four different targets. The result showed that optimal solutions and target values had consistent patterns with small biases. On the basis of the physical properties of the optimal solutions, the type and ratio of the hydrophilic polymer and the relationships between polymers significantly influenced the physical properties of the system and drug release. This experimental design method is very useful in formulating a matrix system with optimal drug release. Moreover, it can distinctly confirm the relationships between excipients and the effects on the system with extensive and intensive evaluations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

20. Optimal design of disc-type magneto-rheological brake for mid-sized motorcycle: experimental evaluation

Science.gov (United States)

Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Choi, Seung-Bok

2015-08-01

In this paper, a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake is designed for a mid-sized motorcycle and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The proposed MR brake consists of an outer housing, a rotating disc immersed in MR fluid, and a copper wire coiled around a bobbin to generate a magnetic field. The structural configuration of the MR brake is first presented with consideration of the installation space for the conventional hydraulic brake of a mid-sized motorcycle. The design parameters of the proposed MR brake are optimized to satisfy design requirements such as the braking torque, total mass of the MR brake, and cruising temperature caused by the magnetic-field friction of the MR fluid. In the optimization procedure, the braking torque is calculated based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model, which predicts MR fluid behavior well at high shear rate. An optimization tool based on finite element analysis is used to obtain the optimized dimensions of the MR brake. After manufacturing the MR brake, mechanical performances regarding the response time, braking torque and cruising temperature are experimentally evaluated.

1. Optimization of the process of methylic transesterification of palm oil an experimental plant in batches in RECOPE

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2013-01-01

The production process of biodiesel is optimized in the Laboratorio de Investigacion of RECOPE. A subprocess of raw material purification and finished product is implemented. Parameters of optimization for the experimental plant are established by a bibliographic search. Palm oil acquired by RECOPE is characterized. The optimization of the alkaline transesterification of palm oil with methanol is realized in the experimental plant of RECOPE, through a full factorial design of five variables on two levels: the effect of temperature, the relationship of catalyst-oil, the speed of agitation, the molar relationship alcohol-oil and the reaction time in the production of biodiesel. The operation optimal values of the experimental plant are obtained by ANOVA. The maximum quantity of soaps required is determined to saturate exchange resin used in the purification of the biodiesel. The parameters of optimum operating are proposed for the production process of methyl biodiesel of palm according to the conditions of the oil and in the test plant of RECOPE. The result of the analysis of control variables of the biodiesel as the density have been according to reported by the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano (RTCA). However, the measured variables to biodiesel as total glycerin, inflammability point, content of fatty acid methyl esters and acid number have indicated the necessity to implement pretreatment steps from the oil by acid esterification. Besides, the study has determined that biodiesel remains without comply with the standards established by the RTCA for its commercialization at national or international level [es

2. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

3. Optimization of poorly compactable drug tablets manufactured by direct compression using the mixture experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Martinello, Tiago; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Taqueda, Maria Elena Santos; Consiglieri, Vladi O

2006-09-28

The poor flowability and bad compressibility characteristics of paracetamol are well known. As a result, the production of paracetamol tablets is almost exclusively by wet granulation, a disadvantageous method when compared to direct compression. The development of a new tablet formulation is still based on a large number of experiments and often relies merely on the experience of the analyst. The purpose of this study was to apply experimental design methodology (DOE) to the development and optimization of tablet formulations containing high amounts of paracetamol (more than 70%) and manufactured by direct compression. Nineteen formulations, screened by DOE methodology, were produced with different proportions of Microcel 102, Kollydon VA 64, Flowlac, Kollydon CL 30, PEG 4000, Aerosil, and magnesium stearate. Tablet properties, except friability, were in accordance with the USP 28th ed. requirements. These results were used to generate plots for optimization, mainly for friability. The physical-chemical data found from the optimized formulation were very close to those from the regression analysis, demonstrating that the mixture project is a great tool for the research and development of new formulations.

4. Experimental Verification of Statistically Optimized Parameters for Low-Pressure Cold Spray Coating of Titanium

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The cold spray coating process involves many process parameters which make the process very complex, and highly dependent and sensitive to small changes in these parameters. This results in a small operational window of the parameters. Consequently, mathematical optimization of the process parameters is key, not only to achieving deposition but also improving the coating quality. This study focuses on the mathematical identification and experimental justification of the optimum process parameters for cold spray coating of titanium alloy with silicon carbide (SiC. The continuity, momentum and the energy equations governing the flow through the low-pressure cold spray nozzle were solved by introducing a constitutive equation to close the system. This was used to calculate the critical velocity for the deposition of SiC. In order to determine the input temperature that yields the calculated velocity, the distribution of velocity, temperature, and pressure in the cold spray nozzle were analyzed, and the exit values were predicted using the meshing tool of Solidworks. Coatings fabricated using the optimized parameters and some non-optimized parameters are compared. The coating of the CFD-optimized parameters yielded lower porosity and higher hardness.

5. Optimal design and experimental analyses of a new micro-vibration control payload-platform

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Xiaoqing; Yang, Bintang; Zhao, Long; Sun, Xiaofen

2016-07-01

This paper presents a new payload-platform, for precision devices, which possesses the capability of isolating the complex space micro-vibration in low frequency range below 5 Hz. The novel payload-platform equipped with smart material actuators is investigated and designed through optimization strategy based on the minimum energy loss rate, for the aim of achieving high drive efficiency and reducing the effect of the magnetic circuit nonlinearity. Then, the dynamic model of the driving element is established by using the Lagrange method and the performance of the designed payload-platform is further discussed through the combination of the controlled auto regressive moving average (CARMA) model with modified generalized prediction control (MGPC) algorithm. Finally, an experimental prototype is developed and tested. The experimental results demonstrate that the payload-platform has an impressive potential of micro-vibration isolation.

Science.gov (United States)

Cruz Bournazou, M N; Barz, T; Nickel, D B; Lopez Cárdenas, D C; Glauche, F; Knepper, A; Neubauer, P

2017-03-01

We present an integrated framework for the online optimal experimental re-design applied to parallel nonlinear dynamic processes that aims to precisely estimate the parameter set of macro kinetic growth models with minimal experimental effort. This provides a systematic solution for rapid validation of a specific model to new strains, mutants, or products. In biosciences, this is especially important as model identification is a long and laborious process which is continuing to limit the use of mathematical modeling in this field. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by fitting a macro-kinetic differential equation model for Escherichia coli fed-batch processes after 6 h of cultivation. The system includes two fully-automated liquid handling robots; one containing eight mini-bioreactors and another used for automated at-line analyses, which allows for the immediate use of the available data in the modeling environment. As a result, the experiment can be continually re-designed while the cultivations are running using the information generated by periodical parameter estimations. The advantages of an online re-computation of the optimal experiment are proven by a 50-fold lower average coefficient of variation on the parameter estimates compared to the sequential method (4.83% instead of 235.86%). The success obtained in such a complex system is a further step towards a more efficient computer aided bioprocess development. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 610-619. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

7. Design, experimental investigation and multi-objective optimization of a small-scale radial compressor for heat pump applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schiffmann, J. [Fischer Engineering Solutions AG, Birkenweg 3, CH-3360 Herzogenbuchsee (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, EPFL STI IGM LENI, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2010-01-15

The main driver for small scale turbomachinery in domestic heat pumps is the potential for reaching higher efficiencies than volumetric compressors currently used and the potential for making the compressor oil-free, bearing a considerable advantage in the design of advanced multi-stage heat pump cycles. An appropriate turbocompressor for driving domestic heat pumps with a high temperature lift requires the ability to operate on a wide range of pressure ratios and mass flows, confronting the designer with the necessity of a compromise between range and efficiency. The present publication shows a possible way to deal with that difficulty, by coupling an appropriate modeling tool to a multi-objective optimizer. The optimizer manages to fit the compressor design into the possible specifications field while keeping the high efficiency on a wide operational range. The 1D-tool used for the compressor stage modeling has been validated by experimentally testing an initial impeller design. The excellent experimental results, the agreement with the model and the linking of the model to a multi-objective optimizer will allow to design radial compressor stages managing to fit the wide operational range of domestic heat pumps while keeping the high efficiency level. (author)

8. Optimization of high pressure machine decocting process for Dachengqi Tang using HPLC fingerprints combined with the Box-Behnken experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Xie, Rui-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Na; Li, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Pei; Li, Yi-Min; Zhou, Xin

2015-04-01

Using Dachengqi Tang (DCQT) as a model, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints were applied to optimize machine extracting process with the Box-Behnken experimental design. HPLC fingerprints were carried out to investigate the chemical ingredients of DCQT; synthetic weighing method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) was performed to calculate synthetic scores of fingerprints; using the mark ingredients contents and synthetic scores as indicators, the Box-Behnken design was carried out to optimize the process parameters of machine decocting process under high pressure for DCQT. Results of optimal process showed that the herb materials were soaked for 45 min and extracted with 9 folds volume of water in the decocting machine under the temperature of 140 °C till the pressure arrived at 0.25 MPa; then hot decoction was excreted to soak Dahuang and Mangxiao for 5 min. Finally, obtained solutions were mixed, filtrated and packed. It concluded that HPLC fingerprints combined with the Box-Behnken experimental design could be used to optimize extracting process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

9. Experimental study on the optimization for neutron emission in a small fast plasma focus operated at tens of Joules

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tarifeno-Saldivia, A; Soto, L

2014-01-01

This work reports results of a systematic experimental study dealing with the optimization for neutron emission of the PF-50J plasma focus. The device was operated in a repetitive mode at repetition rates of 0.1-0.5 Hz. Optimal configurations, neutron emission rates, observed anisotropy, analysis and contrast of 'good' and 'bad' shots are currently presented. Additionally, engineering aspects on the neutron emission were also studied, such as contaminants removal circuit and chamber design.

10. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kaysar Rahman

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

11. Experimental investigation for the optimization of heat pipe performance in latent heat thermal storage

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ladekar, Chandrakishor; Choudhary, S. K. [RTM Nagpur University, Wardha (India); Khandare, S. S. [B. D. College of Engineering, Wardha (India)

2017-06-15

We investigated the optimum performance of heat pipe in Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES), and compared it with copper pipe. Classical plan of experimentation was used to optimize the parameters of heat pipe. Heat pipe fill ratio, evaporator section length to condenser section length ratio i.e., Heat pipe length ratio (HPLR) and heat pipe diameter, was the parameter used for optimization, as result of parametric analysis. Experiment with flow rate of 10 lit./min. was conducted for different fill ratio, HPLR and different diameter. Fill ratio of 80 %, HPLR of 0.9 and heat pipe with diameter of 18 mm showed better trend in charging and discharging. Comparison between the storage tank with optimized heat pipe and copper pipe showed almost 186 % improvement in charging and discharging time compared with the copper pipe embedded thermal storage. Heat transfer between Heat transferring fluid (HTF) and Phase change material (PCM) increased with increase in area of heat transferring media, but storage density of storage tank decreased. Storage tank with heat pipe embedded in place of copper pipe is a better option in terms of charging and discharging time as well heat storage capacity due to less heat lost. This justifies the better efficiency and effectiveness of storage tank with embedded optimized heat pipe.

12. Optimization Method of a Low Cost, High Performance Ceramic Proppant by Orthogonal Experimental Design

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Y.; Tian, Y. M.; Wang, K. Y.; Li, G.; Zou, X. W.; Chai, Y. S.

2017-09-01

This study focused on optimization method of a ceramic proppant material with both low cost and high performance that met the requirements of Chinese Petroleum and Gas Industry Standard (SY/T 5108-2006). The orthogonal experimental design of L9(34) was employed to study the significance sequence of three factors, including weight ratio of white clay to bauxite, dolomite content and sintering temperature. For the crush resistance, both the range analysis and variance analysis reflected the optimally experimental condition was weight ratio of white clay to bauxite=3/7, dolomite content=3 wt.%, temperature=1350°C. For the bulk density, the most important factor was the sintering temperature, followed by the dolomite content, and then the ratio of white clay to bauxite.

13. An experimental and multi-objective optimization study of a forced draft cooling tower with different fills

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Singh, Kuljeet; Das, Ranjan

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Experimental and optimization study on forced draft cooling tower is done. • New correlations for splash, trickle and film type fills are proposed. • Multi-objective performance optimization study has been done using NSGA-II. • Weighted decision making criterion is proposed depending upon user priority. • Proposed generalized methodology can be implemented in industrial cooling towers. - Abstract: In the present study, a forced draft mechanical cooling tower has been experimentally investigated using trickle, film and splash fills. Various performance parameters such as range, tower characteristic ratio, effectiveness and water evaporation rate are first analyzed for each fill. Thereafter, based upon the experimental data, pertinent correlations have been developed for performance parameters by considering mass flow rates of water and air as design variables. Each of the performance parameters is considered to be an individual objective function and all objectives are then simultaneously optimized for maximizing the performance of the cooling tower using elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). The multi-objective optimization algorithm gives a set of possible combinations of design variables, which is referred as the optimal Pareto-front, out of which a unique combination is selected based upon a decision making criterion. The proposed decision making procedure evaluates a Decision Making Score (DMS) based on assigned performance priorities for each point of the Pareto-front. Depending on DMS a unique combination of design variables is then selected for each type of fill that maximizes the tower’s performance. These optimal points and the corresponding objective function are finally compared and based upon the highest DMS value, the wire-mesh (trickle) fill is found to be the most efficient fill under the present experimental conditions. The methodology presented in this work has been made more generalized, so that it

14. Improved microbial conversion of de-oiled Jatropha waste into biohydrogen via inoculum pretreatment: process optimization by experimental design approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gopalakrishnan Kumar

2015-03-01

Full Text Available In this study various pretreatment methods of sewage sludge inoculum and the statistical process optimization of de-oiled jatropha waste have been reported. Peak hydrogen production rate (HPR and hydrogen yield (HY of 0.36 L H2/L-d and 20 mL H2/g Volatile Solid (VS were obtained when heat shock pretreatment (95 oC, 30 min was employed. Afterwards, an experimental design was applied to find the optimal conditions for H2 production using heat-pretreated seed culture. The optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature were determined by using response surface methodology as 205 g/L, 6.53 and 55.1 oC, respectively. Under these circumstances, the highest HPR of 1.36 L H2/L-d was predicted. Verification tests proved the reliability of the statistical approach. As a result of the heat pretreatment and fermentation optimization, a significant (~ 4 folds increase in HPR was achieved. PCR-DGGE results revealed that Clostridium sp. were majorly present under the optimal conditions.

15. Experimental and numerical comparison of absorption optimization in small rooms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wincentz, Jakob Nygård; Garcia, Julian Martinez-Villalba; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

2016-01-01

the Schroeder frequency. This project investigates experimentally changes in the room acoustic parameters by altering the positioning and orientation of porous materials in a small room, which are compared with finite element method (FEM) simulations. FEM is able to take into account the exact room geometry......, boundary conditions, and phase information providing accuracy at low frequencies. Good agreements are found between measurements and simulations, confirming that FEM can be used as a design tool for optimizing absorption and acoustic parameters in small rooms...

16. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BLOWER FOR FLUFFS COLLECTION SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

C. N. JAYAPRAGASAN

2017-05-01

Full Text Available Centrifugal fans play an important role in the fluffs collection system for industrial cleaner. Therefore it has become necessary to study on the parameters which influences the performance of the blower. Parameters chosen for optimization are - fan outer diameter, number of blades and fan blade angle. Taguchi’s orthogonal array method helps to find out the optimum number of cases and the modelling has been carried out using SOLIDWORKS. ICEM CFD is used for meshing the blowers and analysed using FLUENT. In this study, analytical results are compared with experimental values. ANOVA is used to find out the percentage contribution of parameters on the output. Using Minitab software the optimum combination is identified. The result shows that the optimum combinations are 190 mm outer diameter, 80° blade angle and 8 numbers of blades.

17. Optimization and evaluation of clarithromycin floating tablets using experimental mixture design.

Science.gov (United States)

Uğurlu, Timucin; Karaçiçek, Uğur; Rayaman, Erkan

2014-01-01

The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate clarithromycin (CLA) floating tablets using experimental mixture design for treatment of Helicobacter pylori provided by prolonged gastric residence time and controlled plasma level. Ten different formulations were generated based on different molecular weight of hypromellose (HPMC K100, K4M, K15M) by using simplex lattice design (a sub-class of mixture design) with Minitab 16 software. Sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid were used as gas generating agents. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique. All of the process variables were fixed. Results of cumulative drug release at 8th h (CDR 8th) were statistically analyzed to get optimized formulation (OF). Optimized formulation, which gave floating lag time lower than 15 s and total floating time more than 10 h, was analyzed and compared with target for CDR 8th (80%). A good agreement was shown between predicted and actual values of CDR 8th with a variation lower than 1%. The activity of clarithromycin contained optimizedformula against H. pylori were quantified using well diffusion agar assay. Diameters of inhibition zones vs. log10 clarithromycin concentrations were plotted in order to obtain a standard curve and clarithromycin activity.

18. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2011-04-01

Full Text Available Naghmeh Hadidi1, Farzad Kobarfard2, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh3, Reza Aboofazeli11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.Keywords: phospholipid-PEG, D-optimal design, loading efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, carbon nanotubes

19. Beam dynamics studies at DAΦNE: from ideas to experimental results

Science.gov (United States)

Zobov, M.; DAΦNE Team

2017-12-01

DAΦNE is the electron-positron collider operating at the energy of Φ-resonance, 1 GeV in the center of mass. The presently achieved luminosity is by about two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained at other colliders ever operated at this energy. Careful beam dynamic studies such as the vacuum chamber design with low beam coupling impedance, suppression of different kinds of beam instabilities, investigation of beam-beam interaction, optimization of the beam nonlinear motion have been the key ingredients that have helped to reach this impressive result. Many novel ideas in accelerator physics have been proposed and/or tested experimentally at DAΦNE for the first time. In this paper we discuss the advanced accelerator physics studies performed at DAΦNE.

20. Experimental results on the design for the APS PID global orbit control system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J. A.

1997-01-01

The Advanced Photon Source third generation synchrotrons light source needs a stabilized particle beam position to produce high brightness and low emittance radiation. Global orbit correction control is introduced and is utilized to satisfy the demanding needs of the accelerator. This paper presents the experimental results for determining an effective and optimal controller to meet the global orbit correction requirements. These requirements include frequency/time domain demands consisting of vibrational noise attenuation, limiting of controller gains for stability and improving the system time response. Experiments were conducted with a digital signal processor implementing various PID sets to make comparisons between simulations and experiments. Measurements at these PID sets supported the results of software simulation

1. Development of A Super High Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM Controller and Analysis of The Experimental Results

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Limei Zhao

2005-02-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a DSP-based controller for a super high-speed (>80,000 rpm permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. The PMSM is a key component of the centrifugal compressor drive of a reverse Brayton cryocooler that is currently under development for NASA and Florida Solar Energy Center. The design of the PMSM open-loop control is presented. Experimental results with open-loop control schemes are presented. System optimization and analysis are also illustrated. They verify the effectiveness of the controller design and the optimization scheme.

2. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

Science.gov (United States)

Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

2016-10-01

The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

3. Rationally reduced libraries for combinatorial pathway optimization minimizing experimental effort.

Science.gov (United States)

Jeschek, Markus; Gerngross, Daniel; Panke, Sven

2016-03-31

Rational flux design in metabolic engineering approaches remains difficult since important pathway information is frequently not available. Therefore empirical methods are applied that randomly change absolute and relative pathway enzyme levels and subsequently screen for variants with improved performance. However, screening is often limited on the analytical side, generating a strong incentive to construct small but smart libraries. Here we introduce RedLibs (Reduced Libraries), an algorithm that allows for the rational design of smart combinatorial libraries for pathway optimization thereby minimizing the use of experimental resources. We demonstrate the utility of RedLibs for the design of ribosome-binding site libraries by in silico and in vivo screening with fluorescent proteins and perform a simple two-step optimization of the product selectivity in the branched multistep pathway for violacein biosynthesis, indicating a general applicability for the algorithm and the proposed heuristics. We expect that RedLibs will substantially simplify the refactoring of synthetic metabolic pathways.

4. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

2018-04-01

Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

5. Experimental studies of an optimal operating condition for the Bunsen process in the I-S thermochemical cycle

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yoon, Ho Joon; No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Young Soo; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Byung Jin

2009-01-01

Conventional I-S cycles have critical limitations in material integrity and thermal efficiency. The HIx and sulfuric acids in high temperature and pressure cause serious material corrosions. They also carry too much water and iodine over the entire processes. To try to find a solution to these problems, KAIST proposed an optimal operating condition of Bunsen section through a parametric study of existing experimental data, and, based on it, devised a new flowsheet. When the contents of water and I 2 in the feed are controlled within the optimal band, HI concentration in HIx phase becomes strongly over-azeotropic. By simple flashing of the over-azeotropic HI solution, highly enriched HI vapor can be obtained, which leads to improved energy efficiency of the cycle. Since the cycle is operable under low pressures, the corrosivity of the operating condition can also be alleviated. In order to validate the previous experimental data and enhance the feasibility of the newly proposed flowsheet, KAIST is performing experiments. Procedure and results of early stage of experiments are introduced in this paper. (author)

6. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. Srinu Babu

2007-01-01

Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

7. Optimization of phototrophic hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 via statistical experimental design

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jamil, Zadariana [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technology University of MARA (Malaysia); Mohamad Annuar, Mohamad Suffian; Vikineswary, S. [Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Shaliza [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia)

2009-09-15

Phototrophic hydrogen production by indigenous purple non-sulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris PBUM001 from palm oil mill effluent (POME) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The process parameters studied include inoculum sizes (% v/v), POME concentration (% v/v), light intensity (klux), agitation (rpm) and pH. The experimental data on cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using response surface regression analysis. The path to optimal process conditions was determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot. Statistical analysis on experimental data collected following Box-Behnken design showed that 100% (v/v) POME concentration, 10% (v/v) inoculum size, light intensity at 4.0 klux, agitation rate at 250 rpm and pH of 6 were the best conditions. The maximum predicted cumulative hydrogen production and COD reduction obtained under these conditions was 1.05 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and 31.71% respectively. Subsequent verification experiments at optimal process values gave the maximum yield of cumulative hydrogen at 0.66 {+-} 0.07 ml H{sub 2}/ml POME and COD reduction at 30.54 {+-} 9.85%. (author)

8. Optimization and design of an aircraft's morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speeds, Part II - Experimental validation using Infra-Red transition measurement from Wind Tunnel tests

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andreea Koreanschi

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In the present paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was numerically and experimentally validated. The genetic algorithm was applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The optimization was performed for 16 flight cases expressed in terms of various combinations of speeds, angles of attack and aileron deflections. The displacements resulted from the optimization were used during the wind tunnel tests of the wing tip demonstrator for the actuators control to change the upper surface shape of the wing. The results of the optimization of the flow behavior for the airfoil morphing upper-surface problem were validated with wind tunnel experimental transition results obtained with infra-red Thermography on the wing-tip demonstrator. The validation proved that the 2D numerical optimization using the ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was an appropriate tool in improving various aspects of a wing’s aerodynamic performances.

9. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chao Zhou

2017-08-01

Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

10. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sahoo, C. [Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Gupta, A.K., E-mail: agupta@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

2012-05-15

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of color removal and COD removal done by response surface approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experiments were designed using Box-Behnken spherical design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two quadratic polynomial models were developed for the responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single point numerical optimization was done considering three constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation by performing the experiment under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag{sup +} doped TiO{sub 2} under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5-1.5 g/L), initial dye concentration (25-100 ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5-9). Using the three factors three levels Box-Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag{sup +} doped TiO{sub 2} 0.99 g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68 ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R{sup 2} values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values.

11. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sahoo, C.; Gupta, A.K.

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► Optimization of color removal and COD removal done by response surface approach. ► The experiments were designed using Box–Behnken spherical design. ► Two quadratic polynomial models were developed for the responses. ► Single point numerical optimization was done considering three constraints. ► Validation by performing the experiment under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag + doped TiO 2 under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5–1.5 g/L), initial dye concentration (25–100 ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5–9). Using the three factors three levels Box–Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag + doped TiO 2 0.99 g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68 ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R 2 values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values.

12. Analysis of the optimal fuel composition for the Indonesian experimental power reactor

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.), Ibaraki (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Banten (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Arbie, Bakri; Subki, Iyos [PT MOTAB Technology, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

2017-03-15

The optimal fuel composition of the 10 MWth Experimental Power Reactor (RDE), to be built by the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), is a very important design parameter since it will directly affect the fuel cost, new and spent fuel storage capacity, and other back-end environmental burden. The RDE is a very small sized pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with low enriched uranium (LEU) UO{sub 2} TRISO fuel under multipass or once-through-then-out fueling scheme. A scoping study on fuel composition parameters, namely heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and uranium enrichment is conducted. All burnup, criticality calculations and core equilibrium search are carried out by using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code for pebble bed HTGRs, featured with many automatic equilibrium searching options as well as thermal-hydraulic calculation capability. The RDE User Requirement Document issued by BATAN is used to derive the main core design parameters and constraints. The scoping study is conducted over uranium enrichment in the range of 10 to 20 w/o and HM loading in the range of 4 g to 10 g/pebble. Fissile loading per unit energy generated (kg/GWd) is taken as the objective function for the present scoping study. The analysis results show that the optimal HM loading is around 8 g/pebble. Under the constraint of 80 GWd/t fuel discharge burnup imposed by the technical specification, the uranium enrichment for the optimal HM loading is approximately 13 w/o.

13. Analysis of the optimal fuel composition for the Indonesian experimental power reactor

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liem, Peng Hong; Sembiring, Tagor Malem

2017-01-01

The optimal fuel composition of the 10 MWth Experimental Power Reactor (RDE), to be built by the Indonesian National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), is a very important design parameter since it will directly affect the fuel cost, new and spent fuel storage capacity, and other back-end environmental burden. The RDE is a very small sized pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with low enriched uranium (LEU) UO_2 TRISO fuel under multipass or once-through-then-out fueling scheme. A scoping study on fuel composition parameters, namely heavy metal (HM) loading per pebble and uranium enrichment is conducted. All burnup, criticality calculations and core equilibrium search are carried out by using BATAN-MPASS, a general in-core fuel management code for pebble bed HTGRs, featured with many automatic equilibrium searching options as well as thermal-hydraulic calculation capability. The RDE User Requirement Document issued by BATAN is used to derive the main core design parameters and constraints. The scoping study is conducted over uranium enrichment in the range of 10 to 20 w/o and HM loading in the range of 4 g to 10 g/pebble. Fissile loading per unit energy generated (kg/GWd) is taken as the objective function for the present scoping study. The analysis results show that the optimal HM loading is around 8 g/pebble. Under the constraint of 80 GWd/t fuel discharge burnup imposed by the technical specification, the uranium enrichment for the optimal HM loading is approximately 13 w/o.

14. Temporo-spatial IMRT optimization: concepts, implementation and initial results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trofimov, Alexei; Rietzel, Eike; Lu Hsiaoming; Martin, Benjamin; Jiang, Steve; Chen, George T Y; Bortfeld, Thomas

2005-01-01

With the recent availability of 4D-CT, the accuracy of information on internal organ motion during respiration has improved significantly. We investigate the utility of organ motion information in IMRT treatment planning, using an in-house prototype optimization system. Four approaches are compared: (1) planning with optimized margins, based on motion information; (2) the 'motion kernel' approach, in which a more accurate description of the dose deposit from a pencil beam to a moving target is achieved either through time-weighted averaging of influence matrices, calculated for different instances of anatomy (subsets of 4D-CT data, corresponding to various phases of motion) or through convolution of the pencil beam kernel with the probability density function describing the target motion; (3) optimal gating, or tracking with beam intensity maps optimized independently for each instance of anatomy; and (4) optimal tracking with beam intensity maps optimized simultaneously for all instances of anatomy. The optimization is based on a gradient technique and can handle both physical (dose-volume) and equivalent uniform dose constraints. Optimization requires voxel mapping from phase to phase in order to score the dose in individual voxels as they move. The results show that, compared to the other approaches, margin expansion has a significant disadvantage by substantially increasing the integral dose to patient. While gating or tracking result in the best dose conformation to the target, the former elongates treatment time, and the latter significantly complicates the delivery procedure. The 'motion kernel' approach does not provide a dosimetric advantage, compared to optimal tracking or gating, but might lead to more efficient delivery. A combination of gating with the 'motion kernel' or margin expansion approach will increase the duty cycle and may provide one with the most efficient solution, in terms of complexity of the delivery procedure and dose conformality to

15. F(α) curves: Experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glazier, J.A.; Gunaratne, G.; Libchaber, A.

1988-01-01

We study the transition to chaos at the golden and silver means for forced Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in mercury. We present f(α) curves below, at, and above the transition, and provide comparisons to the curves calculated for the one-dimensional circle map. We find good agreement at both the golden and silver means. This confirms our earlier observation that for low amplitude forcing, forced RB convection is well described by the one-dimensional circle map and indicates that the f(α) curve is a good measure of the approach to criticality. For selected subcritical experimental data sets we calculate the degree of subcriticality. We also present both experimental and calculated results for f(α) in the presence of a third frequency. Again we obtain agreement: The presence of random noise or a third frequency narrows the right-hand (negative q) side of the f(α) curve. Subcriticality results in symmetrically narrowed curves. We can also distinguish these cases by examining the power spectra and Poincare sections of the time series

16. Theoretical and experimental studies for optimization of PCRV top closures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ottosen, N.S.; Andersen, S.I.

1975-01-01

The results from the remaining part of the parameter study and the preparations for the verification of an optimized design are presented. Three models have been made in the same scale and with the same depth to span ratio α as the low LM-3 model from the first investigation, i.e. α=0.35. The model LM-5 was provided with reinforcement in the tensile zone, the upper part of the closure. This reinforcement did not influence the stresses and strains in the load carrying concrete, and the dome failed at the same pressure as in the unreinforced model LM-3. However, the closure did not disintegrate, but failed due to large overall deformations causing seal leakage. In the model LM-6, the inverted dome, which is formed at higher loads as demonstrated in LM-3, was reinforced perpendicular to the supposed middle surface. This reinforcement proved to be effective, giving the dome a higher ultimate load capacity. The LM-6 test stopped due to a circumferential crack in the flange. Finally, the unreinforced LM-7 closure was tested to failure. Apart from minor changes in the flange, LM-7 was identical to LM-3 except for the excavated upper part of the concrete, which in LM-3 formed the heavily cracked tensile zone. The ultimate load and the failure mode observed for this closure were the same as for the LM-3. The experimental results are compared to finite element calculations, in which plasticity and cracking of the concrete are taken into account, and the influence of different material models for the concrete is investigated. A unique failure criterion, which includes failure of the concrete for both tensile and compressive stresses in the same mathematical expression, is proposed. Based on the results obtained from the parameter study, a new closure design is proposed, which is optimized with respect to the requirements at service conditions and ultimate load

17. Multi-objective optimization design and experimental investigation of centrifugal fan performance

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Lei; Wang, Songling; Hu, Chenxing; Zhang, Qian

2013-11-01

Current studies of fan performance optimization mainly focus on two aspects: one is to improve the blade profile, and another is only to consider the influence of single impeller structural parameter on fan performance. However, there are few studies on the comprehensive effect of the key parameters such as blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width on the fan performance. The G4-73 backward centrifugal fan widely used in power plants is selected as the research object. Based on orthogonal design and BP neural network, a model for predicting the centrifugal fan performance parameters is established, and the maximum relative errors of the total pressure and efficiency are 0.974% and 0.333%, respectively. Multi-objective optimization of total pressure and efficiency of the fan is conducted with genetic algorithm, and the optimum combination of impeller structural parameters is proposed. The optimized parameters of blade number, exit stagger angle of blade and the impeller outlet width are seperately 14, 43.9°, and 21 cm. The experiments on centrifugal fan performance and noise are conducted before and after the installation of the new impeller. The experimental results show that with the new impeller, the total pressure of fan increases significantly in total range of the flow rate, and the fan efficiency is improved when the relative flow is above 75%, also the high efficiency area is broadened. Additionally, in 65% -100% relative flow, the fan noise is reduced. Under the design operating condition, total pressure and efficiency of the fan are improved by 6.91% and 0.5%, respectively. This research sheds light on the considering of comprehensive effect of impeller structrual parameters on fan performance, and a new impeller can be designed to satisfy the engineering demand such as energy-saving, noise reduction or solving air pressure insufficiency for power plants.

18. A hybrid bird mating optimizer algorithm with teaching-learning-based optimization for global numerical optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qingyang Zhang

2015-02-01

Full Text Available Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm inspired by intelligent mating behavior of birds. However, it is still insufficient in convergence of speed and quality of solution. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a hybrid algorithm (TLBMO, which is established by combining the advantages of Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO and Bird Mating Optimizer (BMO. The performance of TLBMO is evaluated on 23 benchmark functions, and compared with seven state-of-the-art approaches, namely BMO, TLBO, Artificial Bee Bolony (ABC, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Fast Evolution Programming (FEP, Differential Evolution (DE, Group Search Optimization (GSO. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method performs better than other existing algorithms for global numerical optimization.

19. Thermodynamic properties of 9-fluorenone: Mutual validation of experimental and computational results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chirico, Robert D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Steele, William V.

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range 5 K to 520 K. ► Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range 368 K to 668 K. ► The enthalpy of combustion was measured and the enthalpy of formation was derived. ► Calculated and derived properties for the ideal gas are in excellent accord. ► Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties for 9-fluorenone (IUPAC name 9H-fluoren-9-one and Chemical Abstracts registry number [486-25-9]) in the ideal-gas state are reported. Experimental methods were adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, inclined-piston manometry, comparative ebulliometry, and combustion calorimetry. Critical properties were estimated. Molar entropies for the ideal-gas state were derived from the experimental studies at selected temperatures T between T = 298.15 K and T = 600 K, and independent statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6 − 31 + G(d,p) level of theory. Values derived with the independent methods are shown to be in excellent accord with a scaling factor of 0.975 applied to the calculated frequencies. This same scaling factor was successfully applied in the analysis of results for other polycyclic molecules, as described in recent articles by this research group. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature. Thermodynamic consistency between properties is used to show that several studies in the literature are erroneous.

20. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

KAUST Repository

Ben Issaid, Chaouki

2015-05-12

Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

1. Thermodynamic properties of 1-naphthol: Mutual validation of experimental and computational results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.; Kazakov, Andrei F.

2015-01-01

Highlights: • Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range 5 K to 445 K. • Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range 370 K to 570 K. • Computed and derived properties for ideal gas entropies are in excellent accord. • The enthalpy of combustion was measured and shown to be consistent with reliable literature values. • Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties for 1-naphthol (Chemical Abstracts registry number [90-15-3]) in the ideal-gas state are reported based on both experimental and computational methods. Measured properties included the triple-point temperature, enthalpy of fusion, and heat capacities for the crystal and liquid phases by adiabatic calorimetry; vapor pressures by inclined-piston manometry and comparative ebulliometry; and the enthalpy of combustion of the crystal phase by oxygen bomb calorimetry. Critical properties were estimated. Entropies for the ideal-gas state were derived from the experimental studies for the temperature range 298.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 600, and independent statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The mutual validation of the independent experimental and computed results is achieved with a scaling factor of 0.975 applied to the calculated vibrational frequencies. This same scaling factor was successfully applied in the analysis of results for other polycyclic molecules, as described in a series of recent articles by this research group. This article reports the first extension of this approach to a hydroxy-aromatic compound. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature. Thermodynamic consistency between properties is used to show that several studies in the literature are erroneous. The enthalpy of combustion for 1-naphthol was also measured in this research, and excellent

2. Volume reconstruction optimization for tomo-PIV algorithms applied to experimental data

Science.gov (United States)

Martins, Fabio J. W. A.; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Lionel; Azevedo, Luis F. A.; Stanislas, Michel

2015-08-01

Tomographic PIV is a three-component volumetric velocity measurement technique based on the tomographic reconstruction of a particle distribution imaged by multiple camera views. In essence, the performance and accuracy of this technique is highly dependent on the parametric adjustment and the reconstruction algorithm used. Although synthetic data have been widely employed to optimize experiments, the resulting reconstructed volumes might not have optimal quality. The purpose of the present study is to offer quality indicators that can be applied to data samples in order to improve the quality of velocity results obtained by the tomo-PIV technique. The methodology proposed can potentially lead to significantly reduction in the time required to optimize a tomo-PIV reconstruction, also leading to better quality velocity results. Tomo-PIV data provided by a six-camera turbulent boundary-layer experiment were used to optimize the reconstruction algorithms according to this methodology. Velocity statistics measurements obtained by optimized BIMART, SMART and MART algorithms were compared with hot-wire anemometer data and velocity measurement uncertainties were computed. Results indicated that BIMART and SMART algorithms produced reconstructed volumes with equivalent quality as the standard MART with the benefit of reduced computational time.

3. Volume reconstruction optimization for tomo-PIV algorithms applied to experimental data

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Martins, Fabio J W A; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Stanislas, Michel; Thomas, Lionel; Azevedo, Luis F A

2015-01-01

Tomographic PIV is a three-component volumetric velocity measurement technique based on the tomographic reconstruction of a particle distribution imaged by multiple camera views. In essence, the performance and accuracy of this technique is highly dependent on the parametric adjustment and the reconstruction algorithm used. Although synthetic data have been widely employed to optimize experiments, the resulting reconstructed volumes might not have optimal quality. The purpose of the present study is to offer quality indicators that can be applied to data samples in order to improve the quality of velocity results obtained by the tomo-PIV technique. The methodology proposed can potentially lead to significantly reduction in the time required to optimize a tomo-PIV reconstruction, also leading to better quality velocity results. Tomo-PIV data provided by a six-camera turbulent boundary-layer experiment were used to optimize the reconstruction algorithms according to this methodology. Velocity statistics measurements obtained by optimized BIMART, SMART and MART algorithms were compared with hot-wire anemometer data and velocity measurement uncertainties were computed. Results indicated that BIMART and SMART algorithms produced reconstructed volumes with equivalent quality as the standard MART with the benefit of reduced computational time. (paper)

4. Experimental Optimization In Polymer BLEND Composite Preparation Based On Mix Level of Taguchi Robust Design

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Jaafar Abdullah; Dahlan Mohd; Rozaidi Rasid; Megat Harun AlRashid Megat Ahmad; Mahathir Mohamad; Mohd Hamzah Harun

2012-01-01

L 18 orthogonal array in mix level of Taguchi robust design method was carried out to optimize experimental conditions for the preparation of polymer blend composite. Tensile strength and neutron absorption of the composite were the properties of interest. Filler size, filler loading, ball mixing time and dispersion agent concentration were selected as parameters or factors which are expected to affect the composite properties. As a result of Taguchi analysis, filler loading was the most influencing parameter on the tensile strength and neutron absorption. The least influencing was ball-mixing time. The optimal conditions were determined by using mix-level Taguchi robust design method and a polymer composite with tensile strength of 6.33 MPa was successfully prepared. The composite was found to fully absorb thermal neutron flux of 1.04 x 10 5 n/ cm 2 / s with only 2 mm in thickness. In addition, the filler was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis (EDX). (Author)

5. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borrel, V.

1993-01-01

A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

6. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aveyard, R.; Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J.; Rieger, B.

2017-01-01

Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

7. Optimizing experimental parameters for the projection requirement in HAADF-STEM tomography

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aveyard, R., E-mail: r.a.aveyard@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zhong, Z.; Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rieger, B., E-mail: b.rieger@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

2017-06-15

Highlights: • The extent to which HAADF-STEM meets the projection requirement has been studied. • Multislice simulations used to model beam propagation and study signal linearity. • Propagation in crystalline and amorphous materials considered. • Optimal experimental set-up for the projection requirement is discussed. - Abstract: Tomographic reconstruction algorithms offer a means by which a tilt-series of transmission images can be combined to yield a three dimensional model of the specimen. Conventional reconstruction algorithms assume that the measured signal is a linear projection of some property, typically the density, of the material. Here we report the use of multislice simulations to investigate the extent to which this assumption is met in HAADF-STEM imaging. The use of simulations allows for a systematic survey of a range of materials and microscope parameters to inform optimal experimental design. Using this approach it is demonstrated that the imaging of amorphous materials is in good agreement with the projection assumption in most cases. Images of crystalline specimens taken along zone-axes are found to be poorly suited for conventional linear reconstruction algorithms due to channelling effects which produce enhanced intensities compared with off-axis images, and poor compliance with the projection requirement. Off-axis images are found to be suitable for reconstruction, though they do not strictly meet the linearity requirement in most cases. It is demonstrated that microscope parameters can be selected to yield improved compliance with the projection requirement.

8. New experimental results on strangeness production

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sapozhnikov, M.G.

1998-01-01

New experimental results on the production of φ and f 2 ' (1525) mesons in the annihilation of stopped antiprotons are discussed. The explanation of these facts in the framework of the polarized strangeness model is considered

9. Experimental evaluation of optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation technique

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

2013-01-01

Development and experimentally evaluation of an optimal Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC) strategy based on the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control technique is presented. The proposed nonlinear controller is based on a nonlinear vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics. A novel

10. Design of passive directional acoustic devices using Topology Optimization - from method to experimental validation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Fernandez Grande, Efren

2016-01-01

emission in two dimensions and is experimentally validated using three dimensional prints of the optimized designs. The emitted fields exhibit a level difference of at least 15 dB on axis relative to the off-axis directions, over frequency bands of approximately an octave. It is demonstrated to be possible...

11. PVA-PEG physically cross-linked hydrogel film as a wound dressing: experimental design and optimization.

Science.gov (United States)

Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Taher, Muhammad; Susanti, Deny; Jaffri, Juliana Md

2017-04-05

The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.

12. Optimization of information properties of NAA with respect to information content and profitability of results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obrusnik, I.; Eckschlager, K.

1986-01-01

Information properties of analytical results together with other important parameters especially economic ones can be used for the optimization of analytical procedures. Therefore, we have proposed a computational technique for the optimization of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) based on the information content and profitability. The optimization starts with the prediction of the γ-ray spectra to be expected during analysis under given experimental conditions (sample size, irradiation, decay and counting times etc.) and with the calculation of detection and determination limits. In the next step, the information contents for the determination of particular elements and for the simultaneous determination of element groups are computed. The information content depends or is closely connected with such properties of the method as selectivity, snesitivity, precision, accuracy and, as in the other cases of trace analysis, also with the detection limit. Then, the information profitability (IP) taking into account the information content and relevance (appreciation of specific information according to its contribution to the solution of a given problem) together wit economic aspects can be calculated. This function can be used for the optimization of a particular NAA procedure, for the mutual comparison of different variants of NAA and also for the comparison with other analytical methods. The use of information profitability for the optimization of NAA is shown on a practical example of the INAA analysis of urban particulate matter SRN 1648 produced by NBS (USA). (author)

13. Experimental studies on optimal process of the iodine-sulfur cycle for nuclear hydrogen production

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yoon, Ho Joon

2010-02-15

is high enough to generate highly enriched HI gas through flashing. An inverse Bunsen reaction and sulfur formation were observed when the temperature was increased from 313K to 343K and the molar ratio of I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was decreased from 4 to 1. 10-50wt% of HI in the feed turned into I{sub 2} when an inverse Bunsen reaction and sulfur formation occurred. The experimental data utilized in the previous parametric study has been validated by phase separation experiments. Though the phase separation experiments gave us a reference by showing final results from the Bunsen reaction, these are not sufficient for supporting the optimal operating windows for the Bunsen section: H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HI in the feed are not reactants but products from the reaction. The manipulated composition of the feed in the phase separation experiments had a limitation in showing a real Bunsen reaction. Especially, the Bunsen reaction ratio and side reactions were hard to predict without a consideration of SO{sub 2} solubility. Thus, the Bunsen reaction experiments using three original components (SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and I{sub 2}) in the feed were conducted. We demonstrated that the Bunsen reaction ratio is higher than 2, and the azeotropic ratio is higher than 0.4 at 293K and 2 mol of I{sub 2} in the feed. At a lower temperature and higher I{sub 2} content, more of a Bunsen reaction took place. However, the separating characteristics became worse. The generated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HI remained in the HI{sub x} phase without their separation. Excessively supplied SO{sub 2} produced the sulfur formation with 2 mol of I{sub 2} content in the feed regardless of temperature. Finally, HI flash distillation, which was one of key issues in optimal I-S process, was experimentally validated. Almost 95wt% of pure HI was obtained from highly enriched HI over azeotrope by a simple distillation. Excessively supplied I{sub 2} did not interfere with evaporation of pure HI. No operating

14. Experimental studies on optimal process of the iodine-sulfur cycle for nuclear hydrogen production

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yoon, Ho Joon

2010-02-01

highly enriched HI gas through flashing. An inverse Bunsen reaction and sulfur formation were observed when the temperature was increased from 313K to 343K and the molar ratio of I 2 /H 2 SO 4 was decreased from 4 to 1. 10-50wt% of HI in the feed turned into I 2 when an inverse Bunsen reaction and sulfur formation occurred. The experimental data utilized in the previous parametric study has been validated by phase separation experiments. Though the phase separation experiments gave us a reference by showing final results from the Bunsen reaction, these are not sufficient for supporting the optimal operating windows for the Bunsen section: H 2 SO 4 and HI in the feed are not reactants but products from the reaction. The manipulated composition of the feed in the phase separation experiments had a limitation in showing a real Bunsen reaction. Especially, the Bunsen reaction ratio and side reactions were hard to predict without a consideration of SO 2 solubility. Thus, the Bunsen reaction experiments using three original components (SO 2 , H 2 O and I 2 ) in the feed were conducted. We demonstrated that the Bunsen reaction ratio is higher than 2, and the azeotropic ratio is higher than 0.4 at 293K and 2 mol of I 2 in the feed. At a lower temperature and higher I 2 content, more of a Bunsen reaction took place. However, the separating characteristics became worse. The generated H 2 SO 4 and HI remained in the HI x phase without their separation. Excessively supplied SO 2 produced the sulfur formation with 2 mol of I 2 content in the feed regardless of temperature. Finally, HI flash distillation, which was one of key issues in optimal I-S process, was experimentally validated. Almost 95wt% of pure HI was obtained from highly enriched HI over azeotrope by a simple distillation. Excessively supplied I 2 did not interfere with evaporation of pure HI. No operating problem with a spray injection of HI x , and no clogging of the nozzle took place at 80 .deg. C and 10 bars. The

15. Development, optimization, and in vitro characterization of dasatinib-loaded PEG functionalized chitosan capped gold nanoparticles using Box-Behnken experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

2018-03-01

The purpose of this research study was to develop, optimize, and characterize dasatinib loaded polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized chitosan capped gold nanoparticles (DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs). Gold (III) chloride hydrate was reduced with chitosan and the resulting nanoparticles were coated with thiol-terminated PEG and loaded with dasatinib (DSB). Plackett-Burman design (PBD) followed by Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) were employed to optimize the process parameters. Polynomial equations, contour, and 3D response surface plots were generated to relate the factors and responses. The optimized DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM, EDX, TEM, SAED, AFM, DLS, and ZP. The results of the optimized DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs showed particle size (PS) of 24.39 ± 1.82 nm, apparent drug content (ADC) of 72.06 ± 0.86%, and zeta potential (ZP) of -13.91 ± 1.21 mV. The responses observed and the predicted values of the optimized process were found to be close. The shape and surface morphology studies showed that the resulting DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs were spherical and smooth. The stability and in vitro drug release studies confirmed that the optimized formulation was stable at different conditions of storage and exhibited a sustained drug release of the drug of up to 76% in 48 h and followed Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetic model. A process for preparing gold nanoparticles using chitosan, anchoring PEG to the particle surface, and entrapping dasatinib in the chitosan-PEG surface corona was optimized.

16. An Improved Real-Coded Population-Based Extremal Optimization Method for Continuous Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guo-Qiang Zeng

2014-01-01

Full Text Available As a novel evolutionary optimization method, extremal optimization (EO has been successfully applied to a variety of combinatorial optimization problems. However, the applications of EO in continuous optimization problems are relatively rare. This paper proposes an improved real-coded population-based EO method (IRPEO for continuous unconstrained optimization problems. The key operations of IRPEO include generation of real-coded random initial population, evaluation of individual and population fitness, selection of bad elements according to power-law probability distribution, generation of new population based on uniform random mutation, and updating the population by accepting the new population unconditionally. The experimental results on 10 benchmark test functions with the dimension N=30 have shown that IRPEO is competitive or even better than the recently reported various genetic algorithm (GA versions with different mutation operations in terms of simplicity, effectiveness, and efficiency. Furthermore, the superiority of IRPEO to other evolutionary algorithms such as original population-based EO, particle swarm optimization (PSO, and the hybrid PSO-EO is also demonstrated by the experimental results on some benchmark functions.

17. Primary water chemistry optimization for extended fuel cycle operation. Results of the 'Duo experimentation' after three cycles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Viricel, L.; Andrieu, C.; Segura, J.C.; Rocher, A.; Thomazet, J.; Clinard, M.H.; Dacquait, F.

2002-01-01

The primary coolant conditioning in French nuclear power plants is essentially based on the boron-lithium coordinated chemistry, with a target pH of 7.2 at 300 C and a maximum lithium concentration of 2.2 mg/kg. In 1996, EDF 1300 MWe units began operating 18-month fuel cycles, increasing boron concentrations at the beginning of the cycles. Since today the maximum lithium concentration in normal operation is 2.2 mg/kg, extended cycle operation results in a decrease in the pH at the beginning of the cycles, which may possibly lead to deposits in RCS, and particularly on the fuel cladding, and increased dose rates. It has to be noted that today, the fuel assemblies maximum burnup is set at 52 GWd/tU. One solution is to adjust the pH by increasing the lithium content at the beginning of the cycles, which is easy to implement and does not require any modification on the units. Hence, EDF is testing a ''modified'' chemistry regime in the > during 4 fuel cycles, with a maximum authorized lithium content of 3.5 mg/kg at the beginning of the cycles in the Cattenom 2 pilot unit. The Golfech 1 reference unit implements a standard boron-lithium coordination pH 300 7.2. The major goal of the experimentation is to assess the impact of elevated lithium concentrations at the beginning of the cycles on fuel cladding oxide behavior, mass transport and dose rates. This paper presents the results of the first three cycles of the Duo experimentation. (author)

18. Optimization design study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion reactors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Willem Janssens, Ir.; Crutzen, Y.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Matera, R.

1991-01-01

The design optimization study of an innovative divertor concept for future experimental tokamak-type fusion devices is both an answer to the actual problems encountered in the multilayer divertor proposals and an illustration of a rational modelling philosophy and optimization strategy for the development of a new divertor structure. Instead of using mechanical attachment or metallurgical bonding of the protective material to the heat sink as in most actual divertor concepts, the so-called brush divertor in this study uses an array of unidirectional fibers penetrating in both the protective armor and the underling composite heat sink. Although the approach is fully concentrated on the divertor performance, including both a description of its function from the theoretical point of view and an overview of the problems related to the materials choice and evaluation, both the approach followed in the numerical modelling and the judgment of the results are thought to be valid also for other applications. Therefore the spin-off of the study must be situated in both the technological progress towards a feasible divertor solution, which introduces no additional physical uncertainties, and in the general area of the thermo-mechanical finite-element modelling on both macro-and microscale. The brush divertor itself embodies the use, and thus the modelling, of advanced materials such as tailor-made metal matrix composites and dispersion strengthened metals, and is shown to offer large potential advantages, demanding however and experimental validation under working conditions. It is clearly indicated where the need originates for an integrated experimental program which must allow to verify the basic modelling assumptions in order to arrive at the use of numerical computation as a powerful and realistic tool of structural testing and life-time prediction

19. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay; Nur Esen, Ayse; Erenturk, Sema

2014-01-01

The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated E n numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies. - Highlights: • Optimization of experimental parameters is important for high sensitivity results by INAA. • Assessment of uncertainty sources is necessary to increase reliability of results. • The aim of this study is to determine a number of elements in industrial soil samples. • The higher concentrations of studied elements are due to rapid industrialization. • This baseline data can be used in future studies for other industrial areas

20. Experimental study on the crack detection with optimized spatial wavelet analysis and windowing

Science.gov (United States)

Ghanbari Mardasi, Amir; Wu, Nan; Wu, Christine

2018-05-01

In this paper, a high sensitive crack detection is experimentally realized and presented on a beam under certain deflection by optimizing spatial wavelet analysis. Due to the crack existence in the beam structure, a perturbation/slop singularity is induced in the deflection profile. Spatial wavelet transformation works as a magnifier to amplify the small perturbation signal at the crack location to detect and localize the damage. The profile of a deflected aluminum cantilever beam is obtained for both intact and cracked beams by a high resolution laser profile sensor. Gabor wavelet transformation is applied on the subtraction of intact and cracked data sets. To improve detection sensitivity, scale factor in spatial wavelet transformation and the transformation repeat times are optimized. Furthermore, to detect the possible crack close to the measurement boundaries, wavelet transformation edge effect, which induces large values of wavelet coefficient around the measurement boundaries, is efficiently reduced by introducing different windowing functions. The result shows that a small crack with depth of less than 10% of the beam height can be localized with a clear perturbation. Moreover, the perturbation caused by a crack at 0.85 mm away from one end of the measurement range, which is covered by wavelet transform edge effect, emerges by applying proper window functions.

1. Optimization of experimental conditions in uranium trace determination using laser time-resolved fluorimetry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baly, L.; Garcia, M.A.

1996-01-01

At the present paper a new sample excitation geometry is presented for the uranium trace determination in aqueous solutions by the Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence. This new design introduces the laser radiation through the top side of the cell allowing the use of cells with two quartz sides, less expensive than commonly used at this experimental set. Optimization of the excitation conditions, temporal discrimination and spectral selection are presented

2. A perspective on thermal annealing of reactor pressure vessel materials from the viewpoint of experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

1996-01-01

It is believed that in the next decade or so, several nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) may exceed the reference temperature limits set by the pressurized thermal shock screening criteria. One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on RPVs is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the annealing response, or ''recovery'' of several irradiated RPV steels. The fracture toughness is one of the important properties used in the evaluation of the integrity of RPVs. Optimally, the fracture toughness is measured directly by fracture toughness specimens, such as compact tension or precracked Charpy specimens, but is often inferred from the results of Charpy V-notch impact specimens. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of models for embrittlement recovery which have been developed by Eason et al. Some of the issues in annealing that still need to be resolved are discussed

3. Achieving optimal SERS through enhanced experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Fisk, Heidi; Westley, Chloe; Turner, Nicholas J; Goodacre, Royston

2016-01-01

One of the current limitations surrounding surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is the perceived lack of reproducibility. SERS is indeed challenging, and for analyte detection, it is vital that the analyte interacts with the metal surface. However, as this is analyte dependent, there is not a single set of SERS conditions that are universal. This means that experimental optimisation for optimum SERS response is vital. Most researchers optimise one factor at a time, where a single parameter is altered first before going onto optimise the next. This is a very inefficient way of searching the experimental landscape. In this review, we explore the use of more powerful multivariate approaches to SERS experimental optimisation based on design of experiments and evolutionary computational methods. We particularly focus on colloidal-based SERS rather than thin film preparations as a result of their popularity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4. Flight plan optimization

Science.gov (United States)

2015-05-01

Fuel cost accounts for 40 percent of the operating cost of an airline. Fuel cost can be minimized by planning a flight on optimized routes. The routes can be optimized by searching best connections based on the cost function defined by the airline. The most common algorithm that used to optimize route search is Dijkstra's. Dijkstra's algorithm produces a static result and the time taken for the search is relatively long. This paper experiments a new algorithm to optimize route search which combines the principle of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm. The experimental results of route search, presented are shown to be computationally fast and accurate compared with timings from generic algorithm. The new algorithm is optimal for random routing feature that is highly sought by many regional operators.

5. Chickpea seeds germination rational parameters optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Safonova, Yu A.; Ivliev, M. N.; Lemeshkin, A. V.

2018-05-01

The paper presents the influence of chickpea seeds bioactivation parameters on their enzymatic activity experimental results. Optimal bioactivation process modes were obtained by regression-factor analysis: process temperature - 13.6 °C, process duration - 71.5 h. It was found that in the germination process, the proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes activity increased, and the urease enzyme activity is reduced. The dependences of enzyme activity on chickpea seeds germination conditions were obtained by mathematical processing of experimental data. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental ones. This confirms the optimization efficiency based on experiments mathematical planning in order to determine the enzymatic activity of chickpea seeds germination optimal parameters of bioactivated seeds.

6. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chen He

2015-12-01

Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

7. Prediction of the Individual Wave Overtopping Volumes of a Wave Energy Converter using Experimental Testing and First Numerical Model Results

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

2009-01-01

For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....

8. Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin

2011-01-01

We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....

9. Primary water chemistry optimization for extended fuel cycle operation. Results of the 'Duo experimentation' after three cycles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Viricel, L.; Andrieu, C.; Segura, J.C.; Rocher, A. [Electricite de France (France); Thomazet, J.; Clinard, M.H. [Framatome ANP (France); Dacquait, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France)

2002-07-01

The primary coolant conditioning in French nuclear power plants is essentially based on the boron-lithium coordinated chemistry, with a target pH of 7.2 at 300 C and a maximum lithium concentration of 2.2 mg/kg. In 1996, EDF 1300 MWe units began operating 18-month fuel cycles, increasing boron concentrations at the beginning of the cycles. Since today the maximum lithium concentration in normal operation is 2.2 mg/kg, extended cycle operation results in a decrease in the pH at the beginning of the cycles, which may possibly lead to deposits in RCS, and particularly on the fuel cladding, and increased dose rates. It has to be noted that today, the fuel assemblies maximum burnup is set at 52 GWd/tU. One solution is to adjust the pH by increasing the lithium content at the beginning of the cycles, which is easy to implement and does not require any modification on the units. Hence, EDF is testing a ''modified'' chemistry regime in the << Duo experimentation >> during 4 fuel cycles, with a maximum authorized lithium content of 3.5 mg/kg at the beginning of the cycles in the Cattenom 2 pilot unit. The Golfech 1 reference unit implements a standard boron-lithium coordination pH{sub 300} 7.2. The major goal of the experimentation is to assess the impact of elevated lithium concentrations at the beginning of the cycles on fuel cladding oxide behavior, mass transport and dose rates. This paper presents the results of the first three cycles of the Duo experimentation. (author)

10. Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Krstulovich, S.F.

1987-01-01

This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis

11. Optimization of critical factors to enhance polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) synthesis by mixed culture using Taguchi design of experimental methodology.

Science.gov (United States)

Venkata Mohan, S; Venkateswar Reddy, M

2013-01-01

Optimizing different factors is crucial for enhancement of mixed culture bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)) production. Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence and specific function of eight important factors (iron, glucose concentration, VFA concentration, VFA composition, nitrogen concentration, phosphorous concentration, pH, and microenvironment) on the bioplastics production. Three levels of factor (2(1) × 3(7)) variation were considered with symbolic arrays of experimental matrix [L(18)-18 experimental trails]. All the factors were assigned with three levels except iron concentration (2(1)). Among all the factors, microenvironment influenced bioplastics production substantially (contributing 81%), followed by pH (11%) and glucose concentration (2.5%). Validation experiments were performed with the obtained optimum conditions which resulted in improved PHA production. Good substrate degradation (as COD) of 68% was registered during PHA production. Dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymatic activities were monitored during process operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

12. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xing, Changhu

2014-01-01

In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivities of the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation

13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Stirling engine heater: Parametrical optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gheith, R.; Hachem, H.; Aloui, F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

2015-01-01

Highlights: • A Stirling engine was investigated to optimize its operation and its performance. • The porous medium present the highest amount of heat exchanged in a Stirling engine. • The heater characteristics are determinant points to enhance the thermal exchange in Stirling engine. • All operation parameters influence the heater performances. • Thermal and exergy heater efficiencies are sensible to temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to optimize γ Stirling engine performances with a special care given to the heater. This latter consists of 20 tubes in order to increase the exchange area between the working gas and the hot source. Different parameters were chosen to evaluate numerically and experimentally the heater. The selected four independent parameters are: heating temperature (300–500 °C), initial filling pressure (3–8 bar), cooling water flow rate (0.2–3 l/min) and frequency (2–7 Hz). The amount of energy exchanged in the heater is significantly influenced by the frequency and heating temperature but it is slightly enhanced with the increase in the cooling water flow rate. The thermal and the exergy efficiencies of the heater are very sensible to the temperature and pressure variations.

14. Optimization of glibenclamide tablet composition through the combined use of differential scanning calorimetry and D-optimal mixture experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Mura, P; Furlanetto, S; Cirri, M; Maestrelli, F; Marras, A M; Pinzauti, S

2005-02-07

A systematic analysis of the influence of different proportions of excipients on the stability of a solid dosage form was carried out. In particular, a d-optimal mixture experimental design was applied for the evaluation of glibenclamide compatibility in tablet formulations, consisting of four classic excipients (natrosol as binding agent, stearic acid as lubricant, sorbitol as diluent and cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone as disintegrant). The goal was to find the mixture component proportions which correspond to the optimal drug melting parameters, i.e. its maximum stability, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to quickly obtain information about possible interactions among the formulation components. The absolute value of the difference between the melting peak temperature of pure drug endotherm and that in each analysed mixture and the absolute value of the difference between the enthalpy of the pure glibenclamide melting peak and that of its melting peak in the different analyzed mixtures, were chosen as indexes of the drug-excipient interaction degree.

15. Design and experimental realization of an optimal scheme for teleportation of an n-qubit quantum state

Science.gov (United States)

Sisodia, Mitali; Shukla, Abhishek; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

2017-12-01

An explicit scheme (quantum circuit) is designed for the teleportation of an n-qubit quantum state. It is established that the proposed scheme requires an optimal amount of quantum resources, whereas larger amount of quantum resources have been used in a large number of recently reported teleportation schemes for the quantum states which can be viewed as special cases of the general n-qubit state considered here. A trade-off between our knowledge about the quantum state to be teleported and the amount of quantum resources required for the same is observed. A proof-of-principle experimental realization of the proposed scheme (for a 2-qubit state) is also performed using 5-qubit superconductivity-based IBM quantum computer. The experimental results show that the state has been teleported with high fidelity. Relevance of the proposed teleportation scheme has also been discussed in the context of controlled, bidirectional, and bidirectional controlled state teleportation.

16. Optimization of high pressure machine decocting process for Dachengqi Tang using HPLC fingerprints combined with the BoxâBehnken experimental design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rui-Fang Xie

2015-04-01

Full Text Available Using Dachengqi Tang (DCQT as a model, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprints were applied to optimize machine extracting process with the BoxâBehnken experimental design. HPLC fingerprints were carried out to investigate the chemical ingredients of DCQT; synthetic weighing method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC was performed to calculate synthetic scores of fingerprints; using the mark ingredients contents and synthetic scores as indicators, the BoxâBehnken design was carried out to optimize the process parameters of machine decocting process under high pressure for DCQT. Results of optimal process showed that the herb materials were soaked for 45Â min and extracted with 9 folds volume of water in the decocting machine under the temperature of 140Â Â°C till the pressure arrived at 0.25Â MPa; then hot decoction was excreted to soak Dahuang and Mangxiao for 5Â min. Finally, obtained solutions were mixed, filtrated and packed. It concluded that HPLC fingerprints combined with the BoxâBehnken experimental design could be used to optimize extracting process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Keywords: Dachengqi Tang, HPLC fingerprints, BoxâBehnken design, Synthetic weighing method

17. Experimental design approach to the process parameter optimization for laser welding of martensitic stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration

Science.gov (United States)

Khan, M. M. A.; Romoli, L.; Fiaschi, M.; Dini, G.; Sarri, F.

2011-02-01

This paper presents an experimental design approach to process parameter optimization for the laser welding of martensitic AISI 416 and AISI 440FSe stainless steels in a constrained overlap configuration in which outer shell was 0.55 mm thick. To determine the optimal laser-welding parameters, a set of mathematical models were developed relating welding parameters to each of the weld characteristics. These were validated both statistically and experimentally. The quality criteria set for the weld to determine optimal parameters were the minimization of weld width and the maximization of weld penetration depth, resistance length and shearing force. Laser power and welding speed in the range 855-930 W and 4.50-4.65 m/min, respectively, with a fiber diameter of 300 μm were identified as the optimal set of process parameters. However, the laser power and welding speed can be reduced to 800-840 W and increased to 4.75-5.37 m/min, respectively, to obtain stronger and better welds.

18. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guangjun Liu

2016-12-01

Full Text Available This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the pump’s flow field is done, which shows that the hydrodynamic shock of the pump is improved after optimization. To verify the MDO effect, an experimental system is established to test the optimized piston pump. Experimental results show that the simulated and experimental curves are similar. The flow ripple is improved by the MDO procedure. The peak of the pressure curve is lower than before optimization, and the pressure pulsation is reduced by 0.21 MPa, which shows that the pressure pulsation is improved with the decreasing of the flow ripple. Comparing the experimental and simulation results shows that MDO method is effective and feasible in the optimization design of the pump.

19. Effect of Neoclassical Transport Optimization on Energetic Ion Confinement in LHD

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Sasao, M.

2004-01-01

Confinement of energetic ions from neutral beam injection heating is investigated by changing the magnetic field configuration of the Large Helical Device from a classical heliotron configuration to an optimized neoclassical transport configuration to a level typical of ''advanced stellarators.'' The experimental results show the highest count rate of fast neutral particles not in the optimized configuration but in the inward-shifted one. The GNET simulation results show a relatively good agreement with the experimental results, and they also show a lower energy loss rate in the optimized configuration. This contradiction can be explained by the radial profile of the energetic ions. The relatively good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggest that ripple transport (neoclassical) dominates the energetic ion confinement and that the optimization process is effective in improving confinement in helical systems

20. Experimental Optimization of Passive Cooling of a Heat Source Array Flush-Mounted on a Vertical Plate

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Antoine Baudoin

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Heat sources, such as power electronics for offshore power, could be cooled passively—mainly by conduction and natural convection. The obvious advantage of this strategy is its high reliability. However, it must be implemented in an efficient manner (i.e., the area needs to be kept low to limit the construction costs. In this study, the placement of multiple heat sources mounted on a vertical plate was studied experimentally for optimization purposes. We chose a regular distribution, as this is likely to be the preferred choice in the construction process. We found that optimal spacing can be determined for a targeted source density by tuning the vertical and horizontal spacing between the heat sources. The optimal aspect ratio was estimated to be around two.

1. Optimization of multiple performance characteristics in turning using Taguchi’s quality loss function: An experimental investigation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tanmaya Mohanty

2013-06-01

Full Text Available Cutting force and chip reduction coefficient is the important index of machinability as it determines the power consumption and amount of energy invested in machining actions. It is primarily influenced by process parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. This paper presents the application of Taguchi’s parameter design to optimize the parameters for individual responses. For multi-response optimization, Taguchi’s quality loss function approach is proposed. In the present investigation, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut are determined to minimize cutting force and chip reduction coefficient during orthogonal turning. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated through an experimental investigation in turning mild steel workpiece using high speed steel tool.

2. Dynamic optimization of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking: simulation and experimental studies.

Science.gov (United States)

Nekoukar, Vahab; Erfanian, Abbas

2013-11-01

In this paper, we propose a musculoskeletal model of walker-assisted FES-activated paraplegic walking for the generation of muscle stimulation patterns and characterization of the causal relationships between muscle excitations, multi-joint movement, and handle reaction force (HRF). The model consists of the lower extremities, trunk, hands, and a walker. The simulation of walking is performed using particle swarm optimization to minimize the tracking errors from the desired trajectories for the lower extremity joints, to reduce the stimulations of the muscle groups acting around the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and to minimize the HRF. The results of the simulation studies using data recorded from healthy subjects performing walker-assisted walking indicate that the model-generated muscle stimulation patterns are in agreement with the EMG patterns that have been reported in the literature. The experimental results on two paraplegic subjects demonstrate that the proposed methodology can improve walking performance, reduce HRF, and increase walking speed when compared to the conventional FES-activated paraplegic walking. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

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Comay E.

2010-10-01

Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the \$Sigma ^+\$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

4. Optimization of Compressor Mounting Bracket of a Passenger Car

Science.gov (United States)

Kalsi, Sachin; Singh, Daljeet; Saini, J. S.

2018-05-01

In the present work, the CAE tools are used for the optimization of the compressor mounting bracket used in an automobile. Both static and dynamic analysis is done for the bracket. With the objective to minimize the mass and increase the stiffness of the bracket, the new design is optimized using shape and topology optimization techniques. The optimized design given by CAE tool is then validated experimentally. The new design results in lower level of vibrations, contribute to lower mass along with lesser cost which is effective in air conditioning system as well as the efficiency of a vehicle. The results given by CAE tool had a very good correlation with the experimental results.

5. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Felix Jost

2017-02-01

Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

6. ENGINEERING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HEEL TESTING EQUIPMENT IN THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF SAFE WALKING

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Cristiano Fragassa

2017-06-01

Full Text Available Experimental test methods for the evaluation of the resistance of heels of ladies' shoes in the case of impact loads are fully defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO procedures that indicate all the conditions of experiment. A first Standard (ISO 19553 specifies the test method for determining the strength of the heels in the case of single impact. The result offers a valuation of the liability to fail under the sporadic heavy blows. A second Standard (ISO 19556 details a method for testing the capability of heels of women' shoes to survive to the repetition of small impacts provoked by normal walking. These Standards strictly define the features for two different testing devices (with specific materials, geometries, weights, etc. and all the experimental procedures to be followed during tests. On the contrary, this paper describes the technical solutions adopted to design one single experimental device able to perform impact testing of heels in both conditions. Joining the accuracy of mechanic movements with the speed of an electronic control system, a new and flexible equipment for the complete characterization of heels respect to (single or fatigue impacts was developed. Moreover a new level of performances in experimental validation of heel resistance was introduced by the versatility of the user-defined software control programs, able to encode every complex time-depending cycle of impact loads. Dynamic simulations permitted to investigate the impacts on heel in different conditions of testing, optimizing the machine design. The complexity of real stresses on shoes during an ordinary walk and in other common situations (as going up and downstairs was considered for a proper dimensioning.

7. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design.

Science.gov (United States)

Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

2016-01-01

The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges.

8. Optimization and experimental validation of stiff porous phononic plates for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes

Science.gov (United States)

Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Kersemans, Mathias; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Van Paepegem, Wim

2018-01-01

Phononic crystal plates (PhPs) have promising application in manipulation of guided waves for design of low-loss acoustic devices and built-in acoustic metamaterial lenses in plate structures. The prominent feature of phononic crystals is the existence of frequency bandgaps over which the waves are stopped, or are resonated and guided within appropriate defects. Therefore, maximized bandgaps of PhPs are desirable to enhance their phononic controllability. Porous PhPs produced through perforation of a uniform background plate, in which the porous interfaces act as strong reflectors of wave energy, are relatively easy to produce. However, the research in optimization of porous PhPs and experimental validation of achieved topologies has been very limited and particularly focused on bandgaps of flexural (asymmetric) wave modes. In this paper, porous PhPs are optimized through an efficient multiobjective genetic algorithm for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric) and maximized stiffness. The Pareto front of optimization is analyzed and variation of bandgap efficiency with respect to stiffness is presented for various optimized topologies. Selected optimized topologies from the stiff and compliant regimes of Pareto front are manufactured by water-jetting an aluminum plate and their promising bandgap efficiency is experimentally observed. An optimized Pareto topology is also chosen and manufactured by laser cutting a Plexiglas (PMMA) plate, and its performance in self-collimation and focusing of guided waves is verified as compared to calculated dispersion properties.

9. Comparison the Results of Numerical Simulation And Experimental Results for Amirkabir Plasma Focus Facility

Science.gov (United States)

Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R.; Niknam Sharak, M.

2014-06-01

In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

10. Comparison the results of numerical simulation and experimental results for Amirkabir plasma focus facility

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R; Sharak, M Niknam

2014-01-01

In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

11. PDX experimental results in FY82

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

1983-08-01

This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include β-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report

12. Experimental results on evaporation waves

Science.gov (United States)

Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

2010-11-01

A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

13. Optimizing the Diffusion Welding Process for Alloy 800H: Thermodynamic, Diffusion Modeling, and Experimental Work

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mizia, R.E.; Clark, D.E.; Glazoff, M.V.; Lister, Tedd E.; Trowbridge, T.L.

2011-01-01

A research effort was made to evaluate the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools, Thermo-Calc(copyright) and Dictra(copyright), in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. This would achieve a substantial reduction in the overall number of experiments required to achieve optimal welding and post-weld heat treatment conditions. This problem is important because diffusion welded components of Alloy 800H are being evaluated for use in assembling compact, micro-channel heat exchangers that are being proposed in the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor by the US Department of Energy. The modeling was done in close contact with experimental work. The latter included using the Gleeble 3500 System(reg sign) for welding simulation, mechanical property measurement, and light optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using a 15 μm Ni foil as a joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved, and model refinements to account for the complexity of actual alloy materials are suggested.

14. Master-Slave synchronization of robot manipulators: experimental results

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bondhus, A.K.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

2005-01-01

This paper presents experimental results for master-slave synchronization of two robot manipulators using a recently developed observer-controller scheme. The paper aims to investigate the value and the limitations of the theory. In particular, the theoretical result of uniform ultimate boundedness

15. A Novel Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Global Optimization.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Chun-Feng; Liu, Kui

2016-01-01

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a recently developed optimization method, which has attracted interest of researchers in various areas due to its simplicity and effectiveness, and many variants have been proposed. In this paper, a novel Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is presented, in which the information of the best neighbor of each particle and the best particle of the entire population in the current iteration is considered. Meanwhile, to avoid premature, an abandoned mechanism is used. Furthermore, for improving the global convergence speed of our algorithm, a chaotic search is adopted in the best solution of the current iteration. To verify the performance of our algorithm, standard test functions have been employed. The experimental results show that the algorithm is much more robust and efficient than some existing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithms.

16. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

KAUST Repository

Amin, Talha

2013-11-25

Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

17. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

KAUST Repository

Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

2013-01-01

Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

18. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

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Julius Beneoluchi Odili

2016-02-01

Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

19. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using silver ion doped titanium dioxide by combination of experimental design and response surface approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Sahoo, C; Gupta, A K

2012-05-15

Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MYB) was studied using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. Catalytic dose, initial concentration of dye and pH of the reaction mixture were found to influence the degradation process most. The degradation was found to be effective in the range catalytic dose (0.5-1.5g/L), initial dye concentration (25-100ppm) and pH of reaction mixture (5-9). Using the three factors three levels Box-Behnken design of experiment technique 15 sets of experiments were designed considering the effective ranges of the influential parameters. The results of the experiments were fitted to two quadratic polynomial models developed using response surface methodology (RSM), representing functional relationship between the decolorization and mineralization of MYB and the experimental parameters. Design Expert software version 8.0.6.1 was used to optimize the effects of the experimental parameters on the responses. The optimum values of the parameters were dose of Ag(+) doped TiO(2) 0.99g/L, initial concentration of MYB 57.68ppm and pH of reaction mixture 7.76. Under the optimal condition the predicted decolorization and mineralization rate of MYB were 95.97% and 80.33%, respectively. Regression analysis with R(2) values >0.99 showed goodness of fit of the experimental results with predicted values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

20. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

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Hrubý J.

2013-04-01

Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

1. Experimental Research on Optimizing Inlet Airflow of Wet Cooling Towers under Crosswind Conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, You Liang; Shi, Yong Feng; Hao, Jian Gang; Chang, Hao; Sun, Feng Zhong

2018-01-01

A new approach of installing air deflectors around tower inlet circumferentially was proposed to optimize the inlet airflow and reduce the adverse effect of crosswinds on the thermal performance of natural draft wet cooling towers (NDWCT). And inlet airflow uniformity coefficient was defined to analyze the uniformity of circumferential inlet airflow quantitatively. Then the effect of air deflectors on the NDWCT performance was investigated experimentally. By contrast between inlet air flow rate and cooling efficiency, it has been found that crosswinds not only decrease the inlet air flow rate, but also reduce the uniformity of inlet airflow, which reduce NDWCT performance jointly. After installing air deflectors, the inlet air flow rate and uniformity coefficient increase, the uniformity of heat and mass transfer increases correspondingly, which improve the cooling performance. In addition, analysis on Lewis factor demonstrates that the inlet airflow optimization has more enhancement of heat transfer than mass transfer, but leads to more water evaporation loss.

2. Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mahmood S

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Syed Mahmood, Muhammad Taher, Uttam Kumar Mandal Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia Abstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a ­homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08. They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 µg/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser

3. Electrodialytic desalination of brackish water: determination of optimal experimental parameters using full factorial design

Science.gov (United States)

Gmar, Soumaya; Helali, Nawel; Boubakri, Ali; Sayadi, Ilhem Ben Salah; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben

2017-12-01

The aim of this work is to study the desalination of brackish water by electrodialysis (ED). A two level-three factor (23) full factorial design methodology was used to investigate the influence of different physicochemical parameters on the demineralization rate (DR) and the specific power consumption (SPC). Statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on ED performance and studies all interactions between the considered parameters. Three significant factors were used including applied potential, salt concentration and flow rate. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that applied potential and salt concentration are the main effect for DR as well as for SPC. The effect of interaction between applied potential and salt concentration was observed for SPC. A maximum value of 82.24% was obtained for DR under optimum conditions and the best value of SPC obtained was 5.64 Wh L-1. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the DR and the SPC profiles with satisfactory results. The process was applied for the treatment of real brackish water using the optimal parameters.

4. Toluene removal by oxidation reaction in spray wet scrubber: experimental, modeling and optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roumporn Nikom

2006-11-01

Full Text Available Toluene, an important volatile organic compound (VOC, is used in many kinds of industries, such as painting, printing, coating, and petrochemical industries. The emission of toluene causes serious air pollution, odor problem, flammability problem and affects human health. This paper proposes the removal of toluene from waste air using a spray wet scrubber combining the absorption and oxidation reaction. Aqueous sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution was used as the scrubbing liquid in the system. NaOCl, the strongest oxidative agent, presents an effective toluene removal. As the scrubbed toluene is reacted, recirculation of the scrubbing liquid could be operated with a constant removal efficiency throughout the operting time. The investigated variables affecting the removal efficiency were air flow rate, inlet toluene concentration, NaOCl concentration, scrubbing liquid flow rate and size of spray nozzle. Influence of the scrubbing parameters was experimentally studied to develop a mathematical model of the toluene removal efficiency. The removal model reveals that the increase of scrubbing liquid flow rate, toluene concentration, and NaOCl concentration together with the decrease of air flow rate and size of spray nozzle can increase the toluene removal efficiency. Optimization problem with an objective function and constraints was set to provide the maximum toluene removal efficiency and solved by Matlab optimization toolbox. The optimization constraints were formed from the mathematical model and process limitation. The solution of the optimization was an air flow rate of 100 m3/h, toluene concentration of 1500 ppm, NaOCl concentration of 0.02 mol/l, NaOCl solution feed rate of 0.8 m3/h, and spray nozzle size of 0.5 mm. Solution of the optimization gave the highest toluene removal efficiency of 91.7%.

5. Development and first experimental results of the KERENA Passive Outflow Reducer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dumond, Julien; Maisberger, Fabian [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Class, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

2012-11-01

component, the parallel disposition was adopted (section 1.3). To validate the principle of the POR and optimize the geometry, experiments are carried out at AREVA Technical Center in Karlstein (chapter 2). The experimental setup is depicted in section 2.1 and the first experimental results are described and discussed in section 2.2. (orig.)

6. Development and first experimental results of the KERENA Passive Outflow Reducer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dumond, Julien; Maisberger, Fabian; Class, Andreas

2012-01-01

component, the parallel disposition was adopted (section 1.3). To validate the principle of the POR and optimize the geometry, experiments are carried out at AREVA Technical Center in Karlstein (chapter 2). The experimental setup is depicted in section 2.1 and the first experimental results are described and discussed in section 2.2. (orig.)

7. A combined experimental and mathematical approach for molecular-based optimization of irinotecan circadian delivery.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Annabelle Ballesta

2011-09-01

Full Text Available Circadian timing largely modifies efficacy and toxicity of many anticancer drugs. Recent findings suggest that optimal circadian delivery patterns depend on the patient genetic background. We present here a combined experimental and mathematical approach for the design of chronomodulated administration schedules tailored to the patient molecular profile. As a proof of concept we optimized exposure of Caco-2 colon cancer cells to irinotecan (CPT11, a cytotoxic drug approved for the treatment of colorectal cancer. CPT11 was bioactivated into SN38 and its efflux was mediated by ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells. After cell synchronization with a serum shock defining Circadian Time (CT 0, circadian rhythms with a period of 26 h 50 (SD 63 min were observed in the mRNA expression of clock genes REV-ERBα, PER2, BMAL1, the drug target topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, the activation enzyme carboxylesterase 2 (CES2, the deactivation enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1, and efflux transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2. DNA-bound TOP1 protein amount in presence of CPT11, a marker of the drug PD, also displayed circadian variations. A mathematical model of CPT11 molecular pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD was designed and fitted to experimental data. It predicted that CPT11 bioactivation was the main determinant of CPT11 PD circadian rhythm. We then adopted the therapeutics strategy of maximizing efficacy in non-synchronized cells, considered as cancer cells, under a constraint of maximum toxicity in synchronized cells, representing healthy ones. We considered exposure schemes in the form of an initial concentration of CPT11 given at a particular CT, over a duration ranging from 1 to 27 h. For any dose of CPT11, optimal exposure durations varied from 3h40 to 7h10. Optimal schemes started between CT2h10 and CT2h30, a time interval corresponding to 1h30 to 1h50 before the nadir of CPT11 bioactivation rhythm in

8. Development and Experimental Validation of a TRNSYS Dynamic Tool for Design and Energy Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Félix Ruiz-Calvo

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Ground source heat pump (GSHP systems stand for an efficient technology for renewable heating and cooling in buildings. To optimize not only the design but also the operation of the system, a complete dynamic model becomes a highly useful tool, since it allows testing any design modifications and different optimization strategies without actually implementing them at the experimental facility. Usually, this type of systems presents strong dynamic operating conditions. Therefore, the model should be able to predict not only the steady-state behavior of the system but also the short-term response. This paper presents a complete GSHP system model based on an experimental facility, located at Universitat Politècnica de València. The installation was constructed in the framework of a European collaborative project with title GeoCool. The model, developed in TRNSYS, has been validated against experimental data, and it accurately predicts both the short- and long-term behavior of the system.

9. A case study on robust optimal experimental design for model calibration of ω-Transaminase

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

the experimental space. However, it is expected that more informative experiments can be designed to increase the confidence of the parameter estimates. Therefore, we apply Optimal Experimental Design (OED) to the calibrated model of Shin and Kim (1998). The total number of samples was retained to allow fair......” parameter values are not known before finishing the model calibration. However, it is important that the chosen parameter values are close to the real parameter values, otherwise the OED can possibly yield non-informative experiments. To counter this problem, one can use robust OED. The idea of robust OED......Proper calibration of models describing enzyme kinetics can be quite challenging. This is especially the case for more complex models like transaminase models (Shin and Kim, 1998). The latter fitted model parameters, but the confidence on the parameter estimation was not derived. Hence...

10. Tensile strength changeability of multilayered composites, fabricated through optimized VARTM Technology, an experimental

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nasir, M.A.; Khan, Z.M.

2016-01-01

Life span estimation up to tensile fracture of different fiber reinforced composites, Kevlar Fiber Reinforced Polymer (KFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) along with the strain rate effects on dynamic properties is mainly viewed on experimental basis in this paper. Lab-scale Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) technique is used to fabricate flawless dog bone specimens considering ASTM standard D638-03 and by using LY5052 resin and HY 5052 hardener. In this research, it is tried to maintain 65% of fiber participation in whole specimen composition matrix. Detail design description of VARTM is also discussed and optimized up to maximum scale to acquire compact, uniformly strengthen and porosity banned standard specimens. A conventional stress-strain curve is established to compare the tensile validity of above mentioned competitive composites. Crack Opening Displacement (COD) of research materials after equal intervals of time is observed; results depict the shear stability and reinforcement perfection of these materials. The crack penetration behavior is examined transversely and longitudinally in this research. (author)

11. Experimental optimization of catalytic process in-situ for heavy oil and bitumen upgrading

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shah, A.; Fishwick, R.P.; Leeke, G.A.; Wood, J. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.P.; Greaves, M. [Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

Peak crude oil production is expected to occur in the second decade of this century, followed by a phase of permanent decline in conventional crude oil production. However, very large resources of heavy oil and bitumen exist throughout the world, most notably in Canada and Venezuela. The high viscosity and density of these non-conventional crude oils require more energy intensive operations for production and upgrading, and also for transportation. As such, they are more costly to extract. This paper described some of the technological innovations that are being considered to extract heavier oil supplies with reduced environmental impact. The toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) process and its catalytic added-on (CAPRI) process combine in-situ combustion with catalytic upgrading using an annular catalyst packed around a horizontal producer well. Results of an experimental study concerning optimization of catalyst type and operating conditions showed that CAPRI can effect further upgrading of partially upgraded THAI oil, with upgrading levels of viscosity and API gravity dependent upon temperature and flow rate. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

12. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris Using Orthogonal Experimental Design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hsiu-Ju Wang

2014-12-01

Full Text Available This study reports on the optimization of the extraction conditions of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris by using ultrasonication. For this purpose, the orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate the effects of factors on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE. Four factors: extraction time (min, ethanol concentration (%, extraction temperature (°C and extraction frequency (kHz, were studied. The results showed that the highest cordycepin yield of 7.04 mg/g (86.98% ± 0.23% was obtained with an extraction time of 60 min, ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction temperature of 65 °C and extraction frequency of 56 kHz. It was found that the cordycepin extraction yield increased with the effect of ultrasonication during the extraction process. Therefore, UAE can be used as an alternative to conventional immersion extraction with respect to the recovery of cordycepin from C. militaris, with the advantages of shorter extraction time and reduced solvent consumption.

13. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Colin M. Beal

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

14. A Novel Consensus-Based Particle Swarm Optimization-Assisted Trust-Tech Methodology for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Yong-Feng; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

2017-09-01

A novel three-stage methodology, termed the "consensus-based particle swarm optimization (PSO)-assisted Trust-Tech methodology," to find global optimal solutions for nonlinear optimization problems is presented. It is composed of Trust-Tech methods, consensus-based PSO, and local optimization methods that are integrated to compute a set of high-quality local optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The proposed methodology compares very favorably with several recently developed PSO algorithms based on a set of small-dimension benchmark optimization problems and 20 large-dimension test functions from the CEC 2010 competition. The analytical basis for the proposed methodology is also provided. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can rapidly obtain high-quality optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The scalability of the proposed methodology is promising.

15. Information entropies in antikaon-nucleon scattering and optimal state analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.; Petrascu, C.

1998-01-01

It is known that Jaynes interpreted the entropy as the expected self-information of a class of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, while the probability is considered to be the rational degree of belief we assign to events based on available experimental evidence. The axiomatic derivation of Jaynes principle of maximum entropy as well as of the Kullback principle of minimum cross-entropy have been reported. Moreover, the optimal states in the Hilbert space of the scattering amplitude, which are analogous to the coherent states from the Hilbert space of the wave functions, were introduced and developed. The possibility that each optimal state possesses a specific minimum entropic uncertainty relation similar to that of the coherent states was recently conjectured. In fact, the (angle and angular momenta) information entropies, as well as the entropic angle-angular momentum uncertainty relations, in the hadron-hadron scattering, are introduced. The experimental information entropies for the pion-nucleon scattering are calculated by using the available phase shift analyses. These results are compared with the information entropies of the optimal states. Then, the optimal state dominance in the pion-nucleon scattering is systematically observed for all P LAB = 0.02 - 10 GeV/c. Also, it is shown that the angle-angular momentum entropic uncertainty relations are satisfied with high accuracy by all the experimental information entropies. In this paper the (angle and angular momentum) information entropies of hadron-hadron scattering are experimentally investigated by using the antikaon-nucleon phase shift analysis. Then, it is shown that the experimental entropies are in agreement with the informational entropies of optimal states. The results obtained in this paper can be explained not only by the presence of an optimal background which accompanied the production of the elementary resonances but also by the presence of the optimal resonances. On the other hand

16. Optimization of the representativeness and transposition approach, for the neutronic design of experimental programs in critical mock-up

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dos-Santos, N.

2013-01-01

The work performed during this thesis focused on uncertainty propagation (nuclear data, technological uncertainties, calculation biases,...) on integral parameters, and the development of a novel approach enabling to reduce this uncertainty a priori directly from the design phase of a new experimental program. This approach is based on a multi-parameter multi-criteria extension of representativeness and transposition theories. The first part of this PhD work covers an optimization study of sensitivity and uncertainty calculation schemes to different modeling scales (cell, assembly and whole core) for LWRs and FBRs. A degraded scheme, based on standard and generalized perturbation theories, has been validated for the calculation of uncertainty propagation to various integral quantities of interest. It demonstrated the good a posteriori representativeness of the EPICURE experiment for the validation of mixed UOX-MOX loadings, as the importance of some nuclear data in the power tilt phenomenon in large LWR cores. The second part of this work was devoted to methods and tools development for the optimized design of experimental programs in ZPRs. Those methods are based on multi-parameters representativeness using simultaneously various quantities of interest. Finally, an original study has been conducted on the rigorous estimation of correlations between experimental programs in the transposition process. The coupling of experimental correlations and multi-parametric representativeness approach enables to efficiently design new programs, able to answer additional qualification requirements on calculation tools. (author) [fr

17. Performance optimization and validation of ADM1 simulations under anaerobic thermophilic conditions

KAUST Repository

Atallah, Nabil M.

2014-12-01

In this study, two experimental sets of data each involving two thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste, were simulated using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). A sensitivity analysis was conducted, using both data sets of one digester, for parameter optimization based on five measured performance indicators: methane generation, pH, acetate, total COD, ammonia, and an equally weighted combination of the five indicators. The simulation results revealed that while optimization with respect to methane alone, a commonly adopted approach, succeeded in simulating methane experimental results, it predicted other intermediary outputs less accurately. On the other hand, the multi-objective optimization has the advantage of providing better results than methane optimization despite not capturing the intermediary output. The results from the parameter optimization were validated upon their independent application on the data sets of the second digester.

18. Performance optimization and validation of ADM1 simulations under anaerobic thermophilic conditions

KAUST Repository

Atallah, Nabil M.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; Saikaly, Pascal; Abou Najm, Majdi R.

2014-01-01

In this study, two experimental sets of data each involving two thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste, were simulated using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). A sensitivity analysis was conducted, using both data sets of one digester, for parameter optimization based on five measured performance indicators: methane generation, pH, acetate, total COD, ammonia, and an equally weighted combination of the five indicators. The simulation results revealed that while optimization with respect to methane alone, a commonly adopted approach, succeeded in simulating methane experimental results, it predicted other intermediary outputs less accurately. On the other hand, the multi-objective optimization has the advantage of providing better results than methane optimization despite not capturing the intermediary output. The results from the parameter optimization were validated upon their independent application on the data sets of the second digester.

19. Optimization of filtration for the reduction of lung dose from Rn decay products: Part II--Experimental

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Curling, C.A.; Rudnick, S.N.; Harrington, D.P.; Moeller, D.W.

1990-01-01

Research was performed to determine the validity of a model developed to theoretically predict the optimal characteristics of a recirculating filter system for minimizing the lung dose to a person breathing airborne Rn progeny. Four designs, each with different filter thicknesses, solidities, and fiber diameters, were tested to evaluate the accuracy of the model over a range of parameters. Increasing thicknesses were then tested for the most effective filter design to provide a more definitive comparison of experimental data and model predictions for this key parameter. The experimental data supported the conclusion that the most effective design was a thin filter of low solidity composed of coarse fibers. Although the maximum reduction in the dose-equivalent rate observed in these experiments was 50%, this was largely due to constraints on the experimental arrangements. With properly constructed filter units, much better removal efficiencies can undoubtedly be achieved

20. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

1993-01-01

Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

1. Feedback control of a cupola - concepts and experimental results

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tenn. Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, P. [US Dept. of Energy Albany Research Center, Albany, OR (United States)

1998-10-01

In this paper we present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. These results are summarized. Then we describe the experimental results obtained with the U.S. Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s research cupola. First, experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multi-loop controller. The resulting controller pairs meltrate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with percent coke. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute meltrate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and meltrate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experimental results validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola. Future research directions are discussed, including the concept of an integrated, intelligent industrial process controller, or I{sup 3}PC.

2. Optimal economic and environment operation of micro-grid power systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elsied, Moataz; Oukaour, Amrane; Gualous, Hamid; Lo Brutto, Ottavio A.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • Real-time energy management system for Micro-Grid power systems is introduced. • The management system considered cost objective function and emission constraints. • The optimization problem is solved using Binary Particle Swarm Algorithm. • Advanced real-time interface libraries are used to run the optimization code. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced real-time energy management system is proposed in order to optimize micro-grid performance in a real-time operation. The proposed strategy of the management system capitalizes on the power of binary particle swarm optimization algorithm to minimize the energy cost and carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions while maximizing the power of the available renewable energy resources. Advanced real-time interface libraries are used to run the optimization code. The simulation results are considered for three different scenarios considering the complexity of the proposed problem. The proposed management system along with its control system is experimentally tested to validate the simulation results obtained from the optimization algorithm. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed management system for micro-grids operation.

3. Optimization of IGCT for pulsed power

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen Fanglin; Tang Longgu; Chen Yongmin; Pan Xuejun

2014-01-01

In order to develop high-performance IGCT devices applied in pulse power, cathode finger layout is optimized, the finger structure is modified, minority carrier lifetime is properly controlled and gate triggering characteristics is improved. As a result of these measures, the IGCT turn -on di/dt is improved, current handling capability is enhanced and switching response speed is increased. The feasibility and validity of the optimization study on the IGCT is verified by simulation and experimental results. (authors)

4. Performance optimization and validation of ADM1 simulations under anaerobic thermophilic conditions.

Science.gov (United States)

Atallah, Nabil M; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Ghanimeh, Sophia; Saikaly, Pascal; Abou-Najm, Majdi

2014-12-01

In this study, two experimental sets of data each involving two thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste, were simulated using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). A sensitivity analysis was conducted, using both data sets of one digester, for parameter optimization based on five measured performance indicators: methane generation, pH, acetate, total COD, ammonia, and an equally weighted combination of the five indicators. The simulation results revealed that while optimization with respect to methane alone, a commonly adopted approach, succeeded in simulating methane experimental results, it predicted other intermediary outputs less accurately. On the other hand, the multi-objective optimization has the advantage of providing better results than methane optimization despite not capturing the intermediary output. The results from the parameter optimization were validated upon their independent application on the data sets of the second digester. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

1979-08-01

This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

6. Optimal Bayesian experimental design for priors of compact support with application to shock-tube experiments for combustion kinetics

KAUST Repository

Bisetti, Fabrizio

2016-01-12

The analysis of reactive systems in combustion science and technology relies on detailed models comprising many chemical reactions that describe the conversion of fuel and oxidizer into products and the formation of pollutants. Shock-tube experiments are a convenient setting for measuring the rate parameters of individual reactions. The temperature, pressure, and concentration of reactants are chosen to maximize the sensitivity of the measured quantities to the rate parameter of the target reaction. In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target

7. Measurement configuration optimization for dynamic metrology using Stokes polarimetry

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Gu, Honggang; Chen, Xiuguo; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Shiyuan

2018-05-01

As dynamic loading experiments such as a shock compression test are usually characterized by short duration, unrepeatability and high costs, high temporal resolution and precise accuracy of the measurements is required. Due to high temporal resolution up to a ten-nanosecond-scale, a Stokes polarimeter with six parallel channels has been developed to capture such instantaneous changes in optical properties in this paper. Since the measurement accuracy heavily depends on the configuration of the probing beam incident angle and the polarizer azimuth angle, it is important to select an optimal combination from the numerous options. In this paper, a systematic error propagation-based measurement configuration optimization method corresponding to the Stokes polarimeter was proposed. The maximal Frobenius norm of the combinatorial matrix of the configuration error propagating matrix and the intrinsic error propagating matrix is introduced to assess the measurement accuracy. The optimal configuration for thickness measurement of a SiO2 thin film deposited on a Si substrate has been achieved by minimizing the merit function. Simulation and experimental results show a good agreement between the optimal measurement configuration achieved experimentally using the polarimeter and the theoretical prediction. In particular, the experimental result shows that the relative error in the thickness measurement can be reduced from 6% to 1% by using the optimal polarizer azimuth angle when the incident angle is 45°. Furthermore, the optimal configuration for the dynamic metrology of a nickel foil under quasi-dynamic loading is investigated using the proposed optimization method.

8. Optimization of Deep Oxidative Desulfurization Process Using Ionic Liquid and Potassium Monopersulfate

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yinke Zhang

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was selected to optimize a desulfurization process with metal based ionic liquids ([Bmim]Cl/CoCl2 and potassium monopersulfate (PMS together to remove benzothiophene (BT from octane (simulating oil. The four experimental conditions of PMS dosage, [Bmim]Cl/CoCl2 dosage, temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The results showed that the quadratic relationship was built up between BT removal and four experimental variables with 0.9898 fitting coefficient. The optimal conditions were 1.6 g (20 wt% PMS solution, 3.2 g [Bmim]Cl/CoCl2, 46°C, and 23 min, which were obtained based on RSM and experimental results. Under the optimal condition, predicted sulfur removal rate and experimental sulfur removal rate were 96.7% and 95.4%, respectively. The sequence of four experimental conditions on desulfurization followed the order temperature > time > [Bmim]Cl/CoCl2 dosage > PMS solution dosage.

9. Analysis and presentation of experimental results with examples, problems and programs

CERN Document Server

Christodoulides, Costas

2017-01-01

This book is intended as a guide to the analysis and presentation of experimental results. It develops various techniques for the numerical processing of experimental data, using basic statistical methods and the theory of errors. After presenting basic theoretical concepts, the book describes the methods by which the results can be presented, both numerically and graphically. The book is divided into three parts, of roughly equal length, addressing the theory, the analysis of data, and the presentation of results. Examples are given and problems are solved using the Excel, Origin, Python and R software packages. In addition, programs in all four languages are made available to readers, allowing them to use them in analyzing and presenting the results of their own experiments. Subjects are treated at a level appropriate for undergraduate students in the natural sciences, but this book should also appeal to anyone whose work involves dealing with experimental results.

10. Microstructure evolution during homogenization of Al–Mn–Fe–Si alloys: Modeling and experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Du, Q.; Poole, W.J.; Wells, M.A.; Parson, N.C.

2013-01-01

Microstructure evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of Al–Mn–Fe–Si, or AA3xxx, alloys has been investigated using a combination of modeling and experimental studies. The model is fully coupled to CALculation PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) software and has explicitly taken into account the two different length scales for diffusion encountered in modeling the homogenization process. The model is able to predict the evolution of all the important microstructural features during homogenization, including the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of dispersoids and alloying elements in solution, the dispersoid number density and the size distribution, and the type and fraction of intergranular constituent particles. Experiments were conducted using four direct chill (DC) cast AA3xxx alloys subjected to various homogenization treatments. The resulting microstructures were then characterized using a range of characterization techniques, including optical and electron microscopy, electron micro probe analysis, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, and electrical resistivity measurements. The model predictions have been compared with the experimental measurements to validate the model. Further, it has been demonstrated that the validated model is able to predict the effects of alloying elements (e.g. Si and Mn) on microstructure evolution. It is concluded that the model provides a time and cost effective tool in optimizing and designing industrial AA3xxx alloy chemistries and homogenization heat treatments

11. DoSSiER: Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results

CERN Document Server

Wenzel, Hans; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Pokorski, Witold; Carminati, Federico; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Ribon, Alberto; Folger, Gunter; Dotti, Andrea

2017-01-01

The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

12. Optimization and experimental realization of the quantum permutation algorithm

Science.gov (United States)

Yalçınkaya, I.; Gedik, Z.

2017-12-01

The quantum permutation algorithm provides computational speed-up over classical algorithms for determining the parity of a given cyclic permutation. For its n -qubit implementations, the number of required quantum gates scales quadratically with n due to the quantum Fourier transforms included. We show here for the n -qubit case that the algorithm can be simplified so that it requires only O (n ) quantum gates, which theoretically reduces the complexity of the implementation. To test our results experimentally, we utilize IBM's 5-qubit quantum processor to realize the algorithm by using the original and simplified recipes for the 2-qubit case. It turns out that the latter results in a significantly higher success probability which allows us to verify the algorithm more precisely than the previous experimental realizations. We also verify the algorithm for the first time for the 3-qubit case with a considerable success probability by taking the advantage of our simplified scheme.

13. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Rašković

2010-11-01

Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

14. Real-Time Signal Processing for Multiantenna Systems: Algorithms, Optimization, and Implementation on an Experimental Test-Bed

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Haustein Thomas

2006-01-01

Full Text Available A recently realized concept of a reconfigurable hardware test-bed suitable for real-time mobile communication with multiple antennas is presented in this paper. We discuss the reasons and prerequisites for real-time capable MIMO transmission systems which may allow channel adaptive transmission to increase link stability and data throughput. We describe a concept of an efficient implementation of MIMO signal processing using FPGAs and DSPs. We focus on some basic linear and nonlinear MIMO detection and precoding algorithms and their optimization for a DSP target, and a few principal steps for computational performance enhancement are outlined. An experimental verification of several real-time MIMO transmission schemes at high data rates in a typical office scenario is presented and results on the achieved BER and throughput performance are given. The different transmission schemes used either channel state information at both sides of the link or at one side only (transmitter or receiver. Spectral efficiencies of more than 20 bits/s/Hz and a throughput of more than 150 Mbps were shown with a single-carrier transmission. The experimental results clearly show the feasibility of real-time high data rate MIMO techniques with state-of-the-art hardware and that more sophisticated baseband signal processing will be an essential part of future communication systems. A discussion on implementation challenges towards future wireless communication systems supporting higher data rates (1 Gbps and beyond or high mobility concludes the paper.

15. Simulation and Optimization of SCR System for Direct-injection Diesel Engine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guanqiang Ruan

2014-11-01

Full Text Available The turbo diesel SCR system has been researched and analyzed in this paper. By using software of CATIA, three-dimensional physical model of SCR system has been established, and with software of AVL-FIRE, the boundary conditions have been set, simulated and optimized. In the process of SCR system optimizing, it mainly optimized the pray angle. Compare the effects of processing NO to obtain batter optimization results. At last the optimization results are compared by bench test, and the experimental results are quite consistent with simulation.

16. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Erik P. Vargo

2010-08-01

Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly aﬀect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the ﬁrst non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semideﬁnite programming (SDP relaxations. A modiﬁcation of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

17. Experimental study of the vapour-liquid equilibria of HI-I-2-H2O ternary mixtures, Part 2: Experimental results at high temperature and pressure

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Larousse, B.; Lovera, P.; Borgard, J.M.; Roehrich, G.; Mokrani, N.; Maillault, C.; Doizi, D.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Lorin, V.; Fauvet, P.; Carles, P.; Hartmann, J.M.

2009-01-01

In order to assess the choice of the sulphur-iodine thermochemical cycle for massive hydrogen production, a precise knowledge of the concentrations of the gaseous species (HI, I 2 , and H 2 O) in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid phase of the HI-I 2 -H 2 O ternary mixture is required, in a wide range of concentrations and for temperatures and pressures up to 300 degrees C and 50 bar. In the companion paper (Part 1) the experimental device was described, which enables the measurement of the total pressure and concentrations of the vapour phase (and thus the knowledge of the partial pressures of the different gaseous species) for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixture in the 20-140 degrees C range and up to 2 bar. This (Part 2) article describes the experimental device which enables similar measurements but now in the process domain. The results concerning concentrations in the vapour phase for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O initial mixture (with a global composition) in the 120-270 degrees C temperature range and up to 30 bar are presented. As previously, optical online diagnostics are used, based on recordings of infrared transmission spectra for HI and H 2 O and on UV/visible spectrometry for I 2 . The concentrations measured in the vapour phase are the first to describe the vapour composition under thermophysical conditions close to those of the distillation column. The experimental results are compared with a thermodynamic model and will help us to scale up and optimize the reactive distillation column we promote for the HI section of the sulphur-iodine cycle. (authors)

18. Numerical Simulation of a Tumor Growth Dynamics Model Using Particle Swarm Optimization.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Qing

Tumor cell growth models involve high-dimensional parameter spaces that require computationally tractable methods to solve. To address a proposed tumor growth dynamics mathematical model, an instance of the particle swarm optimization method was implemented to speed up the search process in the multi-dimensional parameter space to find optimal parameter values that fit experimental data from mice cancel cells. The fitness function, which measures the difference between calculated results and experimental data, was minimized in the numerical simulation process. The results and search efficiency of the particle swarm optimization method were compared to those from other evolutional methods such as genetic algorithms.

19. Recent advances in stellarator optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Gates, D. A.; Boozer, A. H.; Brown, T.; Breslau, J.; Curreli, D.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S. A.; Lore, J.; Mynick, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

2017-12-01

Computational optimization has revolutionized the field of stellarator design. To date, optimizations have focused primarily on optimization of neoclassical confinement and ideal MHD stability, although limited optimization of other parameters has also been performed. The purpose of this paper is to outline a select set of new concepts for stellarator optimization that, when taken as a group, present a significant step forward in the stellarator concept. One of the criticisms that has been leveled at existing methods of design is the complexity of the resultant field coils. Recently, a new coil optimization code—COILOPT++, which uses a spline instead of a Fourier representation of the coils,—was written and included in the STELLOPT suite of codes. The advantage of this method is that it allows the addition of real space constraints on the locations of the coils. The code has been tested by generating coil designs for optimized quasi-axisymmetric stellarator plasma configurations of different aspect ratios. As an initial exercise, a constraint that the windings be vertical was placed on large major radius half of the non-planar coils. Further constraints were also imposed that guaranteed that sector blanket modules could be removed from between the coils, enabling a sector maintenance scheme. Results of this exercise will be presented. New ideas on methods for the optimization of turbulent transport have garnered much attention since these methods have led to design concepts that are calculated to have reduced turbulent heat loss. We have explored possibilities for generating an experimental database to test whether the reduction in transport that is predicted is consistent with experimental observations. To this end, a series of equilibria that can be made in the now latent QUASAR experiment have been identified that will test the predicted transport scalings. Fast particle confinement studies aimed at developing a generalized optimization algorithm are also

20. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 13C separation by carbon monoxide cryogenic distillation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Hulin; Ju Yonglin; Li Liangjun; Xu Dagang

2009-01-01

A stable isotope 13 C separation column was set up by carbon monoxide (CO) cryogenic distillation. Diameter of the column is 45 mm, packing height is 17.5 m, of which enriching section is 15 m and stripping section is 2.5 m. Firstly, computer simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, tests were replaced by computer simulations in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions in the experimental setup. Comprehensive factors of column pressure, feeding velocity, reflux ratio, withdrawing velocity, and boiling power impacts on the products were studied. Then optimization design of the experimental device was achieved through computer simulations combined with uniform experimental design. The final results show that the optimal operation conditions in the built column are as followings: boiling power, 250 W; column pressure, 54 kPa; reflux ratio, 84. The conclusion is that the method of combination of computer simulation and experimental design could be applied to 13 C industrial design and could be popularized in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

1. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); Dong, B.; Zhang, K. [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); and others

2016-09-15

Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical

2. Optimal Design and Related Areas in Optimization and Statistics

CERN Document Server

Pronzato, Luc

2009-01-01

This edited volume, dedicated to Henry P. Wynn, reflects his broad range of research interests, focusing in particular on the applications of optimal design theory in optimization and statistics. It covers algorithms for constructing optimal experimental designs, general gradient-type algorithms for convex optimization, majorization and stochastic ordering, algebraic statistics, Bayesian networks and nonlinear regression. Written by leading specialists in the field, each chapter contains a survey of the existing literature along with substantial new material. This work will appeal to both the

3. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

2011-01-01

. System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

4. Optimizing laboratory animal stress paradigms: The H-H* experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

McCarty, Richard

2017-01-01

5. Optimization of primaquine diphosphate tablet formulation for controlled drug release using the mixture experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Duque, Marcelo Dutra; Kreidel, Rogério Nepomuceno; Taqueda, Maria Elena Santos; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga

2013-01-01

A tablet formulation based on hydrophilic matrix with a controlled drug release was developed, and the effect of polymer concentrations on the release of primaquine diphosphate was evaluated. To achieve this purpose, a 20-run, four-factor with multiple constraints on the proportions of the components was employed to obtain tablet compositions. Drug release was determined by an in vitro dissolution study in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.8. The polynomial fitted functions described the behavior of the mixture on simplex coordinate systems to study the effects of each factor (polymer) on tablet characteristics. Based on the response surface methodology, a tablet composition was optimized with the purpose of obtaining a primaquine diphosphate release closer to a zero order kinetic. This formulation released 85.22% of the drug for 8 h and its kinetic was studied regarding to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, (Adj-R(2) = 0.99295) which has confirmed that both diffusion and erosion were related to the mechanism of the drug release. The data from the optimized formulation were very close to the predictions from statistical analysis, demonstrating that mixture experimental design could be used to optimize primaquine diphosphate dissolution from hidroxypropylmethyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol matrix tablets.

6. Experimental results on photon-photon interactions at Adone

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Baldini Celio, R.; Capon, G.; Fabbro, R. del; Santis, P. de; Grilli, M.; Iarocci, E.; Mencuccini, C.; Murtas, G.P.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Bacci, C.; Zorzi, C. de; Penso, G.; Stella, B.

1979-01-01

Experimental results for the reactions e + e - →e + e - +X are presented for X=e + e - ,μ + μ - ,π + π - ,eta'. A tagging technique has been used to detect final electrons and positrons. A QED test is performed and an upper limit of 20 keV is derived for the partial width GAMMA(eta'→γγ). (Auth.)

7. Numerical optimization of circulation control airfoils

Science.gov (United States)

Tai, T. C.; Kidwell, G. H., Jr.; Vanderplaats, G. N.

1981-01-01

A numerical procedure for optimizing circulation control airfoils, which consists of the coupling of an optimization scheme with a viscous potential flow analysis for blowing jet, is presented. The desired airfoil is defined by a combination of three baseline shapes (cambered ellipse, and cambered ellipse with drooped and spiralled trailing edges). The coefficients of these shapes are used as design variables in the optimization process. Under the constraints of lift augmentation and lift-to-drag ratios, the optimal airfoils are found to lie between those of cambered ellipse and the drooped trailing edge, towards the latter as the angle of attack increases. Results agree qualitatively with available experimental data.

8. Optimization of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) using a D-optimal design and the desirability function

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Holm, R.; Jensen, I.H.M.; Sonnergaard, Jørn

2006-01-01

with the hard gelatin capsule. Three formulation variables, PEG200, a surfactant mixture, and an oil mixture, were included in the experimental design. The results of the mathematical analysis of the data demonstrated significant interactions among the formulation variables, and the desirability function......D-optimal design and the desirability function were applied to optimize a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). The optimized key parameters were the following: 1) particle size of the dispersed emulsion, 2) solubility of the drug in the vehicle, and 3) the vehicle compatibility...

9. Design optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers using single objective and multiobjective particle swarm optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elsays, Mostafa A.; Naguib Aly, M; Badawi, Alya A.

2010-01-01

The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers and determine the optimal feasible solutions so as to eliminate trial-and-error during the design process. The design formulation takes into account the area and the total annual cost of heat exchangers as two objective functions together with operating as well as geometrical constraints. The Nonlinear Constrained Single Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCSOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the optimal feasible solution for each of the nonlinear constrained objective functions alone, respectively. Then, a novel Nonlinear Constrained Mult-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (NCMOPSO) algorithm is used to minimize and find the Pareto optimal solutions for both of the nonlinear constrained objective functions together. The experimental results show that the two algorithms are very efficient, fast and can find the accurate optimal feasible solutions of the shell and tube heat exchangers design optimization problem. (orig.)

10. Research on optimization design of conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tool based on response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

He Bin

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In order to optimize the layout of the conformal cooling channels in hot stamping tools, a response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization technique are proposed. By means of an Optimal Latin Hypercube experimental design method, a design matrix with 17 factors and 50 levels is generated. Three kinds of design variables, the radius Rad of the cooling channel, the distance H from the channel center to tool work surface and the ratio rat of each channel center, are optimized to determine the layout of cooling channels. The average temperature and temperature deviation of work surface are used to evaluate the cooling performance of hot stamping tools. On the basis of the experimental design results, quadratic response surface models are established to describe the relationship between the design variables and the evaluation objectives. The error analysis is performed to ensure the accuracy of response surface models. Then the layout of the conformal cooling channels is optimized in accordance with a multi-objective optimization method to find the Pareto optimal frontier which consists of some optimal combinations of design variables that can lead to an acceptable cooling performance.

11. Optimization of the Extraction of the Volatile Fraction from Honey Samples by SPME-GC-MS, Experimental Design, and Multivariate Target Functions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elisa Robotti

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Head space (HS solid phase microextraction (SPME followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS is the most widespread technique to study the volatile profile of honey samples. In this paper, the experimental SPME conditions were optimized by a multivariate strategy. Both sensitivity and repeatability were optimized by experimental design techniques considering three factors: extraction temperature (from 50°C to 70°C, time of exposition of the fiber (from 20 min to 60 min, and amount of salt added (from 0 to 27.50%. Each experiment was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA that allows to take into consideration all the analytes at the same time, preserving the information about their different characteristics. Optimal extraction conditions were identified independently for signal intensity (extraction temperature: 70°C; extraction time: 60 min; salt percentage: 27.50% w/w and repeatability (extraction temperature: 50°C; extraction time: 60 min; salt percentage: 27.50% w/w and a final global compromise (extraction temperature: 70°C; extraction time: 60 min; salt percentage: 27.50% w/w was also reached. Considerations about the choice of the best internal standards were also drawn. The whole optimized procedure was than applied to the analysis of a multiflower honey sample and more than 100 compounds were identified.

12. Optimal Experimental Design of Borehole Locations for Bayesian Inference of Past Ice Sheet Surface Temperatures

Science.gov (United States)

Davis, A. D.; Huan, X.; Heimbach, P.; Marzouk, Y.

2017-12-01

Borehole data are essential for calibrating ice sheet models. However, field expeditions for acquiring borehole data are often time-consuming, expensive, and dangerous. It is thus essential to plan the best sampling locations that maximize the value of data while minimizing costs and risks. We present an uncertainty quantification (UQ) workflow based on rigorous probability framework to achieve these objectives. First, we employ an optimal experimental design (OED) procedure to compute borehole locations that yield the highest expected information gain. We take into account practical considerations of location accessibility (e.g., proximity to research sites, terrain, and ice velocity may affect feasibility of drilling) and robustness (e.g., real-time constraints such as weather may force researchers to drill at sub-optimal locations near those originally planned), by incorporating a penalty reflecting accessibility as well as sensitivity to deviations from the optimal locations. Next, we extract vertical temperature profiles from these boreholes and formulate a Bayesian inverse problem to reconstruct past surface temperatures. Using a model of temperature advection/diffusion, the top boundary condition (corresponding to surface temperatures) is calibrated via efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The overall procedure can then be iterated to choose new optimal borehole locations for the next expeditions.Through this work, we demonstrate powerful UQ methods for designing experiments, calibrating models, making predictions, and assessing sensitivity--all performed under an uncertain environment. We develop a theoretical framework as well as practical software within an intuitive workflow, and illustrate their usefulness for combining data and models for environmental and climate research.

13. Computerized method for rapid optimization of immunoassays

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rousseau, F.; Forest, J.C.

1990-01-01

The authors have developed an one step quantitative method for radioimmunoassay optimization. The method is rapid and necessitates only to perform a series of saturation curves with different titres of the antiserum. After calculating the saturation point at several antiserum titres using the Scatchard plot, the authors have produced a table that predicts the main characteristics of the standard curve (Bo/T, Bo and T) that will prevail for any combination of antiserum titre and percentage of sites saturation. The authors have developed a microcomputer program able to interpolate all the data needed to produce such a table from the results of the saturation curves. This computer program permits also to predict the sensitivity of the assay at any experimental conditions if the antibody does not discriminate between the labeled and the non labeled antigen. The authors have tested the accuracy of this optimization table with two in house RIA systems: 17-β-estradiol, and hLH. The results obtained experimentally, including sensitivity determinations, were concordant with those predicted from the optimization table. This method accerelates and improves greatly the process of optimization of radioimmunoassays [fr

14. Germinal Center Optimization Applied to Neural Inverse Optimal Control for an All-Terrain Tracked Robot

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Carlos Villaseñor

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Nowadays, there are several meta-heuristics algorithms which offer solutions for multi-variate optimization problems. These algorithms use a population of candidate solutions which explore the search space, where the leadership plays a big role in the exploration-exploitation equilibrium. In this work, we propose to use a Germinal Center Optimization algorithm (GCO which implements temporal leadership through modeling a non-uniform competitive-based distribution for particle selection. GCO is used to find an optimal set of parameters for a neural inverse optimal control applied to all-terrain tracked robot. In the Neural Inverse Optimal Control (NIOC scheme, a neural identifier, based on Recurrent High Orden Neural Network (RHONN trained with an extended kalman filter algorithm, is used to obtain a model of the system, then, a control law is design using such model with the inverse optimal control approach. The RHONN identifier is developed without knowledge of the plant model or its parameters, on the other hand, the inverse optimal control is designed for tracking velocity references. Applicability of the proposed scheme is illustrated using simulations results as well as real-time experimental results with an all-terrain tracked robot.

15. An experimental design approach for optimization of spectrophotometric method for estimation of cefixime trihydrate using ninhydrin as derivatizing reagent in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yogita B. Wani

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to use experimental design to screen and optimize experimental variables for developing a spectrophotometric method for determining cefixime trihydrate content using ninhydrin as a derivatizing reagent. The method is based on the reaction of the amino group of cefixime with ninhydrin in an alkaline medium to form a yellow-colored derivative (λmax 436 nm. A two-level full factorial design was utilized to screen the effect of ninhydrin reagent concentration (X1, volume of ninhydrin reagent (X2, heating temperature (X3 and heating time (X4 on the formation of the cefixime–ninhydrin complex Y (absorbance. One way ANOVA and Pareto ranking analyses have shown that the ninhydrin reagent concentration (X1, volume of ninhydrin reagent (X2 and heating temperature (X3 were statistically significant factors (P < 0.05 affecting the formation of the cefixime–ninhydrin complex Y (absorbance. A Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was then utilized to evaluate the main, interaction and quadratic effects of these three factors on the selected response. With the help of a response surface plot and contour plot the optimum values of the selected factors were determined and used for further experiments. These values were a ninhydrin reagent concentration (X1 of 0.2% w/v, volume of ninhydrin reagent (X2 of 1 mL and heating temperature (X3 of 80 °C. The proposed method was validated according to the ICH Q2 (R1 method validation guidelines. The results of the present study have clearly shown that an experimental design concept may be effectively applied to the optimization of a spectrophotometric method for estimating the cefixime trihydrate content in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation with the least number of experimental runs possible.

16. First experimental results on CMOS Integrated Nickel Electroplated Resonators

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Hansen, Ole

2004-01-01

This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation of the electri...

17. Quantitative comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results for the BCS-BEC crossover

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.

2004-01-01

Theoretical predictions for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover of trapped Fermi atoms are compared with recent experimental results for the density profiles of L 6 i. The calculations rest on a single theoretical approach that includes pairing fluctuations beyond mean-field. Excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained. Theoretical predictions for the zero-temperature chemical potential and gap at the unitarity limit are also found to compare extremely well with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and with recent experimental results

18. Some experimental aspects of optimality theoretic pragmatics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Blutner, R.; Németh T., E.; Bibok, K.

2010-01-01

The article has three main concerns: (i) it gives a concise introduction into optimality-theoretic pragmatics; (ii) it discusses the relation to alternative accounts (relevance theory and Levinson's theory of presumptive meanings); (iii) it reviews recent findings concerning the psychological

19. Optimization of Butylphosphate synthesis from O-Phosphoric Acid

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amedjkouh, A.; Attou, M.; Azzouz, A.; Zaoui, B.

1995-07-01

This work was carried out in order to confirm results of previous work and to enhance the yield of TBP synthesis. This, many reactions have been realised under differents experimental condition (temperature, acid/ alcool molar ratio, pressure and the quantity of promoter agent 'POCL3'). the TBP yield variations as function the experimental parameters, has been expressed, using the 2n factorial plan mathematical model. The experimental results were compared to those given by the theoritical model, and the optimal conditions were then drawn out

20. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

Science.gov (United States)

Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

2017-02-01

This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

1. Validation of Code ASTEC with LIVE-L1 Experimental Results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bachrata, Andrea

2008-01-01

The severe accidents with core melting are considered at the design stage of project at Generation 3+ of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Moreover, there is an effort to apply the severe accident management to the operated NPP. The one of main goals of severe accidents mitigation is corium localization and stabilization. The two strategies that fulfil this requirement are: the in-vessel retention (e.g. AP-600, AP- 1000) and the ex-vessel retention (e.g. EPR). To study the scenario of in-vessel retention, a large experimental program and the integrated codes have been developed. The LIVE-L1 experimental facility studied the formation of melt pools and the melt accumulation in the lower head using different cooling conditions. Nowadays, a new European computer code ASTEC is being developed jointly in France and Germany. One of the important steps in ASTEC development in the area of in-vessel retention of corium is its validation with LIVE-L1 experimental results. Details of the experiment are reported. Results of the ASTEC (module DIVA) application to the analysis of the test are presented. (author)

2. A Swarm Optimization Genetic Algorithm Based on Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization.

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Tao; Xu, Ming-Hai

2017-01-01

Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is a variant of the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO). The QPSO that was originally developed for continuous search spaces outperforms the traditional PSO in search ability. This paper analyzes the main factors that impact the search ability of QPSO and converts the particle movement formula to the mutation condition by introducing the rejection region, thus proposing a new binary algorithm, named swarm optimization genetic algorithm (SOGA), because it is more like genetic algorithm (GA) than PSO in form. SOGA has crossover and mutation operator as GA but does not need to set the crossover and mutation probability, so it has fewer parameters to control. The proposed algorithm was tested with several nonlinear high-dimension functions in the binary search space, and the results were compared with those from BPSO, BQPSO, and GA. The experimental results show that SOGA is distinctly superior to the other three algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and convergence.

3. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lushnikov Sergey V.

2006-08-01

Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

4. Routing Optimization of Intelligent Vehicle in Automated Warehouse

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yan-cong Zhou

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Routing optimization is a key technology in the intelligent warehouse logistics. In order to get an optimal route for warehouse intelligent vehicle, routing optimization in complex global dynamic environment is studied. A new evolutionary ant colony algorithm based on RFID and knowledge-refinement is proposed. The new algorithm gets environmental information timely through the RFID technology and updates the environment map at the same time. It adopts elite ant kept, fallback, and pheromones limitation adjustment strategy. The current optimal route in population space is optimized based on experiential knowledge. The experimental results show that the new algorithm has higher convergence speed and can jump out the U-type or V-type obstacle traps easily. It can also find the global optimal route or approximate optimal one with higher probability in the complex dynamic environment. The new algorithm is proved feasible and effective by simulation results.

5. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Innocenzi, V.; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

2013-01-01

Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes

6. Multi-objective optimization of circular magnetic abrasive polishing of SUS304 and Cu materials

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nguyen, NhatTan; Yin, ShaoHui; Chen, FengJun; Yin, HanFeng [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Pham, VanThoan [Hanoi University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, TrongNhan [Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, HCM City (Viet Nam)

2016-06-15

In this paper, a Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSOA) is applied to optimize surface roughness of workpiece after circular magnetic abrasive polishing. The most important parameters of polishing model, namely current, gap between pole and workpiece, spindle speed and polishing time, were considered in this approach. The objective functions of the MOPSOA depend on the quality of surface roughness of polishing materials with both simultaneous surfaces (Ra1, Ra2), which are determined by means of experimental approach with the aid of circular magnetic field. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is compared between the optimal results with the experimental data. The results show that the new proposed polishing optimization method is more feasible.

7. Experimental performance analysis and optimization of a direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li, Y.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.

2007-01-01

In this study, a direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater (DX-SAHPWH) with rated input power 750 W was tested and analyzed. Through experimental research in spring and thermodynamics analysis about the system performance, some suggestions for the system optimization are proposed. Then, a small-type DX-SAHPWH with rated input power 400 W was built, tested and analyzed. Through exergy analysis for each component of DX-SAHPWH (A) and (B), it can be seen that the highest exergy loss occurs in the compressor and collector/evaporator, followed by the condenser and expansion valve, respectively. Furthermore, some methods are suggested to improve the performance of each component, especially the collector/evaporator. A methodology for the design optimization of the collector/evaporator was introduced and applied. In order to maintain a proper matching between the heat pumping capacity of the compressor and the evaporative capacity of the collector/evaporator under widely varying ambient conditions, the electronic expansion valve and variable frequency compressor are suggested to be utilized for the DX-SAHPWH

8. TH-AB-BRA-12: Experimental Results From the First High-Field Inline MRI-Linac

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Keall, P [University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Dong, B; Zhang, K; Liney, G [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Vial, P; Walker, A; Begg, J; Rai, R [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, L; Barton, M [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Crozier, S [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

2016-06-15

Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid MRI-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-Linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-Linac system. This work describes our experimental results from the first high-field inline MRI-Linac. Methods: A 1.5 Tesla magnet (Sonata, Siemens) was located in a purpose built RF cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multi-leaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-Linac experiments was performed to investigate: (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array and; (3) electron focusing measured using GafChromic film. Results: (1) The macropodine phantom image quality with the beam on was almost identical to that with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background noise when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring at the center of the radiation field. Conclusion: The first high-field MRI-Linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field in-line MRI-Linac and study a number of the technical challenges and solutions. Supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the Australian Research Council, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation and the Health and Hospitals Fund.

9. Dispositional optimism and perceived risk interact to predict intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

Science.gov (United States)

Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

2015-07-01

Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk. Participants (n = 496) had their genomes sequenced as part of a National Institutes of Health pilot cohort study (ClinSeq®). Participants completed a cross-sectional baseline survey of various types of risk perceptions and intentions to learn genome sequencing results for differing disease risks (e.g., medically actionable, nonmedically actionable, carrier status) and to use this information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. Risk perceptions (absolute, comparative, and experiential) were largely unassociated with intentions to learn sequencing results. Dispositional optimism and comparative risk perceptions interacted, however, such that individuals higher in optimism reported greater intentions to learn all 3 types of sequencing results when comparative risk was perceived to be higher than when it was perceived to be lower. This interaction was inconsistent for experiential risk and absent for absolute risk. Independent of perceived risk, participants high in dispositional optimism reported greater interest in learning risks for nonmedically actionable disease and carrier status, and greater intentions to use genome information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. The relationship between risk perceptions and intentions may depend on how risk perceptions are assessed and on degree of optimism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

10. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

2009-01-01

of the rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...

11. Development and optimization of neutron measurement methods by fission chamber on experimental reactors - management, treatment and reduction of uncertainties

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blanc-De-Lanaute, N.

2012-01-01

The main objectives of this research thesis are the management and reduction of uncertainties associated with measurements performed by means of a fission-chamber type sensor. The author first recalls the role of experimental reactors in nuclear research, presents the various sensors used in nuclear detection (photographic film, scintillation sensor, gas ionization sensor, semiconducting sensor, other types of radiation sensors), and more particularly addresses neutron detection (activation sensor, gas filling sensor). In a second part, the author gives an overview of the state of the art of neutron measurement by fission chamber in a mock-up reactor (signal formation, processing and post-processing, associated measurements and uncertainties, return on experience of measurements by fission chamber on Masurca and Minerve research reactors). In a third part, he reports the optimization of two intrinsic parameters of this sensor: the thickness of fissile material deposit, and the pressure and nature of the filler gas. The fourth part addresses the improvement of measurement electronics and of post-processing methods which are used for result analysis. The fifth part deals with the optimization of spectrum index measurements by means of a fission chamber. The impact of each parameter is quantified. Results explain some inconsistencies noticed in measurements performed on the Minerve reactor in 2004, and allow the improvement of biases with computed values [fr

12. Energetic optimization as a result of improvement for social comfort: international example

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melandri, D.

2007-07-01

Comfort of human beings is related to the availability of energetic sources. In these terms, connection between comfort and energy becomes synonymous of connection between comfort and productivity. Thus Energy Management can be considered as a tool to optimize different parameters, with clear results on global efficiency of all processes. A clear energetic analysis, besides standard evaluation, can bring to optimization of following parameters: Lay out, Human resources, Internal logistic processes, Business productivity. Through energetic cost, for example, it is possible to have reference indicators useful for the lay out and number of employees optimization in offices. An International study has been conducted in this sense, with important and surprising results. A design for a building in Australia shows that an excellent energetic efficiency brings to an annual saving of 10 ml dollars, as a result of the improved efficiency of the working area. Similar examples can be found in several parts of the world. For these reasons, in civil and tertiary sector, some important pollution causes must be considered during the design of energy efficiency systems: atmospheric pollution due to chemical agents and radiations, acoustic pollution, vibration pollution, microclimate states, lighting. All these elements are part of the study. (auth)

13. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data.

Science.gov (United States)

García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

2016-01-28

Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC-MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc . Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC-MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

14. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Paulino José García Nieto

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

15. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

Science.gov (United States)

García Nieto, Paulino José; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ordóñez Galán, Celestino; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio

2016-01-01

Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable) as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed. PMID:28787882

16. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

2005-01-01

The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Wrublewski

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The results of optimized designing of the higi-speed vehicle diesel engine combustion chamber based on application of the method of parameters space investingation are given. The optimal form of the combustion chamber and the direction of fuel jets at adjusted pressure rate and other functional resrictions are determined according to three criteria of quality – fuel consumption, hard particles and nitric oxide emissions.

18. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

30 juin 2010 ... We obtain a good agreement between the resolution of the nonlinear equation of heat and the results obtained by the experimentation. . Keywords: Emissivity, Température, optimal Linearisation, finite elements. 1. ..... basse température, Rapport de Stage de D.E.A, Université Paris 12 – Val de Marne.

19. Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zimek, Zbigniew; Przybytniak, Grażyna; Nowicki, Andrzej

2012-01-01

20. Sensitivity Analysis of Different Shapes of a Plastic Optical Fiber-Based Immunosensor for Escherichia coli: Simulation and Experimental Results.

Science.gov (United States)

Rodrigues, Domingos M C; Lopes, Rafaela N; Franco, Marcos A R; Werneck, Marcelo M; Allil, Regina C S B

2017-12-19

Conventional pathogen detection methods require trained personnel, specialized laboratories and can take days to provide a result. Thus, portable biosensors with rapid detection response are vital for the current needs for in-loco quality assays. In this work the authors analyze the characteristics of an immunosensor based on the evanescent field in plastic optical fibers with macro curvature by comparing experimental with simulated results. The work studies different shapes of evanescent-wave based fiber optic sensors, adopting a computational modeling to evaluate the probes with the best sensitivity. The simulation showed that for a U-Shaped sensor, the best results can be achieved with a sensor of 980 µm diameter by 5.0 mm in curvature for refractive index sensing, whereas the meander-shaped sensor with 250 μm in diameter with radius of curvature of 1.5 mm, showed better sensitivity for either bacteria and refractive index (RI) sensing. Then, an immunosensor was developed, firstly to measure refractive index and after that, functionalized to detect Escherichia coli . Based on the results with the simulation, we conducted studies with a real sensor for RI measurements and for Escherichia coli detection aiming to establish the best diameter and curvature radius in order to obtain an optimized sensor. On comparing the experimental results with predictions made from the modelling, good agreements were obtained. The simulations performed allowed the evaluation of new geometric configurations of biosensors that can be easily constructed and that promise improved sensitivity.

1. Sensitivity Analysis of Different Shapes of a Plastic Optical Fiber-Based Immunosensor for Escherichia coli: Simulation and Experimental Results

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Domingos M. C. Rodrigues

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Conventional pathogen detection methods require trained personnel, specialized laboratories and can take days to provide a result. Thus, portable biosensors with rapid detection response are vital for the current needs for in-loco quality assays. In this work the authors analyze the characteristics of an immunosensor based on the evanescent field in plastic optical fibers with macro curvature by comparing experimental with simulated results. The work studies different shapes of evanescent-wave based fiber optic sensors, adopting a computational modeling to evaluate the probes with the best sensitivity. The simulation showed that for a U-Shaped sensor, the best results can be achieved with a sensor of 980 µm diameter by 5.0 mm in curvature for refractive index sensing, whereas the meander-shaped sensor with 250 μm in diameter with radius of curvature of 1.5 mm, showed better sensitivity for either bacteria and refractive index (RI sensing. Then, an immunosensor was developed, firstly to measure refractive index and after that, functionalized to detect Escherichia coli. Based on the results with the simulation, we conducted studies with a real sensor for RI measurements and for Escherichia coli detection aiming to establish the best diameter and curvature radius in order to obtain an optimized sensor. On comparing the experimental results with predictions made from the modelling, good agreements were obtained. The simulations performed allowed the evaluation of new geometric configurations of biosensors that can be easily constructed and that promise improved sensitivity.

2. Optimal covariate designs theory and applications

CERN Document Server

Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar

2015-01-01

This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...

3. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sangyeong Jeong

2017-10-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

4. Determination of optimal geometry for cylindrical sources for gamma radiation measurements; Odredjivanje optimalne geometrije za mjerenje gama zracenja cilindrichnih izvora

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sinjeri, Lj; Kulisic, P [Elektra - Zagreb, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

1990-07-01

Low radioactive sources were used for experimental determination of optimal dimensions for cylindrical source using coaxial Ge(Li) detector. Then, calculational procedure is used to find optimal dimensions of cylindrical source. The results from calculational procedure confirm with experimental results. In such way the verification of calculational procedure is done and it can be used for determination of optimal geometry for low radioactive cylindrical sources. (author)

5. Optimal design of modular cogeneration plants for hospital facilities and robustness evaluation of the results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gimelli, A.; Muccillo, M.; Sannino, R.

2017-01-01

Highlights: • A specific methodology has been set up based on genetic optimization algorithm. • Results highlight a tradeoff between primary energy savings (TPES) and simple payback (SPB). • Optimized plant configurations show TPES exceeding 18% and SPB of approximately three years. • The study aims to identify the most stable plant solutions through the robust design optimization. • The research shows how a deterministic definition of the decision variables could lead to an overestimation of the results. - Abstract: The widespread adoption of combined heat and power generation is widely recognized as a strategic goal to achieve significant primary energy savings and lower carbon dioxide emissions. In this context, the purpose of this research is to evaluate the potential of cogeneration based on reciprocating gas engines for some Italian hospital buildings. Comparative analyses have been conducted based on the load profiles of two specific hospital facilities and through the study of the cogeneration system-user interaction. To this end, a specific methodology has been set up by coupling a specifically developed calculation algorithm to a genetic optimization algorithm, and a multi-objective approach has been adopted. The results from the optimization problem highlight a clear trade-off between total primary energy savings (TPES) and simple payback period (SPB). Optimized plant configurations and management strategies show TPES exceeding 18% for the reference hospital facilities and multi–gas engine solutions along with a minimum SPB of approximately three years, thereby justifying the European regulation promoting cogeneration. However, designing a CHP plant for a specific energetic, legislative or market scenario does not guarantee good performance when these scenarios change. For this reason, the proposed methodology has been enhanced in order to focus on some innovative aspects. In particular, this study proposes an uncommon and effective approach

6. Modeling and experimental testing activity of the Voltage Optimization Unit

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zecchino, Antonio; Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia

In the EUDP project ‘Energy saving by voltage management’ two reports are provided by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) covering the simulation studies and experimental work. The first report presented the simulation results regarding the technical evaluation of on-load tap changers in solving...... and distributed power systems, located at DTU Risø campus. The experimental test validates the control performance of the OLTC transformer and the test indicates that, using remote measurement, the voltage of the system can be kept in a safe operational band. However, the remote measurement implies additional...... cost investments of to the system operator, thus a proactive tap algorithm is developed and tested in this project, relying on local measurements. In addition, we also compared the experimental result with the one simulated in the DigSilent PowerFactory software environment (the software used...

7. Optimization experiments on the study of giant resonance in nuclei

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lyubarskij, G.Ya.; Savitskij, G.A.; Fartushnyj, V.A.; Khazhmuradov, M.A.; Levandovskij, S.P.

1988-01-01

Optimum choice of the target exposure to a beam in experiments on the study of giant resonances in nuclei is considered. Optimization is aimed at reducing mean square errors of defined formfactors. Four different optimization quality criteria - variances of four form factor experimental values are considered. Variances resulting form optimization are 1.5-2 times as less as variances in real experiment. The effect of experiment design optimization criterion on form factors determination errors is ascertained. 1 ref.; 3 tabs

8. A universal optimization strategy for ant colony optimization algorithms based on the Physarum-inspired mathematical model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Zili; Gao, Chao; Liu, Yuxin; Qian, Tao

2014-01-01

Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms often fall into the local optimal solution and have lower search efficiency for solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). According to these shortcomings, this paper proposes a universal optimization strategy for updating the pheromone matrix in the ACO algorithms. The new optimization strategy takes advantages of the unique feature of critical paths reserved in the process of evolving adaptive networks of the Physarum-inspired mathematical model (PMM). The optimized algorithms, denoted as PMACO algorithms, can enhance the amount of pheromone in the critical paths and promote the exploitation of the optimal solution. Experimental results in synthetic and real networks show that the PMACO algorithms are more efficient and robust than the traditional ACO algorithms, which are adaptable to solve the TSP with single or multiple objectives. Meanwhile, we further analyse the influence of parameters on the performance of the PMACO algorithms. Based on these analyses, the best values of these parameters are worked out for the TSP. (paper)

9. Extreme Trust Region Policy Optimization for Active Object Recognition.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei; Sun, Fuchun; Huaping Liu; Yupei Wu; Fuchun Sun; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei

2018-06-01

In this brief, we develop a deep reinforcement learning method to actively recognize objects by choosing a sequence of actions for an active camera that helps to discriminate between the objects. The method is realized using trust region policy optimization, in which the policy is realized by an extreme learning machine and, therefore, leads to efficient optimization algorithm. The experimental results on the publicly available data set show the advantages of the developed extreme trust region optimization method.

10. Simulation, experimental validation and kinematic optimization of a Stirling engine using air and helium

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bert, Juliette; Chrenko, Daniela; Sophy, Tonino; Le Moyne, Luis; Sirot, Frédéric

2014-01-01

A Stirling engine with nominal output power of 1 kW is tested using air and helium as working gases. The influence of working pressure, engine speed and temperature of the hot source is studied, analyzing instantaneous gas pressure as well as instantaneous and stationary temperature at different positions to derive the effective power. A zero dimensional finite-time thermodynamic, three zones model of a generic Stirling engine is developed and successfully validated against experimental gas temperature and pressure in each zone, providing the effective power. This validation underlines the interest of different working gases as well as different geometric configurations for different applications. Furthermore, the validated model allows parametric studies of the engine, with regard to geometry, working gas and engine kinematics. It is used in order to optimize the kinematic of a Stirling engine for different working points and gases. - Highlights: • A Stirling engine of 1 kW is tested using air and helium as working gas. • Effects of working pressure, speed and temperature on power are studied. • A zero dimensional finite-time thermodynamic, three zones model of it is validated. • The validated model is used for parametric studies and optimization of the engine

11. Comparison Performance of Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization in Course Scheduling Optimizing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Scheduling problems at the university is a complex type of scheduling problems. The scheduling process should be carried out at every turn of the semester's. The core of the problem of scheduling courses at the university is that the number of components that need to be considered in making the schedule, some of the components was made up of students, lecturers, time and a room with due regard to the limits and certain conditions so that no collision in the schedule such as mashed room, mashed lecturer and others. To resolve a scheduling problem most appropriate technique used is the technique of optimization. Optimization techniques can give the best results desired. Metaheuristic algorithm is an algorithm that has a lot of ways to solve the problems to the very limit the optimal solution. In this paper, we use a genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization algorithm is an algorithm metaheuristic to solve the problem of course scheduling. The two algorithm will be tested and compared to get performance is the best. The algorithm was tested using data schedule courses of the university in Semarang. From the experimental results we conclude that the genetic algorithm has better performance than the ant colony optimization  algorithm in solving the case of course scheduling.

12. Conditions optimization for obtaining biodiesel from soybean oil using the mixture experimental design

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kelly Roberta Spacino

2010-09-01

Full Text Available The optimization of the yield of transesterification reaction to obtain the B100 biodiesel has been studied using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, methoxide and sodium ethoxide as catalysts. We applied a randomized simplex centroid mixture and the results of optimization indicate, when using methanol, a yield of 97.61% when using 30,77% NaOH and 69,23% of sodium methoxide and a yield of 89,32% when using only the sodium ethoxide whit ethanol. Chromatographic analysis indicated that the B100 biodiesel obtained is within the parameters established by Brazilian Legislation.

13. Optimal Experimental Design for Model Discrimination

Science.gov (United States)

Myung, Jay I.; Pitt, Mark A.

2009-01-01

Models of a psychological process can be difficult to discriminate experimentally because it is not easy to determine the values of the critical design variables (e.g., presentation schedule, stimulus structure) that will be most informative in differentiating them. Recent developments in sampling-based search methods in statistics make it…

14. Experimental installation of refrigeration solar-first results; Instalacion experimental de refrigeracion solar-primeros resultados

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moone, C.; Guallar, J.; Alonso, S.; Palacin, F.

2008-07-01

In this article they are and the first results of an installation of solar refrigeration composed by a field of flat solar collector are analysed and absorption chillers of simple effect (BrLi-H{sub 2}O), used to give cold to a gymnasium of the university sport pavilion. The data correspond to the registered experimental values during the summer of 2007 (months of June, Julio and August). (Author)

15. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-09-01

Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

16. Multi-condition optimization and experimental study of impeller blades in a mixed-flow pump

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Houlin Liu

2016-05-01

Full Text Available On the basis of design of experiment and numerical simulation, a reliable optimization method for blades of a mixed-flow pump is proposed with the maximum weighted average efficiency at multi-conditions as optimum objective. First, the performance of the model pump was measured and the test results were used to validate the simulation method. To improve the simulation accuracy, the check of the grid independence and the comparison of different turbulence models were done in detail. Then, the method of design of experiment for key geometrical parameters was used to obtain the optimization scheme. The maximum weighted average efficiency of pump at three operation conditions was chosen as optimum objective. The optimum solution was gotten and confirmed by the experiment. The results demonstrate that efficiency of the mixed-flow pump with optimized impeller increases by 3.9%, and the high-efficiency zone is increased from 0.021 to 0.040.

17. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

Science.gov (United States)

Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

2017-12-01

Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

18. Test Beam Results of Geometry Optimized Hybrid Pixel Detectors

CERN Document Server

Becks, K H; Grah, C; Mättig, P; Rohe, T

2006-01-01

The Multi-Chip-Module-Deposited (MCM-D) technique has been used to build hybrid pixel detector assemblies. This paper summarises the results of an analysis of data obtained in a test beam campaign at CERN. Here, single chip hybrids made of ATLAS pixel prototype read-out electronics and special sensor tiles were used. They were prepared by the Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration, IZM, Berlin, Germany. The sensors feature an optimized sensor geometry called equal sized bricked. This design enhances the spatial resolution for double hits in the long direction of the sensor cells.

19. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

2015-01-01

This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

20. Experimental study and optimization of a solar still

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Menguy, G; Chassagne, G; Sfeir, A; Saab, J

1976-01-01

The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of different parameters on the operation of a solar still for production of distilled water. These parameters are essentially classified in two categories: external parameters such as solar radiation, ambient temperatures and wind speed; internal parameters such as thermal insulation, water film thickness and the color of the side walls. The experiments were carried out on two identical stills. The effects of the different parameters were investigated by comparing the output of the two stills under different experimental conditions. This study resulted in the development of a simple inexpensive still which can readily be put in practical use in the area.

1. Improved Fractal Space Filling Curves Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem.

Science.gov (United States)

Yue, Yi-xiang; Zhang, Tong; Yue, Qun-xing

2015-01-01

Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the key issues in optimization of modern logistics system. In this paper, a modified VRP model with hard time window is established and a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm (HOA) based on Fractal Space Filling Curves (SFC) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is introduced. By incorporating the proposed algorithm, SFC method can find an initial and feasible solution very fast; GA is used to improve the initial solution. Thereafter, experimental software was developed and a large number of experimental computations from Solomon's benchmark have been studied. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HOA.

2. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. M. Signore

2003-06-01

Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

3. Discrete and Continuous Optimization Based on Hierarchical Artificial Bee Colony Optimizer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lianbo Ma

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization algorithm, namely, hierarchical artificial bee colony optimization (HABC, to tackle complex high-dimensional problems. In the proposed multilevel model, the higher-level species can be aggregated by the subpopulations from lower level. In the bottom level, each subpopulation employing the canonical ABC method searches the part-dimensional optimum in parallel, which can be constructed into a complete solution for the upper level. At the same time, the comprehensive learning method with crossover and mutation operator is applied to enhance the global search ability between species. Experiments are conducted on a set of 20 continuous and discrete benchmark problems. The experimental results demonstrate remarkable performance of the HABC algorithm when compared with other six evolutionary algorithms.

4. Results of a WINGDES2/AERO2S Flap Optimization for the TCA

Science.gov (United States)

Yaros, Steven F.

1999-01-01

The codes WINGDES2 and AERO2S were easy to obtain, and technical help was readily available. The codes have a long, well-documented history of successful optimizations of various aircraft configurations. The codes were easy to use, although specification of input data was time-consuming. The Run times were short, allowing the many runs necessary for the Suction Parameter matrix to be accomplished within a day or two. The results of the optimization appear to be reasonable.

5. Optimal control systems in hydro power plants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Babunski, Darko L.

2012-01-01

The aim of the research done in this work is focused on obtaining the optimal models of hydro turbine including auxiliary equipment, analysis of governors for hydro power plants and analysis and design of optimal control laws that can be easily applicable in real hydro power plants. The methodology of the research and realization of the set goals consist of the following steps: scope of the models of hydro turbine, and their modification using experimental data; verification of analyzed models and comparison of advantages and disadvantages of analyzed models, with proposal of turbine model for design of control low; analysis of proportional-integral-derivative control with fixed parameters and gain scheduling and nonlinear control; analysis of dynamic characteristics of turbine model including control and comparison of parameters of simulated system with experimental data; design of optimal control of hydro power plant considering proposed cost function and verification of optimal control law with load rejection measured data. The hydro power plant models, including model of power grid are simulated in case of island ing and restoration after breakup and load rejection with consideration of real loading and unloading of hydro power plant. Finally, simulations provide optimal values of control parameters, stability boundaries and results easily applicable to real hydro power plants. (author)

6. Machine Learning Optimization of Evolvable Artificial Cells

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Caschera, F.; Rasmussen, S.; Hanczyc, M.

2011-01-01

can be explored. A machine learning approach (Evo-DoE) could be applied to explore this experimental space and define optimal interactions according to a specific fitness function. Herein an implementation of an evolutionary design of experiments to optimize chemical and biochemical systems based...... on a machine learning process is presented. The optimization proceeds over generations of experiments in iterative loop until optimal compositions are discovered. The fitness function is experimentally measured every time the loop is closed. Two examples of complex systems, namely a liposomal drug formulation...

7. Optimal calibration of variable biofuel blend dual-injection engines using sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine and metaheuristic optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wong, Ka In; Wong, Pak Kin

2017-01-01

Highlights: • A new calibration method is proposed for dual-injection engines under biofuel blends. • Sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine and flower pollination algorithm are employed in the proposed method. • An SI engine is retrofitted for operating under dual-injection strategy. • The proposed method is verified experimentally under the two idle speed conditions. • Comparison with other machine learning methods and optimization algorithms is conducted. - Abstract: Although many combinations of biofuel blends are available in the market, it is more beneficial to vary the ratio of biofuel blends at different engine operating conditions for optimal engine performance. Dual-injection engines have the potential to implement such function. However, while optimal engine calibration is critical for achieving high performance, the use of two injection systems, together with other modern engine technologies, leads the calibration of the dual-injection engines to a very complicated task. Traditional trial-and-error-based calibration approach can no longer be adopted as it would be time-, fuel- and labor-consuming. Therefore, a new and fast calibration method based on sparse Bayesian extreme learning machine (SBELM) and metaheuristic optimization is proposed to optimize the dual-injection engines operating with biofuels. A dual-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol and gasoline is employed for demonstration purpose. The engine response for various parameters is firstly acquired, and an engine model is then constructed using SBELM. With the engine model, the optimal engine settings are determined based on recently proposed metaheuristic optimization methods. Experimental results validate the optimal settings obtained with the proposed methodology, indicating that the use of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization for dual-injection engine calibration is effective and promising.

8. Parametric optimization for performance and emissions of an IDI engine with Mahua biodiesel

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Experimental investigation was done on the IDI engine using Diesel, Mahua methyl ester (MME and Methanol additive blends. The performance and emissions were carried out on the Indirect Injection diesel (IDI engine with two input parameters like load and fuel and for nine response parameters like exhaust gas temperature (EGT, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, brake thermal efficiency (BTHE and emissions like Hydro carbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX, Smoke. In order to find out the optimal response the set of experiments were conducted using the design of experiments suggested by Taguchi for reducing time and cost. Then Grey Relational analysis was applied to the experimental data to find out the optimal combination of the load and fuel by converting the multi response problem into the single response problem with the help of Grey Relational Grade. Signal to noise ratio is calculated for the Grey Relational Grade (GRG and optimal combination is found. The results after Grey Relational Analysis (GRA were validated with the Response surface methodology (RSM in which a desirability approach was used to find the optimal combination. It is found that the experimental results almost coincided with validation results. The optimal combination was found to be 20 kg of load and MME + 3% Methanol as the fuel.

9. Design and performance characteristics of solar adsorption refrigeration system using parabolic trough collector: Experimental and statistical optimization technique

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.; Alnefaie, Khaled A.; Almitani, Khalid H.

2013-01-01

Highlights: • The successes of using olive waste/methanol as an adsorbent/adsorbate pair. • The experimental gross cycle coefficient of performance obtained was COP a = 0.75. • Optimization showed expanding adsorbent mass to a certain range increases the COP. • The statistical optimization led to optimum tank volume between 0.2 and 0.3 m 3 . • Increasing the collector area to a certain range increased the COP. - Abstract: The current work demonstrates a developed model of a solar adsorption refrigeration system with specific requirements and specifications. The recent scheme can be employed as a refrigerator and cooler unit suitable for remote areas. The unit runs through a parabolic trough solar collector (PTC) and uses olive waste as adsorbent with methanol as adsorbate. Cooling production, COP (coefficient of performance, and COP a (cycle gross coefficient of performance) were used to assess the system performance. The system’s design optimum parameters in this study were arrived to through statistical and experimental methods. The lowest temperature attained in the refrigerated space was 4 °C and the equivalent ambient temperature was 27 °C. The temperature started to decrease steadily at 20:30 – when the actual cooling started – until it reached 4 °C at 01:30 in the next day when it rose again. The highest COP a obtained was 0.75

10. Experimental and numerical investigation of the cap-shock structure in over expanded thrust-optimized nozzles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reijasse, P.; Bouvier, F.; Servel, P.

2002-07-01

This paper deals with the aerodynamics of an over-expanded nozzle, when the internal parabolic contour of the nozzle extension is highly thrust-optimized in terms of specific impulse-to-weight ratio. This optimization leads to an internal focusing shock issuing from a little downstream from the throat, even when the nozzle is running at nearly vacuum conditions. When such a nozzle is over-expanded, the focusing shock thus interferes with the over-expansion shock, and it forms from this shock interference a particular shock system, named 'cap-shock' because of the cap-like luminous shape seen in the over-expanded plumes of some real engines. Navier-Stokes calcinations performed in Europe had permitted to numerically analyze such a flow pattern, and they have revealed notably a recirculation bubble on the centerline downstream of the Mach disk, which had never been measured yet. A test campaign characterizing the flow separation in over-expanded sub-scale nozzles has been performed in the R2Ch blowdown wind tunnel of the Onera Chalais-Meudon center. Schlieren photographs of the exhaust jet have authorized a detailed description of the cap-shock pattern. Two-components Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements have confirmed the existence of a recirculation bubble surrounded by an annular supersonic jet and has given its size. In addition to the calculations and the Schlieren interpretative sketches, these first quantitative experimental characterization of the cap-shock structure permit to state a physical description of the cap-shock induced flow field in the thrust-optimized nozzles. (authors)

11. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

1994-01-01

As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

12. Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Marking of Alumina Ceramic Using RSM And ANN

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peter, Josephine; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B.

2011-01-01

The present research papers deals with the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface methodology (RSM) based mathematical modeling and also an optimization analysis on marking characteristics on alumina ceramic. The experiments have been planned and carried out based on Design of Experiment (DOE). It also analyses the influence of the major laser marking process parameters and the optimal combination of laser marking process parametric setting has been obtained. The output of the RSM optimal data is validated through experimentation and ANN predictive model. A good agreement is observed between the results based on ANN predictive model and actual experimental observations.

13. Electrode design optimization of lithium secondary batteries to enhance adhesion and deformation capabilities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jeong, Dongho; Lee, Jongsoo

2014-01-01

Safety, performance and lifetime of LSB (lithium secondary batteries) are affected by the adhesion of the active material to the electrode substance, and to the electrode deformation and the spring back limit in the electrode manufacturing process. This study explores the optimization process using decision tree analysis, an ANN (artificial neural network), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm. In the electrode design optimization, the objectives are to maximize the adhesion and to minimize the electrode deformation subjected to the allowable limit on the spring-back. Experimental data for use in design analysis and optimization is obtained via a measurement test. The decision tree analysis is first performed to extract major, effective parameters sensitive to adhesion force, electrode deformation and spring-back. The ANN-based approximate meta-models are then established for function approximations. The ANN-based causality analysis is further explored to determine dominant design variables for each of three design requirements for the optimization. A multi-objective optimization is finally conducted using ANN-based approximate meta-models. An optimized solution obtained from the numerical optimization process is compared with experimental data to verify the actual performance of the LSB in terms of physical and electro-chemical properties. - Highlights: • Electrode design for enhancing adhesion and electrode deformation performances. • Maximizing adhesion and minimizing deformation with allowable limit on spring-back. • Extraction of effective design parameters from data mining techniques. • Numerical optimization using experimental data of lithium secondary batteries. • Comparison of an optimized solution with an experimental result

14. Optimization of scaffold design for bone tissue engineering: A computational and experimental study.

Science.gov (United States)

Dias, Marta R; Guedes, José M; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Fernandes, Paulo R

2014-04-01

In bone tissue engineering, the scaffold has not only to allow the diffusion of cells, nutrients and oxygen but also provide adequate mechanical support. One way to ensure the scaffold has the right properties is to use computational tools to design such a scaffold coupled with additive manufacturing to build the scaffolds to the resulting optimized design specifications. In this study a topology optimization algorithm is proposed as a technique to design scaffolds that meet specific requirements for mass transport and mechanical load bearing. Several micro-structures obtained computationally are presented. Designed scaffolds were then built using selective laser sintering and the actual features of the fabricated scaffolds were measured and compared to the designed values. It was possible to obtain scaffolds with an internal geometry that reasonably matched the computational design (within 14% of porosity target, 40% for strut size and 55% for throat size in the building direction and 15% for strut size and 17% for throat size perpendicular to the building direction). These results support the use of these kind of computational algorithms to design optimized scaffolds with specific target properties and confirm the value of these techniques for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

KAUST Repository

Chikalov, Igor

2016-07-28

We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.

16. IMPORTANCE OF KINETIC MEASURES IN TRAJECTORY PREDICTION WITH OPTIMAL CONTROL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ömer GÜNDOĞDU

2001-02-01

Full Text Available A two-dimensional sagittally symmetric human-body model was established to simulate an optimal trajectory for manual material handling tasks. Nonlinear control techniques and genetic algorithms were utilized in the optimizations to explore optimal lifting patterns. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental data. Since the kinetic measures such as joint reactions and moments are vital parameters in injury determination, the importance of comparing kinetic measures rather than kinematical ones was emphasized.

17. Distributed Algorithms for Time Optimal Reachability Analysis

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhang, Zhengkui; Nielsen, Brian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

2016-01-01

. We propose distributed computing to accelerate time optimal reachability analysis. We develop five distributed state exploration algorithms, implement them in \\uppaal enabling it to exploit the compute resources of a dedicated model-checking cluster. We experimentally evaluate the implemented...... algorithms with four models in terms of their ability to compute near- or proven-optimal solutions, their scalability, time and memory consumption and communication overhead. Our results show that distributed algorithms work much faster than sequential algorithms and have good speedup in general.......Time optimal reachability analysis is a novel model based technique for solving scheduling and planning problems. After modeling them as reachability problems using timed automata, a real-time model checker can compute the fastest trace to the goal states which constitutes a time optimal schedule...

18. FIREWORKS ALGORITHM FOR UNCONSTRAINED FUNCTION OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Evans BAIDOO

2017-03-01

Full Text Available Modern real world science and engineering problems can be classified as multi-objective optimisation problems which demand for expedient and efficient stochastic algorithms to respond to the optimization needs. This paper presents an object-oriented software application that implements a firework optimization algorithm for function optimization problems. The algorithm, a kind of parallel diffuse optimization algorithm is based on the explosive phenomenon of fireworks. The algorithm presented promising results when compared to other population or iterative based meta-heuristic algorithm after it was experimented on five standard benchmark problems. The software application was implemented in Java with interactive interface which allow for easy modification and extended experimentation. Additionally, this paper validates the effect of runtime on the algorithm performance.

19. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

2004-01-01

New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

20. Experimental analysis with numerical comparison for different thermoelectric generators configurations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Favarel, Camille; Bédécarrats, Jean-Pierre; Kousksou, Tarik; Champier, Daniel

2016-01-01

Highlights: • 3 experimental TE generators are tested and compared to a numerical model. • Different mass flow rates and temperatures ranges were used. • Maximum output electrical power is guaranty by the use of MPPT DC/DC controllers. • The importance of the occupancy rate for the design of TEG is demonstrated. • The importance of the location of the TE modules is shown. - Abstract: Thermoelectric (TE) energy harvesting is a promising perspective to use waste heat. Due to the low efficiency of thermoelectric materials many analytical and numerical optimization studies have been developed. To be validated, an optimization must necessarily be linked to the experience. There are a lot of results on thermoelectric generators (TEG) based on experiments or model validations. Nevertheless, the validated models concern most of the time one TE module but rarely an entire system. Moreover, these models of complete system mainly concern the optimization of fluid flow rates or of heat exchangers. Our choice is to optimize the number of these modules in a whole system point of view. A numerical model using a software for numerical computation, based on multi-physics equations such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermoelectricity was developed to predict both thermal and electrical powers of TEG. This paper aims to present the experimental validation of this model and shows interesting experimental results on the location of the TE modules. In parallel, an experimental set-up was built to compare and validate this model. This set-up is composed of a thermal loop with a hot gas source, a cold fluid, a hot fin exchanger, a cold tubular exchanger and thermoelectric modules. The number and the place of these modules can be changed to study different configurations. A specific maximum power point tracker DC/DC converter charging a battery is added in order to study the electrical power produced by the TEG. The analysis of the influence of the number of

1. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

Science.gov (United States)

Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

2016-05-01

When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

2. Optimization of high pressure machine decocting process for Dachengqi Tang using HPLC fingerprints combined with the Box–Behnken experimental design

OpenAIRE

Xie, Rui-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Na; Li, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Pei; Li, Yi-Min; Zhou, Xin

2014-01-01

Using Dachengqi Tang (DCQT) as a model, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints were applied to optimize machine extracting process with the Box–Behnken experimental design. HPLC fingerprints were carried out to investigate the chemical ingredients of DCQT; synthetic weighing method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) was performed to calculate synthetic scores of fingerprints; using the mark ingredien...

3. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

Science.gov (United States)

Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

2015-11-01

Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

4. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jianzhou Wang

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper develops an effectively intelligent model to forecast short-term wind speed series. A hybrid forecasting technique is proposed based on recurrence plot (RP and optimized support vector regression (SVR. Wind caused by the interaction of meteorological systems makes itself extremely unsteady and difficult to forecast. To understand the wind system, the wind speed series is analyzed using RP. Then, the SVR model is employed to forecast wind speed, in which the input variables are selected by RP, and two crucial parameters, including the penalties factor and gamma of the kernel function RBF, are optimized by various optimization algorithms. Those optimized algorithms are genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, and cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA. Finally, the optimized SVR models, including COA-SVR, PSO-SVR, and GA-SVR, are evaluated based on some criteria and a hypothesis test. The experimental results show that (1 analysis of RP reveals that wind speed has short-term predictability on a short-term time scale, (2 the performance of the COA-SVR model is superior to that of the PSO-SVR and GA-SVR methods, especially for the jumping samplings, and (3 the COA-SVR method is statistically robust in multi-step-ahead prediction and can be applied to practical wind farm applications.

5. Experimental results pertaining to the performance of thermal igniters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carmel, M.K.

1989-10-01

This report summarizes the results of various experimental programs regarding the performance of thermal igniters for the deliberate ignition of hydrogen in light water reactors. Experiments involving both premixed combustion and combustion with continuous hydrogen injection are reviewed. Combustion characteristics examined include flammability limits of hydrogen:air and hydrogen:air:steam mixtures, combustion pressure rises, combustion completeness, flame speeds, and heat transfer aspects. Comparisons of igniter type and igniter reliability under simulated reactor accident conditions are included. The results of the research programs provide a broad data base covering nearly all aspects of hydrogen combustion related to the performance of deliberate ignition systems

6. Optimization of an experimental hybrid microgrid operation: reliability and economic issues

OpenAIRE

Milo, Aitor; Gaztañaga, Haizea; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion; Bilbao, Endika; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

2009-01-01

In this paper a hybrid microgrid system, composed of RES (Renewable Energy System) and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems together with a battery based storage system is presented. The microgrid is accompanied by a centralized energy management system (CEMS) in order to optimize the microgrid operation both in grid-connected and in stand-alone modes. In grid-connected mode the optimization of the economic exploitation of the microgrid is privileged by applying optim...

7. Belief Propagation Algorithm for Portfolio Optimization Problems.

Science.gov (United States)

Shinzato, Takashi; Yasuda, Muneki

2015-01-01

The typical behavior of optimal solutions to portfolio optimization problems with absolute deviation and expected shortfall models using replica analysis was pioneeringly estimated by S. Ciliberti et al. [Eur. Phys. B. 57, 175 (2007)]; however, they have not yet developed an approximate derivation method for finding the optimal portfolio with respect to a given return set. In this study, an approximation algorithm based on belief propagation for the portfolio optimization problem is presented using the Bethe free energy formalism, and the consistency of the numerical experimental results of the proposed algorithm with those of replica analysis is confirmed. Furthermore, the conjecture of H. Konno and H. Yamazaki, that the optimal solutions with the absolute deviation model and with the mean-variance model have the same typical behavior, is verified using replica analysis and the belief propagation algorithm.

8. Belief Propagation Algorithm for Portfolio Optimization Problems.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Takashi Shinzato

Full Text Available The typical behavior of optimal solutions to portfolio optimization problems with absolute deviation and expected shortfall models using replica analysis was pioneeringly estimated by S. Ciliberti et al. [Eur. Phys. B. 57, 175 (2007]; however, they have not yet developed an approximate derivation method for finding the optimal portfolio with respect to a given return set. In this study, an approximation algorithm based on belief propagation for the portfolio optimization problem is presented using the Bethe free energy formalism, and the consistency of the numerical experimental results of the proposed algorithm with those of replica analysis is confirmed. Furthermore, the conjecture of H. Konno and H. Yamazaki, that the optimal solutions with the absolute deviation model and with the mean-variance model have the same typical behavior, is verified using replica analysis and the belief propagation algorithm.

9. Optimization of Monte Carlo particle transport parameters and validation of a novel high throughput experimental setup to measure the biological effects of particle beams.

Science.gov (United States)

Patel, Darshana; Bronk, Lawrence; Guan, Fada; Peeler, Christopher R; Brons, Stephan; Dokic, Ivana; Abdollahi, Amir; Rittmüller, Claudia; Jäkel, Oliver; Grosshans, David; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe

2017-11-01

value is observed to differ by as much as 78% between FTFP_BERT and FTFP_BERT_LIV. Furthermore, between the production threshold of 700 μm and 5 μm, proton dose varies by as much as 19% corresponding to the largest LET d value sampled in the current investigation. Based on the sensitivity studies, the FTFP_BERT physics list with the low energy Livermore electromagnetic constructor and a production threshold of 5 μm was employed for determining accurate dose and LET d . The optimized MC parameterization results in a different LET d dependence of the RBE curve for 10% SF of the H460 cell line irradiated with proton beam when compared with the results from a previous study using the same cell line. When the MC parameters are kept consistent between the studies, the proton RBE results agree well with each other within the experimental uncertainties. A custom high-throughput, high-accuracy experimental design for accurate in vitro cell survival measurements was employed at a horizontal beam line. High sensitivity of the physics-based optimization establishes the importance of accurate MC parameterization and hence the conditioning of the MC system on a case-by-case basis. The proton RBE results from current investigations are observed to agree with a previous measurement made under different experimental conditions. This establishes the consistency of our experimental findings across different experiments and institutions. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

10. Predictive Modeling of a Paradigm Mechanical Cooling Tower Model: II. Optimal Best-Estimate Results with Reduced Predicted Uncertainties

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ruixian Fang

2016-09-01

Full Text Available This work uses the adjoint sensitivity model of the counter-flow cooling tower derived in the accompanying PART I to obtain the expressions and relative numerical rankings of the sensitivities, to all model parameters, of the following model responses: (i outlet air temperature; (ii outlet water temperature; (iii outlet water mass flow rate; and (iv air outlet relative humidity. These sensitivities are subsequently used within the “predictive modeling for coupled multi-physics systems” (PM_CMPS methodology to obtain explicit formulas for the predicted optimal nominal values for the model responses and parameters, along with reduced predicted standard deviations for the predicted model parameters and responses. These explicit formulas embody the assimilation of experimental data and the “calibration” of the model’s parameters. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the PM_CMPS methodology reduces the predicted standard deviations to values that are smaller than either the computed or the experimentally measured ones, even for responses (e.g., the outlet water flow rate for which no measurements are available. These improvements stem from the global characteristics of the PM_CMPS methodology, which combines all of the available information simultaneously in phase-space, as opposed to combining it sequentially, as in current data assimilation procedures.

11. Venturi scrubber modelling and optimization

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Viswanathan, S [National Univ., La Jolla, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Technology; Ananthanarayanan, N.V. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Azzopardi, B.J. [Nottingham Univ., Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2005-04-01

This study presented a method to maintain the efficiency of venturi scrubbers in removing fine particulates during gas clean operations while minimizing pressure drop. Venturi scrubbers meet stringent emission standards. In order to choose the optimal method for predicting pressure drop, 4 established models were compared for their accuracy of prediction and simplicity in application. The enhanced algorithm optimizes Pease-Anthony type venturi scrubber performance by predicting the minimum pressure drop required to achieve the desired collection efficiency. This was accomplished by optimizing the key operating and design parameters such as liquid-to-gas ratio, throat gas velocity, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and throat aspect ratio. Two of the 4 established models were expanded by providing an empirical algorithm to better predict pressure drop in the venturi throat. Model results were validated with experimental data. The optimization algorithm considers the non-uniformity in liquid distribution. It can be applied to cylindrical and rectangular Pease-Anthony type scrubbers. It offers an effective, systematic and accurate method to optimize the performance of new and existing scrubbers. 54 refs., 5 figs.

12. Experimental results and thermodynamic analysis of a natural gas small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration purposes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bazzo, Edson; Nacif de Carvalho, Alvaro; Matelli, José Alexandre

2013-01-01

In this work, experimental results are reported for a small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration purposes. The plant includes a natural gas microturbine and an ammonia/water absorption chiller fired by steam. The system was tested under different turbine loads, steam pressures and chiller outlet temperatures. An evaluation based on the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics was also performed. For the ambient temperature around 24 °C and microturbine at full load, the plant is able to provide 19 kW of saturated steam at 5.3 bar (161 °C), corresponding to 9.2 kW of refrigeration at −5 °C (COP = 0.44). From a 2nd law point-of-view, it was found that there is an optimal chiller outlet temperature that maximizes the chiller exergetic efficiency. As expected, the microturbine presented the highest irreversibilities, followed by the absorption chiller and the HRSG. In order to reduce the plant exergy destruction, it is recommended a new design for the HRSG and a new insulation for the exhaust pipe. -- Highlights: • A small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration is proposed and analyzed. • The plant is based on a microturbine and a modified absorption chiller. • The plant is analysed based on 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. • Experimental results are found for different power and refrigeration conditions. • The plant proved to be technically feasible

13. Recent experimental results on Coherent Pion production in neutrino interactions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camilleri, L. [Columbia University, Nevis Labs Irvington on Hudson, New York 10533 (United States)

2012-08-15

Recent experimental results on charged current ({pi}{sup +}) coherent production by KEK and SciBooNE and neutral current ({pi}{sup 0}) production by MiniBooNE, SciBooNE and NOMAD will be discussed. The NOMAD results are at an average neutrino energy of 25 GeV whereas the energies of the other experiments are in an average energy range of 1-2 GeV. A comparison with some theoretical models will be presented.

14. An automated analysis workflow for optimization of force-field parameters using neutron scattering data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lynch, Vickie E.; Borreguero, Jose M. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Bhowmik, Debsindhu [Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby G. [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Proffen, Thomas E. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Goswami, Monojoy, E-mail: goswamim@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States)

2017-07-01

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An automated workflow to optimize force-field parameters. • Used the workflow to optimize force-field parameter for a system containing nanodiamond and tRNA. • The mechanism relies on molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering experimental data. • The workflow can be generalized to any other experimental and simulation techniques. - Abstract: Large-scale simulations and data analysis are often required to explain neutron scattering experiments to establish a connection between the fundamental physics at the nanoscale and data probed by neutrons. However, to perform simulations at experimental conditions it is critical to use correct force-field (FF) parameters which are unfortunately not available for most complex experimental systems. In this work, we have developed a workflow optimization technique to provide optimized FF parameters by comparing molecular dynamics (MD) to neutron scattering data. We describe the workflow in detail by using an example system consisting of tRNA and hydrophilic nanodiamonds in a deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) environment. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) data show a faster motion of the tRNA in the presence of nanodiamond than without the ND. To compare the QENS and MD results quantitatively, a proper choice of FF parameters is necessary. We use an efficient workflow to optimize the FF parameters between the hydrophilic nanodiamond and water by comparing to the QENS data. Our results show that we can obtain accurate FF parameters by using this technique. The workflow can be generalized to other types of neutron data for FF optimization, such as vibrational spectroscopy and spin echo.

15. ANOVA parameters influence in LCF experimental data and simulation results

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vercelli A.

2010-06-01

Full Text Available The virtual design of components undergoing thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF and plastic strains is usually run in many phases. The numerical finite element method gives a useful instrument which becomes increasingly effective as the geometrical and numerical modelling gets more accurate. The constitutive model definition plays an important role in the effectiveness of the numerical simulation [1, 2] as, for example, shown in Figure 1. In this picture it is shown how a good cyclic plasticity constitutive model can simulate a cyclic load experiment. The component life estimation is the subsequent phase and it needs complex damage and life estimation models [3-5] which take into account of several parameters and phenomena contributing to damage and life duration. The calibration of these constitutive and damage models requires an accurate testing activity. In the present paper the main topic of the research activity is to investigate whether the parameters, which result to be influent in the experimental activity, influence the numerical simulations, thus defining the effectiveness of the models in taking into account of all the phenomena actually influencing the life of the component. To obtain this aim a procedure to tune the parameters needed to estimate the life of mechanical components undergoing TMF and plastic strains is presented for commercial steel. This procedure aims to be easy and to allow calibrating both material constitutive model (for the numerical structural simulation and the damage and life model (for life assessment. The procedure has been applied to specimens. The experimental activity has been developed on three sets of tests run at several temperatures: static tests, high cycle fatigue (HCF tests, low cycle fatigue (LCF tests. The numerical structural FEM simulations have been run on a commercial non linear solver, ABAQUS®6.8. The simulations replied the experimental tests. The stress, strain, thermal results from the thermo

16. Experimental design based response surface methodology optimization of ultrasonic assisted adsorption of safaranin O by tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

Science.gov (United States)

Roosta, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Daneshfar, A.; Sahraei, R.

2014-03-01

17. Efficiency of operation of wind turbine rotors optimized by the Glauert and Betz methods

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Litvinov, I. V.

2015-01-01

The models of two types of rotors with blades constructed using different optimization methods are compared experimentally. In the first case, the Glauert optimization by the pulsed method is used, which is applied independently for each individual blade cross section. This method remains the main...... time as a result of direct experimental comparison that the rotor constructed using the Betz method makes it possible to extract more kinetic energy from the homogeneous incoming flow....

18. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2004-07-01

The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

19. Optimization procedures in mammography: First results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Espana Lopez, M. L.; Marcos de Paz, L.; Martin Rincon, C.; Jerez Sainz, I.; Lopez Franco, M. P.

2001-01-01

Optimization procedures in mammography using equipment with a unique target/filter combination can be carried out through such diverse factors as target optical density, technique factors for exposure, screen film combination or processing cycle, in order to obtain an image adequate for the diagnosis with an acceptable risk benefit balance. Diverse studies show an increase in the Standardised Detection Rate of invasive carcinomas with an increase in the optical density among others factors. In our hospital an optimisation process has been established, and as previous step, the target optical density has been increased up to 1,4 DO. The aim of this paper is to value the impact of optical density variation as much in the quality of image as in the entrance surface dose and the average dose to the glandular tissue, comparing them with the results obtained in a previous study. The study has been carried out in a sample of 106 patients, with an average age of 53,4 years, considering 212 clinical images corresponding to the two projections of a same breast with an average compressed thickness of 4,86 cm. An increase of 16,6% on the entrance surface dose and 18% on the average dose to the glandular tissue has been recorded. All the clinical images has been evaluated for the physician as adequate for diagnosis. (Author) 16 refs

20. Experimental integrated photovoltaic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Markovska, Natasha; Dimitrov, D.; Kocev, K.; Dimitrovski, D.

2000-01-01

Recently, the interest in building-integrated photovoltaic installations has started to increase within governmental and municipality authorities, as well as some industrial companies. To serve a national public-awareness program of solar electricity promotion and education, the indigenous solar energy potential, optimization of possible PV installation, and three test cases of building-integrated grid-connected experimental facilities have been studied. The results showed the feasibility and performance of the proposed concepts. (Original)

1. Results of experimental electromagnetic studies of the Crimean region

OpenAIRE

Burakhovich, T. K.; Kushnir, A. M.; Nikolaev, I. Yu.; Sheremet, E. M.; Shirkov, B. I.

2017-01-01

Spatial-temporal pattern of distribution of geomagnetic variations and the electric field on the Earth’s surface was obtained as a result of the modern experimental observations conducted in 2007—2013 along 9 profiles (48 points) by the methods of magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) and magnetovariation profiling (MVP). These profiles cross various geological structures of the Crimean region. It is possible to estimate the value of the electrical conductivity and vertical and horizontal geoelectri...

2. Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.

Science.gov (United States)

Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong

2014-10-24

3. Optimization of a miniature Maglev ventricular assist device for pediatric circulatory support.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Juntao; Koert, Andrew; Gellman, Barry; Gempp, Thomas M; Dasse, Kurt A; Gilbert, Richard J; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

2007-01-01

A miniature Maglev blood pump based on magnetically levitated bearingless technology is being developed and optimized for pediatric patients. We performed impeller optimization by characterizing the hemodynamic and hemocompatibility performances using a combined computational and experimental approach. Both three-dimensional flow features and hemolytic characteristics were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Hydraulic pump performances and hemolysis levels of three different impeller designs were quantified and compared numerically. Two pump prototypes were constructed from the two impeller designs and experimentally tested. Comparison of CFD predictions with experimental results showed good agreement. The optimized impeller remarkably increased overall pump hydraulic output by more than 50% over the initial design. The CFD simulation demonstrated a clean and streamlined flow field in the main flow path. The numerical results by hemolysis model indicated no significant high shear stress regions. Through the use of CFD analysis and bench-top testing, the small pediatric pump was optimized to achieve a low level of blood damage and improved hydraulic performance and efficiency. The Maglev pediatric blood pump is innovative due to its small size, very low priming volume, excellent hemodynamic and hematologic performance, and elimination of seal-related and bearing-related failures due to adoption of magnetically levitated bearingless motor technology, making it ideal for pediatric applications.

4. Performance optimization in electro- discharge machining using a suitable multiresponse optimization technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

I. Nayak

2017-06-01

Full Text Available In the present research work, four different multi response optimization techniques, viz. multiple response signal-to-noise (MRSN ratio, weighted signal-to-noise (WSN ratio, Grey relational analysis (GRA and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje in Serbian methods have been used to optimize the electro-discharge machining (EDM performance characteristics such as material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR and surface roughness (SR simultaneously. Experiments have been planned on a D2 steel specimen based on L9 orthogonal array. Experimental results are analyzed using the standard procedure. The optimum level combinations of input process parameters such as voltage, current, pulse-on-time and pulse-off-time, and percentage contributions of each process parameter using ANOVA technique have been determined. Different correlations have been developed between the various input process parameters and output performance characteristics. Finally, the optimum performances of these four methods are compared and the results show that WSN ratio method is the best multiresponse optimization technique for this process. From the analysis, it is also found that the current has the maximum effect on the overall performance of EDM operation as compared to other process parameters.

5. Combination of Compensations and Multi-Parameter Coil for Efficiency Optimization of Inductive Power Transfer System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guozhen Hu

2017-12-01

Full Text Available A loosely coupled inductive power transfer (IPT system for industrial track applications has been researched in this paper. The IPT converter using primary Inductor-Capacitor-Inductor (LCL network and secondary parallel-compensations is analyzed combined coil design for optimal operating efficiency. Accurate mathematical analytical model and expressions of self-inductance and mutual inductance are proposed to achieve coil parameters. Furthermore, the optimization process is performed combined with the proposed resonant compensations and coil parameters. The results are evaluated and discussed using finite element analysis (FEA. Finally, an experimental prototype is constructed to verify the proposed approach and the experimental results show that the optimization can be better applied to industrial track distributed IPT system.

6. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

2015-01-01

optimization problems where the environment does not change dynamically. For that reason, the requirement for convergence in static optimization problems is not as timecritical as for dynamic optimization problems. Most MOEAs use generic variables and operators that scale to static multi-objective optimization...... problem. The domain specific operators only encode existing knowledge about the environment. A comprehensive comparative study is provided to evaluate the results of applying the CONTROLEUM-GA compared to NSGAII, e-NSGAII and e- MOEA. Experimental results demonstrate clear improvements in convergence time...

7. Genetic Spot Optimization for Peak Power Estimation in Large VLSI Circuits

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Michael S. Hsiao

2002-01-01

Full Text Available Estimating peak power involves optimization of the circuit's switching function. The switching of a given gate is not only dependent on the output capacitance of the node, but also heavily dependent on the gate delays in the circuit, since multiple switching events can result from uneven circuit delay paths in the circuit. Genetic spot expansion and optimization are proposed in this paper to estimate tight peak power bounds for large sequential circuits. The optimization spot shifts and expands dynamically based on the maximum power potential (MPP of the nodes under optimization. Four genetic spot optimization heuristics are studied for sequential circuits. Experimental results showed an average of 70.7% tighter peak power bounds for large sequential benchmark circuits was achieved in short execution times.

8. Experimental design applied to the optimization and partial ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The objective of this work was to optimize the medium composition for maximum pectin-methylesterase (PME) production from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium brasilianum by submerged fermentation. A Plackett-Burman design was first used for the screening of most important factors, followed by a 23 full ...

9. Liquid blanket MHD effects experimental results from LMEL facility at SWIP

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xu Zengyu; Pan Chuanjie; Liu Yong; Pan Chuanhong; Reed, C.B.

2007-01-01

The self-cooled /helium-cooled liquid metal blanket concept is an attractive ITER and DEMO blanket candidate as it has low operating pressure, simplicity, and a convenient tritium breeding cycle. But MHD pressure drop remains a key issue, especially in ducts with flow channel inserts (FCI), where the reduction in MHD pressure drop is difficult to predict with existing tools, and there are no available experimental data to check current predictions. To understand well various kinds of MHD effects, it is important for us to analyze and understand FCI effects. In this paper, we present measurements of the MHD effects due to off normal power shutdown, two-dimensional effects due to channel velocity profiles, three-dimensional effects caused by manifolds, and surface/bulk instability effects as a result of insulator coating imperfections. These results were collected from the Liquid Metal Experimental Loop (LMEL) facility at Southwestern Institute of Physics, China and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, US under an umbrella of the People's Republic of China/United States program of cooperation in magnetic fusion. Some results were observed for the first time, such as two dimensional effects and instabilities due to insulator coating imperfections. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: a uniform magnetic field volume of 80 x 170 x 740 mm and a maximum value of magnetic field, B 0 , of 2 Tesla. The mean flow velocity v 0 was measured with an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter (error of 1.2%); a Liquid-metal Electro-magnetic Velocity Instrument (LEVI) was provided by Argonne National Laboratory. The flow was driven by two Electro-magnetic (EM) pumps (6.5+11.6 m3/h); the operating temperature was 85 centigrade degree due to self-heating by the EM pump and friction of the fluid against the loop piping. Experimental parameters were: Hartmann number, M, up to 3500, velocity v 0 up to 1.2 m/s under magnetic field, and B 0 =1.95 Tesla

10. The Development and Full-Scale Experimental Validation of an Optimal Water Treatment Solution in Improving Chiller Performances

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chen-Yu Chiang

2016-06-01

Full Text Available An optimal solution, in combining physical and chemical water treatment methods, has been developed. This method uses a high voltage capacitance based (HVCB electrodes, coupled with biocides to form a sustainable solution in improving chiller plant performances. In this study, the industrial full-scale tests, instead of laboratory tests, have been conducted on chiller plants at the size of 5000 RT to 10,000 RT cooling capacities under commercial operation for more than two years. The experimental results indicated that the condenser approach temperatures can be maintained at below 1 °C for over two years. It has been validated that the coefficient of performance (COP of a chiller can be improved by over 5% by implementing this solution. Every 1 °C reduction in condenser approach temperature can yield approximately 3% increase on chiller COP, which warrants its future application potential in the HVAC industry, where Ta can degrade by 1 °C every three to six months. The solution developed in this study could also reduce chemical dosages and conserve makeup water substantially and is more environment friendly.

11. Multi-objective optimization of GPU3 Stirling engine using third order analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toghyani, Somayeh; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Hashemabadi, Seyyed Hasan; Salimi, Morteza

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A third-order analysis is carried out for optimization of Stirling engine. • The triple-optimization is done on a GPU3 Stirling engine. • A multi-objective optimization is carried out for a Stirling engine. • The results are compared with an experimental previous work for checking the model improvement. • The methods of TOPSIS, Fuzzy, and LINMAP are compared with each other in aspect of optimization. - Abstract: Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that uses any external heat source to generate mechanical power which operates at closed cycles. These engines are good choices for using in power generation systems; because these engines present a reasonable theoretical efficiency which can be closer to the Carnot efficiency, comparing with other reciprocating thermal engines. Hence, many studies have been conducted on Stirling engines and the third order thermodynamic analysis is one of them. In this study, multi-objective optimization with four decision variables including the temperature of heat source, stroke, mean effective pressure, and the engine frequency were applied in order to increase the efficiency and output power and reduce the pressure drop. Three decision-making procedures were applied to optimize the answers from the results. At last, the applied methods were compared with the results obtained of one experimental work and a good agreement was observed

12. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

of solution quality, runtime and other measures; and the third part collects advanced methods from experimental design for configuring and tuning algorithms on a specific class of instances with the goal of using the least amount of experimentation. The contributor list includes leading scientists......, computational experiments differ from those in other sciences, and the last decade has seen considerable methodological research devoted to understanding the particular features of such experiments and assessing the related statistical methods. This book consists of methodological contributions on different...

13. Multi-criteria optimization of the flesh melons skin separation process by experimental and statistical analysis methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Y. B. Medvedkov

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Research and innovation activity to create energy-efficient processes in the melon processing, is a significant task. Separation skin from the melon flesh with their subsequent destination application in the creation of new food products is one of the time-consuming operations in this technology. Lack of scientific and experimental base of this operation holding back the development of high-performance machines for its implementation. In this connection, the technique of the experiment on the separation of the skins of melons in the pilot plant and the search for optimal regimes of its work methods by statistical modeling is offered. The late-ripening species of melon: Kalaysan, Thorlami, Gulab-sary are objects of study. Interaction of factors influencing on separating the melon skins process is carried out. A central composite rotatable design and fractional factorial experiment was used. Using the method of experimental design with treatment planning template in Design Expert v.10 software yielded a regression equations that adequately describe the actual process. Rational intervals input factors values are established: the ratio of the rotational speed of the drum to the abrasive supply roll rotational frequency; the gap between the supply drum and the shearing knife; shearing blade sharpening angle; the number of feed drum spikes; abrading drum orifices diameter. The mean square error does not exceed 12.4%. Regression equations graphic interpretation is presented by scatter plots and engineering nomograms that can be predictive of a choice of rational values of the input factors for three optimization criteria: minimal specific energy consumption in the process of cutting values, maximal specific performance by the pulp and pulp extraction ratio values. Obtained data can be used for the operational management of the process technological parameters, taking into account the geometrical dimensions of the melon and its inhomogeneous structure.

14. Experimental and thermodynamical analyses of the diesel exhaust vortex generator heat exchanger for optimizing its operating condition

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

2015-01-01

In this research, a vortex generator heat exchanger is used to recover exergy from the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine. Twenty vortex generators with 30° angle of attack are used to increase the heat recovery as well as the low back pressure in the exhaust. The experiments are prepared for five engine loads (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of full load), two exhaust gases amount (50 and 100%) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). After a thermodynamical analysis on the obtained data, an optimization study based on Central Composite Design (CCD) is performed due to complex effect of engine loads and water mass flow rates on exergy recovery and irreversibility to reach the best operating condition. - Highlights: • A vortex generator heat exchanger is used for diesel exhaust heat recovery. • A thermodynamic analysis is performed for experimental data. • Exergy recovery, irreversibility are calculated in different exhaust gases amount. • Optimization study is performed using response surface method

15. Recent experimental results on level densities for compound reaction calculations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Voinov, A.V.

2012-01-01

There is a problem related to the choice of the level density input for Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. Modern computer codes have several options to choose from but it is not clear which of them has to be used in some particular cases. Availability of many options helps to describe existing experimental data but it creates problems when it comes to predictions. Traditionally, different level density systematics are based on experimental data from neutron resonance spacing which are available for a limited spin interval and one parity only. On the other hand reaction cross section calculations use the total level density. This can create large uncertainties when converting the neutron resonance spacing to the total level density that results in sizable uncertainties in cross section calculations. It is clear now that total level densities need to be studied experimentally in a systematic manner. Such information can be obtained only from spectra of compound nuclear reactions. The question is does level densities obtained from compound nuclear reactions keep the same regularities as level densities obtained from neutron resonances- Are they consistent- We measured level densities of 59-64 Ni isotopes from proton evaporation spectra of 6,7 Li induced reactions. Experimental data are presented. Conclusions of how level density depends on the neutron number and on the degree of proximity to the closed shell ( 56 Ni) are drawn. The level density parameters have been compared with parameters obtained from the analysis of neutron resonances and from model predictions

16. Experimental research on single phase convection heat transfer in micro-fin tube

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fan Guangming; Sun Zhongning; Zhu Sheng

2011-01-01

An experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of single phase water in three micro-fin tubes with different fin height was conducted. At the same time, the efficiency of micro-fin tubes within the experimental scope was evaluated and the optimal working region was determined. Based on the experimental data in the optimal working region, correlations for predicting the heat transfer and flow resistance were also given by multiple regression method. The result indicates that the micro-fin tubes can greatly enhance the single-phase heat transfer in turbulent flow, and the increase of heat transfer coefficient is higher than the increase of flow resistance. The accuracy of the correlation is very high, of which the deviation from the experimental value is very small. (authors)

17. Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon of Small Dimensions: a Review of the Experimental Results

Science.gov (United States)

Franco, Alessandro; Filippeschi, Sauro

2012-06-01

A bibliographical review on the heat and mass transfer in gravity assisted Closed Loop Two Phase Thermosyphons (CLTPT) with channels having a hydraulic diameter of the order of some millimetres and input power below 1 kW is proposed. The available experimental works in the literature are critically analysed in order to highlight the main results and the correlation between mass flow rate and heat input in natural circulation loops. A comparison of different experimental apparatuses and results is made. It is observed that the results are very different among them and in many cases the experimental data disagree with the conventional theory developed for an imposed flow rate. The paper analyses the main differences among the experimental devices and try to understand these disagreements. From the present analysis it is evident that further systematic studies are required to generate a meaningful body of knowledge of the heat and mass transport mechanism in these devices for practical applications in cooling devices or energy systems.

18. Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil by two phase bioslurry reactor: Processes evaluation and optimization by Taguchi's design of experimental (DOE) methodology.

Science.gov (United States)

Pant, Apourv; Rai, J P N

2018-04-15

Two phase bioreactor was constructed, designed and developed to evaluate the chlorpyrifos remediation. Six biotic and abiotic factors (substrate-loading rate, slurry phase pH, slurry phase dissolved oxygen (DO), soil water ratio, temperature and soil micro flora load) were evaluated by design of experimental (DOE) methodology employing Taguchi's orthogonal array (OA). The selected six factors were considered at two levels L-8 array (2^7, 15 experiments) in the experimental design. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the methodology showed enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation from 283.86µg/g to 955.364µg/g by overall 70.34% of enhancement. In the present study, with the help of few well defined experimental parameters a mathematical model was constructed to understand the complex bioremediation process and optimize the approximate parameters upto great accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

19. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

2012-01-01

Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

20. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.

2014-01-01

Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

1. Optimizing indomethacin-loaded chitosan nanoparticle size, encapsulation, and release using Box-Behnken experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Abul Kalam, Mohd; Khan, Abdul Arif; Khan, Shahanavaj; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Alshamsan, Aws

2016-06-01

Indomethacin chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were developed by ionotropic gelation and optimized by concentrations of chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP) and stirring time by 3-factor 3-level Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimal concentration of chitosan (A) and TPP (B) were found 0.6mg/mL and 0.4mg/mL with 120min stirring time (C), with applied constraints of minimizing particle size (R1) and maximizing encapsulation efficiency (R2) and drug release (R3). Based on obtained 3D response surface plots, factors A, B and C were found to give synergistic effect on R1, while factor A has a negative impact on R2 and R3. Interaction of AB was negative on R1 and R2 but positive on R3. The factor AC was having synergistic effect on R1 and on R3, while the same combination had a negative effect on R2. The interaction BC was positive on the all responses. NPs were found in the size range of 321-675nm with zeta potentials (+25 to +32mV) after 6 months storage. Encapsulation, drug release, and content were in the range of 56-79%, 48-73% and 98-99%, respectively. In vitro drug release data were fitted in different kinetic models and pattern of drug release followed Higuchi-matrix type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2. Vertical Instability in EAST: Comparison of Model Predictions with Experimental Results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Qian Jinping; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Xiao Bingjia; Sun Youwen; Shi Yuejiang; Lin Shiyao; Li Jiangang; Gong Xianzu

2008-01-01

Growth rates of the axisymmetric mode in elongated plasmas in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) are measured with zero feedback gains and then compared with numerically calculated growth rates for the reconstructed shapes. The comparison is made after loss of vertical position control. The open-loop growth rates were scanned with the number of vessel eigenmodes, which up to 20 is enough to make the growth rates settled. The agreement between the growth rates measured experimentally and the growth rates determined numerically is good. The results show that a linear RZIP model is essentially good enough for the vertical position feedback control.

3. Equilibrium optimization code OPEQ and results of applying it to HT-7U

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zha Xuejun; Zhu Sizheng; Yu Qingquan

2003-01-01

The plasma equilibrium configuration has a strong impact on the confinement and MHD stability in tokamaks. For designing a tokamak device, it is an important issue to determine the sites and currents of poloidal coils which have some constraint conditions from physics and engineering with a prescribed equilibrium shape of the plasma. In this paper, an effective method based on multi-variables equilibrium optimization is given. The method can optimize poloidal coils when the previously prescribed plasma parameters are treated as an object function. We apply it to HT-7U equilibrium calculation, and obtain good results

4. Optimizing Chemical Reactions with Deep Reinforcement Learning.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Zhenpeng; Li, Xiaocheng; Zare, Richard N

2017-12-27

Deep reinforcement learning was employed to optimize chemical reactions. Our model iteratively records the results of a chemical reaction and chooses new experimental conditions to improve the reaction outcome. This model outperformed a state-of-the-art blackbox optimization algorithm by using 71% fewer steps on both simulations and real reactions. Furthermore, we introduced an efficient exploration strategy by drawing the reaction conditions from certain probability distributions, which resulted in an improvement on regret from 0.062 to 0.039 compared with a deterministic policy. Combining the efficient exploration policy with accelerated microdroplet reactions, optimal reaction conditions were determined in 30 min for the four reactions considered, and a better understanding of the factors that control microdroplet reactions was reached. Moreover, our model showed a better performance after training on reactions with similar or even dissimilar underlying mechanisms, which demonstrates its learning ability.

5. An Optimal Electric Dipole Antenna Model and Its Field Propagation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yidong Xu

2016-01-01

Full Text Available An optimal electric dipole antennas model is presented and analyzed, based on the hemispherical grounding equivalent model and the superposition principle. The paper also presents a full-wave electromagnetic simulation for the electromagnetic field propagation in layered conducting medium, which is excited by the horizontal electric dipole antennas. Optimum frequency for field transmission in different depth is carried out and verified by the experimental results in comparison with previously reported simulation over a digital wireless Through-The-Earth communication system. The experimental results demonstrate that the dipole antenna grounding impedance and the output power can be efficiently reduced by using the optimal electric dipole antenna model and operating at the optimum frequency in a vertical transmission depth up to 300 m beneath the surface of the earth.

6. Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

2014-06-20

Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

7. From Nonlinear Optimization to Convex Optimization through Firefly Algorithm and Indirect Approach with Applications to CAD/CAM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Akemi Gálvez

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Fitting spline curves to data points is a very important issue in many applied fields. It is also challenging, because these curves typically depend on many continuous variables in a highly interrelated nonlinear way. In general, it is not possible to compute these parameters analytically, so the problem is formulated as a continuous nonlinear optimization problem, for which traditional optimization techniques usually fail. This paper presents a new bioinspired method to tackle this issue. In this method, optimization is performed through a combination of two techniques. Firstly, we apply the indirect approach to the knots, in which they are not initially the subject of optimization but precomputed with a coarse approximation scheme. Secondly, a powerful bioinspired metaheuristic technique, the firefly algorithm, is applied to optimization of data parameterization; then, the knot vector is refined by using De Boor’s method, thus yielding a better approximation to the optimal knot vector. This scheme converts the original nonlinear continuous optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, solved by singular value decomposition. Our method is applied to some illustrative real-world examples from the CAD/CAM field. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can solve the original continuous nonlinear optimization problem very efficiently.

8. Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

2017-04-01

9. Heavy ions testing experimental results on programmable integrated circuits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Velazco, R.; Provost-Grellier, A.

1988-01-01

The natural radiation environment in space has been shown to produce anomalies in satellite-borne microelectronics. It becomes then mandatory to define qualification strategies allowing to choose the less vulnerable circuits. In this paper, is presented a strategy devoted to one of the most critical effects, the soft errors (so called upset). The method addresses programmable integrated circuits i.e. circuits able to execute an instruction or command set. Experimental results on representative circuits will illustrate the approach. 11 refs [fr

10. Optimization of the Critical Diameter and Average Path Length of Social Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Haifeng Du

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Optimizing average path length (APL by adding shortcut edges has been widely discussed in connection with social networks, but the relationship between network diameter and APL is generally ignored in the dynamic optimization of APL. In this paper, we analyze this relationship and transform the problem of optimizing APL into the problem of decreasing diameter to 2. We propose a mathematic model based on a memetic algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm can efficiently solve this problem as well as optimize APL.

11. Experimental designs for autoregressive models applied to industrial maintenance

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amo-Salas, M.; López-Fidalgo, J.; Pedregal, D.J.

2015-01-01

Some time series applications require data which are either expensive or technically difficult to obtain. In such cases scheduling the points in time at which the information should be collected is of paramount importance in order to optimize the resources available. In this paper time series models are studied from a new perspective, consisting in the use of Optimal Experimental Design setup to obtain the best times to take measurements, with the principal aim of saving costs or discarding useless information. The model and the covariance function are expressed in an explicit form to apply the usual techniques of Optimal Experimental Design. Optimal designs for various approaches are computed and their efficiencies are compared. The methods working in an application of industrial maintenance of a critical piece of equipment at a petrochemical plant are shown. This simple model allows explicit calculations in order to show openly the procedure to find the correlation structure, needed for computing the optimal experimental design. In this sense the techniques used in this paper to compute optimal designs may be transferred to other situations following the ideas of the paper, but taking into account the increasing difficulty of the procedure for more complex models. - Highlights: • Optimal experimental design theory is applied to AR models to reduce costs. • The first observation has an important impact on any optimal design. • Either the lack of precision or small starting observations claim for large times. • Reasonable optimal times were obtained relaxing slightly the efficiency. • Optimal designs were computed in a predictive maintenance context

12. Indoor climate optimization with limited resources

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Santos, A.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

This report presents experimental data and models for optimisation of the indoor climate parameters temperature, noise, draught and window opening. Results are based on experiments with human subjects performed in climate chambers at University of the Philippines. The report may assist building...... designers to balance attention and resources between the parameters of the indoor climate when resources are less than optimal....

13. Design optimization of radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1975-01-01

Ionizing-radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts in CMOS integrated circuits will drastically degrade circuit performance unless the design parameters related to the fabrication process are properly chosen. To formulate an approach to CMOS design optimization, experimentally observed analytical relationships showing strong dependences between threshold voltage shifts and silicon dioxide thickness are utilized. These measurements were made using radiation-hardened aluminum-gate CMOS inverter circuits and have been corroborated by independent data taken from MOS capacitor structures. Knowledge of these relationships allows one to define ranges of acceptable CMOS design parameters based upon radiation-hardening capabilities and post-irradiation performance specifications. Furthermore, they permit actual design optimization of CMOS integrated circuits which results in optimum pre- and post-irradiation performance with respect to speed, noise margins, and quiescent power consumption. Theoretical and experimental results of these procedures, the applications of which can mean the difference between failure and success of a CMOS integrated circuit in a radiation environment, are presented

14. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

1995-01-01

The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

15. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Harris, J.W.

1988-02-01

Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

16. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

2015-01-01

experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations...

17. Optimization of time characteristics in activation analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gurvich, L.G.; Umaraliev, A.T.

2006-01-01

Full text: The activation analysis temporal characteristics optimization methods developed at present are aimed at determination of optimal values of the three important parameters - irradiation time, cooling time and measurement time. In the performed works, especially in [1-5] the activation analysis processes are described, the optimal values of optimization parameters are obtained from equations solved, and the computational results are given for these parameters for a number of elements. However, the equations presented in [2] were inaccurate, did not allow one to have optimization parameters results for one element content calculations, and it did not take into account background dependence of time. Therefore, we proposed modified equations to determine the optimal temporal parameters and iteration processes for the solution of these equations. It is well-known that the activity of studied sample during measurements does not change significantly, i.e. measurement time is much shorter than the half-life, thus the processes taking place can be described by the Poisson probability distribution, and in general case one can apply binomial distribution. The equation and iteration processes use in this research describe both probability distributions. Expectedly, the cooling time iteration expressions obtained for one element analysis case are similar for the both distribution types, as the optimised time values occurred to be of the same order as half-life values, whereas the cooling time, as we observed, depends on the ratio of the studied sample's peak value to the background peak, and can be significantly larger than the half-life value. This pattern is general, and can be derived from the optimized time expressions, which is supported by the experimental data on short-living isotopes [3,4]. For the isotopes with large half-lives, up to years, like cobalt-60, the cooling time values given in the above mentioned works are equal to months which, apparently

18. Hybrid chaotic ant swarm optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Yuying; Wen Qiaoyan; Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng

2009-01-01

Chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) is a powerful chaos search algorithm that is used to find the global optimum solution in search space. However, the CASO algorithm has some disadvantages, such as lower solution precision and longer computational time, when solving complex optimization problems. To resolve these problems, an improved CASO, called hybrid chaotic swarm optimization (HCASO), is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm introduces preselection operator and discrete recombination operator into the CASO; meanwhile it replaces the best position found by own and its neighbors' ants with the best position found by preselection operator and discrete recombination operator in evolution equation. Through testing five benchmark functions with large dimensionality, the experimental results show the new method enhances the solution accuracy and stability greatly, as well as reduces the computational time and computer memory significantly when compared to the CASO. In addition, we observe the results can become better with swarm size increasing from the sensitivity study to swarm size. And we gain some relations between problem dimensions and swam size according to scalability study.

19. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

1994-01-01

The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

20. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

2015-11-01

Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

1. F.E. analysis of seismic isolators: comparison with experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuller, K.N.G.; Gough, J.; Ahmadi, H.R.

1998-01-01

Analysis of seismic isolators is performed by the ABAQUS code. The force deformation behaviour of a circular layer of rubber bonded to rigid surface was investigated. This model is chosen because of its simplicity and the relatively short processing time required. A 3-dimensional model was used for finite element calculations. Comparison of calculated values with experimental results is shown

2. Adsorption of methanol molecule on graphene: Experimental results and first-principles calculations

Science.gov (United States)

Zhao, X. W.; Tian, Y. L.; Yue, W. W.; Chen, M. N.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.; Yuan, X. B.

2018-04-01

Adsorption properties of methanol molecule on graphene surface are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The adsorption geometrical structures, adsorption energies, band structures, density of states and the effective masses are obtained by means of first-principles calculations. It is found that the electronic characteristics and conductivity of graphene are sensitive to the methanol molecule adsorption. After adsorption of methanol molecule, bandgap appears. With the increasing of the adsorption distance, the bandgap, adsorption energy and effective mass of the adsorption system decreased, hence the resistivity of the system decreases gradually, these results are consistent with the experimental results. All these calculations and experiments indicate that the graphene-based sensors have a wide range of applications in detecting particular molecules.

3. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nygaard, Tor Anders

1999-07-01

The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

4. Combining On-Line Characterization Tools with Modern Software Environments for Optimal Operation of Polymerization Processes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-02-01

Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial steps towards the formulation and implementation of a generic and flexible model centric framework for integrated simulation, estimation, optimization and feedback control of polymerization processes. For the first time it combines the powerful capabilities of the automatic continuous on-line monitoring of polymerization system (ACOMP, with a modern simulation, estimation and optimization software environment towards an integrated scheme for the optimal operation of polymeric processes. An initial validation of the framework was performed for modelling and optimization using literature data, illustrating the flexibility of the method to apply under different systems and conditions. Subsequently, off-line capabilities of the system were fully tested experimentally for model validations, parameter estimation and process optimization using ACOMP data. Experimental results are provided for free radical solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

5. Process parameter optimization during EDM of AISI 316 LN stainless steel by using fuzzy based multi-objective PSO

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Majumder, Arindam [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura (India)

2013-07-15

The present contribution describes an application of a hybrid approach using fuzzy logic and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for optimizing the process parameters in the electric discharge machining (EDM) of AISI 316LN Stainless Steel. In this study, each experimentation was performed under different machining conditions of pulse current, pulse on-time, and pulse off-time. Machining performances such as MRR and EWR were evaluated. A Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was produced to plan the experimentation and the regression method was applied to model the relationship between the input factors and responses. A fuzzy model was employed to provide a fitness function to PSO by unifying the multiple responses. Finally, PSO was used to predict the optimal process parametric settings for the multi-performance optimization of the EDM operation. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the strategy and are in good agreement with the predicted results over a wide range of machining conditions employed in the process.

6. Optimization of polymeric triiodide membrane electrode based on clozapine-triiodide ion-pair using experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Farhadi, Khalil; Bahram, Morteza; Shokatynia, Donya; Salehiyan, Floria

2008-07-15

Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were developed as experimental strategies for modeling and optimization of the influence of some variables on the performance of a new PVC membrane triiodide ion-selective electrode. This triiodide sensor is based on triiodide-clozapine ion-pair complexation. PVC, plasticizers, ion-pair amounts and pH were investigated as four variables to build a model to achieve the best Nernstian slope (59.9 mV) as response. The electrode is prepared by incorporating the ion-exchanger in PVC matrix plasticized with 2-nitrophenyl octal ether, which is directly coated on the surface of a graphite electrode. The influence of foreign ions on the electrode performance was also investigated. The optimized membranes demonstrate Nernstian response for triiodide ions over a wide linear range from 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection 2.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) at 25 degrees C. The electrodes could be used over a wide pH range 4-8, and have the advantages of easy to prepare, good selectivity and fast response time, long lifetime (over 3 months) and small interferences from hydrogen ion. The proposed electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of triiodide ions and ascorbic acid.

7. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ghanmi Helmi

2018-05-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

8. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

2010-01-01

Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

9. Numerical simulation and optimized design of cased telescoped ammunition interior ballistic

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jia-gang Wang

2018-04-01

Full Text Available In order to achieve the optimized design of a cased telescoped ammunition (CTA interior ballistic design, a genetic algorithm was introduced into the optimal design of CTA interior ballistics with coupling the CTA interior ballistic model. Aiming at the interior ballistic characteristics of a CTA gun, the goal of CTA interior ballistic design is to obtain a projectile velocity as large as possible. The optimal design of CTA interior ballistic is carried out using a genetic algorithm by setting peak pressure, changing the chamber volume and gun powder charge density. A numerical simulation of interior ballistics based on a 35 mm CTA firing experimental scheme was conducted and then the genetic algorithm was used for numerical optimization. The projectile muzzle velocity of the optimized scheme is increased from 1168 m/s for the initial experimental scheme to 1182 m/s. Then four optimization schemes were obtained with several independent optimization processes. The schemes were compared with each other and the difference between these schemes is small. The peak pressure and muzzle velocity of these schemes are almost the same. The result shows that the genetic algorithm is effective in the optimal design of the CTA interior ballistics. This work will be lay the foundation for further CTA interior ballistic design. Keywords: Cased telescoped ammunition, Interior ballistics, Gunpowder, Optimization genetic algorithm

10. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kilic, Recai

2007-01-01

In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics

11. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

OpenAIRE

Branko Božić; Karlo Braun

1992-01-01

The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in...

12. Optimal configuration of microstructure in ferroelectric materials by stochastic optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

2010-07-01

An optimization procedure determining the ideal configuration at the microstructural level of ferroelectric (FE) materials is applied to maximize piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity in ceramic FEs differs significantly from that of single crystals because of the presence of crystallites (grains) possessing crystallographic axes aligned imperfectly. The piezoelectric properties of a polycrystalline (ceramic) FE is inextricably related to the grain orientation distribution (texture). The set of combination of variables, known as solution space, which dictates the texture of a ceramic is unlimited and hence the choice of the optimal solution which maximizes the piezoelectricity is complicated. Thus, a stochastic global optimization combined with homogenization is employed for the identification of the optimal granular configuration of the FE ceramic microstructure with optimum piezoelectric properties. The macroscopic equilibrium piezoelectric properties of polycrystalline FE is calculated using mathematical homogenization at each iteration step. The configuration of grains characterized by its orientations at each iteration is generated using a randomly selected set of orientation distribution parameters. The optimization procedure applied to the single crystalline phase compares well with the experimental data. Apparent enhancement of piezoelectric coefficient d33 is observed in an optimally oriented BaTiO3 single crystal. Based on the good agreement of results with the published data in single crystals, we proceed to apply the methodology in polycrystals. A configuration of crystallites, simultaneously constraining the orientation distribution of the c-axis (polar axis) while incorporating ab-plane randomness, which would multiply the overall piezoelectricity in ceramic BaTiO3 is also identified. The orientation distribution of the c-axes is found to be a narrow Gaussian distribution centered around 45°. The piezoelectric coefficient in such a ceramic is found to

13. Optimization of DNA Sensor Model Based Nanostructured Graphene Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hediyeh Karimi

2013-01-01

Full Text Available It has been predicted that the nanomaterials of graphene will be among the candidate materials for postsilicon electronics due to their astonishing properties such as high carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility. Graphene is a semimetal zero gap nanomaterial with demonstrated ability to be employed as an excellent candidate for DNA sensing. Graphene-based DNA sensors have been used to detect the DNA adsorption to examine a DNA concentration in an analyte solution. In particular, there is an essential need for developing the cost-effective DNA sensors holding the fact that it is suitable for the diagnosis of genetic or pathogenic diseases. In this paper, particle swarm optimization technique is employed to optimize the analytical model of a graphene-based DNA sensor which is used for electrical detection of DNA molecules. The results are reported for 5 different concentrations, covering a range from 0.01 nM to 500 nM. The comparison of the optimized model with the experimental data shows an accuracy of more than 95% which verifies that the optimized model is reliable for being used in any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor.

14. Spray-drying nanocapsules in presence of colloidal silica as drying auxiliary agent: formulation and process variables optimization using experimental designs.

Science.gov (United States)

Tewa-Tagne, Patrice; Degobert, Ghania; Briançon, Stéphanie; Bordes, Claire; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Lanteri, Pierre; Fessi, Hatem

2007-04-01

Spray-drying process was used for the development of dried polymeric nanocapsules. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the resulting powder characteristics in order to optimize them. Experimental designs were used in order to estimate the influence of formulation parameters (nanocapsules and silica concentrations) and process variables (inlet temperature, spray-flow air, feed flow rate and drying air flow rate) on spray-dried nanocapsules when using silica as drying auxiliary agent. The interactions among the formulation parameters and process variables were also studied. Responses analyzed for computing these effects and interactions were outlet temperature, moisture content, operation yield, particles size, and particulate density. Additional qualitative responses (particles morphology, powder behavior) were also considered. Nanocapsules and silica concentrations were the main factors influencing the yield, particulate density and particle size. In addition, they were concerned for the only significant interactions occurring among two different variables. None of the studied variables had major effect on the moisture content while the interaction between nanocapsules and silica in the feed was of first interest and determinant for both the qualitative and quantitative responses. The particles morphology depended on the feed formulation but was unaffected by the process conditions. This study demonstrated that drying nanocapsules using silica as auxiliary agent by spray drying process enables the obtaining of dried micronic particle size. The optimization of the process and the formulation variables resulted in a considerable improvement of product yield while minimizing the moisture content.

15. Experimental Modeling of Monolithic Resistors for Silicon ICS with a Robust Optimizer-Driving Scheme

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Philippe Leduc

2002-06-01

Full Text Available Today, an exhaustive library of models describing the electrical behavior of integrated passive components in the radio-frequency range is essential for the simulation and optimization of complex circuits. In this work, a preliminary study has been done on Tantalum Nitride (TaN resistors integrated on silicon, and this leads to a single p-type lumped-element circuit. An efficient extraction technique will be presented to provide a computer-driven optimizer with relevant initial model parameter values (the "guess-timate". The results show the unicity in most cases of the lumped element determination, which leads to a precise simulation of self-resonant frequencies.

16. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

Science.gov (United States)

Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

2011-10-01

The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

17. Optimization of metallic microheaters for high-speed reconfigurable silicon photonics.

Science.gov (United States)

Atabaki, A H; Shah Hosseini, E; Eftekhar, A A; Yegnanarayanan, S; Adibi, A

2010-08-16

The strong thermooptic effect in silicon enables low-power and low-loss reconfiguration of large-scale silicon photonics. Thermal reconfiguration through the integration of metallic microheaters has been one of the more widely used reconfiguration techniques in silicon photonics. In this paper, structural and material optimizations are carried out through heat transport modeling to improve the reconfiguration speed of such devices, and the results are experimentally verified. Around 4 micros reconfiguration time are shown for the optimized structures. Moreover, sub-microsecond reconfiguration time is experimentally demonstrated through the pulsed excitation of the microheaters. The limitation of this pulsed excitation scheme is also discussed through an accurate system-level model developed for the microheater response.

18. Stand alone power system coupling a PV field and a fuel cell: first experimental results

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Busquet, S.; Labbe, J.; Leroux, P.; Metkemeijer, R.; Mayer, D. [ENSMP-CENERG, Sophia Antipolis (France)

2003-07-01

The purpose of the work, through the PVFC-SYS project, is to optimise the operation of a system coupling a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser, a gas storage, a fuel cell and a power management unit. A test bench is at present finalised in the Laboratory. All components have been selected for an optimal, automatic, safe and reliable operation of the complete system. Fully instrumented, this test bench furnishes new data concerning each component and the complete system behaviour for variable real weather conditions and different load demands. The paper describes the test bench, the simulation tool based on empirical model fitted to the component experimental data and the complete system performance for different load profiles along a year of operation. (orig.)

19. Concepts to optimize stent-grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on results of experimental studies; Konzepte zur Optimierung der Stentgraftversorgung von Bauchaortenaneurysmen auf der Basis tierexperimenteller Ergebnisse

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chavan, A.; Kirchhoff, T.; Baus, S.; Galanski, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie 1; Pichlmaier, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Leibniz Forschungslab. fuer Biotechnologie und Kuenstliche Organe an der Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie

2001-08-01

Purpose. In the endoluminal therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysms, a short proximal aneurysm neck, endoleaks and the large size and stiffness of the introducer systems are responsible for many of the complications and sub-optimal outcomes. The purpose of the present review article is to to suggest strategies to minimize these complications based on the results of experimental studies in animals. Material and methods. After implanting various types of stents across the renal artery origins, the functional and morphological changes in the kidneys and renal vessels were studied by various authors. In order to prevent progressive widening of the proximal aneurysmal neck and graft dislocation, Sonesson et al. performed a laparoscopic banding around the proximal neck in pigs. To study the effects of endoleaks, Marty, Schurink and Pitton carried out pressure measurements in experimental aneurysms with and without endoleaks. Sakaguchi and Pavcnik developed the 'Twin-tube endografts' (TTEG) and the 'Bifurcated drum occluder endografts' (BDOEG) and tested them in dogs. Results. Up to 3 months after suprarenal stent placement, Chavan et al. detected no significant fall in the mean inulin clearance in sheep (140{+-}46 ml/min before, 137{+-}58 ml/min after). Nasim et al. and Malina et al. reported similar observations with respect to renal function. Suprarenal fixation may result in isolated thrombotic occlusions of the renal arteries and microinfarcts in the kidneys. Mean aortic diameters at the level of banding were significantly smaller in the animals with aortic banding as opposed to those in the control group without banding (8 mm vs 11 mm, p=0.004). The banding caused a secure proximal fixation of the stent-graft. Persistent endoleaks resulted in significantly higher intraaneurysmal pressures. Although the TTEG and the BDOEG stent-grafts required smaller sheaths, occlusions were observed in 8% (TTEG) and 60% (BDOEG) of the graft limbs. (orig.) [German

20. A Multi-Verse Optimizer with Levy Flights for Numerical Optimization and Its Application in Test Scheduling for Network-on-Chip.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cong Hu

Full Text Available We propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm named Levy flights multi-verse optimizer (LFMVO, which incorporates Levy flights into multi-verse optimizer (MVO algorithm to solve numerical and engineering optimization problems. The Original MVO easily falls into stagnation when wormholes stochastically re-span a number of universes (solutions around the best universe achieved over the course of iterations. Since Levy flights are superior in exploring unknown, large-scale search space, they are integrated into the previous best universe to force MVO out of stagnation. We test this method on three sets of 23 well-known benchmark test functions and an NP complete problem of test scheduling for Network-on-Chip (NoC. Experimental results prove that the proposed LFMVO is more competitive than its peers in both the quality of the resulting solutions and convergence speed.

1. Experimental and computational evaluation of area selectively immobilized horseradish peroxidase in a microfluidic device

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hoffmann, Christian; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines; Thrane, Joachim

2017-01-01

experimentally and by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Ultimately, such a correlation would lead to faster development through computational pre-screening and optimized experimental design.In this proof-of-concept study, microreactors were prepared in a 2-step curing process of an off......-stoichiometric thiol-ene-epoxy (OSTE+) mixture employing both a thiol-ene (TEC) and a thiol-epoxy curing reaction. Subsequent surface functionalization of the remaining thiol groups on the reactor surface through stenciled photoinitiated TEC enabled the preparation of specific surface patterns in the reactor. Patterns...... as obtained from experimental determination. This good agreement between the obtained experimental and computational results confirmed the high potential of CFD models for predicting and optimizing the biocatalytic performance of such a reactor....

2. Optimization of turning process through the analytic flank wear modelling

Science.gov (United States)

Del Prete, A.; Franchi, R.; De Lorenzis, D.

2018-05-01

In the present work, the approach used for the optimization of the process capabilities for Oil&Gas components machining will be described. These components are machined by turning of stainless steel castings workpieces. For this purpose, a proper Design Of Experiments (DOE) plan has been designed and executed: as output of the experimentation, data about tool wear have been collected. The DOE has been designed starting from the cutting speed and feed values recommended by the tools manufacturer; the depth of cut parameter has been maintained as a constant. Wear data has been obtained by means the observation of the tool flank wear under an optical microscope: the data acquisition has been carried out at regular intervals of working times. Through a statistical data and regression analysis, analytical models of the flank wear and the tool life have been obtained. The optimization approach used is a multi-objective optimization, which minimizes the production time and the number of cutting tools used, under the constraint on a defined flank wear level. The technique used to solve the optimization problem is a Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPS). The optimization results, validated by the execution of a further experimental campaign, highlighted the reliability of the work and confirmed the usability of the optimized process parameters and the potential benefit for the company.

3. A Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization Zlgorithmfor Flexible Job-hop Scheduling Problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

LIU Sheng--hui

2017-06-01

Full Text Available According to the characteristics of the Flexible job shop scheduling problem the minimum makespan as measures we proposed a distributed particle swarm optimization algorithm aiming to solve flexible job shop scheduling problem. The algorithm adopts the method of distributed ideas to solve problems and we are established for two multi agent particle swarm optimization model in this algorithm it can solve the traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm when making decisions in real time according to the emergencies. Finally some benthmark problems were experimented and the results are compared with the traditional algorithm. Experimental results proved that the developed distributed PSO is enough effective and efficient to solve the FJSP and it also verified the reasonableness of the multi}gent particle swarm optimization model.

4. "Real-time" disintegration analysis and D-optimal experimental design for the optimization of diclofenac sodium fast-dissolving films.

Science.gov (United States)

El-Malah, Yasser; Nazzal, Sami

2013-01-01

The objective of this work was to study the dissolution and mechanical properties of fast-dissolving films prepared from a tertiary mixture of pullulan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and hypromellose. Disintegration studies were performed in real-time by probe spectroscopy to detect the onset of film disintegration. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films were measured by texture analysis. Disintegration time of the films ranged from 21 to 105 seconds whereas their mechanical properties ranged from approximately 2 to 49 MPa for tensile strength and 1 to 21 MPa% for young's modulus. After generating polynomial models correlating the variables using a D-Optimal mixture design, an optimal formulation with desired responses was proposed by the statistical package. For validation, a new film formulation loaded with diclofenac sodium based on the optimized composition was prepared and tested for dissolution and tensile strength. Dissolution of the optimized film was found to commence almost immediately with 50% of the drug released within one minute. Tensile strength and young's modulus of the film were 11.21 MPa and 6, 78 MPa%, respectively. Real-time spectroscopy in conjunction with statistical design were shown to be very efficient for the optimization and development of non-conventional intraoral delivery system such as fast dissolving films.

5. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

CERN Document Server

Moore-Richard, L

2002-01-01

In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA /RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

6. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

2012-01-01

Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology and have great potential in realizing cooling devices with high efficiency, which are highly desirable for a broad range of applications. The technology relies on the magnetocaloric effect...... in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

7. Otimização de metodologia para derivação de desoxinivalenol através de planejamento experimental Optimization of the methodology for deoxynivalenol derivatization by experimental planning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jaqueline Garda

2008-01-01

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize the derivatization reaction for determining deoxynivalenol (DON by gas chromatography employing an experimental planning procedure. The factors were: temperature, reaction time, catalyst and trifluoroacetic anhydride concentration. The relative peak areas were used to evaluated the effects. The best conditions for DON derivatization were 200 µL TFAA and 18 mg sodium bicarbonate for 6 min at 74 ºC for 7 to 21 µg of DON. Under these conditions, the detection limit was 1.4 µg of DON.

8. Improving the automated optimization of profile extrusion dies by applying appropriate optimization areas and strategies

Science.gov (United States)

Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Kurth, K.; Behr, M.; Siegbert, R.; Elgeti, S.

2014-05-01

The rheological design of profile extrusion dies is one of the most challenging tasks in die design. As no analytical solution is available, the quality and the development time for a new design highly depend on the empirical knowledge of the die manufacturer. Usually, prior to start production several time-consuming, iterative running-in trials need to be performed to check the profile accuracy and the die geometry is reworked. An alternative are numerical flow simulations. These simulations enable to calculate the melt flow through a die so that the quality of the flow distribution can be analyzed. The objective of a current research project is to improve the automated optimization of profile extrusion dies. Special emphasis is put on choosing a convenient starting geometry and parameterization, which enable for possible deformations. In this work, three commonly used design features are examined with regard to their influence on the optimization results. Based on the results, a strategy is derived to select the most relevant areas of the flow channels for the optimization. For these characteristic areas recommendations are given concerning an efficient parameterization setup that still enables adequate deformations of the flow channel geometry. Exemplarily, this approach is applied to a L-shaped profile with different wall thicknesses. The die is optimized automatically and simulation results are qualitatively compared with experimental results. Furthermore, the strategy is applied to a complex extrusion die of a floor skirting profile to prove the universal adaptability.

9. Bayesian optimization for materials science

CERN Document Server

Packwood, Daniel

2017-01-01

This book provides a short and concise introduction to Bayesian optimization specifically for experimental and computational materials scientists. After explaining the basic idea behind Bayesian optimization and some applications to materials science in Chapter 1, the mathematical theory of Bayesian optimization is outlined in Chapter 2. Finally, Chapter 3 discusses an application of Bayesian optimization to a complicated structure optimization problem in computational surface science. Bayesian optimization is a promising global optimization technique that originates in the field of machine learning and is starting to gain attention in materials science. For the purpose of materials design, Bayesian optimization can be used to predict new materials with novel properties without extensive screening of candidate materials. For the purpose of computational materials science, Bayesian optimization can be incorporated into first-principles calculations to perform efficient, global structure optimizations. While re...

10. Optimization and design of an aircraft’s morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speed, Part I – Aerodynamic optimization using genetic, bee colony and gradient descent algorithms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andreea Koreanschi

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In this paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm is described and applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The algorithm’s performances were studied from the convergence point of view, in accordance with design conditions. The algorithm was compared to two other optimization methods, namely the artificial bee colony and a gradient method, for two optimization objectives, and the results of the optimizations with each of the three methods were plotted on response surfaces obtained with the Monte Carlo method, to show that they were situated in the global optimum region. The optimization results for 16 wind tunnel test cases and 2 objective functions were presented. The 16 cases used for the optimizations were included in the experimental test plan for the morphing wing-tip demonstrator, and the results obtained using the displacements given by the optimizations were evaluated.

11. Design of Passive Acoustic Wave Shaping Devices and Their Experimental Validation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

We discuss a topology optimization based approach for designing passive acoustic wave shaping devices and demonstrate its application to; directional sound emission [1], sound focusing and wave splitting. Optimized devices, numerical and experimental results are presented and benchmarked against...... other designs proposed in the literature. We focus on design problems where the size of the device is on the order of the wavelength, a problematic region for traditional design methods, such as ray tracing.The acoustic optimization problem is formulated in the frequency domain and modeled...

12. Numerical and Experimental Validation of the Optimization Methodologies for a Wing-Tip Structure Equipped with Conventional and Morphing Ailerons =

Science.gov (United States)

Koreanschi, Andreea

In order to answer the problem of 'how to reduce the aerospace industry's environment footprint?' new morphing technologies were developed. These technologies were aimed at reducing the aircraft's fuel consumption through reduction of the wing drag. The morphing concept used in the present research consists of replacing the conventional aluminium upper surface of the wing with a flexible composite skin for morphing abilities. For the ATR-42 'Morphing wing' project, the wing models were manufactured entirely from composite materials and the morphing region was optimized for flexibility. In this project two rigid wing models and an active morphing wing model were designed, manufactured and wind tunnel tested. For the CRIAQ MDO 505 project, a full scale wing-tip equipped with two types of ailerons, conventional and morphing, was designed, optimized, manufactured, bench and wind tunnel tested. The morphing concept was applied on a real wing internal structure and incorporated aerodynamic, structural and control constraints specific to a multidisciplinary approach. Numerical optimization, aerodynamic analysis and experimental validation were performed for both the CRIAQ MDO 505 full scale wing-tip demonstrator and the ATR-42 reduced scale wing models. In order to improve the aerodynamic performances of the ATR-42 and CRIAQ MDO 505 wing airfoils, three global optimization algorithms were developed, tested and compared. The three algorithms were: the genetic algorithm, the artificial bee colony and the gradient descent. The algorithms were coupled with the two-dimensional aerodynamic solver XFoil. XFoil is known for its rapid convergence, robustness and use of the semi-empirical e n method for determining the position of the flow transition from laminar to turbulent. Based on the performance comparison between the algorithms, the genetic algorithm was chosen for the optimization of the ATR-42 and CRIAQ MDO 505 wing airfoils. The optimization algorithm was improved during

13. An External Archive-Guided Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Qingling; Lin, Qiuzhen; Chen, Weineng; Wong, Ka-Chun; Coello Coello, Carlos A; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Jianyong; Zhang, Jun

2017-09-01

The selection of swarm leaders (i.e., the personal best and global best), is important in the design of a multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. Such leaders are expected to effectively guide the swarm to approach the true Pareto optimal front. In this paper, we present a novel external archive-guided MOPSO algorithm (AgMOPSO), where the leaders for velocity update are all selected from the external archive. In our algorithm, multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) are transformed into a set of subproblems using a decomposition approach, and then each particle is assigned accordingly to optimize each subproblem. A novel archive-guided velocity update method is designed to guide the swarm for exploration, and the external archive is also evolved using an immune-based evolutionary strategy. These proposed approaches speed up the convergence of AgMOPSO. The experimental results fully demonstrate the superiority of our proposed AgMOPSO in solving most of the test problems adopted, in terms of two commonly used performance measures. Moreover, the effectiveness of our proposed archive-guided velocity update method and immune-based evolutionary strategy is also experimentally validated on more than 30 test MOPs.

14. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr

2007-05-15

In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics.

15. Experimental results from a flowing-lithium target

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Annese, C.E.; Schwartz, K.E.

1982-01-01

Hydraulic stability of a free surface lithium jet was demonstrated at 260 0 C and from the middle-vacuum region of 0.01 Pa (10 - 4 Torr) up to 124 kPa (18 psia). The jet is formed by flowing lithium at rates to 0.04 m 3 /s (600 GPM) through a precisely defined nozzle which directs the flow along a curved wall where velocities of up to 17 m/s are attained. This nozzle and curved wall configuration form the basis of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium target. A full-size experimental model of this target is presently under test with flowing lithium in the Experimental Lithium System (ELS). The FMIT is being developed for the Department of Energy by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

16. Online Power Management with Embedded Offline-Optimized Parameters for a Three-Source Hybrid Powertrain with an Experimental Emulation Application

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bedatri Moulik

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Real-time power management in the presence of one or more reversible energy storage systems is a current issue with hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. To evaluate the potentials of rule-based power management, optimization with respect to two conflicting objectives, fuel consumption and state of charge (SoC deviation, is considered in this contribution. A modular structure of power management with decoupled offline and online parts is presented. The online part incorporates look-up tables (LUTs with parameters from the offline optimization part. This permits an inclusion of more LUTs corresponding to different drive patterns. The goal of this contribution is to combine the real-time applicability of rule-based power management and the multi-objective optimization property of genetic algorithms in a single control strategy. Component aging problems are addressed by suitable design. The influence of sizing is investigated. Finally, an experimental setup consisting of components capable of realizing the dynamics of real powertrain components is realized and introduced. A verification/plausibility assessment of modeled dynamics based on the literature is considered. This newly-introduced concept represents a class of power management, which is easy to implement, can tackle different objectives in real time, and adapt itself to unknown driver demands.

17. A dynamic inertia weight particle swarm optimization algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Gu Xingsheng

2008-01-01

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and has been applied widely since it was introduced, as it is easily understood and realized. This paper presents an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO) to improve the performance of standard PSO, which uses the dynamic inertia weight that decreases according to iterative generation increasing. It is tested with a set of 6 benchmark functions with 30, 50 and 150 different dimensions and compared with standard PSO. Experimental results indicate that the IPSO improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly

18. Design, Performance and Optimization for Multimodal Radar Operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Surendra S. Bhat

2012-09-01

Full Text Available This paper describes the underlying methodology behind an adaptive multimodal radar sensor that is capable of progressively optimizing its range resolution depending upon the target scattering features. It consists of a test-bed that enables the generation of linear frequency modulated waveforms of various bandwidths. This paper discusses a theoretical approach to optimizing the bandwidth used by the multimodal radar. It also discusses the various experimental results obtained from measurement. The resolution predicted from theory agrees quite well with that obtained from experiments for different target arrangements.

19. Efficient Iris Localization via Optimization Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qi Wang

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Iris localization is one of the most important processes in iris recognition. Because of different kinds of noises in iris image, the localization result may be wrong. Besides this, localization process is time-consuming. To solve these problems, this paper develops an efficient iris localization algorithm via optimization model. Firstly, the localization problem is modeled by an optimization model. Then SIFT feature is selected to represent the characteristic information of iris outer boundary and eyelid for localization. And SDM (Supervised Descent Method algorithm is employed to solve the final points of outer boundary and eyelids. Finally, IRLS (Iterative Reweighted Least-Square is used to obtain the parameters of outer boundary and upper and lower eyelids. Experimental result indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.

20. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

2006-01-01

Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

1. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Branko Božić

1992-12-01

Full Text Available The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in Croatian.

2. Experimental investigation and optimization of welding process parameters for various steel grades using NN tool and Taguchi method

Science.gov (United States)

Soni, Sourabh Kumar; Thomas, Benedict

2018-04-01

The term "weldability" has been used to describe a wide variety of characteristics when a material is subjected to welding. In our analysis we perform experimental investigation to estimate the tensile strength of welded joint strength and then optimization of welding process parameters by using taguchi method and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tool in MINITAB and MATLAB software respectively. The study reveals the influence on weldability of steel by varying composition of steel by mechanical characterization. At first we prepare the samples of different grades of steel (EN8, EN 19, EN 24). The samples were welded together by metal inert gas welding process and then tensile testing on Universal testing machine (UTM) was conducted for the same to evaluate the tensile strength of the welded steel specimens. Further comparative study was performed to find the effects of welding parameter on quality of weld strength by employing Taguchi method and Neural Network tool. Finally we concluded that taguchi method and Neural Network Tool is much efficient technique for optimization.

3. Optimized Control Strategy for a Medium-Voltage DVR-Theoretical Investigations and Experimental Results

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Meyer, Christoph; De Doncker, Rik W.; Li, Yun Wei

2008-01-01

Most power quality problems in distribution systems are related to voltage sags. Therefore, different solutions have been examined to compensate these sags to avoid production losses at sensitive loads. Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) have been proposed to provide higher power quality. Currently......, a system wide integration of DVRs is hampered because of their high cost, in particular, due to the expensive DC-link energy storage devices. The cost of these DC-link capacitors remains high because the DVR requires a minimum DC-link voltage to be able to operate and to compensate a sag. As a result, only...... a small fraction of the energy stored in the DC-link capacitor is used, which makes it impractical for DVRs to compensate relatively long voltage sags. Present control strategies are only able to minimize the distortions at the load or to allow a better utilization of the storage system by minimizing...

4. Experimental results on elongation control using dynamic input allocation at FTU

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Varano, G.; Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

2011-01-01

We report on the experimental results related to a recently proposed control scheme for the regulation of plasma elongation using the poloidal field coils available at FTU, already used for the horizontal position control. The proposed technique allows to realize elongation regulation as a secondary task using the same poloidal coils.

5. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

CERN Document Server

Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

2013-01-01

Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

6. Optimization of Nanocomposite Modified Asphalt Mixtures Fatigue Life using Response Surface Methodology

Science.gov (United States)

Bala, N.; Napiah, M.; Kamaruddin, I.; Danlami, N.

2018-04-01

In this study, modelling and optimization of materials polyethylene, polypropylene and nanosilica for nanocomposite modified asphalt mixtures has been examined to obtain optimum quantities for higher fatique life. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for the optimization based on Box Behnken design (BBD). Interaction effects of independent variables polymers and nanosilica on fatique life were evaluated. The result indicates that the individual effects of polymers and nanosilica content are both important. However, the content of nanosilica used has more significant effect on fatique life resistance. Also, the mean error obtained from optimization results is less than 5% for all the responses, this indicates that predicted values are in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, it was concluded that asphalt mixture design with high performance properties, optimization using RSM is a very effective approach.

7. Energy-resolved computed tomography: first experimental results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2008-01-01

First experimental results with energy-resolved computed tomography (CT) are reported. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT has been improved with x-ray energy weighting for the first time. Further, x-ray energy weighting improved the CNR in material decomposition CT when applied to CT projections prior to dual-energy subtraction. The existing CT systems use an energy (charge) integrating x-ray detector that provides a signal proportional to the energy of the x-ray photon. Thus, the x-ray photons with lower energies are scored less than those with higher energies. This underestimates contribution of lower energy photons that would provide higher contrast. The highest CNR can be achieved if the x-ray photons are scored by a factor that would increase as the x-ray energy decreases. This could be performed by detecting each x-ray photon separately and measuring its energy. The energy selective CT data could then be saved, and any weighting factor could be applied digitally to a detected x-ray photon. The CT system includes a photon counting detector with linear arrays of pixels made from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor. A cylindrical phantom with 10.2 cm diameter made from tissue-equivalent material was used for CT imaging. The phantom included contrast elements representing calcifications, iodine, adipose and glandular tissue. The x-ray tube voltage was 120 kVp. The energy selective CT data were acquired, and used to generate energy-weighted and material-selective CT images. The energy-weighted and material decomposition CT images were generated using a single CT scan at a fixed x-ray tube voltage. For material decomposition the x-ray spectrum was digitally spilt into low- and high-energy parts and dual-energy subtraction was applied. The x-ray energy weighting resulted in CNR improvement of calcifications and iodine by a factor of 1.40 and 1.63, respectively, as compared to conventional charge integrating CT. The x-ray energy weighting was also applied

8. Some new experimental results on the Zr-Nb-Fe system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ramos, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ciramos@cnea.gov.ar; Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granovsky, M.S. [Departamento de Materiales - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-06-30

The scope of this study is the identification and characterization of intermetallic phases and their binary and ternary fields in the Zr-Nb-Fe phase diagram. A construction of the central region of the phase diagram at 900 {sup o}C was proposed using new experimental results obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. In addition to the well-known Laves C15-type (ZrNb)Fe{sub 2} phase (the polytypic C14 and C36 structures were not detected in the studied compositions), another Laves C14-type phase was found (Zr(NbFe){sub 2}). Watson and Bennett maps helped to predict the occurrence of both of these phases. Moreover, the validity of the Pettifor prediction model for Laves phases in pseudobinary systems with transition elements was checked, verifying the obtained experimental results in the Zr-Nb-Fe system. On the other hand it was determined that the Zr-Nb-Fe ternary system at 900 {sup o}C, as it happens in the binary Zr-Nb system, would have a miscibility gap ({beta}-Zr + {beta}-Nb) in the 25-70 at.% Nb composition range, accepting up to 3 at.% Fe approximately.

9. Optimization of catalytic glycerol steam reforming to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zakaria, Z.Y.; Amin, N.A.S.; Linnekoski, J.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Glycerol steam reforming to light olefin using Cu/ZSM-5 process was optimized. • Response surface methodology and multi-objective genetic algorithm were employed. • Second order polynomial model produced adequately fitted experimental data. • Thermodynamic study inferred high temperature requirement for ethylene formation. • Turn-over-frequency at optimized responses is higher than the non-optimized process. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the process parameters for catalytic conversion of glycerol, a byproduct from biodiesel production, to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst. The effects of operating temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and glycerol concentration on light olefins selectivity and yield were observed. Experimental results revealed the data adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The linear temperature and quadratic WHSV terms gave significant effect on both responses. Optimization of both the responses indicated that temperature favouring high light olefin formation lied beyond the experimental design range. The trend in the temperature profile concurred commensurately with the thermodynamic analysis. Multi-objective genetic algorithm was performed to attain a single set of processing parameters that could produce both the highest light olefin selectivity and yield. The turn-over-frequency (TOF) of the optimized responses demonstrated a slightly higher value than the one which was not optimized. Combination of RSM, multi-objective response and thermodynamic is useful to determine the process optimal operating conditions for industrial applications

10. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA)

Science.gov (United States)

Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

2018-05-01

The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

11. A dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization algorithm

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jiao Bin; Lian Zhigang; Chen Qunxian

2009-01-01

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm has been developing rapidly and many results have been reported. PSO algorithm has shown some important advantages by providing high speed of convergence in specific problems, but it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution and one may find it difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine tuning. This paper presents a dynamic global and local combined particle swarm optimization (DGLCPSO) algorithm to improve the performance of original PSO, in which all particles dynamically share the best information of the local particle, global particle and group particles. It is tested with a set of eight benchmark functions with different dimensions and compared with original PSO. Experimental results indicate that the DGLCPSO algorithm improves the search performance on the benchmark functions significantly, and shows the effectiveness of the algorithm to solve optimization problems.

12. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

2014-01-16

Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

13. Characteristics of prompt fission gamma-ray emission - Experimental results and predictions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oberstedt, Andreas; Billnert, Robert; Oberstedt, Stephan

2014-01-01

Systematics from 2001, describing prompt fission gamma-ray spectra (PFGS) characteristics as function of mass and atomic number of the fissioning system, has been revisited and parameters have been revised based on recent experimental results. Although originally expressed for spontaneous and thermal neutron-induced fission, validity for fast neutrons was assumed and applied to predict PFGS characteristics for the reaction n + 238 U up to incident neutron energies of E n = 20 MeV. The results from this work are in good agreement with corresponding results from both model calculations and experiments. (authors)

14. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

15. A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soprani, S.; Haertel, J.H.K.; Lazarov, B.S.; Sigmund, O.; Engelbrecht, K.

2016-01-01

Highlights: • The integration of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler into a robotic tool is optimized. • Topology optimization is suggested as design tool for TE integrated systems. • A 3D optimization technique using temperature dependent TE properties is presented. • The sensitivity of the optimization process to the boundary conditions is studied. • A working prototype is constructed and compared to the model results. - Abstract: Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recovery rate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section of a downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing the temperature of the cooled electronics. Several challenges are addressed: ensuring effective heat transfer from the load, minimizing the thermal resistances within the integrated system, maximizing the thermal protection of the cooled zone, and enhancing the conduction of the rejected heat to the oil well. The design method incorporates temperature dependent properties of the thermoelectric device and other materials. The 3D topology optimization model developed in this work was used to design a thermoelectric system, complete with insulation and heat sink, that was produced and tested. Good agreement between experimental results and

16. Optimization and experimental validation of a thermal cycle that maximizes entropy coefficient fisher identifiability for lithium iron phosphate cells

Science.gov (United States)

Mendoza, Sergio; Rothenberger, Michael; Hake, Alison; Fathy, Hosam

2016-03-01

This article presents a framework for optimizing the thermal cycle to estimate a battery cell's entropy coefficient at 20% state of charge (SOC). Our goal is to maximize Fisher identifiability: a measure of the accuracy with which a parameter can be estimated. Existing protocols in the literature for estimating entropy coefficients demand excessive laboratory time. Identifiability optimization makes it possible to achieve comparable accuracy levels in a fraction of the time. This article demonstrates this result for a set of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells. We conduct a 24-h experiment to obtain benchmark measurements of their entropy coefficients. We optimize a thermal cycle to maximize parameter identifiability for these cells. This optimization proceeds with respect to the coefficients of a Fourier discretization of this thermal cycle. Finally, we compare the estimated parameters using (i) the benchmark test, (ii) the optimized protocol, and (iii) a 15-h test from the literature (by Forgez et al.). The results are encouraging for two reasons. First, they confirm the simulation-based prediction that the optimized experiment can produce accurate parameter estimates in 2 h, compared to 15-24. Second, the optimized experiment also estimates a thermal time constant representing the effects of thermal capacitance and convection heat transfer.

17. Experimental Waterflow Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part Two; Results and Interpretation

Science.gov (United States)

Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

2011-01-01

Experimental results describing the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating J-2X oxidizer turbopump inducer+impeller tested in subscale waterflow are presented. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Dynamic transfer functions across widely varying pump hydrodynamic inlet conditions are extracted from measured data in conjunction with 1D-model based corrections. Derived Dynamic transfer functions are initially interpreted relative to traditional Pogo pump equations. Water-to-liquid oxygen scaling of measured cavitation characteristics are discussed. Comparison of key dynamic transfer matrix terms derived from waterflow testing are made with those implemented in preliminary Ares Upper Stage Pogo stability modeling. Alternate cavitating pump hydraulic dynamic equations are suggested which better reflect frequency dependencies of measured transfer matrices.

18. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results.

Science.gov (United States)

Humada, Ali M; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M; Ahmed, Mushtaq N

2016-01-01

A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

19. Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson

2000-01-01

We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved η=[23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I · V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: η=α·E + η 0 , α=0.8105, η 0 =22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75)

20. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves

2017-01-01

In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2 k experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2 3 and the 2 4 , depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

1. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves, E-mail: uandapaula@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2017-07-01

In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2{sup k} experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2{sup 3} and the 2{sup 4}, depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

2. Acute bacterial endocarditis. Optimizing surgical results.

Science.gov (United States)

Larbalestier, R I; Kinchla, N M; Aranki, S F; Couper, G S; Collins, J J; Cohn, L H

1992-11-01

Acute bacterial endocarditis continues to be a condition with high morbidity. Although the majority of patients are treated by high-dose antibiotics, a high-risk patient group requires surgical intervention, which is the subject of this article. From 1972 to 1991, 3,820 patients underwent heart valve replacement at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston. Of this group, 158 patients underwent surgery for acute bacterial endocarditis: 109 had native valve endocarditis (NVE), and 49 had prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). There were 108 men and 50 women with a mean age of 49 years (range, 16-79 years); 64% were New York Heart Association functional class IV before surgery, and 12% of the group had a history of intravenous drug abuse. In both NVE and PVE groups, Streptococcus was the predominant infecting agent. Uncontrolled sepsis, progressive congestive failure, peripheral emboli, and echocardiographically demonstrated vegetations were the most common indications for surgery. Eighty-five percent of patients had a single-valve procedure, 15% had a multivalve procedure, and 34 patients had other associated major cardiac procedures. The operative mortality was 6% in NVE and 22% in PVE. Long-term survival at 10 years was 66% for NVE and 29% for PVE. Freedom from recurrent endocarditis at 10 years was 85% for NVE and 82% for PVE. The main factors associated with decreased survival overall were PVE and nonstreptococcal infection. The morbidity and mortality after surgical treatment of acute endocarditis depend on the site, the severity, and the subject infected. Early aggressive surgical intervention is indicated to optimize surgical results, especially in patients with nonstreptococcal infection or PVE.

3. Tool Support for Software Lookup Table Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chris Wilcox

2011-01-01

Full Text Available A number of scientific applications are performance-limited by expressions that repeatedly call costly elementary functions. Lookup table (LUT optimization accelerates the evaluation of such functions by reusing previously computed results. LUT methods can speed up applications that tolerate an approximation of function results, thereby achieving a high level of fuzzy reuse. One problem with LUT optimization is the difficulty of controlling the tradeoff between performance and accuracy. The current practice of manual LUT optimization adds programming effort by requiring extensive experimentation to make this tradeoff, and such hand tuning can obfuscate algorithms. In this paper we describe a methodology and tool implementation to improve the application of software LUT optimization. Our Mesa tool implements source-to-source transformations for C or C++ code to automate the tedious and error-prone aspects of LUT generation such as domain profiling, error analysis, and code generation. We evaluate Mesa with five scientific applications. Our results show a performance improvement of 3.0× and 6.9× for two molecular biology algorithms, 1.4× for a molecular dynamics program, 2.1× to 2.8× for a neural network application, and 4.6× for a hydrology calculation. We find that Mesa enables LUT optimization with more control over accuracy and less effort than manual approaches.

4. Experimental results of some cluster tests in NSRR

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kobayashi, Shinsho; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Yoshimura, Tomio; Lussie, W.G.

1978-01-01

The NSRR programme is in progress in JAERI using a pulsed reactor to evaluate the behavior of reactor fuels under reactivity accident conditions. This report describes briefly the experimental results and preliminary analysis of two cluster tests. In the cluster configuration of five fuel rods, the power distribution in outer fuel rods are not symmetric due to neutron absorption in central fuel rod. The cladding temperature on the exterior boundaries of the cluster is higher than that in interior. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured cladding temperature histories. In the 3.8\$ excess reactivity test, cluster averaged energy deposition of 237 cal/g.UO 2 , cladding melting and deformation were limited to the portions of the fuel rods that were on the exterior boundaries of the cluster. (auth.)

5. Modeling and Optimization of a CoolingTower-Assisted Heat Pump System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiaoqing Wei

2017-05-01

Full Text Available To minimize the total energy consumption of a cooling tower-assisted heat pump (CTAHP system in cooling mode, a model-based control strategy with hybrid optimization algorithm for the system is presented in this paper. An existing experimental device, which mainly contains a closed wet cooling tower with counter flow construction, a condenser water loop and a water-to-water heat pump unit, is selected as the study object. Theoretical and empirical models of the related components and their interactions are developed. The four variables, viz. desired cooling load, ambient wet-bulb temperature, temperature and flow rate of chilled water at the inlet of evaporator, are set to independent variables. The system power consumption can be minimized by optimizing input powers of cooling tower fan, spray water pump, condenser water pump and compressor. The optimal input power of spray water pump is determined experimentally. Implemented on MATLAB, a hybrid optimization algorithm, which combines the Limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS algorithm with the greedy diffusion search (GDS algorithm, is incorporated to solve the minimization problem of energy consumption and predict the system’s optimal set-points under quasi-steady-state conditions. The integrated simulation tool is validated against experimental data. The results obtained demonstrate the proposed operation strategy is reliable, and can save energy by 20.8% as compared to an uncontrolled system under certain testing conditions.

6. Optimization Of A Mass Spectrometry Process

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lopes, Jose; Alegria, F. Correa; Redondo, Luis; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Rocha, Jorge

2011-01-01

In this paper we present and discuss a system developed in order to optimize the mass spectrometry process of an ion implanter. The system uses a PC to control and display the mass spectrum. The operator interacts with the I/O board, that interfaces with the computer and the ion implanter by a LabVIEW code. Experimental results are shown and the capabilities of the system are discussed.

7. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiao-Ling Tan

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive

8. Optimal configuration for programmable Moessbauer experiments

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pasquevich, Gustavo A; Veiga, Alejandro L; Zelis, Pedro Mendoza; Sanchez, Francisco H, E-mail: gpasquev@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)

2010-03-01

Based on channel independency of recently developed Moessbauer instrumentation an approximation to optimal configuration of experiments is presented. The analysis relies on the presumption that all the available channels of the spectrum are not equally efficient for a given experimental application. A quantification of this concept is presented and a method for different channel layout comparison is proposed. The optimization of recorded spectra is important in dynamic experiments where efficiency in data taking imposes feasibility limits as well as in static applications as a way of reducing experimental time.

9. The Effect of Learned Optimism on Achievement Motivation and Academic Resilience in Female Adolescents

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-08-01

10. Optimizing Lidars for Wind Turbine Control Applications—Results from the IEA Wind Task 32 Workshop

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eric Simley

2018-06-01

Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 serves as an international platform for the research community and industry to identify and mitigate barriers to the use of lidars in wind energy applications. The workshop “Optimizing Lidar Design for Wind Energy Applications” was held in July 2016 to identify lidar system properties that are desirable for wind turbine control applications and help foster the widespread application of lidar-assisted control (LAC. One of the main barriers this workshop aimed to address is the multidisciplinary nature of LAC. Since lidar suppliers, wind turbine manufacturers, and researchers typically focus on their own areas of expertise, it is possible that current lidar systems are not optimal for control purposes. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop, addressing both practical and theoretical aspects, beginning with a review of the literature on lidar optimization for control applications. Next, barriers to the use of lidar for wind turbine control are identified, such as availability and reliability concerns, followed by practical suggestions for mitigating those barriers. From a theoretical perspective, the optimization of lidar scan patterns by minimizing the error between the measurements and the rotor effective wind speed of interest is discussed. Frequency domain methods for directly calculating measurement error using a stochastic wind field model are reviewed and applied to the optimization of several continuous wave and pulsed Doppler lidar scan patterns based on commercially-available systems. An overview of the design process for a lidar-assisted pitch controller for rotor speed regulation highlights design choices that can impact the usefulness of lidar measurements beyond scan pattern optimization. Finally, using measurements from an optimized scan pattern, it is shown that the rotor speed regulation achieved after optimizing the lidar-assisted control scenario via time domain simulations matches the performance

11. Armature reaction effects on a high temperature superconducting field winding of an synchronous machine: experimental results

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2014-01-01

This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS filed winding. Presented experimental results have confirmed the HTS field winding...

12. Optimization of accelerator control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

1992-01-01

Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

13. Optimization of the fabrication of novel stealth PLA-based nanoparticles by dispersion polymerization using D-optimal mixture design.

Science.gov (United States)

Adesina, Simeon K; Wight, Scott A; Akala, Emmanuel O

2014-11-01

Nanoparticle size is important in drug delivery. Clearance of nanoparticles by cells of the reticuloendothelial system has been reported to increase with increase in particle size. Further, nanoparticles should be small enough to avoid lung or spleen filtering effects. Endocytosis and accumulation in tumor tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect are also processes that are influenced by particle size. We present the results of studies designed to optimize cross-linked biodegradable stealth polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by dispersion polymerization. Nanoparticles were fabricated using different amounts of macromonomer, initiators, crosslinking agent and stabilizer in a dioxane/DMSO/water solvent system. Confirmation of nanoparticle formation was by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). D-optimal mixture statistical experimental design was used for the experimental runs, followed by model generation (Scheffe polynomial) and optimization with the aid of a computer software. Model verification was done by comparing particle size data of some suggested solutions to the predicted particle sizes. Data showed that average particle sizes follow the same trend as predicted by the model. Negative terms in the model corresponding to the cross-linking agent and stabilizer indicate the important factors for minimizing particle size.

14. Optimization of growth medium and fermentation conditions for ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

A sequential optimization approach based on statistical experimental designs was employed to optimize growth medium and fermentation conditions, in order to improve the antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB. Tryptone soyptone broth (TSB) was chosen as the original medium for optimization. Glucose and ...

15. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frachet, Laure

2013-01-01

Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

16. Automatic Multi-Level Thresholding Segmentation Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

L. DJEROU,

2012-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multi-level image thresholding technique, called Automatic Threshold based on Multi-objective Optimization "ATMO" that combines the flexibility of multi-objective fitness functions with the power of a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm "BPSO", for searching the "optimum" number of the thresholds and simultaneously the optimal thresholds of three criteria: the between-class variances criterion, the minimum error criterion and the entropy criterion. Some examples of test images are presented to compare our segmentation method, based on the multi-objective optimization approach with Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods. Our experimental results show that the thresholding method based on multi-objective optimization is more efficient than the classical Otsu’s, Kapur’s and Kittler’s methods.

17. Optimization and testing results of Zr-bearing ferritic steels

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tyburska-Puschel, Beata [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2014-09-01

The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. Ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels are important structural materials for nuclear reactors due to their advantages over other applicable materials like austenitic stainless steels, notably their resistance to void swelling, low thermal expansion coefficients, and higher thermal conductivity. However, traditional FM steels exhibit a noticeable yield strength reduction at elevated temperatures above ~500°C, which limits their applications in advanced nuclear reactors which target operating temperatures at 650°C or higher. Although oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have shown excellent high-temperature performance, their extremely high cost, limited size and fabricability of products, as well as the great difficulty with welding and joining, have limited or precluded their commercial applications. Zirconium has shown many benefits to Fe-base alloys such as grain refinement, improved phase stability, and reduced radiation-induced segregation. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of a new generation of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys to be fabricated using conventional

18. Experimental and numerical results from hybrid retrofitted photovoltaic panels

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rossi, Cecilia; Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Bianco, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

Highlights: • The experimental study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid PV/T panels retrofitting. • The critical role of a thin layer of air between PV panel and back plate is evidenced. • The benefit of the addition of a conductive paste layer is analyzed via FEM simulations. • The use of wood ribs to stick the back plate represents a cheap effective solution. - Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to achieve a better contact between a photovoltaic panel and a thermal plate, in order to cool the PV panel by means of water in the perspective of coupling it with a heat pump. It is believed that this kind of system allows to obtain a higher energy efficiency. The analysis is developed both experimentally and numerically, testing different kinds of configurations in different operating conditions. Simulations are employed to analyze the effect of the variations of the contact resistance between the panel and the thermal plates, demonstrating that the use of a conductive paste increases the overall performance of the panel. Results show interesting possibilities in terms of retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels by employing very simple solutions, such as to fix the thermal plate on the rear of the panel by means of wood ribs

19. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

Science.gov (United States)

Gonome, Hiroki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

2014-01-01

Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering.

20. Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Optimization Approach for Optimal Data Storage Position Identification in Wireless Sensor Networks

Science.gov (United States)

Mohanasundaram, Ranganathan; Periasamy, Pappampalayam Sanmugam

2015-01-01

The current high profile debate with regard to data storage and its growth have become strategic task in the world of networking. It mainly depends on the sensor nodes called producers, base stations, and also the consumers (users and sensor nodes) to retrieve and use the data. The main concern dealt here is to find an optimal data storage position in wireless sensor networks. The works that have been carried out earlier did not utilize swarm intelligence based optimization approaches to find the optimal data storage positions. To achieve this goal, an efficient swam intelligence approach is used to choose suitable positions for a storage node. Thus, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used to find the suitable positions for storage nodes while the total energy cost of data transmission is minimized. Clustering-based distributed data storage is utilized to solve clustering problem using fuzzy-C-means algorithm. This research work also considers the data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to find optimal data storage positions. The algorithm is implemented in a network simulator and the experimental results show that the proposed clustering and swarm intelligence based ODS strategy is more effective than the earlier approaches. PMID:25734182

1. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

2012-01-01

The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

2. Structural optimization of a microjet based cooling system for high power LEDs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sheng Liu; Zhiyin Gan [Institute for Microsystems, School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jianghui Yang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiaobing Luo [Wuhan National Lab of Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

2008-08-15

Based on the previous experiments and simulations reported by the present authors, it was found the cooling system could be optimized to obtain better performance. In this paper, the microjet cooling systems with three different microjet structures were numerically investigated. The numerical model was proven by the experiments. The optimization results demonstrate that the microjet structure with one single inlet but two outlets can achieve better cooling performance. The simulation results show that the maximum temperature of the LED substrate cooled by the optimized microjet cooling device was 23 K lower than that of the LED substrate cooled by the present experimental cooling system. (author)

3. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jenessa Lancaster

2018-02-01

Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based age prediction using machine learning is proposed as a biomarker of brain aging, relating to cognitive performance, health outcomes and progression of neurodegenerative disease. However, even leading age-prediction algorithms contain measurement error, motivating efforts to improve experimental pipelines. T1-weighted MRI is commonly used for age prediction, and the pre-processing of these scans involves normalization to a common template and resampling to a common voxel size, followed by spatial smoothing. Resampling parameters are often selected arbitrarily. Here, we sought to improve brain-age prediction accuracy by optimizing resampling parameters using Bayesian optimization. Using data on N = 2003 healthy individuals (aged 16–90 years we trained support vector machines to (i distinguish between young (<22 years and old (>50 years brains (classification and (ii predict chronological age (regression. We also evaluated generalisability of the age-regression model to an independent dataset (CamCAN, N = 648, aged 18–88 years. Bayesian optimization was used to identify optimal voxel size and smoothing kernel size for each task. This procedure adaptively samples the parameter space to evaluate accuracy across a range of possible parameters, using independent sub-samples to iteratively assess different parameter combinations to arrive at optimal values. When distinguishing between young and old brains a classification accuracy of 88.1% was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 11.5 mm3, smoothing kernel = 2.3 mm. For predicting chronological age, a mean absolute error (MAE of 5.08 years was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 3.73 mm3, smoothing kernel = 3.68 mm. This was compared to performance using default values of 1.5 mm3 and 4mm respectively, resulting in MAE = 5.48 years, though this 7.3% improvement was not statistically significant. When assessing generalisability, best performance was achieved when applying the entire Bayesian

4. Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andrei MELEKHIN

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have developed a mathematical model of process of heat exchange in heat exchange surfaces of apparatuses with the solution of multicriteria optimization problem and check its adequacy to the experimental stand in the visualization of thermal fields, an optimal range of managed parameters influencing the process of heat exchange with minimal metal consumption and the maximum heat output fin heat exchanger, the regularities of heat exchange process with getting generalizing dependencies distribution of temperature on the heat-release surface of the heat exchanger vehicles, defined convergence of the results of research in the calculation on the basis of theoretical dependencies and solving mathematical model.

5. Adaptively optimizing stochastic resonance in visual system

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Tao

1998-08-01

Recent psychophysics experiment has showed that the noise strength could affect the perceived image quality. This work gives an adaptive process for achieving the optimal perceived image quality in a simple image perception array, which is a simple model of an image sensor. A reference image from memory is used for constructing a cost function and defining the optimal noise strength where the cost function gets its minimum point. The reference image is a binary image, which is used to define the background and the object. Finally, an adaptive algorithm is proposed for searching the optimal noise strength. Computer experimental results show that if the reference image is a thresholded version of the sub-threshold input image then the output of the sensor array gives an optimal output, in which the background and the object have the biggest contrast. If the reference image is different from a thresholded version of the sub-threshold input image then the output usually gives a sub-optimal contrast between the object and the background.

6. Experimental investigation of the thermal hydraulics in lead bismuth eutectic-helium experimental loop of an accelerator-driven system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Xi, Wenxuan; Wang, Yong Wei; Li, Xun Feng; Huai, Xiulan; Cal, Jun [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2016-10-15

The heat transfer characteristics between liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) and helium are of great significance for the two-loop cooling system based on an accelerator-driven system (ADS). This paper presents an experimental study on the resistance characteristics and heat transfer performance in a LBE-helium experimental loop of ADS. Pressure drops in the LBE loop, the main heat transfer, and the coupled heat transfer characteristics between LBE and helium are investigated experimentally. The temperature of LBE has a significant effect on the LBE thermo-physical properties, and is therefore considered in the prediction of pressure drops. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with the increasing helium flow rate and the decreasing inlet temperature of helium. Increasing the LBE Reynolds number and LBE inlet temperature promotes the heat transfer performance of main heat transfer and thus the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results give an insight into the flow and heat transfer properties in a LBE-helium heat exchanger and are helpful for the optimization of an ADS system design.

7. Optimization of lipid profile and hardness of low-fat mortadella following a sequential strategy of experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Saldaña, Erick; Siche, Raúl; da Silva Pinto, Jair Sebastião; de Almeida, Marcio Aurélio; Selani, Miriam Mabel; Rios-Mera, Juan; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J

2018-02-01

This study aims to optimize simultaneously the lipid profile and instrumental hardness of low-fat mortadella. For lipid mixture optimization, the overlapping of surface boundaries was used to select the quantities of canola, olive, and fish oils, in order to maximize PUFAs, specifically the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic-EPA, docosahexaenoic acids-DHA) using the minimum content of fish oil. Increased quantities of canola oil were associated with higher PUFA/SFA ratios. The presence of fish oil, even in small amounts, was effective in improving the nutritional quality of the mixture, showing lower n-6/n-3 ratios and significant levels of EPA and DHA. Thus, the optimal lipid mixture comprised of 20, 30 and 50% fish, olive and canola oils, respectively, which present PUFA/SFA (2.28) and n-6/n-3 (2.30) ratios within the recommendations of a healthy diet. Once the lipid mixture was optimized, components of the pre-emulsion used as fat replacer in the mortadella, such as lipid mixture (LM), sodium alginate (SA), and milk protein concentrate (PC), were studied to optimize hardness and springiness to target ranges of 13-16 N and 0.86-0.87, respectively. Results showed that springiness was not significantly affected by these variables. However, as the concentration of the three components increased, hardness decreased. Through the desirability function, the optimal proportions were 30% LM, 0.5% SA, and 0.5% PC. This study showed that the pre-emulsion decreases hardness of mortadella. In addition, response surface methodology was efficient to model lipid mixture and hardness, resulting in a product with improved texture and lipid quality.

8. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

Science.gov (United States)

Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

2016-01-01

A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

9. Optimal control of evaporator and washer plants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niemi, A.J.

1989-01-01

Tests with radioactive tracers were used for experimental analysis of a multiple-effect evaporator plant. The residence time distribution of the liquor in each evaporator was described by one or two perfect mixers with time delay and by-pass flow terms. The theoretical model of a single evaporator unit was set up on the basis of its instantaneous heat and mass balances and such models were fitted to the test data. The results were interpreted in terms of physical structures of the evaporators. Further model parameters were evaluated by conventional step tests and by measurements of process variables at one or more steady states. Computer simulation and comparison with the experimental results showed that the model produces a satisfactory response to solids concentration input and could be extended to cover the steam feed and liquor flow inputs. An optimal feedforward control algorithm was developed for a two unit, co-current evaporator plant. The control criterion comprised the deviations of the final solids content of liquor and the consumption of fresh steam, from their optimal steady-state values. In order to apply the algorithm, the model of the solids in liquor was reduced to two nonlinear differential equations. (author)

10. Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati Prototype

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.; Matone, L.; Sannibale, V.

1996-07-01

A small fixed-mirrors Michelson interferometer has been suggested for VIRGO. The experimental results are excellent and fully confirm the adequacy of the method. The minimum angular misalignment that can be detected in the present set-up is 10 nrad

11. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ribando, R.J.

1979-01-01

A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. The tests were conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during these tests was typical of decay heat levels. Tests were conducted both with zero initial forced flow and with a small initial forced flow. The bypass line was closed in most tests, but open in one. The computer code used to analyze these tests [LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection)] is an ORNL-developed, fast running, one-dimensional, single-phase finite difference model for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

12. Optimization of processing parameters of amaranth grits before grinding into flour

Science.gov (United States)

Zharkova, I. M.; Safonova, Yu A.; Slepokurova, Yu I.

2018-05-01

There are the results of experimental studies about the influence of infrared treatment (IR processing) parameters of the amaranth grits before their grinding into flour on the composition and properties of the received product. Using the method called as regressionfactor analysis, the optimal conditions of the thermal processing to the amaranth grits were obtained: the belt speed of the conveyor – 0.049 m/s; temperature of amaranth grits in the tempering silo – 65.4 °C the thickness of the layer of amaranth grits on the belt is 3 - 5 mm and the lamp power is 69.2 kW/m2. The conducted researches confirmed that thermal effect to the amaranth grains in the IR setting allows getting flour with a smaller size of starch grains, with the increased water-holding ability, and with a changed value of its glycemic index. Mathematical processing of experimental data allowed establishing the dependence of the structural and technological characteristics of the amaranth flour on the IR processing parameters of amaranth grits. The obtained results are quite consistent with the experimental ones that proves the effectiveness of optimization based on mathematical planning of the experiment to determine the influence of heat treatment optimal parameters of the amaranth grits on the functional and technological properties of the flour received from it.

13. Simultaneously learning and optimizing using controlled variance pricing

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Boer, den A.V.; Zwart, B.

2014-01-01

Price experimentation is an important tool for firms to find the optimal selling price of their products. It should be conducted properly, since experimenting with selling prices can be costly. A firm, therefore, needs to find a pricing policy that optimally balances between learning the optimal

14. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

15. Efficiency of operation of wind turbine rotors optimized by the Glauert and Betz methods

Science.gov (United States)

Okulov, V. L.; Mikkelsen, R.; Litvinov, I. V.; Naumov, I. V.

2015-11-01

The models of two types of rotors with blades constructed using different optimization methods are compared experimentally. In the first case, the Glauert optimization by the pulsed method is used, which is applied independently for each individual blade cross section. This method remains the main approach in designing rotors of various duties. The construction of the other rotor is based on the Betz idea about optimization of rotors by determining a special distribution of circulation over the blade, which ensures the helical structure of the wake behind the rotor. It is established for the first time as a result of direct experimental comparison that the rotor constructed using the Betz method makes it possible to extract more kinetic energy from the homogeneous incoming flow.

16. Experimental Study On The Optimization Of Extraction Process Of ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. Materials and Methods: CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of ...

17. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan

2015-01-01

Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

18. A review of experimental results obtained in Au-Au collisions at the RHIC-BNL energies using BRAHMS experimental set-up

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jipa, Alexandru

2003-01-01

Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are useful tools to investigate highly excited dense nuclear matter. At sufficiently high temperature, nuclear matter is expected to undergo a phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. Therefore, new experiments have been proposed to investigate the behaviour of the highly excited dense nuclear matter. One of the experiments performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider from Brookhaven National Laboratory is the BRAHMS Experiment. In the three running years many experimental data have been obtained. These data permitted to establish significant experimental results on charged pion, charged kaon, proton and antiproton production in Au-Au collisions at 130 A GeV and 200 A GeV in CMS. The present work summarizes the main experimental results on charged particle multiplicities, rapidity distributions, momentum spectra, antiparticle to particle ratios and connects these results with some interesting physical quantities. Their dependencies on the available energies in the CMS in similar collisions are included. Interesting behaviours with the increase of this energy are reported. The most interesting are related to the behaviour of the antiproton to proton ratio on the collision centrality and on the available energy in the centre of mass system, the strangeness production, Coulomb repulsion and slope parameters of the momentum spectra. A few new steps in the knowledge of the behaviour of the highly excited and dense nuclear matter can be reported. (authors)

19. Optimized numerical annular flow dryout model using the drift-flux model in tube geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chun, Ji Han; Lee, Un Chul

2008-01-01

Many experimental analyses for annular film dryouts, which is one of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) mechanisms, have been performed because of their importance. Numerical approaches must also be developed in order to assess the results from experiments and to perform pre-tests before experiments. Various thermal-hydraulic codes, such as RELAP, COBRATF, MARS, etc., have been used in the assessment of the results of dryout experiments and in experimental pre-tests. These thermal-hydraulic codes are general tools intended for the analysis of various phenomena that could appear in nuclear power plants, and many models applying these codes are unnecessarily complex for the focused analysis of dryout phenomena alone. In this study, a numerical model was developed for annular film dryout using the drift-flux model from uniform heated tube geometry. Several candidates of models that strongly affect dryout, such as the entrainment model, deposition model, and the criterion for the dryout point model, were tested as candidates for inclusion in an optimized annular film dryout model. The optimized model was developed by adopting the best combination of these candidate models, as determined through comparison with experimental data. This optimized model showed reasonable results, which were better than those of MARS code

20. Formulation, optimization and characterization of cationic polymeric nanoparticles of mast cell stabilizing agent using the Box-Behnken experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Gajra, Balaram; Patel, Ravi R; Dalwadi, Chintan

2016-01-01

The present research work was intended to develop and optimize sustained release of biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) as delivery vehicle for sodium cromoglicate (SCG) using the circumscribed Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) and evaluate its potential for oral permeability enhancement. The 3-factor, 3-level BBD was employed to investigate the combined influence of formulation variables on particle size and entrapment efficiency (%EE) of SCG-CSNPs prepared by ionic gelation method. The generated polynomial equation was validated and desirability function was utilized for optimization. Optimized SCG-CSNPs were evaluated for physicochemical, morphological, in-vitro characterizations and permeability enhancement potential by ex-vivo and uptake study using CLSM. SCG-CSNPs exhibited particle size of 200.4 ± 4.06 nm and %EE of 62.68 ± 2.4% with unimodal size distribution having cationic, spherical, smooth surface. Physicochemical and in-vitro characterization revealed existence of SCG in amorphous form inside CSNPs without interaction and showed sustained release profile. Ex-vivo and uptake study showed the permeability enhancement potential of CSNPs. The developed SCG-CSNPs can be considered as promising delivery strategy with respect to improved permeability and sustained drug release, proving importance of CSNPs as potential oral delivery system for treatment of allergic rhinitis. Hence, further studies should be performed for establishing the pharmacokinetic potential of the CSNPs.

1. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Linguo Li

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

2. Simulation-based optimization of thermal systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jaluria, Yogesh

2009-01-01

This paper considers the design and optimization of thermal systems on the basis of the mathematical and numerical modeling of the system. Many complexities are often encountered in practical thermal processes and systems, making the modeling challenging and involved. These include property variations, complicated regions, combined transport mechanisms, chemical reactions, and intricate boundary conditions. The paper briefly presents approaches that may be used to accurately simulate these systems. Validation of the numerical model is a particularly critical aspect and is discussed. It is important to couple the modeling with the system performance, design, control and optimization. This aspect, which has often been ignored in the literature, is considered in this paper. Design of thermal systems based on concurrent simulation and experimentation is also discussed in terms of dynamic data-driven optimization methods. Optimization of the system and of the operating conditions is needed to minimize costs and improve product quality and system performance. Different optimization strategies that are currently used for thermal systems are outlined, focusing on new and emerging strategies. Of particular interest is multi-objective optimization, since most thermal systems involve several important objective functions, such as heat transfer rate and pressure in electronic cooling systems. A few practical thermal systems are considered in greater detail to illustrate these approaches and to present typical simulation, design and optimization results

3. ACOustic: A Nature-Inspired Exploration Indicator for Ant Colony Optimization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rafid Sagban

2015-01-01

Full Text Available A statistical machine learning indicator, ACOustic, is proposed to evaluate the exploration behavior in the iterations of ant colony optimization algorithms. This idea is inspired by the behavior of some parasites in their mimicry to the queens’ acoustics of their ant hosts. The parasites’ reaction results from their ability to indicate the state of penetration. The proposed indicator solves the problem of robustness that results from the difference of magnitudes in the distance’s matrix, especially when combinatorial optimization problems with rugged fitness landscape are applied. The performance of the proposed indicator is evaluated against the existing indicators in six variants of ant colony optimization algorithms. Instances for travelling salesman problem and quadratic assignment problem are used in the experimental evaluation. The analytical results showed that the proposed indicator is more informative and more robust.

4. Integrated visualization of simulation results and experimental devices in virtual-reality space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ohtani, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Seiji; Shohji, Mamoru; Kageyama, Akira; Tamura, Yuichi

2011-01-01

We succeeded in integrating the visualization of both simulation results and experimental device data in virtual-reality (VR) space using CAVE system. Simulation results are shown using Virtual LHD software, which can show magnetic field line, particle trajectory, and isosurface of plasma pressure of the Large Helical Device (LHD) based on data from the magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium simulation. A three-dimensional mouse, or wand, determines the initial position and pitch angle of a drift particle or the starting point of a magnetic field line, interactively in the VR space. The trajectory of a particle and the stream-line of magnetic field are calculated using the Runge-Kutta-Huta integration method on the basis of the results obtained after pointing the initial condition. The LHD vessel is objectively visualized based on CAD-data. By using these results and data, the simulated LHD plasma can be interactively drawn in the objective description of the LHD experimental vessel. Through this integrated visualization, it is possible to grasp the three-dimensional relationship of the positions between the device and plasma in the VR space, opening a new path in contribution to future research. (author)

5. Optimization of a Fuzzy-Logic-Control-Based MPPT Algorithm Using the Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Po-Chen Cheng

2015-06-01

Full Text Available In this paper, an asymmetrical fuzzy-logic-control (FLC-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic (PV systems is presented. Two membership function (MF design methodologies that can improve the effectiveness of the proposed asymmetrical FLC-based MPPT methods are then proposed. The first method can quickly determine the input MF setting values via the power–voltage (P–V curve of solar cells under standard test conditions (STC. The second method uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO technique to optimize the input MF setting values. Because the PSO approach must target and optimize a cost function, a cost function design methodology that meets the performance requirements of practical photovoltaic generation systems (PGSs is also proposed. According to the simulated and experimental results, the proposed asymmetrical FLC-based MPPT method has the highest fitness value, therefore, it can successfully address the tracking speed/tracking accuracy dilemma compared with the traditional perturb and observe (P&O and symmetrical FLC-based MPPT algorithms. Compared to the conventional FLC-based MPPT method, the obtained optimal asymmetrical FLC-based MPPT can improve the transient time and the MPPT tracking accuracy by 25.8% and 0.98% under STC, respectively.

6. Optimization of Xylanase production from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 by a two-step statistical strategy: Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental design.

Science.gov (United States)

Cui, Fengjie; Zhao, Liming

2012-01-01

The objective of the study was to optimize the nutrition sources in a culture medium for the production of xylanase from Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 using Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design. The Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was first employed to screen the important nutrient sources in the medium for xylanase production by Penicillium sp.WX-Z1 and subsequent use of the response surface methodology (RSM) was further optimized for xylanase production by Box-Behnken design. The important nutrient sources in the culture medium, identified by the initial screening method of Placket-Burman, were wheat bran, yeast extract, NaNO(3), MgSO(4), and CaCl(2). The optimal amounts (in g/L) for maximum production of xylanase were: wheat bran, 32.8; yeast extract, 1.02; NaNO(3), 12.71; MgSO(4), 0.96; and CaCl(2), 1.04. Using this statistical experimental design, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached 46.50 U/mL and an increase in xylanase activity of 1.34-fold was obtained compared with the original medium for fermentation carried out in a 30-L bioreactor.

7. Scale-Independent Biomechanical Optimization

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Schutte, J. F; Koh, B; Reinbolt, J. A; Haftka, R. T; George, A; Fregly, B. J

2003-01-01

...: the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO). They apply this method to the biomechanical system identification problem of finding positions and orientations of joint axes in body segments through the processing of experimental movement data...

8. I-optimal mixture designs

OpenAIRE

GOOS, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

2013-01-01

In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

9. Optimized evaporative cooling for sodium Bose-Einstein condensation against three-body loss

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shobu, Takahiko; Yamaoka, Hironobu; Imai, Hiromitsu; Morinaga, Atsuo; Yamashita, Makoto

2011-01-01

We report on a highly efficient evaporative cooling optimized experimentally. We successfully created sodium Bose-Einstein condensates with 6.4x10 7 atoms starting from 6.6x10 9 thermal atoms trapped in a magnetic trap by employing a fast linear sweep of radio frequency at the final stage of evaporative cooling so as to overcome the serious three-body losses. The experimental results such as the cooling trajectory and the condensate growth quantitatively agree with the numerical simulations of evaporative cooling on the basis of the kinetic theory of a Bose gas carefully taking into account our specific experimental conditions. We further discuss theoretically a possibility of producing large condensates, more than 10 8 sodium atoms, by simply increasing the number of initial thermal trapped atoms and the corresponding optimization of evaporative cooling.

10. Effective Clipart Image Vectorization through Direct Optimization of Bezigons.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Ming; Chao, Hongyang; Zhang, Chi; Guo, Jun; Yuan, Lu; Sun, Jian

2016-02-01

Bezigons, i.e., closed paths composed of Bézier curves, have been widely employed to describe shapes in image vectorization results. However, most existing vectorization techniques infer the bezigons by simply approximating an intermediate vector representation (such as polygons). Consequently, the resultant bezigons are sometimes imperfect due to accumulated errors, fitting ambiguities, and a lack of curve priors, especially for low-resolution images. In this paper, we describe a novel method for vectorizing clipart images. In contrast to previous methods, we directly optimize the bezigons rather than using other intermediate representations; therefore, the resultant bezigons are not only of higher fidelity compared with the original raster image but also more reasonable because they were traced by a proficient expert. To enable such optimization, we have overcome several challenges and have devised a differentiable data energy as well as several curve-based prior terms. To improve the efficiency of the optimization, we also take advantage of the local control property of bezigons and adopt an overlapped piecewise optimization strategy. The experimental results show that our method outperforms both the current state-of-the-art method and commonly used commercial software in terms of bezigon quality.

11. Electrochemomechanical constrained multiobjective optimization of PPy/MWCNT actuators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khalili, N; Naguib, H E; Kwon, R H

2014-01-01

Polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymers have shown a great potential for the fabrication of conjugated polymer-based actuating devices. Consequently, they have been a key point in developing many advanced emerging applications such as biomedical devices and biomimetic robotics. When designing an actuator, taking all of the related decision variables, their roles and relationships into consideration is of pivotal importance to determine the actuator’s final performance. Therefore, the central focus of this study is to develop an electrochemomechanical constrained multiobjective optimization model of a PPy/MWCNTs trilayer actuator. For this purpose, the objective functions are designed to capture the three main characteristics of these actuators, namely their tip vertical displacement, blocking force and response time. To obtain the optimum range of the designated decision variables within the feasible domain, a multiobjective optimization algorithm is applied while appropriate constraints are imposed. The optimum points form a Pareto surface on which they are consistently spread. The numerical results are presented; these results enable one to design an actuator with consideration to the desired output performances. For the experimental analysis, a multilayer bending-type actuator is fabricated, which is composed of a PVDF layer and two layers of PPy with an incorporated layer of multi-walled carbon nanotubes deposited on each side of the PVDF membrane. The numerical results are experimentally verified; in order to determine the performance of the fabricated actuator, its outputs are compared with a neat PPy actuator’s experimental and numerical counterparts. (paper)

12. Parameter and state estimation of experimental chaotic systems using synchronization

Science.gov (United States)

Quinn, John C.; Bryant, Paul H.; Creveling, Daniel R.; Klein, Sallee R.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

2009-07-01

We examine the use of synchronization as a mechanism for extracting parameter and state information from experimental systems. We focus on important aspects of this problem that have received little attention previously and we explore them using experiments and simulations with the chaotic Colpitts oscillator as an example system. We explore the impact of model imperfection on the ability to extract valid information from an experimental system. We compare two optimization methods: an initial value method and a constrained method. Each of these involves coupling the model equations to the experimental data in order to regularize the chaotic motions on the synchronization manifold. We explore both time-dependent and time-independent coupling and discuss the use of periodic impulse coupling. We also examine both optimized and fixed (or manually adjusted) coupling. For the case of an optimized time-dependent coupling function u(t) we find a robust structure which includes sharp peaks and intervals where it is zero. This structure shows a strong correlation with the location in phase space and appears to depend on noise, imperfections of the model, and the Lyapunov direction vectors. For time-independent coupling we find the counterintuitive result that often the optimal rms error in fitting the model to the data initially increases with coupling strength. Comparison of this result with that obtained using simulated data may provide one measure of model imperfection. The constrained method with time-dependent coupling appears to have benefits in synchronizing long data sets with minimal impact, while the initial value method with time-independent coupling tends to be substantially faster, more flexible, and easier to use. We also describe a method of coupling which is useful for sparse experimental data sets. Our use of the Colpitts oscillator allows us to explore in detail the case of a system with one positive Lyapunov exponent. The methods we explored are easily

13. Condenser design optimization and operation characteristics of a novel miniature loop heat pipe

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wan Zhenping; Wang Xiaowu; Tang Yong

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► A novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system was presented. ► Optimal design of condenser was considered. ► The heat transfer performance was investigated experimentally. - Abstract: Loop heat pipe (LHP) is a promising means for electronics cooling since LHP is a exceptionally efficient heat transfer device. In this paper, a novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system is presented and optimal design of condenser is considered seeing that evaporators have been able to handle very high-heat fluxes with low-heat transfer resistances since most of the previous researchers focused on the evaporator of mLHP. The arrayed pins were designed and machined out on the bottom of condenser to enhance condensation heat transfer. The parameters of the arrayed pins, including layout, cross-section shape and area, were optimized by finite element analysis. Tests were carried out on the mLHP with a CPU thermal simulator using forced air convection condenser cooling to validate the optimization. The operation characteristics of the mLHP with optimal design parameters of condenser were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the mLHP can reject head load 200 W while maintaining the cooled object temperatures below 100 °C, and for a variable power applied to the evaporator, the system presents reliable startups and continuous operation.

14. Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichihara, Chihiro; Fujine, Shigenori; Hayashi, Masatoshi

1986-01-01

The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

15. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

2001-01-01

This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

16. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yan Sun

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

17. Macroscopic Dynamic Modeling of Sequential Batch Cultures of Hybridoma Cells: An Experimental Validation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Laurent Dewasme

2017-02-01

Full Text Available Hybridoma cells are commonly grown for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb. For monitoring and control purposes of the bioreactors, dynamic models of the cultures are required. However these models are difficult to infer from the usually limited amount of available experimental data and do not focus on target protein production optimization. This paper explores an experimental case study where hybridoma cells are grown in a sequential batch reactor. The simplest macroscopic reaction scheme translating the data is first derived using a maximum likelihood principal component analysis. Subsequently, nonlinear least-squares estimation is used to determine the kinetic laws. The resulting dynamic model reproduces quite satisfactorily the experimental data, as evidenced in direct and cross-validation tests. Furthermore, model predictions can also be used to predict optimal medium renewal time and composition.

18. Development and Application of a Tool for Optimizing Composite Matrix Viscoplastic Material Parameters

Science.gov (United States)

Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Naghipour Ghezeljeh, Paria; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

2018-01-01

This document describes a recently developed analysis tool that enhances the resident capabilities of the Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) and its application. MAC/GMC is a composite material and laminate analysis software package developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The primary focus of the current effort is to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) capability that helps users optimize highly nonlinear viscoplastic constitutive law parameters by fitting experimentally observed/measured stress-strain responses under various thermo-mechanical conditions for braided composites. The tool has been developed utilizing the MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB) (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA) programming language. Illustrative examples shown are for a specific braided composite system wherein the matrix viscoplastic behavior is represented by a constitutive law described by seven parameters. The tool is general enough to fit any number of experimentally observed stress-strain responses of the material. The number of parameters to be optimized, as well as the importance given to each stress-strain response, are user choice. Three different optimization algorithms are included: (1) Optimization based on gradient method, (2) Genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization and (3) Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The user can mix and match the three algorithms. For example, one can start optimization with either 2 or 3 and then use the optimized solution to further fine tune with approach 1. The secondary focus of this paper is to demonstrate the application of this tool to optimize/calibrate parameters for a nonlinear viscoplastic matrix to predict stress-strain curves (for constituent and composite levels) at different rates, temperatures and/or loading conditions utilizing the Generalized Method of Cells. After preliminary validation of the tool through comparison with experimental results, a detailed virtual parametric study is

19. Optimal coordination and control of posture and movements.

Science.gov (United States)

Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns

2009-01-01

This paper presents a theoretical model of stability and coordination of posture and locomotion, together with algorithms for continuous-time quadratic optimization of motion control. Explicit solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for optimal control of rigid-body motion are obtained by solving an algebraic matrix equation. The stability is investigated with Lyapunov function theory and it is shown that global asymptotic stability holds. It is also shown how optimal control and adaptive control may act in concert in the case of unknown or uncertain system parameters. The solution describes motion strategies of minimum effort and variance. The proposed optimal control is formulated to be suitable as a posture and movement model for experimental validation and verification. The combination of adaptive and optimal control makes this algorithm a candidate for coordination and control of functional neuromuscular stimulation as well as of prostheses. Validation examples with experimental data are provided.

20. Finite element modelling and associated experimentations to optimize and predict the pressing cycle of a future AMBB manufacturing press

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bayle, J.P.; Mezeix, P.; Tronche, E.; Delette, G.; Remy, E.; Picart, S.

2014-01-01

This study presents an approach based on the use of pellet forming numerical digital simulation which enables optimization of the die pressing cycle. Semi-empirical mechanical models were used in an FEM code, CAST3M. Specific powder characterizations were also performed to supply the mechanical parameters of compaction model. The methodology for the identification of five main coefficients (index flow, elastic and plastic parameters) was used with two different powders. The results show that the axial distribution of frictional forces may be changed during die pressing by a modification of the sequence of punch displacements. According to these results and the literature, the pressing cycle can be considered to have an influence on the shape of a sintered pellet through the axial distribution of green density. The process used for the identification of the Cam-Clay model coefficients seems to be in good agreement, even if the changes in certain parameters remain rather unclear and will require follow-up studies to confirm some of the results. The experimental device used produces good quality pellets, and the Radial Open Die Modulus remains the first choice for reduced pellet damage. Much work still remains to be done to fully define the identification process and create the most representative simulations possible before launching an industrial version of a nuclearized press, planned for the last quarter of year 2014. (authors)