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Sample records for optimal tsp tour

  1. Certification of an optimal TSP tour through 85,900 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Applegate, David L.; Bixby, Robert E.; Chvatal, Vasek

    2009-01-01

    We describe a computer code and data that together certify the optimality of a solution to the 85,900-city traveling salesman problem pla85900, the largest instance in the TSPLIB collection of challenge problems...

  2. TSP tour domination and Hamilton cycle decompositions of regular digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we solve a problem by Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502-510) from the context of domination analysis, where the performance of a heuristic algorithm is rated by the number of solutions that are not better than the solution found by the algorithm, rather than...... by the relative performance compared to the optimal value. In particular, we show that for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem, there is a deterministic polynomial time algorithm that finds a tour that is at least as good as the median of all tour values. Our algorithm uses an unpublished theorem...

  3. An ant colony optimization method for generalized TSP problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yang; Xiaohu Shi; Maurizio Marchese; Yanchun Liang

    2008-01-01

    Focused on a variation of the euclidean traveling salesman problem (TSP), namely, the generalized traveling salesman problem (GTSP), this paper extends the ant colony optimization method from TSP to this field. By considering the group influence, an improved method is further improved. To avoid locking into local minima, a mutation process and a local searching technique are also introduced into this method. Numerical results show that the proposed method can deal with the GTSP problems fairly well, and the developed mutation process and local search technique are effective.

  4. Tour Route Multiobjective Optimization Design Based on the Tourist Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question prompted is how to design the tour route to make the tourists get the maximum satisfactions considering the tourists’ demand. The influence factors of the tour route choices of tourists were analyzed and tourists’ behavior characteristics and psychological preferences were regarded as the important influence factors based on the tourist behavioral theories. A questionnaire of tourists’ tour route information and satisfaction degree was carried out. Some information about the scene spot and tourists demand and tour behaviors characteristic such as visit frequency, number of attractions visited was obtained and analyzed. Based on the convey datum, tour routes multiobjective optimization functions were prompted for the tour route design regarding the maximum satisfaction and the minimum tour distance as the optimal objective. The available routes are listed and categorized. Based on the particle swarm optimization model, the priorities of the tour route are calculated and finally the suggestion depth tour route and quick route tour routes are given considering the different tour demands of tourists. The results can offer constructive suggestions on how to design tour routes on the part of tourism enterprises and how to choose a proper tour route on the part of tourists.

  5. Annealing Ant Colony Optimization with Mutation Operator for Solving TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqader M. Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO has been successfully applied to solve a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems such as minimum spanning tree, traveling salesman problem, and quadratic assignment problem. Basic ACO has drawbacks of trapping into local minimum and low convergence rate. Simulated annealing (SA and mutation operator have the jumping ability and global convergence; and local search has the ability to speed up the convergence. Therefore, this paper proposed a hybrid ACO algorithm integrating the advantages of ACO, SA, mutation operator, and local search procedure to solve the traveling salesman problem. The core of algorithm is based on the ACO. SA and mutation operator were used to increase the ants population diversity from time to time and the local search was used to exploit the current search area efficiently. The comparative experiments, using 24 TSP instances from TSPLIB, show that the proposed algorithm outperformed some well-known algorithms in the literature in terms of solution quality.

  6. Annealing Ant Colony Optimization with Mutation Operator for Solving TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Abdulqader M

    2016-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been successfully applied to solve a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems such as minimum spanning tree, traveling salesman problem, and quadratic assignment problem. Basic ACO has drawbacks of trapping into local minimum and low convergence rate. Simulated annealing (SA) and mutation operator have the jumping ability and global convergence; and local search has the ability to speed up the convergence. Therefore, this paper proposed a hybrid ACO algorithm integrating the advantages of ACO, SA, mutation operator, and local search procedure to solve the traveling salesman problem. The core of algorithm is based on the ACO. SA and mutation operator were used to increase the ants population diversity from time to time and the local search was used to exploit the current search area efficiently. The comparative experiments, using 24 TSP instances from TSPLIB, show that the proposed algorithm outperformed some well-known algorithms in the literature in terms of solution quality.

  7. Approximation Algorithms for Optimal Decision Trees and Adaptive TSP Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Anupam; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing optimal decision trees: given a collection of tests which can disambiguate between a set of $m$ possible diseases, each test having a cost, and the a-priori likelihood of the patient having any particular disease, what is a good adaptive strategy to perform these tests to minimize the expected cost to identify the disease? We settle the approximability of this problem by giving a tight $O(\\log m)$-approximation algorithm. We also consider a more substantial generalization, the Adaptive TSP problem. Given an underlying metric space, a random subset $S$ of cities is drawn from a known distribution, but $S$ is initially unknown to us--we get information about whether any city is in $S$ only when we visit the city in question. What is a good adaptive way of visiting all the cities in the random subset $S$ while minimizing the expected distance traveled? For this problem, we give the first poly-logarithmic approximation, and show that this algorithm is best possible unless w...

  8. A SURVEY PAPER ON SOLVING TSP USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION ON GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu khatri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problem such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a survey on different solving TSP using ACO on GPU.

  9. A Survey Paper on Solving TSP using Ant Colony Optimization on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Khatri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problem such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a survey on different solving TSP using ACO on GPU.

  10. OPTIMAL TOUR CONSTRUCTIONS FOR MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIR A. SHAFIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to use mobile robots in a variety of environments are currently being limited by their navigational capability, thus a set of robots must be configured for one specific environment. The problem of navigating an environment is the fundamental problem in mobile robotic where various methods including exact and heuristic approaches have been proposed to solve the problem. This paper proposed a solution to the navigation problem via the use of multiple robots to explore the environment employing heuristic methods to navigate the environment using a variant of a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP known as Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (M-TSP.

  11. Optimal Covering Tours with Turn Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Esther M.; Bender, Michael A.; Demaine, Erik D.; Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S.B.; Sethia, Saurabh

    2003-01-01

    We give the first algorithmic study of a class of ``covering tour'' problems related to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem: Find a polygonal tour for a cutter so that it sweeps out a specified region (``pocket''), in order to minimize a cost that depends mainly on the number of em turns. These problems arise naturally in manufacturing applications of computational geometry to automatic tool path generation and automatic inspection systems, as well as arc routing (``postman'') problems w...

  12. Optimal tree for Genetic Algorithms in the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes optimal tree as a "gauge" for the generation of the initial population at random in the Genetic Algorithms (GA) to benchmark against the good and the bad parent tours. Thus, without having the so-called bad parent tours in the initiate population, it will speed up the GA. The characteristics of the gauge (algorithm, complexity time, trade-off, etc.) will be discussed in this paper as well.

  13. On the Complexity of the Metric TSP under Stability Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalák, Matúš; Schöngens, Marcel; Šrámek, Rastislav; Widmayer, Peter

    We consider the metric Traveling Salesman Problem (Δ-TSP for short) and study how stability (as defined by Bilu and Linial [3]) influences the complexity of the problem. On an intuitive level, an instance of Δ-TSP is γ-stable (γ> 1), if there is a unique optimum Hamiltonian tour and any perturbation of arbitrary edge weights by at most γ does not change the edge set of the optimal solution (i.e., there is a significant gap between the optimum tour and all other tours). We show that for γ ≥ 1.8 a simple greedy algorithm (resembling Prim's algorithm for constructing a minimum spanning tree) computes the optimum Hamiltonian tour for every γ-stable instance of the Δ-TSP, whereas a simple local search algorithm can fail to find the optimum even if γ is arbitrary. We further show that there are γ-stable instances of Δ-TSP for every 1 problem instances which are substantially easier to solve than instances of the general Δ-TSP.

  14. TSP based Evolutionary optimization approach for the Vehicle Routing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouki, Zoulel; Chaar, Besma Fayech; Ksouri, Mekki

    2009-03-01

    Vehicle Routing and Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems (VRP and FJSSP) are two common hard combinatorial optimization problems that show many similarities in their conceptual level [2, 4]. It was proved for both problems that solving techniques like exact methods fail to provide good quality solutions in a reasonable amount of time when dealing with large scale instances [1, 5, 14]. In order to overcome this weakness, we decide in the favour of meta heuristics and we focalize on evolutionary algorithms that have been successfully used in scheduling problems [1, 5, 9]. In this paper we investigate the common properties of the VRP and the FJSSP in order to provide a new controlled evolutionary approach for the CVRP optimization inspired by the FJSSP evolutionary optimization algorithms introduced in [10].

  15. On One Approach to TSP Structural Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Ivanko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study an inverse approach to the traveling salesman reoptimization problem. Namely, we consider the case of the addition of a new vertex to the initial TSP data and fix the simple “adaptation” algorithm: the new vertex is inserted into an edge of the optimal tour. In the paper we consider the conditions describing the vertexes that can be inserted by this algorithm without loss of optimality, study the properties of stability areas, and address several model applications.

  16. Optimal vehicle planning and the search tour problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Thomas A.; Bays, Matthew J.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a problem of optimal planning for unmanned vehicles and illustrate two distinct procedures for its solution. The problem under consideration, which we refer to as the search tour problem, involves the determination of multi-stage plans for unmanned vehicles conducting search operations. These types of problems are important in situations where the searcher has varying performance in different regions throughout the domain due to environmental complexity. The ability to provide robust planning for unmanned systems under difficult environmental conditions is critical for their use in search operations. The problem we consider consists of searches with variable times for each of the stages, as well as an additional degree of freedom for each stage to select from one of a finite set of operational configurations. As each combination of configuration and stage time leads to a different performance level, there is a need to determine the optimal configuration of these stages. When the complexity of constraints on total time, as well as resources expended at each stage for a given configuration, are added, the problem becomes one of non-trivial search effort allocation and numerical methods of optimization are required. We show two solution approaches for this numerical optimization problem. The first solution technique is to use a mixed-integer linear programming formulation, for which commercially available solvers can find optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time. We use this solution as a baseline and compare against a new inner/outer optimization formulation. This inner/outer optimization compares favorably to the baseline solution, but is also amenable to adaptation as the search operation progresses. Numerical examples illustrate the utility of the approach for unmanned vehicle search planning.

  17. People efficiently explore the solution space of the computationally intractable traveling salesman problem to find near-optimal tours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Acuña

    Full Text Available Humans need to solve computationally intractable problems such as visual search, categorization, and simultaneous learning and acting, yet an increasing body of evidence suggests that their solutions to instantiations of these problems are near optimal. Computational complexity advances an explanation to this apparent paradox: (1 only a small portion of instances of such problems are actually hard, and (2 successful heuristics exploit structural properties of the typical instance to selectively improve parts that are likely to be sub-optimal. We hypothesize that these two ideas largely account for the good performance of humans on computationally hard problems. We tested part of this hypothesis by studying the solutions of 28 participants to 28 instances of the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. Participants were provided feedback on the cost of their solutions and were allowed unlimited solution attempts (trials. We found a significant improvement between the first and last trials and that solutions are significantly different from random tours that follow the convex hull and do not have self-crossings. More importantly, we found that participants modified their current better solutions in such a way that edges belonging to the optimal solution ("good" edges were significantly more likely to stay than other edges ("bad" edges, a hallmark of structural exploitation. We found, however, that more trials harmed the participants' ability to tell good from bad edges, suggesting that after too many trials the participants "ran out of ideas." In sum, we provide the first demonstration of significant performance improvement on the TSP under repetition and feedback and evidence that human problem-solving may exploit the structure of hard problems paralleling behavior of state-of-the-art heuristics.

  18. 求解TSP的人工萤火虫群优化算法%Artificial glowworm swarm optimization algorithm for TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永权; 黄正新

    2012-01-01

    人工萤火虫群优化算法是一种新型群体智能算法,已在复杂多目标函数优化方面得到了成功的应用,并表现出良好的性能.为了充分发挥人工萤火虫群优化算法的优点,将该算法与C2Opt算子相结合,设计了求解旅行商问题(TSP)的一个新的高效人工萤火虫群优化算法,并用其求解TSP这一经典的NP难问题.通过对比TSP实例测试,所得结果表明,所提出算法在种群规模较小、迭代次数较少的情况下可以收敛到已知的最优解.%Artificial glowworm swarm optimization(AGSO) algorithm is proposed as a new bionic swarm of intelligent algorithm, which is successfully applied to complicated function optimization, and shows good performance. In order to give full play to the advantages of glowworm swarm optimization, the proposed algorithm is combined with C2Opt operator, and a new efficient AGSO algorithm about travelling salesman problem(TSP) is designed. The numerical experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can find the global optimal solution with less computation and evolving time.

  19. Improving Web Learning through model Optimization using Bootstrap for a Tour-Guide Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael León

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We perform a review of Web Mining techniques and we describe a Bootstrap Statistics methodology applied to pattern model classifier optimization and verification for Supervised Learning for Tour-Guide Robot knowledge repository management. It is virtually impossible to test thoroughly Web Page Classifiers and many other Internet Applications with pure empirical data, due to the need for human intervention to generate training sets and test sets. We propose using the computer-based Bootstrap paradigm to design a test environment where they are checked with better reliability

  20. Ant Colony Optimization ACO For The Traveling Salesman Problem TSP Using Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bajpai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ant colony optimization is a technique which was introduced in 1990s and which can be applied to a variety of discrete combinatorial optimization problem and to continuous optimization. The ACO algorithm is simulated with the foraging behavior of the real ants to find the incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. This pheromone is the indirect communication among the ants. In this paper we introduces the partitioning technique based on the divide and conquer strategy for the traveling salesman problem which is one of the most important combinatorial problem in which the original problem is partitioned into the group of sub problems. And then we apply the ant colony algorithm using candidate list strategy for each smaller sub problems. After that by applying the local optimization and combining the sub problems to find the good solution for the original problem by improving the exploration efficiency of the ants. At the end of this paper we have also be presented the comparison of result with the normal ant colony system for finding the optimal solution to the traveling salesman problem.

  1. A TSP-Based Military Transportations Optimization Model and Its Solution%基于TSP的军交VRP优化模型及其求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦; 宋业新; 李芳; 陈新响

    2011-01-01

    通过引入虚拟配送中心的概念,将军交VRP转化为约束性TSP,然后构建了结构完备且能较好适应LINGO9.0编程规则的优化模型;最后以典型案例为对象进行仿真分析,验证了模型的正确性和求解实现的可行性和高效性.%With the introducing of conceptual virtual distribution center, which transforms the traditional military transportations VRP to a restricting TSP, an optimization model of military transportations VRP is established in accordance with the programming rules of LINGO. In the end, to verify the accuracy of the model, the feasibility and high effectiveness of its solving, a simulation case analysis is provided.

  2. Discrete Glowworm Swarm Optimization Algorithm for TSP Problem%求解TSP问题的离散型萤火虫群优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永权; 黄正新; 刘洪霞

    2012-01-01

    A discrete glowworm swarm optimization (DGSO) algorithm is designed to tackle the travelling salesman problem. A new encoding schema and decoding schema are given with the characteristics of the TSP problem, and a new distance formula and encoding update formula for the new algorithm are given. In order to enhance the capability of the algorithm local searching, and to speed up the algorithm convergence speed, the 2-opt local search scheme is integrated into the new algorithm for solving TSP problem.The proposed algorithm was evaluated on 10 TSP test problems.The numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm can find the global optimal solution with less computation and evolving time. In case of large scale TSP algorithm can achieve optimal solution of the theory and the error of the optimal solution is also less than 1 % .%基于求解TSP问题,提出一种离散型萤火虫群优化(DGSO)算法,该算法结合TSP问题特点,给出一种有效编码和解码方法,并定义适合编码的个体间距离计算公式和编码更新公式.同时,为增强算法求解TSP问题的局部搜索能力,加快算法的收敛速度,算法使用了操作简单的2-Opt优化算子.最后,通过对10个TSP问题进行仿真实验,实验结果表明本文提出的算法是在种群规模较小,迭代次散较少的情况下就可以收敛到已知最优解.在大规模TSP算例中算法获得的最优值与理论最优值的误差也在1%以下.

  3. An Industrial Chemistry Course that Optimizes the Value of Plant Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Plant tours, when emphasized appropriately and fully integrated into an industrial chemistry course, are very useful in motivating students and deepening their understanding of the chemical industry. Emphasis is placed on plant tours as it adds immediacy and a practical flavor to the course and is a good preparation for the graduates who move from…

  4. A novel constructive-optimizer neural network for the traveling salesman problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Khademi, Morteza; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, a novel constructive-optimizer neural network (CONN) is proposed for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). CONN uses a feedback structure similar to Hopfield-type neural networks and a competitive training algorithm similar to the Kohonen-type self-organizing maps (K-SOMs). Consequently, CONN is composed of a constructive part, which grows the tour and an optimizer part to optimize it. In the training algorithm, an initial tour is created first and introduced to CONN. Then, it is trained in the constructive phase for adding a number of cities to the tour. Next, the training algorithm switches to the optimizer phase for optimizing the current tour by displacing the tour cities. After convergence in this phase, the training algorithm switches to the constructive phase anew and is continued until all cities are added to the tour. Furthermore, we investigate a relationship between the number of TSP cities and the number of cities to be added in each constructive phase. CONN was tested on nine sets of benchmark TSPs from TSPLIB to demonstrate its performance and efficiency. It performed better than several typical Neural networks (NNs), including KNIES_TSP_Local, KNIES_TSP_Global, Budinich's SOM, Co-Adaptive Net, and multivalued Hopfield network as wall as computationally comparable variants of the simulated annealing algorithm, in terms of both CPU time and accuracy. Furthermore, CONN converged considerably faster than expanding SOM and evolved integrated SOM and generated shorter tours compared to KNIES_DECOMPOSE. Although CONN is not yet comparable in terms of accuracy with some sophisticated computationally intensive algorithms, it converges significantly faster than they do. Generally speaking, CONN provides the best compromise between CPU time and accuracy among currently reported NNs for TSP.

  5. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer...

  6. 求解旅行商问题的改进果蝇算法%Improved fruit fly optimization algorithm for TSP problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克甫; 薛鹏; 黄全振; 李恒宇

    2014-01-01

    To address a classical NP hard problem of TSP (traveling salesman problem) ,an improved fruit fly optimization algo-rithm was proposed .Aiming at standard fruit fly optimization algorithm having shortcomings of easily plunging into local optimal and low convergence-rate ,the radius of local optimum was introduced ,by which whether the fruit fly was in a local optimum area could be judged .Meanwhile ,the heuristic mutation operator was designed ,the fruit flies selected was mutated by heuristic mutation operator in the radius of local optimum ,which not only protected the optimal individual ,but also improved the diversity of the population and prevented premature .Furthermore ,the strategy of adaptive variable step size was adopted ,which increased search efficiency effectively .Finally ,the convergence of algorithm proposed was proved .Compared to the standard fruit fly opti-mization algorithm and the particle swarm optimization algorithm benchmarked on TSPLIB ,the improved fruit fly optimization algorithm was verified to be efficient .%为了有效解决经典的NP难问题-旅行商问题(traveling salesman problem , TSP),提出了一种改进的果蝇算法。针对果蝇算法存在易陷入局部最优及收敛速度慢的缺点,引入了局部最优半径的概念,以此为依据判断果蝇是否处于局部最优区域;设计了带启发式规则的变异算子,对局部最优半径中选中的果蝇个体进行启发式变异,在保护最优个体的同时,也改善了种群多样性,抑制了早熟现象的产生;采用自适应步长策略,显著提高了搜索效率。对其全局收敛性进行了验证,以TSPLIB为基准与标准果蝇算法、粒子群算法进行了实验对比,对比结果验证了该算法的有效性。

  7. A Smooth Tour Construction Approach for a Mobile Robot with Kinematic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yazici

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are increasingly used for service-like applications in which the service points are known and the mobile robot starts from a starting location, visits all the service points requested and returns to the starting location. The tour construction problem in these applications can be treated as a Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. Classical tour construction algorithms that are proposed for the TSP find tours do not consider robot kinematic constraints. These tours may have sharp turns at some service points. When a mobile robot follows such a tour, it stops, turns and speeds up again. Therefore, the robots waste a considerable amount of power and time. In these cases, tour smoothing can be used to overcome this problem. However, smoothing an existing tour may result in unnecessarily long tours. In this study, a Smooth Tour Construction (STC approach is proposed for mobile robots with kinematic constraints. The STC approach considers tour construction and tour smoothing concurrently. The logic behind the tour construction part of the approach is based on the Savings Algorithm (SA. The tour smoothing is based on Dubins’ arc-line approach. Experiments are conducted for P3-DX robots in a laboratory environment. Comparisons are also drawn with various tour smoothing algorithms in simulation environments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed STC approach.

  8. TSP Symposium 2013 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    de aprendizaje para implementar prácticas de psp y tsp en cursos básicos de programación. Master’s thesis, Universidad EAFIT, 2012. [Cardona 2012b...Cardona, S. & Rincón, R. “Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizaje para la Implementación de Prácticas de PSP y TPS en un Curso de Programación de

  9. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  10. Low-thrust trajectory optimization for multiple target bodies tour mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft science missions to planets or asteroids have historically visited only one or several celestial bodies per mission.The research goal of this paper is to create a trajectory design algorithm that generates trajectory allowing a spacecraft to visit a significant number of asteroids during a single mission.For the problem of global trajectory optimization,even with recent advances in low-thrust trajectory optimization,a full enumeration of this problem is not possible.This work presents an algorith...

  11. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  12. Red Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  13. Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Mömke, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.

  14. 旅行商问题(TSP)的现代优化算法研究%Modern Optimization of Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晨晓; 漆宇星

    2008-01-01

    TSP(Traveling Salesman Problem)旅行商问题是一类典型的NP完全问题,遗传算法是解决NP问题的一种较理想的方法.通过介绍基本遗传算法的基本原理;针对TSP问题,给出遗传算法在选择算子、交叉算子和变异算子等方面的编码实现.并就TSP问题的一个具体城市算例,进行了计算验证.在此基础上,对交叉算子和变异算子提出了改进,大量的计算数据验证了改进方法的有效性.

  15. Virtual Campus Tours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    College campus "tours" offered online have evolved to include 360-degree views, live video, animation, talking tour guides, interactive maps with photographic links, and detailed information about buildings, departments, and programs. Proponents feel they should enhance, not replace, real tours. The synergy between the virtual tour and…

  16. Simulated annealing algorithm for TSP%用模拟退火算法求解TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静丽

    2011-01-01

    货郎担问题,即TSP(Traveling Salesman Problem),是一个组合优化问题。具有NPC计算复杂性。本文分析了模拟退火算法模型,研究了用模拟退火算法求解TSP算法的可行性,并给出了用模拟退火算法求解TSP问题的具体实现方法。%Traveling salesman problem,that TSP(Travelling Salesman Problem),is a combinatorial optimization problem.Computational complexity with the NPC.This paper analyzes the simulated annealing algorithm model to study the simulated annealing algorithm for TSP of the algorithm,and gives the simulated annealing algorithm for TSP on the specific implementation.

  17. Using TSP to Improve Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-13

    team roles • help with applying PSP and TSP principles in unusual situations To achieve full potential, a coach is needed. © 2008 Carnegie Mellon...plan Team strategy Team process Team roles Task plans Detailed plans Quality plan Risk evaluation Risk mitigation plans Alternate plans What if? How

  18. TETRAHEURÍSTICA SISTÉMICA (THS PARA EL TSP SYSTEMIC TETRAHEURISTIC FOR THE TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un novedoso método, basado en elementos del pensamiento sistémico, para solucionar instancias del problema del vendedor viajero (TSP, el cual es comparado en términos de eficacia y eficiencia con "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-wwy exchange improvement" y "branch and bound". El primer apartado introduce la optimización combinatoria, el segundo ofrece un marco de referencia, el tercero presenta la metodología empleada, el cuarto apartado presenta el desarrollo de la tetraheurística sistémica, seguido del análisis de varianza y de rangos de Duncan para los factores: método y cantidad de ciudades; este apartado finaliza con el análisis del comportamiento de la proporción de "fracasos" del algoritmo propuesto a medida que aumenta la complejidad del TSP. Como resultado se obtiene un método para resolver instancias del TSP, conformado por tres heurísticas misionales: 1."vecino más cercano", 2. "sacrificio cortoplacista" y 3. "traslado LIFO", y una de apoyo llamada "búsqueda derecha 4P4". El diseño de la heurística denominada "sacrificio cortoplacista" es inspirado en el análisis sistémico del "vecino más cercano", al cual se le identifica el arquetipo de "soluciones rápidas que fallan", con aplicación a decisiones cotidianas. La tetraheurística sistémica se destaca, respecto a las demás, en solución arrojada y en tiempo computacional consumido, especialmente cuando incrementa la complejidad del TSP.This paper presents a novel method to solve instances of the TSP. This method is comparable in effectiveness and efficiency with "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-way exchange improvement" and "branch and bound". The first section provides a literature review of the combinatorial optimization, the second provides a reference frame, the third the methodology used and the fourth contains, inter alia, system thinking, AxB factorial design and management tool CAP-DO. The fourth

  19. Open Vehicle Routing Problem by Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Gurpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle routing problem (VRP is real-world combinatorial optimization problem which determine the optimal route of a vehicle. Generally, toprovide the efficientvehicle serving to the customer through different services by visiting the number of cities or stops. The VRP follows the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP, in which each of vehicle visiting a set of cities such that every city is visited by exactly one vehicle only once. This work proposes the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO-TSP algorithm to eliminate the tour loop for Open Vehicle routing Problem (OVRP. A key aspect of this algorithm is to plan the routes of buses that must pick up and deliver the school students from various bus stops on time, especially in the case of far distance covered by the vehicle in a rural area and find out the efficient and safe vehicle route.

  20. On the complexity of the multiple stack TSP, kSTSP

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouse, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    The multiple Stack Travelling Salesman Problem, STSP, deals with the collect and the deliverance of n commodities in two distinct cities. The two cities are represented by means of two edge-valued graphs (G1,d2) and (G2,d2). During the pick-up tour, the commodities are stored into a container whose rows are subject to LIFO constraints. As a generalisation of standard TSP, the problem obviously is NP-hard; nevertheless, one could wonder about what combinatorial structure of STSP does the most impact its complexity: the arrangement of the commodities into the container, or the tours themselves? The answer is not clear. First, given a pair (T1,T2) of pick-up and delivery tours, it is polynomial to decide whether these tours are or not compatible. Second, for a given arrangement of the commodities into the k rows of the container, the optimum pick-up and delivery tours w.r.t. this arrangement can be computed within a time that is polynomial in n, but exponential in k. Finally, we provide instances on which a tour...

  1. Regression Test Case Selection for MultiObjective Optimization Using Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaudhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new heuristic algorithm is proposed by this paper, on multi-objective optimization using metaheuristics and TSP (travelling salesman problems. Basic thinking behind this algorithm is minimizing the TSP path or tour by dividing the entire tour into blocks that are overlapped to each other and then improve each individual block separately. Although it is unproven that a good solution have small improvement chances if a node moved far way to a position compared to its original solution. By intensively searching each block, further improvement is possible in TSP path or tour that never be supported in various search methods and genetic algorithm. Proposed algorithm and computational experiment performance was tested, and these tests are carried out with support of already present instances of problem. According to the results represented by paper, the computation verifies that proposed algorithm can solve TSPs efficiently. Proposed algorithm is then used for selecting optimal test cases, thousands of those test cases which are selected after confirming that they identify bugs and they itself selected from a repository of test cases; these thousand test cases are those test cases which are selected from several thousand test cases because they detect bugs. Few test cases from repository act as milestones (nodes and having certain weight associated with each, proposed algorithm based on TSP implemented over selected result and select the optimal result or path or solution. These selected optimal test cases or selected path are further used to perform the regression testing, by applying those test cases selected by proposed algorithm in order to remove most of the faults or bugs effectively, i.e. take less time and identify almost all the bugs with few test cases. Hence this proposed algorithm assures most effective solution for regression testing test case selection.

  2. On approximating multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized app

  3. Temperature Switch PCR (TSP: Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather Diane E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP, a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. Results We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Conclusion Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  4. Assisted Cycling Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  5. Solving Large-Scale TSP Using a Fast Wedging Insertion Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new partitioning method, called Wedging Insertion, is proposed for solving large-scale symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The idea of our proposed algorithm is to cut a TSP tour into four segments by nodes’ coordinate (not by rectangle, such as Strip, FRP, and Karp. Each node is located in one of their segments, which excludes four particular nodes, and each segment does not twist with other segments. After the partitioning process, this algorithm utilizes traditional construction method, that is, the insertion method, for each segment to improve the quality of tour, and then connects the starting node and the ending node of each segment to obtain the complete tour. In order to test the performance of our proposed algorithm, we conduct the experiments on various TSPLIB instances. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm in this paper is more efficient for solving large-scale TSPs. Specifically, our approach is able to obviously reduce the time complexity for running the algorithm; meanwhile, it will lose only about 10% of the algorithm’s performance.

  6. Finding the Minimum Ratio Traveling Salesman Tour by Artificial Ants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马良; 崔雪丽; 姚俭

    2003-01-01

    Ants of artificial colony are able to generate good solutions to the famous traveling salesman problem (TSP).We propose an artificial ants algorithm for solving the minimum ratio TSP, which is more general than the standard TSP in combinatorial optimization area. In the minimum ratio TSP, another criterion concerning each edge is added, that is,the traveling salesman can have a benefit if he travels from one city to another. The objective is to minimize the ratio between total costs or distances and total benefits. The idea of this type of optimization is in some sense quite similar to that of traditional cost-benefit analysis in management science. Computational results substantiate the solution quality and efficiency of the algorithm.

  7. 多元组合ACS-TSP系统%A Multi-Metaheuristic Combined ACS-TSP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳

    2015-01-01

    文章提出了用多算法结合蚁族系统(ACS)求解旅行商问题(TSP)的方法,介绍了在ACS-TSP问题上的遗传算法,目的是为了寻找处理旅行商早期停滞现象的解空间.此外,还提出了一种新的最小生成树(MST)算法,结合最近邻(NN)来创建一个初始架构,以便又快又好地解决旅行商问题.%This paper presents a Multi-Metaheuristic combined Ant Colony System (ACS)-Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) al-gorithm for solving the TSP. We introduce genetic algorithm in ACS-TSP to search solutions space for dealing with the early stagnation problem of the traveling salesman problem. Moreover, we present a new strategy of Minimum Spanning Tree(MST) coupled with Nearest Neighbor(NN) to construct a initial tour for improving TSP thus obtaining good solutions quickly. According to our simulation results, the new algorithm can provide a significant improvement for obtaining a global optimum solution or a near global optimum solution in large TSPs.

  8. Tours in Virtual Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, R.

    2009-12-01

    The most significant new feature to appear in Google Earth 5.0 in February was the tour feature, it can produce eye catching and appealing animations as was shown by the Apollo 11 Tour which shows a model of the lunar module descending to the surface of the moon. It allows users to record themselves navigating around Google Earth switching elements on and off. The use of the tour functionality goes beyond exciting animations, it has important applications as a way of; introducing users to a larger data set presented in a Virtual Globe, offering an alternative to PowerPoint as a platform to support presentations and as a quick way to produce powerful visualizations for education purposes. In this talk I will explore how best to use to tours to present a range of spatial data and examine how the Google Earth tour compares to similar functionality that is appearing in other Virtual Globes and other 3D environments such as Second Life.

  9. EcoTour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Torp, Kristian;

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation is essential in combating global warming and climate change. Eco-routing enables drivers to use the most eco-friendly routes and is effective in reducing the emissions from vehicular transportation. The EcoTour system assigns eco......-weights to a road network based on GPS and CAN bus data collected from vehicles to enable eco-routing. Given an arbitrary source-destination pair in Denmark, EcoTour returns the shortest route, the fastest route, and the eco-route, along with statistics for the three routes. EcoTour also serves as a testbed...... for exploring advanced solutions to a range of challenges related to eco-routing....

  10. Tour - Retour - Pretour - Detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen "Tour - Retour - Pretour - Detour" er den første omfattende gennemgang af den danske billedkunstner Reinier Lucassens assemblager og modifikationer. Udgangspunkt er værkernes tidsmæssige, rummæssige og historiske fleretydighed. Lucassens "retours" (f.eks. "Retour van de Antieken", de ant...

  11. Tall Tales on Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Linda; Silk, Lynn

    "Tall Tales on Tour" consists of a mobile unit of books, posters, puppets, plays, videos, teachers' guides and other resources designed to kindle enthusiasm and love for tall tales in students in grades 3-8 and to establish links with rural Washington County, Maine, schools. The program consists of three main components: (1) immersing…

  12. Some tours are more equal than others : The convex-hull model revisited with lessons for testing models of the Traveling Salesperson Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.; Plaisier, M.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2008-01-01

    To explain human performance on the Traveling Salesperson problem (TSP), MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle (2000) proposed that humans construct solutions according to the steps described by their convex-hull algorithm. Focusing on tour length as the dependent variable, and using only random or semi

  13. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  14. The Round Robin Library Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an orientation tour allowing library staff to work together in introducing large numbers of students to library services and facilities. Groups of students move through a series of five stations in an hour's tour with a minimum of congestion and traffic. (Author/RAA)

  15. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E

    2015-10-01

    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  16. Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of TSP1 and TSP6 Gene of Echinococcus granulosus%细粒棘球蚴TSP1和TSP6基因的克隆及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田莉; 孟庆玲; 乔军; 陈诚; 马玉; 胡政香; 才学鹏; 陈创夫

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the function of two important antigen genes tetraspanin 1-TSP1( TSP1 )and tet-raspanin 1-TSP6(TSP6),primers derived from Echinococcus granulosus genome database in GenBank were designed and the open reading frame( ORF)sequences of TSP1 and TSP6 were cloned by RT-PCR from hydatid protoscolex. Then they were cloned into pMD19-T vector for bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the TSP1 cDNA contains 792 nucleotides. The deduced protein consisted of 263 amino acids and has three N-glycosylation sites,two N-acylation sites. The gene sequence showed about 98. 99% identity with the TSP1(EG 11043)reported and the induced amino acid sequence showed about 98. 48% identity. The TSP6 cDNA contains 666 nucleotides. The de-duced protein consisted of 221 amino acids and has five N-acylation sites,one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites. The gene sequence showed about 98. 18% identity with the TSP6(EG 00715)reported and the induced ami-no acid sequence showed about 85. 07% identity. The study carried out bioinformatics analysis of the TSP1 and TSP6 gene of Eg by molecular biology software to predict the structure and epitope of protein antigens known and laid a good foundation for the preparation of developing a vaccine.%为了研究绵羊细粒棘球蚴重要抗原基因 Tetraspanin 1-TSP1( TSP1)和 Tetraspanin 1-TSP6( TSP6)的功能,对GenBank中 Eg基因组数据库检索,获得 TSP1和 TSP6的 cDNA序列并设计特异性引物。以 Eg头节为总 RNA 模板,进行 RT-PCR,将 PCR产物克隆到 pMD19-T载体后测序并进行生物信息学分析。TSP1 cDNA 全长792个核苷酸,编码263个氨基酸,该多肽含有3个潜在的 N端糖基化位点,2个 N 端酰基化位点,与已登录的标准株 TSP1基因序列(EG 11043)同源性为98.99%,其推导的氨基酸序列同源性为98.48%;TSP6 cDNA 全长666个核苷酸,编码221个氨基酸,该多肽含有5个 N 端酰基化位点,1个酪氨酸激酶磷

  17. Virtual Tour of the Gulag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stépán Cernousek

    2015-01-01

    .... The virtual tour is the result of three Czech expeditions to the furthest flung parts of Siberia (in 2009, 2011, and 2013), aiming to map what has remained of the abandoned Gulag camps in those areas.

  18. HAM/TSP and major depression: the role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Boa-Sorte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of demographic variables in the relationship between the presence of HAM/TSP and current major depression.Methods: It is a cross-sectional study of 108 HTLV-1 infected patients (47 with TSP/HAM resident of Salvador, Brazil. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian Version 5 was used to evaluate the presence of depression. Prevalence ratios were used to describe relationship between HAM/TSP and depression. The HAM/TSP classification was carried out according to the criteria proposed by Castro-Costa et al.Results: Prevalence of depression was 37.96%. No association was observed between presence of HAM/TSP and diagnosis of current major depression in the global analysis of patients (PR: 0.94; CI 95%: 0.57-1.55. In the stratified analysis, however, greater prevalence of depres- sion was observed amongst individuals with HAM/TSP in the 18-39 age group (PR: 2.59; CI 95%: 1.36-4.95.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that age is an effect modifier in the relationship between HAM/TSP and depression, and this aspect should be considered in future studies on the topic.

  19. Improving Christofides' Algorithm for the s-t Path TSP

    CERN Document Server

    An, Hyung-Chan; Shmoys, David B

    2011-01-01

    We present a deterministic (1+sqrt(5))/2-approximation algorithm for the s-t path TSP. Given a symmetric metric cost between n vertices including two prespecified endpoints, the problem is to find a shortest Hamiltonian path between the two endpoints; Hoogeveen showed that the natural variant of Christofides' algorithm is a 5/3-approximation algorithm for this problem, and this asymptotically tight bound in fact has been the best approximation ratio known until now. We modify this algorithm so that it chooses the initial spanning tree based on an optimal solution to the Held-Karp relaxation rather than a minimum spanning tree; we prove this simple but crucial modification leads to an improved approximation ratio, surpassing the 20-year-old barrier set by the natural Christofides' algorithm variant. Our algorithm also proves an upper bound of (1+sqrt(5))/2 on the integrality gap of the path-variant Held-Karp relaxation. The techniques devised in this paper can be applied to other optimization problems over s-t...

  20. SMALL AND LARGE TSP - 2 POLYNOMIALLY SOLVABLE CASES OF THE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAL, R; VANDERVEEN, JAA; SIERKSMA, G

    1993-01-01

    The problem of minimizing and maximizing the objective function of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is discussed. In particular, we consider two special cases of the TSP, namely the small TSP and the large TSP, for which both a minimum and a maximum of the objective function can be obtained in

  1. 76 FR 32980 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... telecommunications vendors to provide priority provisioning and restoration of telecommunications services supporting..., National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number:...

  2. Learning and Personality on Study Tours Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shin Yu; Harris, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Study tours abroad are important arenas for post-compulsory education. This paper focuses on how personality affects students' learning on study tours abroad. The research involved 66 learners from one higher education institution in Taiwan on tours to the UK, the USA and Australia. Data were gathered using questionnaires and learning journals,…

  3. Towards a PTAS for the generalized TSP in grid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachay, Michael; Neznakhina, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    The Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem (GTSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem, which is to find a minimum cost cycle visiting one point (city) from each cluster exactly. We consider a geometric case of this problem, where n nodes are given inside the integer grid (in the Euclidean plane), each grid cell is a unit square. Clusters are induced by cells `populated' by nodes of the given instance. Even in this special setting, the GTSP remains intractable enclosing the classic Euclidean TSP on the plane. Recently, it was shown that the problem has (1.5+8√2+ɛ)-approximation algorithm with complexity bound depending on n and k polynomially, where k is the number of clusters. In this paper, we propose two approximation algorithms for the Euclidean GTSP on grid clusters. For any fixed k, both algorithms are PTAS. Time complexity of the first one remains polynomial for k = O(log n) while the second one is a PTAS, when k = n - O(log n).

  4. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  5. China-ASEAN Friendship Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC launched the China-ASEAN Friendship Tour,a large scale series of activities to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of dialogue relations between China and ASEAN and the Year of China-ASEAN Friendship and Cooperation.

  6. Stennis Space Center Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Have you ever wanted to visit Stennis Space Center? Or perhaps you have and you're ready to come back. Either way, you can visit Stennis Space Center from anywhere in world! Click on the video to begin your tour.

  7. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  8. Virtual Tour of the Gulag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernousek Stépán

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a virtual tom of the Gulag camp (www.gulag.cz , which consists of the 3D visualization of the labour camp and the panoramic toms of all types of barracks. It is a unique opportunity to familiarize with the conditions, to see how Gulag camps really looked like, especially as there is no museum built from former Gulag camps in Russia today. The description of everyday life in the camp is illustrated by witnesses’ testimonies. The tour is accompanied by a general overview of the Gulag system and the stories of Czechoslovak, Hungarian, and Polish citizens arrested in the Gulag. The virtual tour is the result of three Czech expeditions to the furthest flung parts of Siberia (in 2009, 2011, and 2013, aiming to map what has remained of the abandoned Gulag camps in those areas.

  9. A tour in sign language

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    In early May, CERN welcomed a group of deaf children for a tour of Microcosm and a Fun with Physics demonstration.   On 4 May, around ten children from the Centre pour enfants sourds de Montbrillant (Montbrillant Centre for Deaf Children), a public school funded by the Office médico-pédagogique du canton de Genève, took a guided tour of the Microcosm exhibition and were treated to a Fun with Physics demonstration. The tour guides’ explanations were interpreted into sign language in real time by a professional interpreter who accompanied the children, and the pace and content were adapted to maximise the interaction with the children. This visit demonstrates CERN’s commitment to remaining as widely accessible as possible. To this end, most of CERN’s visit sites offer reduced-mobility access. In the past few months, CERN has also welcomed children suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum (a genetic disorder causing extreme sensiti...

  10. A tour about Isaac Newton's life

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, A C

    2012-01-01

    Here we propose a tour about the life of Isaac Newton, using a georeferenced method, based on the free satellite maps. Our tour is modelled on the time-line of the great scientist's life, as an ancient "itinerarium" was modelled on the Roman roads, providing a listing of places and intervening distances, sometimes with short description or symbols concerning the places. KML language and Google Earth, with its Street View and 3D images are powerful tools to create this virtual tour.

  11. Optimization of Adaptive Transit Signal Priority Using Parallel Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwei Zhou; Albert Gan; L. David Shen

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of adaptive traffic signal timing is one of the most complex problems in traffic control systems. This paper presents an adaptive transit signal priority (TSP) strategy that applies the parallel genetic algorithm (PGA) to optimize adaptive traffic signal control in the presence of TSP. The method can optimize the phase plan, cycle length, and green splits at isolated intersections with consideration for the performance of both the transit and the general vehicles. A VISSlM (VISual SIMulation) simulation testbed was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed PGA-based adaptive traffic signal control with TSP.The simulation results show that the PGA-based optimizer for adaptive TSP outperformed the fully actuated NEMA control in all test cases. The results also show that the PGA-based optimizer can produce TSP timing plans that benefit the transit vehicles while minimizing the impact of TSP on the general vehicles.

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Percentage of customer satisfaction reports on carrier performance. ... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance... measures may include, but are not limited to the: (a) TSP's percentage of on-time deliveries;...

  13. Improved exact method for the double TSP with multiple stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The Double TSP with Multiple Stacks is a logistics problem where one must, using a container, transport a given number of orders from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers at minimum cost. Each order corresponds to the movement of one pallet, all pickups must be completed before...

  14. RFP for the Comet Nuclei Tour (CONTOUR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program.......This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program....

  15. ETH Zurich tour at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Right to left: Thomas Wobmann and Markus Zemp visit the LHC tunnel at CERN with G nther Dissertori and Marcel Wyler of ETH Zurich. Their visit was part of the top prize for a competition organised by the ETH department of physics to coincide with its open day in June. Residents of Zurich and surrounding Swiss cantons were invited to answer five physics questions broadcast on local radio and the Internet the week before the open day. The two winners' reward for knowing who did not believe that God plays dice, among other things, was a flight offered by Swiss International Air Lines to Geneva and a VIP tour of CERN. One highlight was a trip to the underground site of the future CMS experiment, where the scale of the enormous cavern makes construction machines look like children's toys.

  16. Direct use of mineral fertilizers MAP, DAP, and TSP as heterogeneous catalysts in organic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Bahammou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reported the first use of phosphate fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions.  Their catalytic activities were investigated in the first time in Knoevenagel condensation of various aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile at room temperature.  These minerals phosphate showed high catalytic activities and ability to be recovering and reusing without a significant loss in their catalytic activities.  In order to reach the optimal reaction conditions for Knoevenagel condensation, we carried out a kinetic study of the effect of reaction time, the effect of solvent, the amount of catalysts and the variation of the range of the particles size the more active.  The best conditions were obtained by the use of these fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP in their commercial status, simply crashed in powder, without any purification, using ethanol as solvent.  These phosphate fertilizers prove to be very promising and effective heterogeneous catalysts for the condensation of Knoevenagel.

  17. Structural Properties of Hard Metric TSP Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mömke, Tobias

    The metric traveling salesman problem is one of the most prominent APX-complete optimization problems. An important particularity of this problem is that there is a large gap between the known upper bound and lower bound on the approximability (assuming P ≠ NP). In fact, despite more than 30 years of research, no one could find a better approximation algorithm than the 1.5-approximation provided by Christofides. The situation is similar for a related problem, the metric Hamiltonian path problem, where the start and the end of the path are prespecified: the best approximation ratio up to date is 5/3 by an algorithm presented by Hoogeveen almost 20 years ago.

  18. Childhood-onset HAM/TSP with progressive cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanna; Mancuso, Roberta; Nardocci, Nardo; Farina, Laura; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2010-04-01

    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy, usually with adult-onset. Very few cases of childhood-onset have been described, most presenting with progressive paraparesis and sphincteric disturbances as in the adult form. Here we report a young male with childhood-onset of HAM/TSP and progressive cognitive and behavioral disturbances. A serological screening revealed HTLV-I infection, confirmed by Western Immunoblotting analysis. Molecular characterization of amplified HTLV-I proviral DNA has been performed both in the patient and his mother by LTR sequence analysis, and HLA genotype inheritance was evaluated. Our case indicates the possibility that cognitive dysfunctions may be one manifestation of HTLV-I infection in childhood.

  19. Economic tour package model using heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Bakar, Engku Muhammad Nazri Engku Abu

    2014-07-01

    A tour-package is a prearranged tour that includes products and services such as food, activities, accommodation, and transportation, which are sold at a single price. Since the competitiveness within tourism industry is very high, many of the tour agents try to provide attractive tour-packages in order to meet tourist satisfaction as much as possible. Some of the criteria that are considered by the tourist are the number of places to be visited and the cost of the tour-packages. Previous studies indicate that tourists tend to choose economical tour-packages and aiming to visit as many places as they can cover. Thus, this study proposed tour-package model using heuristic approach. The aim is to find economical tour-packages and at the same time to propose as many places as possible to be visited by tourist in a given geographical area particularly in Langkawi Island. The proposed model considers only one starting point where the tour starts and ends at an identified hotel. This study covers 31 most attractive places in Langkawi Island from various categories of tourist attractions. Besides, the allocation of period for lunch and dinner are included in the proposed itineraries where it covers 11 popular restaurants around Langkawi Island. In developing the itinerary, the proposed heuristic approach considers time window for each site (hotel/restaurant/place) so that it represents real world implementation. We present three itineraries with different time constraints (1-day, 2-day and 3-day tour-package). The aim of economic model is to minimize the tour-package cost as much as possible by considering entrance fee of each visited place. We compare the proposed model with our uneconomic model from our previous study. The uneconomic model has no limitation to the cost with the aim to maximize the number of places to be visited. Comparison between the uneconomic and economic itinerary has shown that the proposed model have successfully achieved the objective that

  20. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    appropriate roles 1. Are you prepared to describe team roles , if asked? 2. Have you and the team leader discussed whether the team leader wants to...give any guidance regarding team roles ? 3. If this is a relaunch, have you talked with the team leader about whether the same roles will continue...written reports prepared for these meetings? E-9 Guide team in fulfilling TSP team roles 1. Which roles are most active? Or inactive? Why? 2. Are

  1. A Discrete Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-bin; Yang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) is a newly developed bio-inspired algorithm. The continuous variant version of FOA has been proven to be a powerful evolutionary approach to determining the optima of a numerical function on a continuous definition domain. In this study, a discrete FOA (DFOA) is developed and applied to the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a common combinatorial problem. In the DFOA, the TSP tour is represented by an ordering of city indices, and the bio-inspired meta-heuristic search processes are executed with two elaborately designed main procedures: the smelling and tasting processes. In the smelling process, an effective crossover operator is used by the fruit fly group to search for the neighbors of the best-known swarm location. During the tasting process, an edge intersection elimination (EXE) operator is designed to improve the neighbors of the non-optimum food location in order to enhance the exploration performance of the DFOA. In addition, benchmark instances from the TSPLIB are classified in order to test the searching ability of the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed DFOA is compared to that of other meta-heuristic algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed DFOA can be effectively used to solve TSPs, especially large-scale problems. PMID:27812175

  2. Analysis of the offer of chosen tour operator

    OpenAIRE

    Boušová, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the analysis of tour operator Victoria offer. In theoretical part there are defined basic terms of tourism industry, such as tour operator, tour agent and holiday package. Next part analyzes the offer of the tour operator, which is based on Victoria's profile and services, which are provided by the tour operator. The third part contains important information about the sale. There are mentioned terms of payment, discount programmes, commission sale and forms of pr...

  3. Footprints of China Auto Internatienal Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ November 2008,the Sixth China Auto International(Algeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour is ready.Since the first session was held in 1995,the Chinese auto enterprises have been to Vietnam,Cambodia,Syria,and Russian.

  4. Student Interns Tour Two NIH Facilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-five Werner H. Kirsten student interns toured the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda in August to learn about the services and opportunities available.

  5. Student Interns Tour Two NIH Facilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-five Werner H. Kirsten student interns toured the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda in August to learn about the services and opportunities available.

  6. Arsenal tour shows signs of life

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article about the first public tour of wildlife habitat on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Wildlife Refuge prior to refuge establishment.

  7. Tourists Co-producing Guided Tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas; Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2013-01-01

    be said to perform both in and out of tune with guide's script and the interaction order of guiding more broadly. What is distinctive and innovative about the perspective is that we regard guides and tourists as mutual depending co-producers of the guided tour. First, the article begins with a short......The guided tour is a stigmatized tourist practice. In contrast to studies portraying sightseeing tours as an over-determined stage where tourists passively follow prescripted routes and scripts, this article also uncovers creativity, detours and productive practices. We examine how tourists can...... discussion of some of Goffman's central concepts. Second, we move on to a more general discussion of how front-stage tourism services are performances where both tourist staff and guests play their part. Third, we examine ethnographically how participants on guided tours in Copenhagen co...

  8. Delmarva Fox Squirrel Refuge Tour Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report by members of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel Recovery Team, the South Zone Biologist, and the Regional Forester that summarizes a tour of Chincoteague...

  9. NEWS ABOUT HOPITAL DE LA TOUR

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylvain Weisz

    2002-01-01

    Mr. James Bissell, Director of the Hôpital de La Tour, has directly circulated the medical practitioners in the area and some of you with a letter setting out to defend the financial interests of his establishment. This initiative, which was taken without consulting us, is designed to sow confusion about the scale of La Tour price rises and the unequal treatment we are receiving, as compared with individuals insured with Swiss health insurance firms. In fact, the letter from La Tour (published on our site) casts doubt on our statements in the CHIS Bull' No. 12, which we reassert here, viz., the average increase in rates that La Tour charges CERN Members is 15%; the discounts that we have been able to negotiate with the Cantonal Hospital and other private hospital institutions in Geneva such as the Clinique Générale Beaulieu constitute savings of 20 to 40% by comparison with rates charged at La Tour; for outpatient care, La Tour does not charge the same rates to Members of the CHIS as it does to those b...

  10. Store Tours: Accessing Museums’ Stored Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda G. Caesar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Science Museum, London, it is envisioned that the future of the collection lies with the creation of an open storage centre, a means to ensure that its stored collections become a permanent way of engagement with the public. Access to stored collections is a topical subject, and open storage has been adopted by many museums as an access strategy. This report explores the use of a particular interpretation method: guided tours of the stores. Are store tours a worthwhile investment? Should store tours be used as an interpretative medium for accessing stored collections on a national level? Are store tours the best tool to engage the public in stored collections? What do store tours provide as a means of accessing or promoting engagement in museum’s stored collections? Are they indeed the access tool of the future? This paper reviews these questions, drawing on the data from a series of store tours hosted in 2004 and 2005 by the Science Museum, London.

  11. Accelerating Time-Varying Hardware Volume Rendering Using TSP Trees and Color-Based Error Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Shen, Han-Wei; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new hardware volume rendering algorithm for time-varying data. The algorithm uses the Time-Space Partitioning (TSP) tree data structure to identify regions within the data that have spatial or temporal coherence. By using this coherence, the rendering algorithm can improve performance when the volume data is larger than the texture memory capacity by decreasing the amount of textures required. This coherence can also allow improved speed by appropriately rendering flat-shaded polygons instead of textured polygons, and by not rendering transparent regions. To reduce the polygonization overhead caused by the use of the hierarchical data structure, we introduce an optimization method using polygon templates. The paper also introduces new color-based error metrics, which more accurately identify coherent regions compared to the earlier scalar-based metrics. By showing experimental results from runs using different data sets and error metrics, we demonstrate that the new methods give substantial improvements in volume rendering performance.

  12. Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  13. TSP-1 Deficiency Alters Ocular Microbiota: Implications for Sjögren's Syndrome Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzulli, Marielle; Contreras-Ruiz, Laura; Ruiz, Laura Contreras; Kugadas, Abirami; Masli, Sharmila; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2015-09-01

    The potential role of commensals as triggering factors that promote inflammation in dry eye disease has not been explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ocular microbiota changes with the onset of dry eye disease in thrombospondin-1-deficient (TSP-1(-/-)) mice, a strain that develops Sjögren's syndrome-like disease. Conjunctival swabs were collected from TSP-1(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice and analyzed for bacterial presence. Opsonophagocytosis of the bacterial conjunctival isolates derived from the aged TSP-1(-/-) mice by neutrophils derived from either TSP-1(-/-) or C57BL/6 bone marrow was evaluated. The bactericidal activities of TSP-1-derived peptide were examined. We found that in TSP-1(-/-) mice, the conjunctival colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci sp (CNS) species was significantly increased with aging and preceded that of the wild-type C57BL/6 control mice. This correlated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the conjunctiva of the TSP-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that TSP-1 plays a significant role in regulating immunity to commensals. Accordingly, the TSP-1(-/-) PMNs opsonophagocytozed the ocular commensals less efficiently than the TSP-1-sufficient neutrophils. Furthermore, a TSP-1-derived peptide, 4N1K, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity when compared to a control peptide against commensal sp. These studies illustrate that alterations in the commensal frequency occur in the early stages of development of Sjögren's-like pathology and suggest that interventions that limit commensal outgrowth such as the use of TSP-1-derived peptides could be used for treatment during the early stages of the disease to reduce the commensal burden and ensuing inflammation.

  14. Applying convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    The author would like to propose a simple but yet effective method, convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality, to approach the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). No computer is needed in this method. This method is designed for plain folks who faced the TSP everyday but do not have the sophisticated knowledge of computer science, programming language or applied mathematics. The author also hopes that it would give some insights to researchers who are interested in the TSP.

  15. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  16. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  17. A Metro Map Metaphor for Guided Tours on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvad, Elmer Sørensen; Grønbæk, Kaj; Sloth, Lennert

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a guided tour system for the WWW. It is a module for the Webvise open hypermedia system that implements the ideas of trails and guided tours, originating from the hypertext field. Webvise appears as an open hypermedia helper application to the user and stores the guided tours...... maps and route maps with indication of which stations of a tour have been visited; and finally (4) support for arbitrary web pages as stations on the tour. The paper discusses the Webvise Guided Tour System and illustrates its use in a digital library portal. The system is compared to other recent Web...

  18. Bee Inspired Novel Optimization Algorithm and Mathematical Model for Effective and Efficient Route Planning in Railway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah Huo; Abdul-Rahman, Hamzah; Wang, Chen; Onn, Chiu Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Railway and metro transport systems (RS) are becoming one of the popular choices of transportation among people, especially those who live in urban cities. Urbanization and increasing population due to rapid development of economy in many cities are leading to a bigger demand for urban rail transit. Despite being a popular variant of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), it appears that the universal formula or techniques to solve the problem are yet to be found. This paper aims to develop an optimization algorithm for optimum route selection to multiple destinations in RS before returning to the starting point. Bee foraging behaviour is examined to generate a reliable algorithm in railway TSP. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results with the exact solutions in 10 test cases, and a numerical case study is designed to demonstrate the application with large size sample. It is tested to be efficient and effective in railway route planning as the tour can be completed within a certain period of time by using minimal resources. The findings further support the reliability of the algorithm and capability to solve the problems with different complexity. This algorithm can be used as a method to assist business practitioners making better decision in route planning. PMID:27930659

  19. An improved differential evolution algorithm for TSP%旅行商问题的改进差分进化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅觅; 薛惠锋; 谷雨

    2011-01-01

    TSP(Traveling Salesman Problem)旅行商问题是一类典型的NP完全问题,目前大多采用遗传算法求解.差分进化算法(Differential Evolution Algorithm, DE)作为一种新型的进化算法,与遗传算法有很多相似之处.提出用改进的差分进化算法解决TSP问题.采用基于整数序规范的辅助算子解决变异问题,并引入刘海交叉算子.实验结果表明该方法有效地提高了算法的收敛速度与寻优质量,表现出了良好的特性.%TSP ( Traveling Salesman Problem) is a kind of typical NP problems, and currently is solved by genetic algorithm ( GA) generally. As a new kind of evolution algorithm, differential evolution algorithm ( DE) shares many common performances with GA. In order to solve TSP more conveniently,an improved differential evolution algorithm was proposed. The new method added an auxiliary operator for regulating integer sequence in the mutation process and used Liuhai crossover operator to replace the original crossover operator. Through several experiments, it could be concluded that this method can significantly improve the speed of convergence and the quality of optimal results, features well characteristic in TSP.

  20. Next step, the Tour de France?

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour de France, the Annecy-Semnoz time-trial, has already been won – by a CERN staff member!     In keeping with tradition, the organisers of the Tour de France organise another race, the Étape du Tour, which is open to the general public and follows the actual route of an official stage of the Tour proper. This year, the chosen venue was Annecy and its neighbouring mountain, Le Semnoz, which played host to 11,000 cycling enthusiasts from all parts. This penultimate stage of the 2013 Tour will be raced by the professionals on 20 July. The public race was won by Nicolas Roux, an experienced cyclist and member of CERN’s GS-IS Group, who devoured the 128-km course in just 4 hours and 15 minutes, nine seconds ahead of cycling champion Julien Absalon. “I just managed to overhaul Julien Absalon 500 m before the finishing line,” Nicolas recounts. “It was a fantastic race!” Come rain o...

  1. A Gene-Pool Based Genetic Algorithm for TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis of previous genetic algo rithms (GAs) for TSP, a novel method called Ge GA is proposed. It combines gene pool and GA so as to direct the evo lution of the whole population. The core of Ge GA is the construction of gene pool and how to apply it to GA. Different from standard GAs, Ge-GA aims to enhance the ability of exploration and exploitation by incorporating global search with local search. On one hand a local search called Ge LocalSearch operator is proposed to improve the solution quality, on the other hand the modified Inver-Over operator called Ge InverOver is considered as a global search mechanism to expand solution space of local minimal. Both of these operators are based on the gene pool. Our algorithm is applied to 11 well-known traveling salesman problems whose numbers of cities are from 70 to 1577 cities. The experiments results indicate that Ge GA has great robustness for TSP. For each test instance, the average value of solution quality, found in accepted time, stays within 0. 001 % from the optimum.

  2. Cultural Tourism Tours and Main Routes Towards Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysi GÜNAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the tourism has become a important industry. Certainly, the most important international actors af this industry are tour operators. The tour operators which realize about 75 percent of the total tourism activity to Turkey have taken a very important mission from the point of Turkey tourism. The, Germany, Netherlands, England and USA tour operators, which have made the important part of the tours to our country, have also an important position in organizating cultural tour. When the cultural tours, which have been planned to Turkey by this countries, have been studied it is seen that these tours have containied more mass tourism areas or near areas of these region. It can be said that Turkey’s not marketing its tourism correctly has be effective in this subject. With this research, it has been studied how the cultural attractions in Turkey have been perceived, consumed and marketed by abroad tour operators.

  3. Tours Symposium on Nuclear Physics III. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Lewitowicz, M. [GANIL (France); Oganessian, Y.T. [FLNR-JINR (Russia); Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Wada, T. [Konan University (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Tours symposium on Nuclear Physics held in Tours, France in September, 1997. The symposium was devoted to three fields of nuclear physics: (1) synthesis of superheavy elements including studies of fusion{minus}fission dynamics and sub{minus}barrier fusion; (2) physics of exotic nuclei; and (3) astronuclear physics. Some of the specific topics discussed include, nuclear models, gamma spectroscopy with radioactive beams, double giant resonance states, inelastic proton scattering of unstable nuclei, thermonuclear reactions and neutrino astrophysics. There were 63 papers presented at the Symposium and out of these, 5 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  4. Lexical Analysis of English for Tour Guides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明丽; 张瑞花; 宋翊宁

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese tourism industry, more and more foreign tourists come to China for a visit. Although not all foreign tourists are from English-speaking countries, English, as a common language in today's world, has become the most important medium of communication when international tourist activities are involved in. As a result, English for Tour Guides—the language used in receiving and guiding tourists appears as a special variety of English, becomes popular in Chinese tourism. The paper will analyze the stylistic features of English for Tour Guides in its lexis, syntax and rhetorical devices, in order to help them to complete their jobs and achieve desired effect.

  5. Tour operators, environment and sustainable development; Tour operator, ambiente e sviluppo sostenibile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriola, L.; Chirico, R.; Declich, P. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the role of the tour operators in achieving sustainable development meaning a process of development which leaves at least the same amount of capital, natural and man-made, to future generations as current generations have access to. Tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global industries, creating significant employment and economic development, particularly in many developing countries. Tourism can also have negative environmental and social impact resulting from resource consumption, pollution, generation of wastes and from the compromise of local culture while introducing new activities. Most tour operators has started to recognised that a clean environment is critical to their success, but few tour operators have the management tools or experience to design and conduct tours that minimize their negative environmental and social impacts. A group of tour operators from different parts of the world have joined forces to create the Tour Operators' Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development. With this initiatives, tour operators are moving towards sustainable tourism by committing themselves to address the environmental, social, and cultural aspects of sustainable development within the tourism sector. [Italian] Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' individuare il ruolo dei Tour Operator nel perseguire uno sviluppo sostenibile ossia un processo di sviluppo che lasci alle generazioni future lo stesso capitale, naturale e creato dall'uomo, di cui dispone l'attuale generazione. Il turismo e' tra le industrie globali piu' vaste ed in rapida crescita che crea una occupazione ed uno sviluppo economico significativo, particolarmente in molti paesi in via di sviluppo. Il turismo puo' anche generare impatti sia ambientali che sociali derivanti dallo sfruttamento delle risorse, dall'inquinamento, dalla produzione di rifiuti e dalla compromissione delle culture locali introducendo

  6. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  7. Niche pseudo-parallel genetic algorithms for path optimization of autonomous mobile robot%小生境伪并行遗传算法在全自主移动机器人路径规划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志华; 赵英凯; 吴炜炜

    2006-01-01

    A new genetic algorithm named niche pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm (NPPGA) is presented for path evolution and genetic op timization of autonomous mobile robot. The NPPGA is an effective improvement to maintain the population diversity as well for the sake of avoiding premature and strengthen parallelism of the population to accelerate the search process combined with niche genetic algorithms and pseudo-parallel genetic algorithms. The proposed approach is evaluated by robotic path optimization, which is a specific application of traveler salesman problem (TSP). Experimental results indicated that a shortest path could be obtained in the practical traveling salesman problem named "Robot tour around Pekin", and the performance conducted by NPPGA is better than simple genetic algorithm (SGA) and distributed paralell genetic algorithms (DPGA).

  8. An Effective Implementation of K-opt Moves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    Local search with k-change neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This report presents an effective implementation of k-opt for the Lin- Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation is demonstrated with extensive...

  9. Set Out,Chinese Auto's Latin-American Tour!——The 7th China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1995,China Auto International Exhibition Tour has been held for six times in China,Vietnam,Cambodia,Syria,Russia,Algeria and other countries successfully,by forms of fixed exhibitions and exhibition tours.

  10. Using Online Field Trips and Tours in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    While not focusing directly on art, music, or literature, classroom teachers, students, and supervisors can find many virtual tours of museum offices, and agencies that do have art content. The use of virtual tours can be extremely effective--whether used as an entire classroom experience (such as the teacher guiding students through a tour using…

  11. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  12. Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaibel, Andreas; Auwaerter, Andreas; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this paper as: Kaibel, A., Auwaerter, A., & Kravcik, M. (2006). Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. October 1st-4th, Crete, Greece: Springer. Retrieved October 18th, 2006, from http://dspace.lear

  13. Park World Tour Hiinas / Timo Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Timo, 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Reisikiri Eesti sportlaste osalemisest septembris Hiinas korraldatud Park World Tour orienteerumisvõistlustel - Changchunis toimunud kahepäevasel Vasa orienteerumisfestivalil, Chongqingi lähistel toimunud Hiina meistrivõistlustel orienteerumissprindis ja Wanshengis toimunud lühiraja Hiina meistrivõistlustel ning Bekingi botaanikaaias toimunud keskkooli ja ülikooli meistrivõistlustel

  14. Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaibel, Andreas; Auwaerter, Andreas; Kravcik, Milos

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this paper as: Kaibel, A., Auwaerter, A., & Kravcik, M. (2006). Guided and Interactive Factory Tours for Schools. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning. October 1st-4th, Crete, Greece: Springer. Retrieved October 18th, 2006, from

  15. Reisipakkumine - Grand Tour Itaalias / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    Tiina Abeli koostatud ja Urmas Viigi kujundatud näitus "Grand Tour. Eesti kunstnikud Itaalias" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 05. aprillini. Loetletud eksponeeritud tööde autoreid. Näitus annab ülevaate, kes siinsetest kunstnikest 19. sajandi algusest kuni 1930ndate aastateni Itaalias käisid ja kuidas see nende loomingut mõjutas

  16. The Virtual Grand Tour as Educational Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Mouritsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour as defined here bears some resemblance to its 18th century ancestor: a wide range of individual topics are treated as a whole; a tutor, whether real or simulated, present or remote, is provided; a set of problem solving tools forms an integrated part of the "traveller's" eq...

  17. The Virtual Grand Tour as Educational Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Mouritsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour as defined here bears some resemblance to its 18th century ancestor: a wide range of individual topics are treated as a whole; a tutor, whether real or simulated, present or remote, is provided; a set of problem solving tools forms an integrated part of the "traveller...

  18. Retrospect of China International Auto Exhibition Tours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ "Fengfan Cup" the Frist China International Auto Exhibition Tour In 1995, the first session gathered 28 national motorcycles and autos from four big groups---China North Industries Group Corporation, China Aviation Industry Corporation, China Aerospace Science and Industry Cooperation and PLA General Logistics Department.

  19. Reisipakkumine - Grand Tour Itaalias / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    Tiina Abeli koostatud ja Urmas Viigi kujundatud näitus "Grand Tour. Eesti kunstnikud Itaalias" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 05. aprillini. Loetletud eksponeeritud tööde autoreid. Näitus annab ülevaate, kes siinsetest kunstnikest 19. sajandi algusest kuni 1930ndate aastateni Itaalias käisid ja kuidas see nende loomingut mõjutas

  20. Park World Tour Hiinas / Timo Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Timo, 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Reisikiri Eesti sportlaste osalemisest septembris Hiinas korraldatud Park World Tour orienteerumisvõistlustel - Changchunis toimunud kahepäevasel Vasa orienteerumisfestivalil, Chongqingi lähistel toimunud Hiina meistrivõistlustel orienteerumissprindis ja Wanshengis toimunud lühiraja Hiina meistrivõistlustel ning Bekingi botaanikaaias toimunud keskkooli ja ülikooli meistrivõistlustel

  1. Feature selection with the image grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, David J.; Solka, Jeffrey L.

    2000-08-01

    The grand tour is a method for visualizing high dimensional data by presenting the user with a set of projections and the projected data. This idea was extended to multispectral images by viewing each pixel as a multidimensional value, and viewing the projections of the grand tour as an image. The user then looks for projections which provide a useful interpretation of the image, for example, separating targets from clutter. We discuss a modification of this which allows the user to select convolution kernels which provide useful discriminant ability, both in an unsupervised manner as in the image grand tour, or in a supervised manner using training data. This approach is extended to other window-based features. For example, one can define a generalization of the median filter as a linear combination of the order statistics within a window. Thus the median filter is that projection containing zeros everywhere except for the middle value, which contains a one. Using the convolution grand tour one can select projections on these order statistics to obtain new nonlinear filters.

  2. Performance Tour at Universities by Japanese Artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the CPAFFC,Murata Hideo,Director of the Min-on Concert Association,brought an art troupe of 27 artists to China on a cultural exchange tour from Nov8 to 13,2015.They performed at Beijing Language University,Beijing

  3. The threonine protease activity of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is essential for its function in cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50, a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.

  4. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ehrgott, Matthias;

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...... to transport up to 33 pallets from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers. The pickups and deliveries are performed in two separate trips, where each trip starts and ends at a depot and visits a number of customers. The aim of the problem is to produce a stacking plan for the pallets...... and delivery TSP problems and show that previously unsolved instances can be solved within seconds using this approach....

  5. Solving TSP Using Advanced Crossover & Mutating Operators of Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develops a new crossover and mutating operator, Round crossover (RX and Round mutating (RM operator, for a genetic algorithm that generates high quality solutions to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The round crossover operator constructs an offspring from a pair of parents in a circular way using better edges on the basis of their values that may be present in the parents’ structure maintaining the sequence of nodes in the parent chromosomes. The round mutation applied to the resultant chromosome after crossover by selecting a random cut point and then joining the remaining substring to first substring in circular way. The efficiency of the RX is compared as against some existing crossover operators; namely, edge recombination crossover (ERX, Order crossover (OX and partially Matched crossover (PMX for some benchmark TSPLIB instances. Experimental results show that the new crossover operator is better than the PMX, ERX and OX

  6. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias;

    2010-01-01

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...... to transport up to 33 pallets from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers. The pickups and deliveries are performed in two separate trips, where each trip starts and ends at a depot and visits a number of customers. The aim of the problem is to produce a stacking plan for the pallets...... and delivery TSP problems and show that previously unsolved instances can be solved within seconds using this approach....

  7. TSP-Based Generic Payload On-Board Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arberet, P.; Metge, J.-J.; Gras, O.; Crespo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The paper address the contect and rationale for deciding to develop a TSP-based solution for payload on-board software, highly generic and reusable, project named LVCUGEN. Then it describes the key design issues and the associated architectual achievements obtained at the end of development phase of LVCUGEN. It provides some inputs on the way to instantiate the developed framework in the scope of deployment of the solution on a target-project. Last, the paper presents the status of the project and the forthcoming activities, also open issues, still to be performed. Some perspectives are provided in particular the selection of the first space program targeted for deployment of the solution.

  8. Mathematical Perspectives on the Federal Thrift Savings Plan (TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-10

    3 Alpha = 5 Alpha = 10 © 2008 Scott T. Nestler 38 Performance (Reward-Risk) Measures • Sharpe Ratio • STARR Ratio • R- Ratio ( Rachev ) ( ) ( ) E XSTARR...Similar to R- Ratio but use Alpha-VaR and Beta-VaR in place of CVaR • AVaR- Ratio : • BVaR- Ratio : 1 2 ( ) ( ) AVaR X AVR AVaR X α α − = 1 1 2 2...87,754 Beta VaR(50,5) $ 43,938 $ 44,010 $ 60,203 $ 67,757 Performance Measure (↑ better) VG-ICA TSP MP L 2030 L 2040 Sharpe Ratio 0.94 0.63 0.57

  9. Culture phenomenon analysis on the forest tour activity of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Minjin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes culture and forest culture, the intension of culture and forest culture, combines the understanding of the main cultural factor with the forest tour activity of China, analyzes the compatible phenomenon of Chinese forest culture and traditional culture, and explores culture of forest tourist site containing the meaning in forest tour. The author thinks the tour of forest culture which will be the important component of forest tour in forest culture,This paper puts forward simple questions existing in exploitation and advantage of forest tour culture, and proposes some countermeasures.

  10. Tour Level Mode Choice Analysis of Madison Area in Wisconsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Miao; Cheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate what factors and how they affect tours (trip chains) behavior. The key issue is the understanding and definition of tour and tour level mode. Also, these definitions should fit for the data. A semi-home based tour definition is stated, and a competing mode based tour mode is defined. Based on the definition, this study used Madison Area Data from National Household Survey to estimate a MNL structured model. It is found that travel distance could be a positive factor for car mode. Meanwhile, the number of trips is also a positive factor for choosing car.

  11. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  12. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET INBOUND TOUR: STUDI KASUS DI PT. LOTUS ASIA TOURS JIMBARAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Agatha Mahayu Putri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor internal yaitu kekuatan dan kelemahan dan eksternal yaitu peluang dan ancaman dari PT. Lotus Asia Tours serta untuk mengetahui strategi yang dapat dilakukan pihak PT. Lotus Asia Tours untuk memasarkan paket inbound tour. Lokasi penelitian dilakukan di PT. Lotus Asia Tours yang terletak di Jl. By Pass Ngurah Rai No. 18, Jimbaran Bali.. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara observasi, wawancara, studi kepustakaan, studi dokumentasi dan didukung dengan daftar pertanyaan yang disebarkan kepada 60 informan. Daftar pertanyaan yang disebarkan berpedoman pada indikator marketing mix 7 P (product, price, place, promotion, physical evidence, people, process. Hasil data yang diperoleh lalu dianalisis dengan IFAS (Internal Factor Analysis Summary dan EFAS ( External Factor Analysis Summary, selanjutnya untuk mengetahui posisi perusahaan digunakan matriks internal eksternal dan untuk mengetahui alternatif strategi digunakan matriks SWOT, sehingga dapat menciptakan strategi pemasaran baru serta mengembangkan program-program yang telah ada agar dapat diterapkan oleh PT. Lotus Asia Tours Jimbaran Bali. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh total nilai rata-rata lingkungan internal yaitu sebesar 3,01 dan lingkungan eksternal yaitu sebesar 2,96, dapat diketahui bahwa posisi perusahaan berada di sel IV yang berarti stability strategy dimana strategi yang tetapkan tidak merubah arah strategi yang telah ada.

  13. Japanese Silk Road Tour Delegation in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Jiahu

    2013-01-01

    <正>A Silk Road Tour Delegation from Nara,Japan visited Urumqi and Kuqa of Xinjiang from July 24 to 30 and called on the Cultural Relics Bureau of the Xinjiang Autonomous Regional Government and the Xinjiang People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(XPAFFC).XPAFFC President Muzapar Mijit met them on the evening of July 29.He said that it was quite admirable for the delegation to

  14. China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Vietnam Union of Friendship Organizations (VUFO),a delegation headed by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku and composed of a medical team from Beijing Tongren Hospital made a"China-Vietnam Friendship Bringing Light Tour to Vietnam"from November 13 to 20,2009 and gave free cataract surgery to about 100 patients in Bac Giang Province.

  15. BECOMING A TOUR GUIDE: ANALYZING THE MOTIVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika PRAKASH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Guides play a vital role in this process bringing satisfaction to tourists visiting a country or region/state. The opportunity of direct interaction with the tourists makes them all the more responsible for projecting the correct image of the country/region, giving factually correct information about the destination, ensuring the safety and well being of the tourists as well as pleasing and satisfying the stay for them during their visits. Over last few years there has been a greater interest in tour guide profession especially in the northern region of India.The purpose of this study is to identify the motivations that led to choosing tour guiding as a profession and career. There appears to be a significant difference in such motivation in different regions of the country. A comparison in motivations in two regions (north vs. east was made. Based on primary data collection paper attempts to discuss what has motivated the youth to take up tour guiding profession- whether such motivation is positive of negative. In either case policy makers may decide what type of support programs need to be introduced by the state and other agencies like educational, rearing and counselling, financial support, social security, or any other type of interventions.

  16. Mexican press tour helps raise public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to increase public awareness in Japan of global population and reproductive health issues, 5 Japanese journalists from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kyodo News, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and FM Hokkaido traveled with a JOICFP team in Mexico for 12 days in October 1988. It is hoped that, following their experience in Mexico, the journalists will help to create favorable public opinion in Japan toward development assistance in population. The UNFPA Mexico office, the Japanese embassy, JICA, central and local ministries of health, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Mexico City and rural areas were visited during the tour. Specific sites and programs visited include a NGO in Catemaco, Veracruz state, a junior high school sexuality education program funded by the Packard Foundation, a community guest house for child deliveries in Puebla State, and a MEXFAM clinic funded by the owner of a towel factory. As a result of the study tour, an 8-minute program was aired on NHK, featuring an interview with the director of MEXFAM. The journalists learned from the tour.

  17. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    prepared to describe team roles , if asked? 2. Have you and the team leader discussed whether the team leader wants to give any guidance regarding team ...prepared for these meetings? E-9 Guide team in fulfilling TSP team roles 1. Which roles are most active? Or inactive? Why? 2. Are any of those a...Guide team in developing improvement plan E-8 Guide team in presenting its status to management E-9 Guide team in fulfilling TSP team roles E

  18. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khanittha Chawananorasest; Patsuda Saengtongdee; Praphakorn Kaemchantuek

    2016-01-01

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernata...

  19. Implementation of Travelling Salesman Problem Using ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Singh,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the Artificial Intelligence community, there is great need for fast and accurate traversal algorithms, specifically those that find a path from a start to goal with minimum cost. Cost can be distance, time, money, energy, etc. Travelling salesman problem (TSP is a combinatorial optimization problem. TSP is the most intensively studied problem in the area of optimization. Ant colony optimization (ACO is a population-based metaheuristic that can be used to find approximate solutions to difficult optimization problems. There have been many efforts in the past to provide time efficient solutions for the problem, both exact and approximate. This paper demonstrates the implementation of TSP using ant colony optimization(ACO.The solution to this problem enjoys wide applicability in a variety of practical fields.TSP in its purest form has several applications such as planning, logistics, and manufacture of microchips, military and traffic.

  20. Creating Three New Bike Tours in Santiago de Chile Case Study: Huaso Tours & Bike Rental

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor´s thesis was to create new bike tour services for the thesis case company Huaso Tours & Bike Rental, based in Santiago de Chile. The idea for the thesis was perceived from a free time activity of mountain biking in Santiago de Chile´s popular tourist attraction San Cristobal hill. This park draws thousands of bikers monthly to enjoy the green areas of the city, however, there is no mountain bike service offered to visit this hill. By conducting a small pre-researc...

  1. Involvement of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL in Angiogenesis during Orthodontic Periodontal Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Surlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim was to measure the levels of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 and Lipocalin-2/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9/NGAL complex in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF at different time points of orthodontic treatment, to determine the relationship between these values and those of total-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and theirs implication in angiogenesis balance, in the situation of a good control of the bacterial plaque, emphasizing the role of TSP1 and MMP9/NGAL complex. GCF samples were collected from 16 young orthodontic patients requiring upper canine distalization (test tooth with first premolar extraction. The contralateral canine (control tooth was free from orthodontic force. For the orthodontic appliance, brackets Roth 0.018 inch with 0.012 inch NiTi archwire and a laceback were used. TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 increased from 1 hour before activation of orthodontic appliance to a maximum at 8 hours for MMP9 and 72 hours for MMP9/NGAL and TSP1. The results show a change in time of TSP1, MMP9/NGAL, and MMP9 levels in GCF of patients with this method of orthodontic treatment. The powerful correlation of MMP9/NGAL with TSP1 suggests their stronger involvement in angiogenesis processes in PDL during orthodontic periodontal remodeling, in the situation of a healthy periodontium and a good control of the bacterial plaque.

  2. Perindopril Induces TSP-1 Expression in Hypertensive Patients with Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is a potent endogenous inhibitor of both physiological and pathological angiogenesis, widely studied as a target in drug development for treating cancer. Several studies performed in the cardiovascular field on TSP-1 are contradictory, the role of TSP-1 in the physiopathology of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs being, for the moment, incompletely understood and may be due to the presence of several domains in its structure which can stimulate many cellular receptors. It has been reported to inhibit NO-mediated signaling and to act on the angiogenesis, tissue perfusion, endothelial cell proliferation, and homeostasis, so we aimed to quantify the effect Perindopril has on TSP-1 plasma levels in hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction in comparison with other antihypertensive drugs, such as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics, in a chronic treatment. As a conclusion, patients under treatment with Perindopril had increased plasma levels of TSP-1 compared with other hypertensive patients and with the control group. The results of this study confirms the pleiotropic properties of Perindopril: anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, with effects showed by quantifying a single biomarker: TSP-1.

  3. Business Plan for Launching a Luxury Adventure Tour Operator Based in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Greg; Khlystov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    MOT Elite Travel Experiences (METE) is a tour operator and online travel agent start-up company based in Vancouver, British Columbia. METE is faced with the challenge of establishing itself as a business in the travel industry. However, recent advances in technology such as an increase in the number of broadband Internet users, search engine optimization, and the advent of smartphones have created an opportunity to capitalize on the growing popularity of online travel booking services. This t...

  4. Marketing strategy of a selected tour operator

    OpenAIRE

    Lejčková, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the thesis "Marketing strategy of a selected tour operator" is to get acquainted with the marketing strategy of MILE tour operator aiming to propose possible improvements based on carried analysis. The first part includes general theories of marketing and its specifics in tourism. The second part is the application of this theory into practice, starting with the basic characteristics of MILE tour operator, followed by analysis of its standing in the tourism market including a...

  5. The Analysis of the Romanian Tour Operator Agencies Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu; Laura-Cristina Maniu

    2014-01-01

    Tour operators perform an important and specific function in the tourism activity. They purchase distinct elements of transport, accommodation, meals, entertainment and other services, and combine them into a tour package which they can sell directly or indirectly to tourists. The present paper presents an analysis of the Romanian tour operator agencies sector and the evolution inside this important domain of activity using important key figures as: the number of Romanian tourists taking part...

  6. Introducing convex layers to the Traveling Salesman Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will propose convex layers to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Firstly, we will focus on human performance on the TSP. Experimental data shows that untrained humans appear to have the ability to perform well in the TSP. On the other hand, experimental data also supports the hypothesis of convex hull i.e. human relies on convex hull to search for the optimal tour for the TSP. Secondly, from the paper published by Bonabeau, Dorigo and Theraulaz, social insect behavior would be able to help in some of the optimizing problems, especially the TSP. Thus, we propose convex layers to the TSP based on the argument that, by the analogy to the social insect behavior, untrained humans' cognition should be able to help in the TSP. Lastly, we will use Tour Improvement algorithms on convex layers to search for an optimal tour for a 13-cities problem to demonstrate the idea.

  7. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0-8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine.

  8. 动态车辆路径问题的分区灵活分批TSP策略%Flexible nTSP strategy of dynamic vehicle routing problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊浩

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic vehicle routing problem(DVRP) is emerging topical issue for the vehicle routing problem, but its real-time optimization still needs to be improved. Therefore, the mod nTSP strategy is proposed based on the flexible nTSP strategy. And the competitive analysis of the new strategy shows the reason of the improvement. Finally, the simulation results show that the new strategy can reduce the average distance between the adjacent customers on the routing of vehicle while keeping the other system time constant, and the average customer system time can be reduced.%动态车辆路径问题是当前车辆路径问题的新兴热门问题,但其实时优化策略研究仍然有较大的改进空间。鉴于此,在一般分区分批旅行商问题(TSP)策略的基础上,提出了分区灵活分批TSP策略,并对策略有效性进行了分析。最后进行了实例仿真验证,结果表明,所提出策略能够减少车辆服务顾客的平均行驶距离,从而减少顾客的平均系统时间。

  9. Wisata Bencana : Sebuah Studi Kasus Lava Tour Gunung Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mufarrih Muktaf

    2017-09-01

    ABSTRACK The emergence of ecotourism trends as part of nature tourism to be an offer for tourists who want to feel the sensation of different tourist. In addition to the emergence of ecotourism, also appeared many other sort of tourism, such as dark tourism and disaster tourism. Dark tourism and disaster tourism is interesting enough to be discussion. The quention of this research is how the phenomenon of disaster tourism on Lava Tour in Mount Merapi? The purpose of this research is to know the practice of disaster tour “Lava Tour” Mount Merapi. The object of research is community-based tourism in Lava Tour area located in Disaster Prone Area (Kawasan Rawan Bencana III. Research method using case study approach. The conclusion of this research is, first, disaster tour is educational tour which destruction, death and back a life as tourist attraction. Secondly, that disaster tour presents a trip or tour because tourists can direct to see the disaster site. Third, the role of communication between the community-based tourism to the tourists are very important, such as telling the chronology of events to the tourists. It is better if the source of information teller is a direct victim or a direct eye witness, because it is more authentic and convincing. Fourth, disaster tourism prefers the interaction between witnesses and tourists. Fifth, disaster tours can be part of disaster literacy, as witnesses or victims explain a lot about disaster. Keywod : disaster tourism; tour; Mount Merapi; Tourism Communication; disaster literacy

  10. The Mice Drawer System Tissue Sharing Program (MDS-TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara

    obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.

  11. Study of TSP Problem Solving Based on Improved Quantum Ant Colony Algorithm%基于改进量子蚁群算法的 TSP 求解问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启明; 李玮瑶

    2015-01-01

    TSP 问题是一个组合优化问题,该问题具有 NP 计算复杂性,运用量子蚁群算法求解该问题时易陷入局部最优和收敛速度慢的问题。因此提出一种基于博弈论的量子蚁群算法(GQA-CA),该算法采用重复博弈模型,在重复博弈中产生一个博弈序列,使得每次博弈都能够产生最大效益,并得到相应博弈过程的纳什均衡。把该算法应用于 TSP 求解,实验结果表明本文中 GQACA算法的收敛精度和稳定性均要优于其他量子蚁群算法。%TST,as a combinatorial optimization problem,is solved by Quantum ant colony algorithm which is easy to fall into the local optimum and slow convergence.The quantum ant colony algorithm, based on game theory (GQACA),is put forward in this paper.It uses the repeated game to create the repeated game sequence for maximum benefit in each game,and get the corresponding game process of Nash equilibrium.The typical test functions are used for GQACA algorithm optimization performance experiment testing.The experimental results show that the GQACA convergence precision and stability of the algorithm are better than QACA algorithm and ACA one.

  12. Sociorobot world a guided tour for all

    CERN Document Server

    Tzafestas, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    This book makes a consolidated guided tour to the world of sociorobots (social or socialized robots). Sociorobots and assistive robots provide entertainment, assistance to the handicapped, companionship to the elderly, and health care to autistic children and people with dementia among others. The book provides, in a fluent educational way, all major concepts, architectures, and design methodologies. All types of sociorobots are examined, namely walking anthropomorphic, wheeled anthropomorphic, fixed-place anthropomorphic, and zoomorphic sociorobots. The book provides an outline of sociorobot intelligent control architectures, robot learning, and human robot interaction.

  13. Tetraspanin (TSP-17 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Masoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, is linked to the gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Disease loci causing hereditary forms of PD are known, but most cases are attributable to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Increased incidence of PD is associated with rural living and pesticide exposure, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration can be triggered by neurotoxins such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. In C. elegans, this drug is taken up by the presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT-1 and causes selective death of the eight dopaminergic neurons of the adult hermaphrodite. Using a forward genetic approach to find genes that protect against 6-OHDA-mediated neurodegeneration, we identified tsp-17, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of membrane proteins. We show that TSP-17 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and provide genetic, pharmacological and biochemical evidence that it inhibits DAT-1, thus leading to increased 6-OHDA uptake in tsp-17 loss-of-function mutants. TSP-17 also protects against toxicity conferred by excessive intracellular dopamine. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that TSP-17 acts partly via the DOP-2 dopamine receptor to negatively regulate DAT-1. tsp-17 mutants also have subtle behavioral phenotypes, some of which are conferred by aberrant dopamine signaling. Incubating mutant worms in liquid medium leads to swimming-induced paralysis. In the L1 larval stage, this phenotype is linked to lethality and cannot be rescued by a dop-3 null mutant. In contrast, mild paralysis occurring in the L4 larval stage is suppressed by dop-3, suggesting defects in dopaminergic signaling. In summary, we show that TSP-17 protects against neurodegeneration and has a role in modulating behaviors linked to dopamine signaling.

  14. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawananorasest, Khanittha; Saengtongdee, Patsuda; Kaemchantuek, Praphakorn

    2016-06-15

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by ¹H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm(-1), 2920.76 cm(-1), 1018.85 cm(-1) and 555.16 cm(-1). The ¹H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50-4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  16. 14 CFR 136.39 - Air tour management plans (ATMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... curfews) for the adoption of quiet technology aircraft by commercial air tour operators conducting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air tour management plans (ATMP). 136.39... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL...

  17. 5 CFR 630.210 - Uncommon tours of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uncommon tours of duty. 630.210 Section 630.210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.210 Uncommon tours of duty. (a...

  18. CERN tours from the eyes of a student

    CERN Document Server

    Greener, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract As a student working in CERN as part of a week long work experience program, I attended three CERN visitor tours. The following article is both an evaluation of those tours as well as a personal account of my experiences and education within said visits.

  19. Study Tours and the Diversification of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Perez, Enrique M.; Durie, Christopher J.; Eisenberg, Jarin R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide evidence on the role study tours play in expanding student cultural capital via increased confidence in international travel. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, survey data from individuals who participated in a study tour experience offered by a Florida-based university are analyzed for the assessment…

  20. Artrain's "Uniquely American" to Tour the Golden State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Therese

    1983-01-01

    The nation's only touring art museum was conceived by the Michigan Council for the Arts in 1971 as a way to bring art to the people. Exhibits for the 1983 California tour, the specially designed railroad cars, the school educational program, and Artrain's functions in communities are described. (SR)

  1. CERN tours: more popular than ever

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    According to TripAdvisor, CERN is Geneva’s top tourist attraction, welcoming almost 110,000 visitors per year.   The Visits Service received a TripAdvisor Certificate of Excellence for the quality of its tours. From left: Marc Tassera, Carole Ledoux, Vanya Guerre, Bernard Pellequer, Dominique Bertola, Yesika Romand, Chloé Pillonel, Alejandra Lorenzo Gomez. (Image: Jacques Herve Fichet/CERN) Since the start-up of the LHC in 2008 and the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, CERN’s visitor numbers have gone through the roof. On 15 July, we hit a record number of 755 visitors in one day (the average is around 400 per day). “This peak can partly be explained by the presence of participants in the International Physics Olympiad,” says Bernard Pellequer, head of the Visitors and Local Engagement section. “A tour of CERN was part of their excursion programme and it was a great pleasure for us to show them around the Laboratory.” But...

  2. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J

    2002-01-01

    Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...

  3. HANFORDS PUBLIC TOUR PROGRAM - AN EXCELLENT EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINCLAIR KM

    2010-12-07

    Prior to 2001, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored limited tours of the Hanford Site for the public, but discontinued the program after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the U.S. In 2003, DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) requested the site's prime contractor to reinstate the public tour program starting in 2004 under strict controls and security requirements. The planning involved a collaborative effort among the security, safety and communications departments of DOE-RL and the site's contracting companies. This paper describes the evolution of, and enhancements to, Hanford's public tours, including the addition of a separate tour program for the B Reactor, the first full-scale nuclear reactor in the world. Topics included in the discussion include the history and growth of the tour program, associated costs, and visitor surveys and assessments.

  4. Implications of HAM/TSP functional incapacity in the quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Shublaq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the functional status and quality of life of HAM/TSP patients. METHOD: We evaluated prospectively 30 HAM/TSP patients (20 females seen in the Neuroinfection Clinic of the HUGG. The functional capacity was analyzed by the functional independence measure (FIM, the expanded disability status (EDSS scale and the Osame's motor disability score (OMDS. The quality of life was assed by the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36TM. RESULTS: All patients need assistance device. The FIM, OMDS and EDSS scores classified 70%, 67% and 67% of the patients as dependent, respectively. The lowest scores of the SF-36 survey were found in the domains related to the physical health (D1, D2, role-emotional functioning (D7 and social functioning (D6. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the HAM/TSP physical impairment has an impact in the emotional and social issues, considering the limitation in the daily activities.

  5. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  6. Tsp66E, the Drosophila KAI1 homologue, and Tsp74F function to regulate ovarian follicle cell and wing development by stabilizing integrin localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Yeop; Lee, Minjung; Hong, Yoon Ki; Hwang, Soojin; Choi, Gahee; Suh, Yoon Seok; Park, Seung Hwan; Lee, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Hee; Chung, Jongkyeong; Baek, Sung Hee; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2012-11-16

    The metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 has been implicated in various cellular processes; however, its function in development is not fully understood. Here, we generated and characterized mutants of Tsp66E and Tsp74F, which are Drosophila homologues of KAI1/CD82 and Tspan11, respectively. These mutants exhibited egg elongation defects along with disturbed integrin localization and actin polarity. Moreover, the defects were enhanced by mutation of inflated, an αPS2 integrin gene. Mutant ovaries had elevated αPS2 integrin levels and reduced endocytic trafficking. These results suggest that Drosophila KAI1/CD82 affects the polarized localization and the level of integrin, which may contribute to epithelial cell polarity.

  7. Landscapes of Mars A Visual Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Gregory L

    2008-01-01

    Landscapes of Mars is essentially a picture book that provides a visual tour of Mars. All the major regions and topographical features will be shown and supplemented with chapter introductions and extended captions. In a way, think of it as a visual tourist guide. Other topics covered are Martian uplands on the order of the elevation of Mt. Everest, Giant volcanoes and a rift system, the Grand Canyon of Mars, craters and the absence of craters over large regions (erosion), and wind shadows around craters, sand dunes, and dust devils. The book includes discussions on the search for water (braided channels, seepage, sedimentary layering, etc.) as well as on the Viking mission search for life, Mars meteorite fossil bacteria controversy, and planetary protection in future missions. The book concludes with an exciting gallery of the best 3D images of Mars making the book a perfect tool for understanding Mars and its place in the solar system.

  8. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  9. General k-opt submoves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    2009-01-01

    Local search with k-exchange neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This paper presents an effective implementation of k-opt in LKH-2, a variant of the Lin–Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation...... is demonstrated with experiments on Euclidean instances ranging from 10,000 to 10,000,000 cities. The runtime of the method increases almost linearly with the problem size. LKH-2 is free of charge for academic and non-commercial use and can be downloaded in source code....

  10. Hybrid ant colony and particle swarm algorithm for solving TSP%蚁群与粒子群混合算法求解TSP问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯; 吴红星; 王浩; 丁家栋

    2012-01-01

    The Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) is the oldest and most extensively studied combinatorial optimization problem. For the traveling salesman problem, Hybrid Ant colony and Particle swarm Algorithm (HAPA) is proposed. The HAPA divides the ant colony into several ant sub colonies, then optimizes parameters of the ant sub colonies as particles by the particle swarm optimization algorithm, and introduces the operation of swapping the pheromone in each ant sub colony. Results show that the HAPA has more advantages than the traditional algorithm and the similar algorithm in solving the traveling salesman problem.%旅行商问题(TSP)是最古老而且研究最广泛的组合优化问题.针对TSP问题,提出一种蚁群与粒子群混合算法(HAPA).HAPA首先将蚁群划分成多个蚂蚁子群,然后把蚂蚁子群的参数作为粒子,通过粒子群算法来优化蚂蚁子群的参数,并在蚂蚁子群中引入了信息素交换操作.实验结果表明,HAPA在求解TSP问题中比传统算法和同类算法更具优越性.

  11. Jovian Tour Design for Orbiter and Lander Missions to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Buffington, Brent B.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa is one of the most interesting targets for solar system exploration, as its ocean of liquid water could harbor life. Following the recommendation of the Planetary Decadal Survey, NASA commissioned a study for a flyby mission, an orbiter mission, and a lander mission. This paper presents the moon tours for the lander and orbiter concepts. The total delta v and radiation dose would be reduced by exploiting multi-body dynamics and avoiding phasing loops in the Ganymede-to- Europa transfer. Tour 11-O3, 12-L1 and 12-L4 are presented in details and their performaces compared to other tours from previous Europa mission studies.

  12. Adaptive Memory Procedure to solve the Profitable Arc Tour Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Euchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an Adaptive memory procedure to solve the Profitable Arc Tour Problem (PATP. The PATP is a variant of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problems in which a set of vehicle tours are constructed. The objective is to find a set of cycles in the vehicle tours that maximize the collection of profits minus travel costs, subject to constraints limiting the length of cycles that profit is available on arcs. Computational experiments show that our algorithms provide good results in terms of quality of solution and running times.

  13. Virtually the Same: Comparing the Effectiveness of Online versus In-Person Library Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhanna, Kenneth J.; Voelker, Tammy J. Eschedor; Gedeon, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of virtual or Web-based tours is on the rise in academic libraries, but with the loss of face-to-face contact and direct experience with the library's physical spaces, questions abound about this format's efficacy. Do online tour experiences measure up to those of a guided, face-to-face tour? Do online tours help mold students' perceptions…

  14. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M T T; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araújo, A Q-C

    2003-08-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1.

  15. TSP-1 Deficiency Alters Ocular Microbiota: Implications for Sjögren's Syndrome Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Terzulli, Marielle; Ruiz, Laura Contreras; Kugadas, Abirami; Masli, Sharmila; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The potential role of commensals as triggering factors that promote inflammation in dry eye disease has not been explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ocular microbiota changes with the onset of dry eye disease in thrombospondin-1-deficient (TSP-1−/−) mice, a strain that develops Sjögren's syndrome-like disease.

  16. Simultaneous PSP and TSP measurements of transient flow in a long-duration hypersonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Jiao, Lingrui; Sun, Zhijun; Gu, Yunsong; Liu, Yingzheng

    2016-12-01

    The current work presents simultaneous measurements of transient flow using fast-responding pressure- and temperature-sensitive paints in a long-duration hypersonic tunnel; the pressure, temperature and heat flux fields were obtained on a standard model (HB-2) at Ma = 5. Fast PSP and TSP were applied symmetrically on the model with low thermal conductivity. Both coatings were illuminated by a UV-LED, and unsteady pressure and temperature data were recorded at 500 Hz using a high-speed camera. Time-dependent temperature correction was applied on the PSP data based on the TSP results, while the heat flux was calculated from the time-resolved temperature fields using a 1D semi-finite heat conduction model. The temperature-induced errors in PSP data were effectively removed by the current compensation method. The pressure and heat flux results showed good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. The key events throughout the hypersonic tunnel run were captured by the unsteady PSP/TSP data, including the tunnel start-up, the flow build-up, the steady flow period and the tunnel shutdown. The differences caused by the change of attack angle were also clearly recognized. The current PSP/TSP system has shown great potential for unsteady flow diagnostics in hypersonic flows.

  17. Review of Tour of the Nile [iPad App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Strudwick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of the iPad app, Tour of the Nile. The app promises 'a virtual journey along the Nile Valley' plus the chance to 'handle' objects through the technology of augmented reality.

  18. [Evaluation of a preoperative virtual tour for parents and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Jocelyne; Chartrand, Julie

    2009-03-01

    A Canadian pediatric center has set a preoperative virtual tour on its website. This tour was evaluated by a descriptive study, in terms of utilization, efficacy and usefulness. The tour was utilized by 49.6% of the 123 families. Children of these families had a significant increase in knowledge from Time I (preop clinic) to Time 2 (day of surgery). Children and youth who did not use the tour reported themselves as more anxious the day of surgery but not significantly. There was no significant change in parents. The internet is a useful tool in families' preparation but cannot replace a direct interaction. Other researches are necessary in order to evaluate the impact of this type of preparation on the quality of care and on the child's recovery.

  19. Tour Group Cruises the Three Gorges in Luxury Boat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BOARDING "Sheena," a luxury boat owned by the Sino-American Deluxe Boat Company, I began a five-day tour to Sanxia (Three Gorges of the Changjiang River) with ten other European and American tourists.

  20. The Tour de France: an updated physiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad P; Marroyo, José A; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    From its initial inception in 1903 as a race premised on a publicity stunt to sell newspapers, the Tour de France had grown and evolved over time to become one of the most difficult and heralded sporting events in the world. Though sporting science and the Tour paralleled each other, it was not until the midlate 1980s, and especially the midlate 1990s (with the use of heart-rate monitors) that the 2 began to unify and grow together. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize what is currently known of the physiological demands of the Tour de France, as well as of the main physiological profile of Tour de France competitors.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of Fc-TSP from the Chinese shrimp Fennerpenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Kang, Cui-Jie; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2006-03-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are extracellular, multidomain, calcium-binding glycoproteins that modulate cell behavior in homeostasis and during development, wound-healing, immune response and tumor growth of adult tissues in vertebrates. In invertebrates these proteins are a major component of cortical rods in mature oocytes. A fragment of a thrombospondin-like gene was generated by screening a subtractive cDNA library constructed from the hemocytes of Chinese shrimp, Fennerpenaeus chinensis. The full length F. chinensis cDNA of thrombospondin was cloned by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'- and 5'-RACE). The complete cDNA sequence, named Fc-TSP, is 2886 bp and the open reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 938-residue protein that contains three ChtBD2 domains, an EGF domain, a TSP-3 domain and a common TSP-C (CTD) domain. The protein shares a high sequence identity with the mj-TSPa (46.3%), mj-TSPb (46.9%) and mj-TSPc (51.9%) of Marsupenaeus japonicus. The expression and distribution of Fc-TSP in both challenged and unchallenged shrimps were studied by Northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis showed that the Fc-TSP transcripts were detected in the hemocytes, heart, intestine, stomach and ovary of both challenged and unchallenged shrimps, but the signal was much stronger in the challenged tissues. A strong hybridization signal was detected only in challenged hepatopancreas, with no signal in the unchallenged tissue. The RT-PCR showed that the Fc-TSP was detected in both challenged and unchallenged tissues including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, gills, intestine, spermary and ovary. Except for the ovary and spermary, the signal of challenged tissues was relatively stronger than that of unchallenged ones, especially in hepatopancreas. These results suggest that the thrombospondin was upregulated in the hemocytes, heart, intestine and stomach of challenged shrimp, and induced in the hepatopancreas of challenged

  2. Psychogeographical counter-tour guiding: Theory\\ud and practice

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, will be outlined and explained a mode of tour guiding referred to as ‘psychogeographical’ counter-tour guiding that has been conducted in Manchester, Huddersfield and Leeds with groups such as the Huddersfield Psychogeography Network, the Loiterers Resistance Movement and the Leeds Psychogeography Group. The usage of psychogeography here draws on elements of the situationist practice of playful wandering without destination in order to: experientially make sense of and creative...

  3. Critical realism art——On Russia Tour group Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜月英

    2012-01-01

      The Tour group Painting inherited and developed some precious qualities of the early 19th century critical realism. The Tour group Painting artists were deeply influenced by the Russian realistic literature. They cared about reality, the history of the nation, focusing on the expression of personal feelings. They agreed that the art has the responsibility to educate people, to improve their consciousness .In their opinion, artists are also social activists. So they tirelessly fought towards critical realism and national art.

  4. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yan; Che; Qiang

    2006-01-01

      At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.……

  5. China FAW Participates in The China Auto International (Syria) Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Che Qiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the beginning of the new year,a new message was released from the Organization Committee of China Auto International Tour - China FAW Group Corporation and China League of Machinery Industry will jointly sponsor the 4nd China Auto International(Syria) Tour. This is the first time that the giant state-owned auto enterprise participates in the sponsor of international auto exhibition.

  6. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  7. LAFD: TA-16 HE Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT 55258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will conduct familiarization tours for personnel of the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at TA-16 high explosives (HE) facilities. These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes, among other topics, ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern within the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by LANL personnel who have the required clearance. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.

  8. Knight’s Tours on Rectangular Chessboards Using External Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady Bullington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic puzzle of finding a closed knight’s tour on a chessboard consists of moving a knight from square to square in such a way that it lands on every square once and returns to its starting point. The 8 × 8 chessboard can easily be extended to rectangular boards, and in 1991, A. Schwenk characterized all rectangular boards that have a closed knight’s tour. More recently, Demaio and Hippchen investigated the impossible boards and determined the fewest number of squares that must be removed from a rectangular board so that the remaining board has a closed knight’s tour. In this paper we define an extended closed knight’s tour for a rectangular chessboard as a closed knight’s tour that includes all squares of the board and possibly additional squares beyond the boundaries of the board and answer the following question: how many squares must be added to a rectangular chessboard so that the new board has a closed knight’s tour?

  9. Deep sky observing an astronomical tour

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition has all of the information needed for your successful forays into deep sky observing. Coe uses his years of experience to give detailed practical advice about how to find the best observing site, how to make the most of the time spent there, and what equipment and instruments to take along. There are comprehensive lists of deep sky objects of all kinds, along with Steve's own observations describing how they look through telescopes with apertures ranging from 4 inches to 36 inches (0.1 - 0.9 meters). Binocular observing also gets its due, while the lists of objects have been amended to highlight only the best targets. A new index makes finding targets easier than ever before, while the selection of viewing targets has been revised from the first edition. Most of all, this book is all about how to enjoy astronomy. The author's enthusiasm and sense of wonder shine through every page as he invites you along on a tour of some of the most beautiful and fascinating sites in the deep ...

  10. The Chemical Cosmos A Guided Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Steve

    2012-01-01

    If you have ever wondered how we get from the awesome impersonality of the Big Bang universe to the point where living creatures can start to form, and evolve into beings like you, your friends and your family, wonder no more. Steve Miller provides us with a tour through the chemical evolution of the universe, from the formation of the first molecules all the way to the chemicals required for life to evolve. Using a simple Hydrogen molecule – known as H-three-plus - as a guide, he takes us on a journey that starts with the birth of the first stars, and how, in dying, they pour their hearts out into enriching the universe in which we live. Our molecular guide makes its first appearance at the source of the Chemical Cosmos, at a time when only three elements and a total of 11 molecules existed. From those simple beginnings, H-three-plus guides us down river on the violent currents of exploding stars, through the streams of the Interstellar Medium, and into the delta where new stars and planets form. We are fi...

  11. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  12. Welcome to the Universe an astrophysical tour

    CERN Document Server

    DeGrasse Tyson, Neil; Gott, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the Universe is a personal guided tour of the cosmos by three of today's leading astrophysicists. Inspired by the enormously popular introductory astronomy course that Neil deGrasse Tyson, Michael A. Strauss, and J. Richard Gott taught together at Princeton, this book covers it all--from planets, stars, and galaxies to black holes, wormholes, and time travel. Describing the latest discoveries in astrophysics, the informative and entertaining narrative propels you from our home solar system to the outermost frontiers of space. How do stars live and die? Why did Pluto lose its planetary status? What are the prospects of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? How did the universe begin? Why is it expanding and why is its expansion accelerating? Is our universe alone or part of an infinite multiverse? Answering these and many other questions, the authors open your eyes to the wonders of the cosmos, sharing their knowledge of how the universe works. Breathtaking in scope and stunningly illustrate...

  13. Supertramp (de)tour to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During their recent European tour celebrating forty years since their debut album, the members of the famous British rock-band Supertramp decided to take a break and pay a visit to CERN on 16 October, the day after their concert at Geneva Arena. It was a fast break for the authors of the popular “Breakfast in America”, as their next concert was in Lyon the same evening.   Supertramp's John Helliwell with anti-matter trap. Not content with merely unveiling the mysteries of the Universe, CERN has also been able to improve the performance of one of the world's most famous singers and saxophonists, John Helliwell, the leader of the rock band Supertramp! In his words: “Tonight in Lyon I shall play the saxophone better than before I came here”. And Gabe Dixon, keyboard player and songwriter, added: “I would love to write a song about the Universe now. If only I could put all this into poetic words…that would be a real accomplishment&rdqu...

  14. A universal optimization strategy for ant colony optimization algorithms based on the Physarum-inspired mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Gao, Chao; Liu, Yuxin; Qian, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms often fall into the local optimal solution and have lower search efficiency for solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). According to these shortcomings, this paper proposes a universal optimization strategy for updating the pheromone matrix in the ACO algorithms. The new optimization strategy takes advantages of the unique feature of critical paths reserved in the process of evolving adaptive networks of the Physarum-inspired mathematical model (PMM). The optimized algorithms, denoted as PMACO algorithms, can enhance the amount of pheromone in the critical paths and promote the exploitation of the optimal solution. Experimental results in synthetic and real networks show that the PMACO algorithms are more efficient and robust than the traditional ACO algorithms, which are adaptable to solve the TSP with single or multiple objectives. Meanwhile, we further analyse the influence of parameters on the performance of the PMACO algorithms. Based on these analyses, the best values of these parameters are worked out for the TSP.

  15. Altered expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 and their ligands in HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Felegari, Mehdi; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Rajaei, Taraneh; Hampson, Ian; Hassanshahi, Golmahossein; Valizadeh, Narges; Gerayli, Sina; Hamid, Farajifard; Zamanian, Shadi; MollaHosseini, Farzad; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-08-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6, and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects. The PVL of HAM/TSP patients was higher than that of ACs (P = 0.02). CCR6 expression was higher in HAM/TSP patients and in ACs compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively). A significant difference was observed in CCR6 expression when a combination of HAM/TSP patients and ACs were compared to the healthy individuals (P = 0.005). Furthermore, there was a significantly lower CXCR3 expression between HAM/TSP and control groups (P = 0.001), and between the ACs and healthy controls (P = 0.001). However, the increased CXCR3 expression in ACs compared to HAM/TSP patients was not significant. Furthermore, the CXCL10 protein levels in HAM/TSP patients was higher than in controls (P = 0.012), and CXCL9 protein levels was also higher in the HAM/TSP and ACs groups than in the controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, it seems that decreased expression of CXCR3 and higher expression of CCR6 were associated with HTLV-1 infection, what indicate that these alterations may favor virus dissemination but not disease manifestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP): contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rave,Jorge Ivan; Jaramillo Álvarez,Gloria Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP) en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el ...

  17. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  18. Challenges Affecting the Quality Service of the Tour Guide in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Magdy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research spots the light on the challenges that face the Egyptian tour guide and could affect on his service quality. Several studies were previously done on these challenges in other countries; however, this study is considered the first to be done in Egypt. The researcher depended on interviews with members of the Egyptian tour-guiding Syndicate, travel agencies, and numbers of Tour-guides. Through these interviews certain challenges are detected: the poor payment, the role conflict between the tour leader and the tour-guide, the foreign labour, feeling not appreciated from the government, renewing the licence, creation of other tour-guiding jobs.

  19. Characteristics and Seasonal Variations of PM2.5, PM10,and TSP Aerosol in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN-JIE ZHANG; YE-LE SUN; GUO-SHUN ZHUANG; DONG-QUN XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the seasonal characteristics and the sources of elements and ions with different sizes in the aerosols in Beijing. Methods Samples of particulate matters (PM2.5), PM10, and total suspended particle (TSP)aerosols were collected simultaneously in Beijing from July 2001 to April 2003. The aerosol was chemically characterized by measuring 23 elements and 18 water-soluble ions by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Results The samples were divided into four categories: spring non-dust, spring dust, summer dust, and winter dust. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were most abundant in the spring dust, and the least in summer dust. The average mass ratios of PM>10, PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 to TSP confirmed that in the spring dust both the large coarse (PM>10) and fine particles (PM2.5) contributed significantly in summer PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10 contributed similar fractions to TSP, and in winter much PM2.5. The seasonal variation characteristics of the elements and ions were used to divide them into four groups: crustal, pollutant, mixed, and secondary. The highest levels of crustal elements, such as Al, Fe, and Ca, were found in the dust season, the highest levels of pollutant elements and ions,such as As, F, and C1-, were observed in winter, and the highest levels of secondary ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) were seen both in summer and in winter. The mixed group (Eu, Ni, and Cu) showed the characteristics of both crustal and pollutant elements. The mineral aerosol from outside Beijing contributed more than that from the local part in all the reasons but summer, estimated using a newly developed element tracer technique.

  20. Deploying TSP on a National Scale: An Experience Report from Pilot Projects in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    introduced. Structured personal code and design reviews, based on individual defect data, are conducted. PSP2.1 6, 7, 8 Design templates and design...Second, the team was unsure how to structure the work for track- ing and reporting. The needs ofthe team had to be balanced with the project...Direct comparisons should be consi- dered with caution because few non-TSP projects gather data as precise or use the same standar - dized operational

  1. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA FULL DAY DI PT. TOUR EAST INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Geni Jaya Ksamawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he development of increasing tourist arrivals to Bali led to the development of business and tourism in the world of business, one business trip in Bali. PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is the one of the travel agents in Bali in this to win the competition with other companies, the need for proper marketing strategy and correct. This study aims to determine the marketing strategy Full Day tour packages PT. Tour East Indonesia and what strategies can be implemented in the PT. Tour East Tours and Travel to boost sales of tour packages to tourists as well as winning the competition with other companies. In this study using Qualitative descriptive data analysis techniques combined with a SWOT analysis to figure out what the right strategy is used to market tour packages Full Day of PT. Tour East Indonesia. Based on the SWOT matrix analysis obtained a marketing strategy that can be applied to PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is a strategy creation and development of tourism products, increased promotion strategies, human resource development strategy, market segmentation strategy development, and strategies for improving the quality of products and services. From the results of this study can be given advice to the PT. Tour East Tours and Travel is improving service process management and define market segments and maintain the image of the internal and external environment, while maintaining a cooperative relationship, and held training to staff meetings.

  2. Portfolio Optimization with Target-Shortfall-Probability Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Schubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional portfolio optimization uses the standard deviation of the returns as a measure of risk. In recent years, the Target-Shortfall-Probability (TSP was discussed as an alternative measure. From the utility-theoretical point of view, the TSP is not perfect. Furthermore it is criticized due to the insufficient description of the risk. The advantages of the TSP are the usage independent of the distribution and the intuitive understanding by the investor. The use of a TSP-vector reduces an utility-theoretical disadvantage of a single TSP and offers an sufficient description of risk. The developed Mean-TSP-vector model is a mixed-integer linear program. The CPU-Time of the program to get a solution demonstrates that the model is suitable for practical applications. A test of the performance shows, that the average return of the model when used in bear markets is equal to the results of the traditional portfolio optimization but - due to skewness - in bullish markets can achieve better returns.

  3. Seasonal variation and source apportionment of PAHs in TSP in the atmosphere of Guiyang, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Liu, C. Q.; Zhang, G. P.; Zhang, Y. L.

    2012-11-01

    Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected during January to December in 2005 at urban and rural sites in Guiyang, and were analyzed for 14 particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (P-PAHs) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The total concentration of the P-PAHs ranged from 6.0-29.1 ng/m3 at monitoring sites, and 1.2-84.8 ng/m3 in and around Guiyang. P-PAHs concentration in samples collected from Guiyang possesses distinct seasonal variation with a higher concentration in winter and lower concentration in summer. PAHs with 5-ring were found to have the most distinct seasonal variation among other target PAHs. Correlations between the TSP concentration, ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and the P-PAHs concentrations were evaluated. It was found that the TSP had significant influence on the P-PAHs concentration with correlation coefficients of 0.69 (P < 0.01, n = 180). In addition, the P-PAHs concentration showed negative correlation with RH (r = - 0.28, P < 0.01, n = 180), and a moderate negative correlation with T (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05 n = 180). Diagnostic ratios and Principal Component Analysis suggest that the main pollution sources identified were coal combustion emission (52.5%), traffic gasoline (21.4%) and other miscellaneous sources (14.2%).

  4. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): still an obscure disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillat, Micheli Mainardi; Bauer, Moisés Evandro; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Ulrich, Henning; Casseb, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the ethiologic agent of the neurological disorder HTLV-1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic during their lifetime, approximately one percent of this population develops a myelopathy consisting of a chronic inflammation of the white and gray matter of the spinal cord. Glucocorticoids are widely used for treatment because of their anti-inflammatory properties, improving symptoms mainly in those patients with only a few years from onset of the disease, when inflammation is more prominent. Interferon-alpha and vitamin C are other therapies presenting some benefits in clinical practice, probably due to their anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities observed ex vivo. Furthermore, inhibitors of histone deacetylase, which increase virus expression but result in a substantial decline in the proviral load, have also been proposed. This review is intended to bridge the gap between clinical and basic science by presenting recent findings on HAM/TSP disease, mechanisms of drug action, and benefits of these therapies in HAM/TSP patients.

  5. Elemental and carbonaceous characterization of TSP and PM10 during Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavani, Abbas; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Hadei, Mostafa; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Naddafi, Kazem

    2017-08-21

    Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms carry large amounts of dust particles to the Southern and Western cities of Iran. This study aimed to characterize the elemental and carbonaceous composition of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM10 in Ahvaz, Iran. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using two separate high-volume air samplers. The sampling program was performed according to EPA guidelines and resulted in 72 samples. Twenty-eight elements and two carbonaceous components in TSP and PM10 were measured. Over the entire study period, the mean concentration (SD) of TSP and PM10 was 1548.72 μg/m(3) (1965.11 μg/m(3)) and 1152.35 μg/m(3) (1510.34 μg/m(3)), respectively. The order of concentrations of major species were Si > Al > Ca > OC > Na > B > Zn > Mn > K > Mg and Si > Ca > Al > Na > OC > B > K > Mn > Cu > Mg for TSP and PM10, respectively. Almost all elements (except for Cd, Cr, and Cu) and carbonaceous components (except for organic carbon) had dust days/non-dust days (DD/NDD) ratios higher than 1, implying that all components are somehow affected by dust storms. Crustal elements constituted the major portion of particles for both TSP and PM10 in both DDs and NDDs. The enrichment factor of elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Ti was near unity. Species such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Na, Si, and EC had high correlation coefficients in both TSP and PM10 (except for EC). In conclusion, Ahvaz is exposed to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 during the MED period. Immediate actions must be planned to decrease the high concentrations of particulate matter in Ahvaz's ambient air.

  6. EPB41L3, TSP-1 and RASSF2 as new clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers in diffuse gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Janices, Noemi; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Tuñón, Maria Teresa; Barba-Ramos, Edurne; Ibáñez, Berta; Zazpe-Cenoz, Idoya; Martinez-Aguillo, Maria Teresa; Hernandez, Berta; Martínez-Lopez, Enrique; Fernández, Agustin F.; Mercado, Maria Roasario; Cabada, Teresa; Escors, David; Megias, Diego; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is one of the hallmarks in the progression of brain tumors. Our objectives were to analyze the presence of the hypermethylation of EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes in 132 diffuse gliomas (astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors) and in 10 cases of normal brain, and to establish their association with the patients’ clinicopathological characteristics. Gene hypermethylation was analyzed by methylation-specific-PCR and confirmed by pyrosequencing (for EPB41L3 and TSP-1) and bisulfite-sequencing (for RASSF2). EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes were hypermethylated only in tumors (29%, 10.6%, and 50%, respectively), confirming their cancer-specific role. Treatment of cells with the DNA-demethylating-agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restores their transcription, as confirmed by quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 was performed to analyze protein expression; p53, ki-67, and CD31 expression and 1p/19q co-deletion were considered to better characterize the tumors. EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was associated with worse (p = 0.047) and better (p = 0.037) prognosis, respectively. This observation was confirmed after adjusting the results for age and tumor grade, the role of TSP-1 being most pronounced in oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.001). We conclude that EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes are involved in the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas, and that EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation are of prognostic significance. PMID:25621889

  7. Approximating the Minimum Tour Cover of a Digraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Hung Nguyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Given a directed graph G with non-negative cost on the arcs, a directed tour cover T of G is a cycle (not necessarily simple in G such that either head or tail (or both of them of every arc in G is touched by T. The minimum directed tour cover problem (DToCP, which is to find a directed tour cover of minimum cost, is NP-hard. It is thus interesting to design approximation algorithms with performance guarantee to solve this problem. Although its undirected counterpart (ToCP has been studied in recent years, in our knowledge, the DToCP remains widely open. In this paper, we give a 2 log2(n-approximation algorithm for the DToCP.

  8. Production of the next-generation library virtual tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J M; Roth, L K

    2001-10-01

    While many libraries offer overviews of their services through their Websites, only a small number of health sciences libraries provide Web-based virtual tours. These tours typically feature photographs of major service areas along with textual descriptions. This article describes the process for planning, producing, and implementing a next-generation virtual tour in which a variety of media elements are integrated: photographic images, 360-degree "virtual reality" views, textual descriptions, and contextual floor plans. Hardware and software tools used in the project are detailed, along with a production timeline and budget, tips for streamlining the process, and techniques for improving production. This paper is intended as a starting guide for other libraries considering an investment in such a project.

  9. China National Acrobatic Troupe’s Performance Tour in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Min-On Concert Association of Japan,a 51-member China National Acrobatic Troupe sent by the CPAFFC made a performance tour in 61 Japanese cities including Tokyo,Osaka and Nagoya from September 8 to December 26,2007.During the 110-day performance tour,the troupe gave 114 performances with an audience of 230,000 person/times.This performance tour,as an important part of the activities of the China-Japan Cultural and Sports Exchange Year and in commemoration of the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan was well received by the Japanese audience and won praises from both Japanese and Chinese media,achieving a full success.

  10. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: Self_Guided Annual Tour and Open House

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum summarizes the results of Tewaukon Natiuonal Wildlife , Refuge Tour on October 17th, 1971. Tour guide is included, which gives details to visitors...

  11. Final report [Homes Tours and Green Building Program Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, Lani

    2000-06-28

    The US Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs sponsored EcoTecture Solutions, Inc. (dba Sustainable Living Alliance {trademark}) in producing two home tours showcasing energy- and resource-efficient buildings in Austin, Texas, held on October 16, 1999, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, held on May 20, 2000. Lists are given of the notable building technologies, passive solar design features, and energy- and water-efficient technologies and design employed in the houses. There were over 1200 visitors to the 22 residential and 3 commercial buildings included in the tour.

  12. Aendringer i blodprofiler under Tour de France 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, Jakob; Belhage, Bo; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    sports federations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the Tour de France 2007, 7 riders were randomly tested on 3 different occasions; the day before the prologue, and 12 and 19 days after the prologue. Blood was drawn into 3 mL EDTA covered tubes and kept at 4 degrees Celsius. They were analyzed within 24.......5% and 12.1% lower on day 19 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: We observed significant decreases in [Hb] and Hct in 7 riders during Tour de France 2007. Whether or not this is due to decrease in hemoglobin mass or hemodilution, or the latter solely, increases in [Hb] and Hct during prolonged stage racing...

  13. Creation of a library tour application for mobile equipment using iBeacon technology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, development, and deployment of a library tour application utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy devices know as iBeacons. The tour application will serve as library orientation for incoming students. The students visit stations in the library with mobile equipment running a special tour app. When the app detects a beacon nearby, it automatically plays a video that describes the current location. After the tour, students are assessed according to the defined learning objective...

  14. Open Door for China's Auto——The 1st China Auto National Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Auto International Exhibition Tour was held for the first time as early as 1995,as an important pioneering undertaking.In fact,the first session of the tour was more appropriate to be called "National Exhibition Tour",as the tour team only traveled within China's borders.28 cars and motorcycles from China's four maior manufacturing groups took 20 days to travel around half of China.

  15. TSP断层模型数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of TSP Fault Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林义; 刘争平; 王朝令; 肖缔

    2015-01-01

    隧道在施工开挖中会遇到各种地质问题,其中以断层和软弱带居多,目前隧道地质预报主要采用 TSP(tunnel seismic prediction)系统进行。虽然 TSP 技术应用广泛,但目前对它的研究工作主要集中于工程应用实例,采用正演模拟方法进行的研究较少。笔者采用有限元方法模拟隧道地震波场,采用波场快照与时间记录相结合的方法研究断层对隧道地震波场传播的影响,并对含断层模型的时间记录进行了反演处理,得到了数值模型的速度云图和反射层位图。数据处理结果表明:采用 TSP Win 软件默认值处理得到的速度云图与模型设定的断层位置一致;根据反射层位图,对异常速度带的层状模型来说,P 波预报的准确性更高。研究表明,TSP 系统具有良好的抗噪性能。通过对工程实例的处理,验证了数值模拟所得结论。%During tunnel excavation ,a variety of geological disasters might be encountered ,such as faults ,caves ,et .al . Tunnel seismic prediction (TSP ) is adopted to mitigate the possible damages . Although TSP technology is used widely ,the research about TSP is currently focused on its engineering application cases .We use the finite element method to simulate the tunnel seismic wave field ,employ wave field snapshots and time recording method on the impact of faults on the characteristics of the propagation of tunnel seismic wave field ,and inversely process the time record of model containing the fault .The digital model of the velocity scattered image and the reflection interface position are obtained , and the fault position from velocity scattered image processed with the default values set by using TSPwin is agreed to the one from the model .In respect to the layered model for an abnormal velocity zone ,P‐wave is more precise .The system of TSP is strong for its feature of anti‐noise .The numerical simulation is verified finally

  16. 77 FR 11618 - Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements AGENCY: Office of.../air tour price advertisements. SUMMARY: The Department is publishing the following notice providing additional guidance on airfare/air tour price advertisements. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nicholas...

  17. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  18. Places of the imagination. An ethnography of the TV detective tour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This article considers the phenomenon of the TV detective tour, guided tours of the locations and settings of popular TV detective programs. What explains the growing popularity of these tours? The article proposes that the locations in question serve as physical points of

  19. Places of the imagination: an ethnography of the TV detective tour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the phenomenon of the TV detective tour, guided tours of the locations and settings of popular TV detective programs. What explains the growing popularity of these tours? The article proposes that the locations in question serve as physical points of reference to an imagined

  20. Ariadne: a Java-based guided tour system for the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jühne, Jesper; Jensen, Anders T.; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a Guided tour system for the WWW, called Ariadne, which implements the ideas of trails and guided tours, originating from the hypertext field. Ariadne appears as a Java applet to the user and it stores guided tours in a database format separated from the WWW documents included...

  1. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP): contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP): contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave; Gloria Patricia Jaramillo Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP) en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el ...

  2. Pricing Mechanism of TSP Solving Service in Cloud Computing%云计算中TSP问题求解服务的定价机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾栩鸿; 曾国荪

    2011-01-01

    旅行商问题(TSP)是一个典型的路径优化问题,在城市交通规划、物流运输、通信网络设置等领域都存在类似的问题和应用.但是,TSP问题的求解是NP难的,当问题规模很大时,必须借助大规模并行计算环境,例如云计算平台,以较大的计算开销来获得可行解.以TSP问题为具体实例,研究云计算服务的定价机制.一般情况下,定价机制要满足公平、灵活、动态、自适应.从公平合理角度来看,影响计算服务定价的因素主要有两方面:一是求解问题的难度,包括计算时间复杂性、空间复杂性、输入输出数据规模等;二是求解服务质量,即服务契约,包括可以作为服务等级协定指标的求解精度、响应时间、资源要求等.由此,提出了一种新的云计算中的服务定价机制:CloudPricing.该机制给出了服务定价的一般和具体原则,并给出了相应的定价公式.针对TSP问题求解,进行了具体的定价实例分析,这对云计算中NP难问题求解服务的定价有参考意义.%The traveling salesman problem(TSP) is a typical path optimization problem which has similar problems and applications in urban transportation planning, logistic transport and communication network settings. However,TSP is a NP hard problem. When problem scale is very large, large scale parallel computing environment such as cloud computing platform is needed. In this paper,we illustrated cloud service pricing mechanism with TSP. Generally,pricing mechanism should be fair, flexible, dynamic and flexible. To be fair and reasonable, there are two main aspects to be considered when pricing a service. One is the difficulty of solving the problem including time complexity, space complexity and quantity of data the application input and output. The other is the quality of service including precision of the result, response time and whether the service is provided in peak time or not which can be served for Service Level

  3. Assessment Of Professional Tour Guides’ Performances By Local Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atınç Olcay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of internet and other social networks, a more conscious tourist profile has gained momentum in this new tourism era. The professional tour guide (PTG services, one of the most important components of the tourism services, have been inspired due to these developments. The PTG contributes tremendously to the success of packaged tours. As such, this research aims to determine the importance levels of the expected PTG's qualifications and assessing the performance of PTG’s from the local tourists’ perspectives. In order to ascertain the aim, survey was conducted with 472 local tourists that visited Gaziantep in 2014 with guided package tours in the months of March and April. The findings indicated that the ratings give PTGs’ performances were lower than that of their qualifications’ importance level. From this point of view, it can be suggested that PTGs’ performance levels stay under local tourists’ expectations within the research framework. The results also indicate statistically significant differences with %5 significance level between local tourists’ assessments on knowledge, abilities/skills and characteristics of PTGs and local tourist’ education levels, genders and package tour participation frequencies

  4. The 4th China International (Syria) Auto Exhibiton Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang; Bai Yifeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ On April 23, 2006,the Opening Cer emony of "Foton Cup" the Fourth China International (Syria) Auto Exhibition Tour (CIAET) was held in Damascus. Syrian Minister of Economy and Trade, Director of Syrian Chamber of Commerce, Iraqi Ambassador to Syria, Chinese Ambassador to Syria, Counsellor of the Economic and Commercial Counsellor's Office of the Embassy of P. R. China in Syria attended the ceremony.

  5. OPPORTUNITIES OF GUIDED TOURS IN PAZARDZHIK: ISLAND-PARK "FREEDOM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Dudova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Аn emblematic place is presented for the town of Pazardzhik and the region, providing opportunities for art, culture, sports, recreation and entertainment, but also opportunities for guided tours. The combination of the rich history of the town and the place for recreation and tourism has the potential for development of the region in tourism and entertainment.

  6. Chinese Students’ Winter Camp Tour of the U. S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Brigham Young University (BYU)-Hawaii of the U. S., a 26-member middle school student winter camp delegation, organized and sent by the CPAFFC, made a study tour of the U. S. with the theme of enhancing friendship between the

  7. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  8. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  9. Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe's Performance Tour in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuJianxia

    2004-01-01

    To mark the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the 91-member Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe gave performances of the new adaptation of Swan Lake, two in the Shanghai Grand Theatre and four in the Beijing Tianqiao Theatre,from October 7 to 18, 2003, successfully concluding their 12th performance tour in China.

  10. Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe’s Performance Tour in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>To mark the 25th anniversary of the signing of the SinoJapanese Peace and Friendship Treaty, the 91-member Japanese Matsuyama Ballet Troupe gave performances of the new adaptation of Swan Lake, two in the Shanghai Grand Theatre and four in the Beijing Tianqiao Theatre, from October 7 to 18, 2003, successfully concluding their 12th performance tour in China.

  11. Fostering Student Engagement through a Multi-Day Industry Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorraine L.; Hartman, Cindy L.; Baldwin, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement may be enhanced by providing educationally purposeful activities outside of the classroom. This study considers the influence of a multi-day industry tour on student engagement for undergraduates majoring in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Data were collected from students' reflections in journal entries focused on an…

  12. Getting Back to Basics: A Student Library Orientation Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel

    2007-01-01

    In developing a Library Orientation Tour, it is important to be perceptive about the needs of a college population. At Queensborough Community College the student population is a mix of traditional and non-traditional students from diversified backgrounds. The initial contact with the Library, and its resources, may be overwhelming for students…

  13. Fostering Student Engagement through a Multi-Day Industry Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorraine L.; Hartman, Cindy L.; Baldwin, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement may be enhanced by providing educationally purposeful activities outside of the classroom. This study considers the influence of a multi-day industry tour on student engagement for undergraduates majoring in Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management. Data were collected from students' reflections in journal entries focused on an…

  14. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  15. Characteristics and Sources of Metals in TSP and PM2.5 in an Urban Forest Park at Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest parks play important roles in improving environments, protecting biodiversity and even public welfare. Aerosols, including total suspended particles (TSP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5, were simultaneously collected in an urban forest park (Dafushan at Guangzhou, southern China, from January 2012 to December 2013. The concentrations of 12 metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn in both TSP and PM2.5 were quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The origins and possible sources of the studied metals in the PM2.5 and TSP were evaluated using the crustal enrichment factors and the principal component analysis, respectively. The results showed that Dafushan urban forest park was polluted by PM2.5 rather than by TSP. The PM2.5 and TSP in the forest park exhibited seasonal patterns with significantly higher contents in the dry season compared with the rainy season. The metals Al, Zn, Pb were the most abundant, while Hg was the lowest metals in the aerosols. The ratios of PM2.5/TSP ratio indicated that the metals were predominant in the finer particles (PM2.5. The crustal enrichment factors indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn in the aerosols originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al and Mn were mainly of crustal origin. The principal component analysis implied that industrial activities, traffic-related emissions, and soil dust were the main possible sources of the metals in both PM2.5 and TSP in Dafushan forest park.

  16. Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  17. 睾丸组织中的TSP50启动子甲基化差异的研究%Difference in TSP50 promoter methylation status of testis tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅淑砚; 杨明; 蒲春雪; 吕静静; 王悦增

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测不同组织中TSP50启动子区域的甲基化状态,研究其表达的机制.方法:分离、纯化鼠睾丸中的精原细胞、精母细胞和精子,分别提取人的睾丸组织、Ntera-2细胞、鼠精原细胞、精母细胞和精子的基因组DNA,用重亚硫酸盐处理基因组DNA,PCR扩增人和鼠的TSP50的启动子CpG岛区域,电泳,提纯,连接于质粒中,转导入细胞中,扩增,提取,纯化质粒,测序.结果:人睾丸组织甲基化水平较低,Ntera-2细胞处于较高水平.鼠的精原细胞和精子细胞甲基化水平较高,精母细胞甲基化水平较低.结论:TSP50启动子区域甲基化位点的甲基化水平调控TSP50蛋白的表达.%Objective:To detect the methylation status of the promoter of TSP50 in different tissues and explore its expression mechanism.Methods:To iso late and purify the spem atogonias ,apem atocytes and spem atozoa of mouse tesis, and extract the genome DNA of hum an testis tissue,N tera-2 cells and spem atogonia,spem atocyte,spem atozoa of mouse respectively.Genome DNA was treated with bisulfite,am plificate the CPG region of the promoter of TSP50 of hum an and mouse by PCR.Electrophoresis,purify and link them into T vector,and then transduce them into DH 5α cells to am plificate,exact and purify the plasm ids and to sequence the CPG region of the promoter of TSP50.Results:The methylation level is low in the hum an tesis but at a higher level in the tera-2 cells.As to mouse,the methylation level is high in the spem atogonias and the spem atoblasts but is at a low level in the apem atocytes.Conclusion:The methyaltion level of the methylation site of the promoter region of TSP50 regulates the expression of TSP50 protein.

  18. LAFD: TA-15 DARHT Firefighter Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT 53044, Revision 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Priestley, Terry B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Marvin Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Lab) will conduct familiarization tours for the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility, TA-15-0312. The purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the DARHT facility layout and hazards. This document provides information and figures to supplement the familiarization tours. The document will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the familiarization tour. A checklist (Attachment A) has also been developed to ensure that all required information is consistently presented to LAFD personnel during the familiarization tours.

  19. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  20. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to

  1. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM – The Norwegian Permafrost Database was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. This paper describes the structural and technical design of NORPERM. NORPERM follows the IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. The ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard is also presented, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, as the data providers for NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. NORPERM stores temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. It contains all the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project, totalling 32 boreholes and 98 sites with miniature temperature data-loggers for continuous monitoring of micrometeorological conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual borehole logging. The amount of data in the database will gradually increase as data from older, previous projects are added. NORPERM also provides links to near real-time permafrost temperatures obtained by GSM data transfer.

  2. A performance evaluation of ACO and SA TSP in a supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Supply Chain management and E commerce business solutions are one of the prominent areas of active research. In our paper we have modelled a supply chain model which aggregates all the manufacturers requirement and the products are supplied to all the manufacturer through a common vehicle routing algorithm. An appropriate tsp has been constructed for all the manufacturers which determines the shortest route thru which the aggregated material can be supplied in the shortest possible time. In this paper we have solved the shortest route through constructing a Simulated annealing algorithm and Ant colony algorithm and their performance is evaluated.

  3. Enhancing the Urea-N Use Efficiency in Maize (Zea mays Cultivation on Acid Soils Amended with Zeolite and TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP and zeolite (Clinoptilolite on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf production of Swan (test crop. All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  4. Enhancing the urea-N use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on acid soils amended with zeolite and TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Hussin, Aminuddin; Ahmad, Husni M H; Rahim, Anuar A; Majid, Nik Muhamad Abd

    2008-04-20

    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  5. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 2 – Zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, David; LaBrier, Daniel; Ali, Amir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Zinc release is limited to less than 1 mg/L in TSP-buffered solution under a variety of conditions (pH, temperature, zinc source). • Zinc release in high-temperature non-TSP-buffered environment is approximately 25 mg/L. • Long-term zinc release is controlled by passivation (without TSP) and zinc solubility (with TSP). • Precipitation and solubility of zinc phosphate limit the release of zinc. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of zinc from metallic zinc-bearing surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that in non-buffered (acidic) environments, measurable quantities of zinc are released from zinc-bearing surfaces. Precipitation and solubility of phosphate-based corrosion products, such as zinc phosphate, limit the release of zinc from zinc-bearing surfaces. These experiments have found that under a variety of conditions, including variations of temperature, pH, and across different zinc-bearing surfaces, the release of zinc into solution is limited to <1 mg/L when phosphate is present. When phosphate is not present, zinc release is instead bounded by a markedly higher saturation limit which is a strong function of the solution temperature.

  6. Characterization of TSP-bound n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at rural and urban sites of Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuiping [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn; Zhang Zhihuan [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lan Tian [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zuo Qian [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Total suspended particle (TSP) was collected and analyzed at rural and urban sites in Tianjin, China during the domestic heating season (from 15 November to 15 March) of 2003/4 for n-alkanes and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The normalized distribution of n-alkanes with the peak at C {sub 22}, C {sub 23}, C {sub 24} or C {sub 25} suggested that fossil fuel utilization was the major source of particulate n-alkanes at both sites. PAHs normalized distribution for each sample was similar and the higher molecular weight PAH dominated the profile (around 90%) indicating a stronger combustion source at both sites. Precipitation and wind were the most important meteorological factors influencing TSP and PAHs atmospheric concentrations. In the urban area the emission height had significant influence on PAHs levels at different heights under the relative stable atmospheric conditions. Coal combustion was the major source for TSP-bound PAHs at both sites based on some diagnostic ratios. - Precipitation and sampling height can significantly influence TSP and TSP-bound PAHs.

  7. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix A to Part 136—Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii Section 1... compensation or hire. “Air tour operator” means any person who conducts an air tour. Section 3. Helicopter... operator must complete a performance plan before each helicopter air tour flight. The performance plan...

  9. Optimization of travel salesman problem using the ant colony system and Greedy search; Optimizacion del problema del agente viajero usando el sistema de colonia de hormigas y busqueda Greedy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ordonez A, A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz S, J. J. [Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present some results obtained during the development of optimization systems that can be used to design refueling and patterns of control rods in a BWR. These systems use ant colonies and Greedy search. The first phase of this project is to be familiar with these optimization techniques applied to the problem of travel salesman problem (TSP). The utility of TSP study is that, like the refueling design and pattern design of control rods are problems of combinative optimization. Even, the similarity with the problem of the refueling design is remarkable. It is presented some results for the TSP with the 32 state capitals of Mexico country. (Author)

  10. Solving the Travelling Salesman Problem Using the Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Čičková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a possibility of solving the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP, which ranges among NP-hard problems, and offer a theoretical overview of some methods used for solving this problem. We discuss the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, which belongs to the group of evolutionary techniques and presents the approach used in the application of ACO to the TSP. We study the impact of some control parameters by implementing this algorithm. The quality of the solution is compared with the optimal solution.

  11. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Kerry J., E-mail: howe@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Mitchell, Lana, E-mail: lmitchell@alionscience.com [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kim, Seung-Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kee, Ernest J., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company, P.O. Box 270, Wadsworth, TX 77483 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH){sub 3}. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known.

  12. Application of multi-agent coordination methods to the design of space debris mitigation tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2016-04-01

    The growth in the number of defunct and fragmented objects near to the Earth poses a growing hazard to launch operations as well as existing on-orbit assets. Numerous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of active debris mitigation campaigns upon the growth of debris populations, but comparatively fewer investigations incorporate specific mission scenarios. Furthermore, while many active mitigation methods have been proposed, certain classes of debris objects are amenable to mitigation campaigns employing chaser spacecraft with existing chemical and low-thrust propulsive technologies. This investigation incorporates an ant colony optimization routing algorithm and multi-agent coordination via auctions into a debris mitigation tour scheme suitable for preliminary mission design and analysis as well as spacecraft flight operations.

  13. Change detection on UGV patrols with respect to a reference tour using VIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Autonomous driving robots (UGVs, Unmanned Ground Vehicles) equipped with visual-optical (VIS) cameras offer a high potential to automatically detect suspicious occurrences and dangerous or threatening situations on patrol. In order to explore this potential, the scene of interest is recorded first on a reference tour representing the 'everything okay' situation. On further patrols changes are detected with respect to the reference in a two step processing scheme. In the first step, an image retrieval is done to find the reference images that are closest to the current camera image on patrol. This is done efficiently based on precalculated image-to-image registrations of the reference by optimizing image overlap in a local reference search (after a global search when that is needed). In the second step, a robust spatio-temporal change detection is performed that widely compensates 3-D parallax according to variations of the camera position. Various results document the performance of the presented approach.

  14. A guided tour of mathematical methods for the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Snieder, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical methods are essential tools for all physical scientists. This book provides a comprehensive tour of the mathematical knowledge and techniques that are needed by students across the physical sciences. In contrast to more traditional textbooks, all the material is presented in the form of exercises. Within these exercises, basic mathematical theory and its applications in the physical sciences are well integrated. In this way, the mathematical insights that readers acquire are driven by their physical-science insight. This third edition has been completely revised: new material has been added to most chapters, and two completely new chapters on probability and statistics and on inverse problems have been added. This guided tour of mathematical techniques is instructive, applied, and fun. This book is targeted for all students of the physical sciences. It can serve as a stand-alone text, or as a source of exercises and examples to complement other textbooks.

  15. Henri de La Tour et ses réseaux

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Henri de La Tour est un personnage méconnu de l’historiographie actuelle des guerres de religion et de la Régence. Né en 1555, le fils de François III de La Tour, vicomte de Turenne, et d’Éléonore de Montmorency, perdit très vite ses parents et fut pour cette raison élevé par son grand-père le connétable Anne de Montmorency. Après avoir passé de longues années à la Cour, il partit dans le sud-ouest du royaume pour soutenir Henri de Navarre en pleines guerres de religion. Il y révéla des talen...

  16. Critical phenomena: 150 years since Cagniard de la Tour

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Kenna, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Critical phenomena were discovered by Cagniard de la Tour in 1822, who died 150 years ago. In order to mark this anniversary, the context and the early history of his discovery is reviewed. We then follow with a brief sketch of the history of critical phenomena, indicating the main lines of development until the present date. Os fen\\'omenos cr\\'{\\i}ticos foram descobertos pelo Cagniard de la Tour em Paris em 1822. Para comemorar os 150 anos da sua morte, o contexto e a hist\\'oria initial da sua descoberta \\'e contada. Conseguimos com uma descri\\c{c}\\~ao breve da hist\\'oria dos fen\\'emenos cr\\'{\\i}ticos, indicando as linhas principais do desenvolvimento at\\'e o presente.

  17. A Video Tour through ViSta 6.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Molina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a visual tour throughout ViSta 6.4, a freeware statistical program based on Lisp-Stat and focused on techniques for statistical visualization (Young 2004. This travel around ViSta is based on screen recordings that illustrate the main features of the program in action. The following aspects of ViSta 6.4 are displayed: the program's interface (ViSta's desktop, menubar and pop-up menus, help system; its data management capabilities (data input and editing, data transformations; features associated to data analysis (data description, statistical modeling; and the options for Lisp-Stat development in ViSta. The video recordings associated to this tour (.wmv files can be visualized at http://www.jstatsoft.org/v13/i08/ using the Internet Explorer navigator, or by clicking on the figures in the paper.

  18. What are we training tour guides for? (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prakash

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional Level Guide Training Programe (RLGTP is an ambitious programe of Government of India aimed at creating professional guides who can accompany tourist over a region. Entire country has been divided in to 5 regions. An important issue to address is the kind of tour guides these training programes should produce. This would depend upon the content and approach to training which in turn depends on the vision for roles guides should play in tourism value chain. This paper is a case study based evaluation of the content of the RLGTP vis-à-vis the six-dimensional model proposed by Chowdhary and Prakash (2008. Authors calculate the weight-age given to different inputs and try to uncover the underlying assumptions about the role of a tour guide. Paper also makes recommendations related to design of content for the guide training programe.

  19. The 4th China International (Syria) Auto Exhibiton Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Jinliang; Bai; Yifeng

    2006-01-01

      On April 23, 2006,the Opening Cer emony of "Foton Cup" the Fourth China International (Syria) Auto Exhibition Tour (CIAET) was held in Damascus. Syrian Minister of Economy and Trade, Director of Syrian Chamber of Commerce, Iraqi Ambassador to Syria, Chinese Ambassador to Syria, Counsellor of the Economic and Commercial Counsellor's Office of the Embassy of P. R. China in Syria attended the ceremony.……

  20. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  1. Quality strategies implemented within the tourism agency Perfect Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the quality strategies adopted by the tourism agency Perfect Tour. The most important advantages of the Romanian agency in comparison with its competitors are: the focus on high quality services, cooperation with other international agencies, entering new fields like medical tourism and sole representative of Disneyland Paris. The strategies adopted explain the good financial results even in the period of crisis.

  2. China National Acrobatic Troupe’s Performance Tour in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Sixty years ago the China National Acrobatic Troupe was founded.This year also marks the 35th anniversary of cultural exchanges between the Min-On Concert Association of Japan and China.To celebrate these twin events,a 50-member China National Acrobatic Troupe sent by the CPAFFC made a performance tour in 47 Japanese cities from February 20 to May 30.

  3. The bi-objective stochastic covering tour problem

    OpenAIRE

    Tricoire, Fabien; Graf, Alexandra; Gutjahr, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a bi-objective covering tour model with stochastic demand where the two objectives are given by (i) cost (opening cost for distribution centers plus routing cost for a fleet of vehicles) and (ii) expected uncovered demand. In the model, it is assumed that depending on the distance, a certain percentage of clients go from their homes to the nearest distribution center. An application in humanitarian logistics is envisaged. For the computational solution of the resulting bi-objecti...

  4. Austrian Wels Orchestra’s Performance Tour in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On the evening of April 12, beau-tiful music wafted through the big hall of the Rizhao International Conference Center. When the enthusiastic and exciting Radezky March was played, an audience of over 1,000 people gave a standing ovation in time to the music as the Austrian Wels Orchestra’s performance tour in Shandong came to a successful end.

  5. Optimized Extreme Learning Machine for Power System Transient Stability Prediction Using Synchrophasors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized extreme learning machine- (ELM- based method for power system transient stability prediction (TSP using synchrophasors is presented in this paper. First, the input features symbolizing the transient stability of power systems are extracted from synchronized measurements. Then, an ELM classifier is employed to build the TSP model. And finally, the optimal parameters of the model are optimized by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The novelty of the proposal is in the fact that it improves the prediction performance of the ELM-based TSP model by using IPSO to optimize the parameters of the model with synchrophasors. And finally, based on the test results on both IEEE 39-bus system and a large-scale real power system, the correctness and validity of the presented approach are verified.

  6. The Tour du Canton defeats the rainy weather

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 8 June, over 2200 runners set off from the Route Marie Curie, outside Restaurant No. 1, in the third leg of the 2011 Tour de Canton race. CERN's mixed team held onto the first place in the inter-enterprise competition.   Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director for Administration and General Infrastructure gives the start to runners at the Tour du Canton (8 June 2011). Hosted by the CERN Running Club in collaboration with the communes of Meyrin and Satigny, the race gave runners and their families the chance to pay a flying visit to CERN. “The Tour du Canton races give different areas the opportunity to show off their part of the Canton of Geneva,” says David Nisbet, a member of the Club and one of the organizers of the event. “It was a chance for us to bring unlikely visitors onto the CERN site for a day of competition and fun.” With the starting/finishing line located outside Restaurant No. 1, runners got a look at CERN’s new restaurant extensio...

  7. Easy and effective virtual tour on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilmi; Kang, Andrew; Roberts, John; Yoon, Sanghyuk

    2005-01-01

    Web-based Virtual Tour has become a desirable and demanded application, yet challenging due to the nature of web application's running environment such as limited bandwidth and no guarantee of high computation power on the client side. Image-based rendering approach has attractive advantages over traditional 3D rendering approach in such Web Applications. Traditional geometry-based approach, such as VRML, requires labor-intensive 3D modeling process, high bandwidth and computation power especially for photo-realistic virtual scenes. QuickTime VR and IPIX as examples of image-based approach, use panoramic photos and the virtual scenes that can be generated from photos directly skipping the modeling process. But, QuickTime VR and IPIX may not only require special cameras or effort to take panoramic views but also provide only one fixed-point navigation (look-around and zooming in-out) rather than "walk around", that is a very important feature to provide immersive experience to virtual tourists. Easy and Effective Virtual Tour constructs virtual tour using several snap shots of conventional photos without special tools, build simple 3D space within each photo using spidery mesh, and expand the virtual spaces by connecting each other using simple user intervention to specify correspondence. The expanded virtual space provides virtual tourists with free navigation and immersive experience of walking around through the WWW.

  8. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Switoński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature.

  9. The Expanded Invasive Weed Optimization Metaheuristic for Solving Continuous and Discrete Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Josiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature.

  10. Evaluation of HTLV-1 activity in HAM/TSP patients using proviral load and Tax mRNA expression after In Vitro lymphocyte activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Yari

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Although proviral load had been addressed as a valuable index for monitoring HTLV-1 infected subjects, the results of this study demonstrated that Tax expression in activated PBMCs along with proviral load assessment in HAM/TSP patients are a more reliable factor for determining the prognosis and monitoring healthy carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

  11. 5 CFR 839.1001 - Does the FERCCA allow me to increase my TSP account if I was in CSRS during my qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will be FERS? 839.1001 Section 839.1001 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain Make-up Contributions to the TSP... CFR 1605 of chapter VI) generally allow you to increase your TSP account through a schedule of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.305 - Where do I go for information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where do I go for information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP? 102-117.305 Section 102-117.305 Public Contracts... § 102-117.305 Where do I go for information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP? Refer to...

  13. Short Read Mapping: An Algorithmic Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzar, Stefan; Salzberg, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Ultra-high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows us to determine the sequence of nucleotides of many millions of DNA molecules in parallel. Accompanied by a dramatic reduction in cost since its introduction in 2004, NGS technology has provided a new way of addressing a wide range of biological and biomedical questions, from the study of human genetic disease to the analysis of gene expression, protein-DNA interactions, and patterns of DNA methylation. The data generated by NGS instruments comprise huge numbers of very short DNA sequences, or 'reads', that carry little information by themselves. These reads therefore have to be pieced together by well-engineered algorithms to reconstruct biologically meaningful measurments, such as the level of expression of a gene. To solve this complex, high-dimensional puzzle, reads must be mapped back to a reference genome to determine their origin Due to sequencing errors and to genuine differences between the reference genome and the individual being sequenced, this mapping process must be tolerant of mismatches, insertions, and deletions. Although optimal alignment algorithms to solve this problem have long been available, the practical requirements of aligning hundreds of millions of short reads to the 3 billion base pair long human genome have stimulated the development of new, more efficient methods, which today are used routinely throughout the world for the analysis of NGS data.

  14. Applying Data Clustering Feature to Speed Up Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yang Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant colony optimization (ACO is often used to solve optimization problems, such as traveling salesman problem (TSP. When it is applied to TSP, its runtime is proportional to the squared size of problem N so as to look less efficient. The following statistical feature is observed during the authors’ long-term gene data analysis using ACO: when the data size N becomes big, local clustering appears frequently. That is, some data cluster tightly in a small area and form a class, and the correlation between different classes is weak. And this feature makes the idea of divide and rule feasible for the estimate of solution of TSP. In this paper an improved ACO algorithm is presented, which firstly divided all data into local clusters and calculated small TSP routes and then assembled a big TSP route with them. Simulation shows that the presented method improves the running speed of ACO by 200 factors under the condition that data set holds feature of local clustering.

  15. The Sony Ericsson WTA Tour 10 year age eligibility and professional development review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, C L; Crespo, M; Flygare, C T; Johnston, P R; Keber, A; Lloyd-Kolkin, D; Loehr, J; Martin, K; Pluim, B M; Quinn, A; Roetert, P; Stroia, K A; Terry, P C

    2006-05-01

    Concerns have long existed over the participation of adolescent athletes in professional sports. In 2004, the Sony Ericsson WTA Tour (WTA Tour) commissioned a Professional Development Advisory Panel (PDAP) to evaluate the WTA Tour's age eligibility rule (AER) and professional development programmes (PDPs) for female tennis players since their inception in 1995. More than 75% of the 628 respondents supported the principles of the AER, and 90% indicated a need for PDPs. Statistical analysis of WTA Tour players' careers found that premature retirements (players leaving the Tour at or before age 21) decreased significantly from 7% before the AER to less than 1% afterward, and median career length increased by 43%. The PDAP recommends that the WTA Tour continues a phased-in, developmentally appropriate AER, enhances the PDPs, and works with other sport governing bodies to coordinate rules and programmes at earlier ages to aid the transition of adolescents into adult sports.

  16. Challenges Affecting the Quality Service of the Tour Guide in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Heba Magdy

    2016-01-01

    The research spots the light on the challenges that face the Egyptian tour guide and could affect on his service quality. Several studies were previously done on these challenges in other countries; however, this study is considered the first to be done in Egypt. The researcher depended on interviews with members of the Egyptian tour-guiding Syndicate, travel agencies, and numbers of Tour-guides. Through these interviews certain challenges are detected: the poor payment, the role conflict bet...

  17. Chemical composition of total suspended particulates (TSP) and trace gases near a super thermal power plant (Shaktinagar) U.P.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, G.; Chatterjee, R.N.; Upadhyaya, V. [Rain and Cloud Physics Research Centre (IITM), New Delhi (India)

    1997-06-01

    Total suspended particulates (TSP) and its chemical composition as well as concentrations of trace gases (i.e. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} ad O{sub 3}) sampled near Singrauli super coal-fired power plant situated at Shaktinagar in U.P were investigated. The sampling site is situated at a distance of 1 km north of the power plant and the samples were collected during the monsoon seasons of 1991 and 1992. The concentration of TSP has been found to be higher in 1991 than in 1992. This is attributed to the prevailing wind direction which were mainly north and north easterly in 1991 and carried more TSP from coal mines situated in the north. Out of the eight major water soluble ionic components of TSP measured (i.e. Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}, Na, K, Ca and Mg), concentrations of soil oriented aerosols, especially Ca and concentration of SO{sub 4} which is emitted from thermal power plant have been found to be dominant. Analysis of trace gases showed that the concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are much higher as compared to the concentrations of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. 47 CFR Appendix A to Part 64 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System for National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System for National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) A Appendix A to Part 64 Telecommunication... RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Pt. 64, App. A Appendix A to Part 64—Telecommunications Service Priority...

  19. Stability aspects of the traveling salesman problem based on k-best solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libura, M; van der Poort, ES; Sierksma, C; van der Veen, JAA

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses stability analysis for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). For a traveling salesman tour which is known to be optimal with respect to a given instance (length vector) we are interested in determining the stability region, i.e. the set of all length vectors for which the tour

  20. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeldasht, Sanaz Ahmadi; Sadeghian, Hamed; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim

    2017-08-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry. The demographic, history of disease, and severity of myelopathy were assessed by a checklist and the Osame motor disability score (OMDS). The mean OMDS for HAM/TSP was 4.82 ± 2.37 which had no significant correlation with Treg count or the expression of Foxp3, GITR, and PVL. The CD4(+)CD25(+) cell counts had no significant differences between HAM/TSP and ACs. Findings revealed a higher PVL in HAM/TSPs (313.36 copies/10(4)) compared to ACs (144.93 copies/10(4), p = 0.035). The Foxp3 and GITR mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (11.78 and 13.80, respectively) than those in healthy carriers (18.44 and 21.00, p = 0.041 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant correlation between Treg frequency and Foxp3 gene expression (R = 0.67, p = 0.006) and GITR and Foxp3 (R = 0.84, p = 0.042) in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, the transcription factors have strong correlations with CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell frequencies. These findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection can modify the expression of main functional transcription factors, FOXP3 and GITR, which may lead to immune response deterioration of Tregs and consequently HAM/TSP manifestation.

  1. A New Tour Design Technique to Enable an Enceladus Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, N.; Campagnola, S.; Russell, R.

    2009-12-01

    As a result of discoveries made by the Cassini spacecraft, Saturn's moon Enceladus has emerged as a high science-value target for a future orbiter mission. [1] However, past studies of an Enceladus orbiter mission [2] found that entering Enceladus orbit either requires a prohibitively large orbit insertion ΔV (> 3.5 km/s) or a prohibitively long flight time. In order to reach Enceladus with a reasonable flight time and ΔV budget, a new tour design method has been developed that uses gravity-assists of the low-mass moons Rhea, Dione, and Tethys combined with v-infinity leveraging maneuvers. This new method can achieve Enceladus orbit with a combined leveraging and insertion ΔV of ~1 km/s and a 2.5 year Saturn tour. Among many challenges in designing a trajectory for an Enceladus mission, the two most prominent arise because Enceladus is a low mass moon (its GM is only ~7 km^2/s^2), deep within Saturn's gravity well (its orbit is at 4 Saturn radii). Designing ΔV-efficient rendezvous with Enceladus is the first challenge, while the second involves finding a stable orbit which can achieve the desired science measurements. A paper by Russell and Lara [3] has recently addressed the second problem, and a paper this past August by Strange, Campagnola, and Russell [4] has adressed the first. This method developed to solve the second problem, the leveraging tour, and the science possibilities of this trajectory will be the subject of this presentation. the new methods in [4], a leveraging tour with Titan, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys can reach Enceladus orbit with less than half of the ΔV of a direct Titan-Enceladus transfer. Starting from the TSSM Saturn arrival conditions [5], with a chemical bi-prop system, this new tour design technique could place into Enceladus orbit ~2800 kg compared to ~1100 kg from a direct Titan-Enceladus transfer. Moreover, the 2.5 year leveraging tour provides many low-speed and high science value flybys of Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. This exciting

  2. A Voice Operated Tour Planning System for Autonomous Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles V. Smith Iii

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Control systems driven by voice recognition software have been implemented before but lacked the context driven approach to generate relevant responses and actions. A partially voice activated control system for mobile robotics is presented that allows an autonomous robot to interact with people and the environment in a meaningful way, while dynamically creating customized tours. Many existing control systems also require substantial training for voice application. The system proposed requires little to no training and is adaptable to chaotic environments. The traversable area is mapped once and from that map a fully customized route is generated to the user

  3. AVATAR -- Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring And Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Hall; K. W. Bowyer; N. Chawla; T. Moore, Jr.; W. P. Kegelmeyer

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a report on the initial development of software which uses a standard visualization tool to determine, label and display salient regions in large 3D physics simulation datasets. This software uses parallel pattern recognition behind the scenes to handle the huge volume of data. This software is called AVATAR (Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring and Recovery). It integrates approaches to gathering labeled training data, learning from large training sets utilizing parallelism and the final display of salient data in unseen visualization data sets. The paper uses vorticity fields for a large-eddy simulation to illustrate the method.

  4. THE TOURING PROGRAM TYPOLOGY IN THE COUNTY OF GALATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina CRĂESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the tourism sector noted a continuous increase of consume of touristy products. The area of reference for this article is Galaţi county, that might not have, at first sight, touristy potential, mainly because of the lack of spectacular relief, but this article is trying to prove that the traveling agencies could realize thematic touristy programs based on the numerous cultural and natural local values. Promoting this kind of touring programs might lead to the development of this sector in Galati county that could be a viable alternative for the local human communities that can benefit from the incomes resulted from tourism activities.

  5. Integrating geriatric resources into the classroom: a virtual tour example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnel, Wanda; Fletcher, Kathy; Wingate, Anita

    2007-01-01

    As the older adult population increases, nursing students at all levels need geriatric content and access to geriatric resources. The Virtual Tour (VT) assignment, a combination of Web-based geriatric resources and applied learning activities, provides a simple way to integrate Web-based resources into classroom learning. VTs provide students a guide or "road map" to practical Web-based resources for client care. Evaluation data support that students like VTs and gain useful information for practice. VTs provide an easy way to expand geriatric resources available to students and to complement classroom content.

  6. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  7. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET WISATA PADA PT. PANDAWA LIMA TOUR AND TRAVEL INDONESIA DI DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Adhi Suputra Arimbawa PG.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is about the marketing strategies implemented by PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel tour packages. Company offers tour packages in Bali and beyond Bali tour packages with variety of facilities. As a common general company, PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel has the objective to make profit and trying to satisfy consumers. This research aims to determine the marketing strategy package in PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel tour package in Denpasar. The data collection method in research carried out by the method of observation, in-depth interviews, library research, and technique documentation. The data analysis technique used is descriptive qualitative combined with the SWOT approach. Discussion of the results of the marketing strategy adopted by the PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel is SO strategy by increasing sales promotion to target markets, enhance cooperation with hotels and travel agents and maintain the diversity and innovation of product and service quality. ST strategies to further enhance cooperation with other travel agencies, and improve service quality. WO strategies to enhance the promotion through the mass media, and printing brochures, expanding market segments and improve the quality of human resources in education and training. While WT strategy by increasing promotional activities and improve human resources. Based on the results of the discussion, can give advice - advice on marketing strategies in PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel tour packages that maintain good relations with the company's existing transport and suggest PT. Pandawa Lima Tour and Travel to their own transport, improving education and training for employees and appropriate compensation, as well as updating the architecture buildings and office equipment.

  8. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP: contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP: contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el TSP Probabilístico. Entre los principales campos de inspiración para resolver el TSP están la evolución biológica y su base genético-molecular, el comportamiento de hormigas reales, la termodinámica, las estrategias sistemáticas para combinar reglas de decisión y la búsqueda de vecindades. Hoy día se tiende a desarrollar métodos híbridos, especialmente integrando enfoques globales con búsquedas locales, y se identifica la necesidad de introducir nuevos campos de inspiración.This paper describes and analyzes, in terms of content, the types of TSP, methods and fields of inspiration - the most relevant "literary space" on TSP. It is built based on the top most cited on the TSP history and the Top 10 cited from 2006 to 2010. The study of TSP still prevails in Research, focusing on the original problem and its variants: Multiple TSP (m-TSP and Probabilistic TSP (PTSP. Evidence shows that there has been progress in the development of TSP solving methods, highlighted by various inspiration fields: biological evolution, behavior of real ants, thermodynamics, systematic strategies for combining decision rules, and neighborhood search. There is a tendency to develop hybrid methods, in particular by integrating global approaches to local search. There is need to introduce new fields of inspiration.

  9. Inhibition of VEGFR2 Activation and Its Downstream Signaling to ERK1/2 and Calcium by Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1): In silico Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzazi, Hojjat; Isenberg, Jeffery S.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2017-01-01

    VEGF signaling through VEGFR2 is a central regulator of the angiogenic response. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by the stress-induced matricellular protein TSP1 plays a role in modulating the angiogenic response to VEGF in both health and disease. TSP1 binding to CD47 inhibits VEGFR2 activation. The full implications of this inhibitory interaction are unknown. We developed a detailed rule-based computational model to inquire if TSP1-CD47 signaling through VEGF had downstream effects upon ERK1/2 and calcium. Our Simulations suggest that enhanced degradation of VEGFR2 initiated by the binding of TSP1 to CD47 is sufficient to explain the inhibition of VEGFR2 phosphorylation, calcium elevation, and ERK1/2 activation downstream of VEGF. A complementary mechanism involving the recruitment of phosphatases to the VEGFR2 complex with consequent increase in the rate of receptor dephosphorylation may augment the inhibition of the VEGF signal. The model was then utilized to simulate the effect of inhibiting external TSP1 or the depletion of CD47 as potential therapeutic strategies in restoring VEGF signaling. Results suggest that depleting CD47 is a more efficient strategy in inhibiting the effects of TSP1/CD47 on VEGF signaling. Our results highlight the utility of in silico investigations in elucidating and clarifying molecular mechanisms at the intersection of TSP1 and VEGF biology and in differentiating between competing pro-angiogenic therapeutic strategies relevant to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and wound healing. PMID:28220078

  10. Research on Tour Guide Service Quality Perception of Tourists to Yunnan Province%云南省导游服务质量感知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳; 谢朝武

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of the Tourism Law, malignant tour guide events made a comeback and continued despite repeated prohibitions. Based on Ctrip data source, this paper collects 636 tourists’ comments on package tour products of Yunnan province during October 1,2013 to March 1,2015.By using qualitative analysis based on the Grounded Theory, which includes open coding, axial coding and selective coding, this paper structures tour guide service quality perception dimensions. Secondly, by using optimal scaling analysis, this paper points out the perception of tour guide service quality in the online package tour products from tourists travel to tourism element places of Yunnan province with measures to optimize the tour guide service quality in Yunnan province.%《旅游法》实施之后,云南省恶性导游事件卷土重来、屡禁不止。本文选取携程网作为数据来源网站,以云南省为案例地,选取《旅游法》实施之后自2013年10月1日至2015年3月1日的636条游客对跟团游产品导游服务质量的评论资料,分别涉及318条纯玩团评论资料和318条购物团评论资料。首先采用扎根理论法,经过三级编码过程,对它们进行概念和范畴提炼,构建了云南省在线跟团游产品的导游服务质量感知维度,并解构了游客的评论重点和导游服务质量的感知概况。其次采用最优尺度下的多重对应分析方法,分别对涉及云南省旅游要素场所的134条纯玩团和134条购物团的导游服务质量评论进行分析,得出游客对云南省旅游要素场所的导游服务质量感知情况。据此,提出了云南省导游服务质量的优化管理对策。

  11. 77 FR 13384 - Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements; Correction... Department published a notice entitled ``Additional Guidance on Airfare/Air Tour Price Advertisements,''...

  12. The Skills of A Practical Writing for a Tour Guide(Ⅰ)--Language Differentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静研; 陈忱

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about the skills of practical writing for Tour Guide.In this article,the differences between English and Chinese are discussed.As a Tour Guide,one needs to grasp these characteristics of the two languages,and has ability of describing sceneries beautifully and accurately by writing.

  13. The Organization and Conduct of the AGTA Study Tour of China, January 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the study tour of China undertaken by 20 members of the Australian Geography Teachers Association. An itinerary of the three week tour and reports from Australian and Chinese newspapers are included. For journal availability, see SO 505 212. (Author/DB)

  14. Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard, TSP NORWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H.; Berthling, I.; Blikra, L.; Dehls, J.; Etzelmuller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Humlum, O.; Isaksen, K.; Juliussen, H.; Lauknes, T.; Midttomme, K.; Rønning, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Norwegian funded IPY project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard', (TSP NORWAY) is part of the TSP cluster. The main goal of TSP NORWAY is to measure and model the permafrost distribution in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on its thermal state, thickness and associated periglacial processes, including increased knowledge of the mountain permafrost distribution related to geohazard studies on rockslides. TSP NORWAY will contribute to IPY by providing a spatially distributed set of observations on the present status of permafrost temperatures and active layer thicknesses, and periglacial processes in Svalbard and Norway. Special focus is given to empirical and numerical modelling of permafrost distribution and thermal ground heat fluxes to address future climate variability on permafrost distribution and associated geomorphic activity. Permafrost distribution in the North Atlantic area is strongly climatically controlled, mainly by the North Atlantic Drift, providing much less permafrost than in any other high latitude terrestrial region on the Northern Hemisphere. Hopefully a first Nordic permafrost map will be based on Nordic permafrost collaboration during IPY. The TSP NORWAY project has established two permafrost observatories with intensive permafrost and periglacial monitoring sites in maritime and continental areas. One in Troms, northern Norway, which will be part of the north Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory extending into northernmost Sweden and Finland, and the Svalbard Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory also with both maritime and continental sites. The first Norwegian permafrost database, NORPERM, with all permafrost data from Norway and Svalbard, collected before and during IPY, has been established at the Norwegian Geological Survey. NORPERM shall contribute data as requested in the IPY data protocol and the TSP cluster to the international Global Terrestrial Network on

  15. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of risk-based optimization models for reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahootchi, M. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Engineering; Ponnambalam, K.; Tizhoosh, H.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Systems Design Engineering

    2010-01-15

    The stochastic nature of input variables in water resource management problems must be carefully considered during decision-making processes. This paper used a single reservoir optimization problem in which 2-stage stochastic programming (TSP) and Fletcher-Ponnambalam (FP) were used to generate open-loop policies where inflows and water prices were uncertain. A simulation was performed to measure the performance of FP and TSP techniques in embedding risk and producing comparable policies. A simulation-based Q-learning algorithm based on reinforcement learning (RL) was used to determine the squared action-value function or each action-state pair produced by the algorithm. The methods were used to produce the trade-off curve between expected benefits and standard deviations of benefits. The study showed that the FP method does not require simulation, while the TSP and Q-learning methods both required simulations. 39 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Leveraging Existing Heritage Documentation for Animations: Senate Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, A.; Fai, S.; Graham, K.; Walczak, G.

    2017-08-01

    The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs) made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.

  18. STRATEGI BERSAING BIRO PERJALANAN WISATA ALINDO DEWATA TOURS BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelsye Natalina Lintong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alindo Dewata Tours Bali as an inbound tours companydeals with the competitors by applying competitive strategy.Nevertheless the competitive strategy applied is not maximumyet. It is apparently seen at the average growth of touristsnumber handled since 2004-2013 by the company only 5,97 %.Therefore, this study has the objective to know what internalexternal factors that give influences and competitive strategy tobe applied in the company. This research using analysis toolsof Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix, External FactorEvaluation (EFE matrix for general strategy, Internal External(IE matrix, Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOTmatrix for alternative strategy and Quantitative StrategicPlanning Matrix (QSPM for priority strategy. The result of IFEmatrix indicates bundle pricing policy as the prime strengthand the application of the management information system notmaximum as the prime weakness. EFE matrix indicates qualitystrategy contributes the service as prime opportunity and thedependency on the foreign travel agencies as prime threat.Based on IE matrix, the company’s position is at five (V levelfor resistance and endurance strategy. SWOT matrix indicateseight competitive strategic alternatives. Suggested first priorityby QSPM is to develop market segment, both overseas anddomestic market.

  19. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  20. NASA Research Being Shared Through Live, Interactive Video Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ruth A.; Zona, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    On June 2, 2000, the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project (LTP) coordinated the first live remote videoconferencing broadcast from a Glenn facility. The historic event from Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel featured wind tunnel technicians and researchers performing an icing experiment, obtaining results, and discussing the relevance to everyday flight operations and safety. After a brief overview of its history, students were able to "walk through" the tunnel, stand in the control room, and observe a live icing experiment that demonstrated how ice would grow on an airplane wing in flight through an icing cloud. The tour was interactive, with a spirited exchange of questions and explanations between the students and presenters. The virtual tour of the oldest and largest refrigerated icing research tunnel in the world was the second of a series of videoconferencing connections with the AP Physics students at Bay Village High School, Bay Village, Ohio. The first connection, called Aircraft Safety and Icing Research, introduced the Tailplane Icing Program. In an effort to improve aircraft safety by reducing the number of in-flight icing events, Glenn's Icing Branch uses its icing research aircraft to conduct flight tests. The presenter engaged the students in discussions of basic aircraft flight mechanics and the function of the horizontal tailplane, as well as the effect of ice on airfoil (wing or tail) surfaces. A brief video of actual flight footage provided a view of the pilot's actions and reactions and of the horizon during tailplane icing conditions.

  1. LEVERAGING EXISTING HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION FOR ANIMATIONS: SENATE VIRTUAL TOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dhanda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital documentation techniques has led to an increase in opportunities for using documentation data for valorization purposes, in addition to technical purposes. Likewise, building information models (BIMs made from these data sets hold valuable information that can be as effective for public education as it is for rehabilitation. A BIM can reveal the elements of a building, as well as the different stages of a building over time. Valorizing this information increases the possibility for public engagement and interest in a heritage place. Digital data sets were leveraged by the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS for parts of a virtual tour of the Senate of Canada. For the tour, workflows involving four different programs were explored to determine an efficient and effective way to leverage the existing documentation data to create informative and visually enticing animations for public dissemination: Autodesk Revit, Enscape, Autodesk 3ds Max, and Bentley Pointools. The explored workflows involve animations of point clouds, BIMs, and a combination of the two.

  2. Constructing a Travel Risks’ Evaluation Model for Tour Freelancers Based on the ANP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsai Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs a new travel risks’ evaluation model for freelancers to evaluate and select tour groups by considering the interdependencies of the evaluation criteria used. First of all, the proposed model adopts the Nominal Group Technique (NGT to identify suitable evaluation criteria for evaluating travel risks. Six evaluation criteria and 18 subcriteria are obtained. The six evaluation criteria are financial risk, transportation risk, social risk, hygiene risk, sightseeing spot risk, and general risk for freelancer tour groups. Secondly, the model uses the analytic network process (ANP to determine the relative weight of the criteria. Finally, examples of group package tours (GPTs are used to demonstrate the travel risk evaluation process for this model. The results show that the Tokyo GPT is the best group tour. The proposed model helps freelancers to effectively evaluate travel risks and decision-making, making it highly applicable to academia and tour groups.

  3. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  4. Parasitism of Trichoderma Strain TSP-1 to Eggs of Tobacco Root-knot Nematode%木霉菌株TSP-1对烟草根结线虫卵的寄生性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国康; 陆曦诚; 肖崇刚; 王涛; 刘敬斌; 罗燕

    2011-01-01

    为了筛选烟草根结线虫病的优良生防菌株,测定了木霉菌株TSP-1对烟草根结线虫卵的寄生能力.结果显示,接种木霉菌和根结线虫卵悬浮液的处理,其卵粒细胞质变浓、被溶解,二龄幼虫不孵化,而对照培养皿中观测到根结线虫卵逐步发育成熟,最后从培养基平板上孵化出二龄幼虫.表明该木霉菌株能捕食根结线虫虫卵,显示了较强的寄生致病能力,具有生物防治潜力.%In order to screen out bio-control strains with good control effect against tobacco root-knot nematode disease, the parasitism of Trichoderma strain TSP-1 to the eggs of Meloidogyne spp. On tobacco was determined. The results showed that the cytoplasm of egg cells became thick and was decomposed after the eggs were inoculated on the medium with strain TSP-1 , the 2-instar larvae of Meloidogyne spp. Hardly hatched. While the eggs of Meloidogyne spp. In the control treatment hatched successfully and developed into 2-instar larvae on medium plate. It was indicated that Trichoderma strain TSP-1 could prey on the eggs of root-knot nematode, demonstrated strong parasitic pathogenic capability, and had the potential to be used in biological control.

  5. 14 CFR 136.35 - Prohibition of commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of commercial air tour... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR...

  6. 78 FR 25134 - Termination of the Preparation of an Air Tour Management Plan and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... operators to conduct commercial air tour operations over this park unit. In accordance with NPATMA and based... authority (IOA) to the two existing commercial air tour operators to conduct an annual total of 46... each year of national parks covered by the exemption. In addition, commercial air tour...

  7. Expression at a 20L scale and purification of the extracellular domain of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 recombinant protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Brelsford, Jill; Deumic, Vehid; Plieskatt, Jordan; Rezende, Wanderson C; Tsao, Eric; Kalampanayil, Bose; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    A novel recombinant protein vaccine for human schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is under development. The Sm-TSP-2 schistosomiasis vaccine is comprised of a 9 kDa recombinant protein corresponding to the extracellular domain of a unique S. mansoni tetraspanin. Here, we describe the cloning and the expression of the external loop of Sm-TSP-2 recombinant protein secreted by Pichia Pink™ the process development at 20L scale fermentation, and the two-steps purification, which resulted in a protein recovery yield of 31% and a protein purity of 97%. The developed processes are suitable for the production of purified protein for subsequent formulation and Phase 1 clinical studies. PMID:23899507

  8. Immunogenetics and the Pathological Mechanisms of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1- (HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineki Saito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus.

  9. T cell receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in CD4 + T cells from HAM/TSP individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tomazini Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. CD4+ T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3?, lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK, vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1, and zeta-chain (TCR associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP70 on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT. We observed that CD3?, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4+ T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC. Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4+ T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4+ T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP.

  10. On the Integrality Gap of the Subtour LP for the 1,2-TSP

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Jiawei; Williamson, David P; van Zuylen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the integrality gap of the subtour LP relaxation for the traveling salesman problem in the special case when all edge costs are either 1 or 2. For the general case of symmetric costs that obey triangle inequality, a famous conjecture is that the integrality gap is 4/3. Little progress towards resolving this conjecture has been made in thirty years. For the case when all edge costs $c(i,j)\\in\\{1,2\\}$, we can show that the integrality gap is at most $106/81 \\approx 1.31 < 4/3$; this is the first bound on the integrality gap of the subtour LP strictly less than 4/3 known for an interesting special case of the TSP. In the case the solution to the subtour LP is a fractional 2-matching, we can show that the gap is at most 7/6; if the solution to the subtour LP is a unique fractional 2-matching, we can show that the gap is at most 10/9, and this is tight. We also perform computational experiments that show that the gap is at most 10/9 for $n \\leq 10$.

  11. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  12. Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriene Roy、Mark Christal

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:14-18

    This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonians National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

  13. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  14. Rancang Bangun Dan Pengujian Alat Penjatah (Metering Device Tipe Edge Cell Untuk Penyaluran Pupuk Butiran Urea, TSP dan KCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafriandi Syafriandi

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. This study aims to design a fertilizer granules allotment (metering device type of cell edge that can control the fertilizer output by regulating the rotational speed of the motor is assembled with electronic circuits and test the prototypes performance using a metering device with 3 types of fertilizers ie Urea, TSP and KCl. Research tools are designed only able to drain urea and TSP , while KCL fertilizer have trouble escaping from the gap hopper . The average amount of urea metering device 1 output to the voltage 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 81.33 g /min, 130.33 g/min and 169.00 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row at 75,67 g/min, 129.00 g/min and 168.20 g/min. The average number of TSP output to metering device 1 at the 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 121.20 g/min, 181.53 g/min and 244.67 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row of 119.27 g/min, 180.53 g/min and 243.73 g/min.

  15. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U.; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Accolla, Roberto S.

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection. PMID:28095504

  16. 40 CFR Table C-3 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10 Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pb in PM10 Methods C Table C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. C, Table C-3 Table C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10 Methods Table C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10...

  17. TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements in the vicinity of a cement plant and their source apportionments using chemical mass balance model in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatkin, Sinan; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2010-08-01

    Total suspended particles mass concentrations (TSP) and bulk depositions of particulate matter (PM depositions) were measured around a cement plant located in the multi-impacted area to assess the affect of the plant on the ambient air in the vicinity in Izmir, Turkey. TSP samples were collected five times a month whereas PM depositions were sampled monthly at four sites between August 2003 and January 2004. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in TSP and PM depositions (except Cu) were reported. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model with local source profiles was run in order to calculate the source contributions of the PM sources to the concentrations of TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements. Traffic was found to be the major contributor to TSP whereas PM depositions dominantly result from area sources including several stone quarries, concrete plants, lime kilns, and asphalt plants in the region. CMB model results indicate that the cement plant is a significant contributor to TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements, particularly Cd.

  18. Anti-HTLV antibody profiling reveals an antibody signature for HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahieux Renaud

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is the causal agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATLL and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Biomarkers are needed to diagnose and/or predict patients who are at risk for HAM/TSP or ATLL. Therefore, we investigated using luciferase immunoprecipitation technology (LIPS antibody responses to seven HTLV-I proteins in non-infected controls, asymptomatic HTLV-I-carriers, ATLL and HAM/TSP sera samples. Antibody profiles were correlated with viral load and examined in longitudinal samples. Results Anti-GAG antibody titers detected by LIPS differentiated HTLV-infected subjects from uninfected controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but did not differ between HTLV-I infected subgroups. However, anti-Env antibody titers were over 4-fold higher in HAM/TSP compared to both asymptomatic HTLV-I (P P P R = 0.76, but not in HAM/TSP. Conclusion These studies indicate that anti-HTLV-I antibody responses detected by LIPS are useful for diagnosis and suggest that elevated anti-Env antibodies are a common feature found in HAM/TSP patients.

  19. Effect of meteorologic conditions on total suspended particulate (TSP) levels and elemental concentration of aerosols in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva, Israel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushelevsky, A.; Shani, G.; Haccoun, A. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1983-02-01

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) levels in Beer-Sheva, situated in a semi-arid area with winds bringing in dust from the surrounding deserts, was measured 41 times between June 1977 and May 1978. The TSP levels are correlated with climatic conditions. High TSP levels (890 +- 250 ..mu..g m-/sup 3/) were found during Sharav conditions and sandstorms (hot, dry weather, typical to this region). Low TSP levels (59 +- 28 ..mu..g m-/sup 3/) were found in the winter following rain. Usual TSP levels were found to be 140 +- 20 ..mu..g m-/sup 3/ occurring during normal weather conditions. The elemental composition of the Beer-Sheva aerosols were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The concentrations of the following elements Fe, Na, Br, K, Sm, Au, Sb, Ga, La, Yb, Lu, Se, Hg, Cr, Sc, Rb, Co, Ta and Zn were determined by INNA and Ca, Si, S, Ti, Cl, Pb, Fe, V, Ni and Mn by XRF. Their relative abundances were found to depend on the prevailing TSP level.

  20. An exact "Tour de France" passes through CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    In August 2011, the renowned French mountaineer Lionel Daudet set off from Mont Blanc on a "Tour de la France exacte",  strictly following the 5,000 km of land borders and coastline without using a single motorised vehicle. And about a week into his expedition, the French border led him… to CERN of course… where he described his experience as out of the ordinary.   Lionel Daudet at one of the posts marking the French border in Meyrin (next to the Linac 4 building).  The words "out of the ordinary" are not used lightly by a man who has scaled France's highest peaks in extreme conditions and conquered the world's greatest climbs (mainly solo), from Alaska to Patagonia. "I had never visited a physics lab before today," confesses Lionel Daudet, sitting at a table in the CERN cafeteria. "You get the feeling that knowledge is being built here. When I crossed this particular border...

  1. Dynamics and Controls of a Conceptual Jovian Moon Tour Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mettler, Edward; Langmaier, Jerry K.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics and control challenges presented by a conceptual Jovian Moon Tour spacecraft are summarized in this paper. Attitude and orbital dynamics interactions are present due to the designed low-thrust trajectory, and controls structure interactions are also present due to the non-collocated sensor-actuator pairs on board the flexible spacecraft. A finite-element based simulation model is described which is capable of handling the complex orbital and attitude dynamics arising during the low-thrust spiraling maneuvers of the spacecraft. A few numerical simulations demonstrate that some of the challenges hitherto identified can be faced via integrated dynamics and control analysis, and that reasonable assessments of the pointing performance can be made.

  2. La Tour de Babel ou la Part du Diable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dauphiné

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Denis de Rougemont dans son essai La Part du Diable s’est efforcé de prouver que la Tour de Babel est exemplaire de l’action du « diable dans nos dieux et dans nos maladies ». Plus proche des analyses contenues dans les Mythologies de Barthes que de celles rencontrées au fil des traités de démonologie, Denis de Rougemont dénonce le modernisme qui a, de fait, consacré Babel « grand mythe de notre temps » (p. 146. La thèse avancée a pour fondement « la babélisation des cadres matériels de notr...

  3. The bi-objective stochastic covering tour problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, Fabien; Graf, Alexandra; Gutjahr, Walter J

    2012-07-01

    We formulate a bi-objective covering tour model with stochastic demand where the two objectives are given by (i) cost (opening cost for distribution centers plus routing cost for a fleet of vehicles) and (ii) expected uncovered demand. In the model, it is assumed that depending on the distance, a certain percentage of clients go from their homes to the nearest distribution center. An application in humanitarian logistics is envisaged. For the computational solution of the resulting bi-objective two-stage stochastic program with recourse, a branch-and-cut technique, applied to a sample-average version of the problem obtained from a fixed random sample of demand vectors, is used within an epsilon-constraint algorithm. Computational results on real-world data for rural communities in Senegal show the viability of the approach.

  4. Tour du canton de Genève 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2017-01-01

    Pour rappel, le tour du canton est un évènement incontournable pour les coureurs de la région genevoise. Une épreuve qui a lieu le mercredi soir et qui se déroule sur 4 étapes.  Le Running Club du CERN a encore brillé cette année en obtenant de très bons résultats en individuel et surtout par équipe. L’équipe femme monte sur la première marche du podium (voir photo jointe) Les deux premières équipes hommes se classent 2e et 4e sur 51 équipes classées. Voir classement complet ici : http://www.sport-info.com/i_resultats.php?id=113

  5. The comparative effects of different museum tours on children's attitudes and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronck, David R.

    Various studies contradict each other on the value of field trips and museum visits to improve learning and attitudes. This study concluded that students of grades, 5, 6, and 7 had significantly greater cognitive learning when they participated in a more structured tour, i.e., one led by a museum docent. Students of grades 5, 6, and 7, however, had significantly more positive attitudes when they participated in the less structured tour, i.e., one guided only by their classroom teacher. The study involved 816 students in 31 tours of the Natural History Gallery of the British Columbia Provincial Museum in Victoria.

  6. Cloning and analysis of a bifunctional methyltransferase/restriction endonuclease TspGWI, the prototype of a Thermus sp. enzyme family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylicz-Stachula Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction-modification systems are a diverse class of enzymes. They are classified into four major types: I, II, III and IV. We have previously proposed the existence of a Thermus sp. enzyme family, which belongs to type II restriction endonucleases (REases, however, it features also some characteristics of types I and III. Members include related thermophilic endonucleases: TspGWI, TaqII, TspDTI, and Tth111II. Results Here we describe cloning, mutagenesis and analysis of the prototype TspGWI enzyme that recognises the 5'-ACGGA-3' site and cleaves 11/9 nt downstream. We cloned, expressed, and mutagenised the tspgwi gene and investigated the properties of its product, the bifunctional TspGWI restriction/modification enzyme. Since TspGWI does not cleave DNA completely, a cloning method was devised, based on amino acid sequencing of internal proteolytic fragments. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme shares significant sequence similarity with another representative of the Thermus sp. family – TaqII. Interestingly, these enzymes recognise similar, yet different sequences in the DNA. Both enzymes cleave DNA at the same distance, but differ in their ability to cleave single sites and in the requirement of S-adenosylmethionine as an allosteric activator for cleavage. Both the restriction endonuclease (REase and methyltransferase (MTase activities of wild type (wt TspGWI (either recombinant or isolated from Thermus sp. are dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Conclusion TspGWI is a bifunctional protein comprising a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains; particularly noticeable is the central HsdM-like module comprising a helical domain and a highly conserved S-adenosylmethionine-binding/catalytic MTase domain, containing DPAVGTG and NPPY motifs. TspGWI also possesses an N-terminal PD-(D/EXK nuclease domain related to the corresponding domains in HsdR subunits, but lacks the ATP-dependent translocase module

  7. Permafrost and Active Layer Monitoring in the Maritime Antarctic: A Contribution to TSP and ANTPAS projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, G.; Ramos, M.; Batista, V.; Caselli, A.; Correia, A.; Fragoso, M.; Gruber, S.; Hauck, C.; Kenderova, R.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; Melo, R.; Mendes-Victor, L. A.; Miranda, P.; Mora, C.; Neves, M.; Pimpirev, C.; Rocha, M.; Santos, F.; Blanco, J. J.; Serrano, E.; Trigo, I.; Tome, D.; Trindade, A.

    2008-12-01

    Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the Maritime Antarctic (PERMANTAR) is a Portuguese funded International Project that, in cooperation with the Spanish project PERMAMODEL, will assure the installation and the maintenance of a network of boreholes and active layer monitoring sites, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of the physical and thermal properties of permafrost, as well as the periglacial processes in Livingston and Deception Islands (South Shetlands). The project is part of the International Permafrost Association IPY projects Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Permafrost, Soils and Periglacial Environments (ANTPAS). It contributes to GTN-P and CALM-S networks. The PERMANTAR-PERMAMODEL permafrost and active layer monitoring network includes several boreholes: Reina Sofia hill (since 2000, 1.1m), Incinerador (2000, 2.3m), Ohridski 1 (2008, 5m), Ohridski 2 (2008, 6m), Gulbenkian-Permamodel 1 (2008, 25m) and Gulbenkian- Permamodel 2 (2008, 15m). For active layer monitoring, several CALM-S sites have been installed: Crater Lake (2006), Collado Ramos (2007), Reina Sofia (2007) and Ohridski (2007). The monitoring activities are accompanied by detailed geomorphological mapping in order to identify and map the geomorphic processes related to permafrost or active layer dynamics. Sites will be installed in early 2009 for monitoring rates of geomorphological activity in relation to climate change (e.g. solifluction, rockglaciers, thermokarst). In order to analyse the spatial distribution of permafrost and its ice content, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and seismic refraction surveys have been performed and, in early 2009, continuous ERT surveying instrumentation will be installed for monitoring active layer evolution. The paper presents a synthesis of the activities, as well as the results obtained up to the present, mainly relating to ground temperature monitoring and from permafrost characteristics and

  8. TSP-1在子痫前期患者血清及胎盘组织中的表达研究%Study Of Serum and Placental Tissue TSP-1 Levels in Patients with Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 胡建文

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过研究血小板反应蛋白(thrombospondin,TSP)-1在子痫前期(preeclampsia,PE)患者血清及胎盘组织中的表达,探讨其与子痫前期发病的关系及其临床意义。方法选取子痫前期患者30例,其中轻度子痫前期15例,重度子痫前期15例,选取同期正常孕妇15例作为对照组,采用ELISA法检测三组孕妇血清中TSP-1的表达水平;同时采用免疫组化SP法检测相应胎盘组织中的TSP-1的表达水平。结果血清表达:①轻度子痫前期与重度子痫前期分别与对照组的比较,P<0.05,有统计学意义。②轻度子痫前期与重度子痫前期患者之间比较,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义。胎盘表达:①轻度子痫前期与重度子痫前期分别与对照组的比较,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义。②轻度子痫前期与重度子痫前期患者之间比较,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义。结论血小板反应蛋白-1在子痫前期患者血清及胎盘组织中表达均较正常产妇升高,与子痫前期的发病有关,但与子痫前期的严重程度关系不大。%Objective To observe the level of TSP-1 in serum and placental tissue in patients with preeclampsia. Methods 30 patients with preeclampsia were collected.Among them, 15 cases were mild preeclampsia and 15 cases were severe preeclampsia.15 healthy pregnant women were selected as control. The serum level of TSP-1 in the three groups was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).The placental level of TSP-1 in the three groups was measured by using Immunohistochemistry(SP). Results Serum expression:①mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, respectively, compared with the control group, P0.05, no signiifcant difference. Placental expression:①mild preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, respectively, compared with the control group, P0.05, the difference was not statistically signiifcant. Conclusion TSP-1 level was signiifcantly

  9. PTAS for k-tour cover problem on the plane for moderately large values of k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna; Czumaj, Artur; Lingas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Let P be a set of n points in the Euclidean plane and let O be the origin point in the plane. In the k-tour cover problem (called frequently the capacitated vehicle routing problem), the goal is to minimize the total length of tours that cover all points in P, such that each tour starts and ends...... in O and covers at most k points from P. The k-tour cover problem is known to be NP-hard. It is also known to admit constant factor approximation algorithms for all values of k and even a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for small values of k, i.e., k=O(log n / log log n). We significantly...

  10. COTTON USA Buyers Tour Brings Global Brands and Retailers to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ MEMPHIS - The COTTON USA Buyers Tour to China delivered representatives from 18 global companies - with a combined annual turnover of $18.5 billion - to China from 26-30 March to meet suppliers of pure cotton woven textiles.

  11. Extension, cooperatives to hold 34th annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program in Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment will hold their 34th Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tour Programs starting Oct. 15.

  12. Association Rule Analysis for Tour Route Recommendation and Application to Wctsnop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, J.; Liu, X.; Fang, D.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing E-tourism systems provide intelligent tour recommendation for tourists. In this sense, recommender system can make personalized suggestions and provide satisfied information associated with their tour cycle. Data mining is a proper tool that extracting potential information from large database for making strategic decisions. In the study, association rule analysis based on FP-growth algorithm is applied to find the association relationship among scenic spots in different cities as tour route recommendation. In order to figure out valuable rules, Kulczynski interestingness measure is adopted and imbalance ratio is computed. The proposed scheme was evaluated on Wangluzhe cultural tourism service network operation platform (WCTSNOP), where it could verify that it is able to quick recommend tour route and to rapidly enhance the recommendation quality.

  13. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  14. Extension, cooperatives to hold 33rd annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program, in collaboration with Virginia's natural resource agencies, companies, and associations, will hold their 33rdth Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours starting Sept. 24.

  15. The Press Conference for the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On September 9,2009,the press conference and the flag presentation cercmony of the 7th China Auto International (Chile & Peru) Exhibition Tour (CAIET) was held at the auditorium of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

  16. Creation of a Library Tour Application for Mobile Equipment using iBeacon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design, development, and deployment of a library tour application utilizing Bluetooth Low Energy devices know as iBeacons. The tour application will serve as library orientation for incoming students. The students visit stations in the library with mobile equipment running a special tour app. When the app detects a beacon nearby, it automatically plays a video that describes the current location. After the tour, students are assessed according to the defined learning objectives. Special attention is given to issues encountered during development, deployment, content creation, and testing of this application that depend on functioning hardware, and the necessity of appointing a project manager to limit scope, define priorities, and create an actionable plan for the experiment.

  17. Travel motives of participants in the Cape Argus Pick n Pay Cycle Tour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home ... The Cape Argus Pick n Pay Cycle Tour is the largest cycling events in South Africa. The event ... South Africa; Marketing; Factor analysis.

  18. Walk1916: Exploring how a mobile walking tour app can provide value for LAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cushing, Amber L; Cowan, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    ... institutional measures of impact. Understanding the ways in which users value a mobile app that integrates digital collections with a walking tour allows LAMs to develop best practices for use of such tools associated...

  19. The joy of x a guided tour of math, from one to infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A delightful tour of the greatest ideas of math, showing how math intersects with philosophy, science, art, business, current events, and everyday life, by an acclaimed science communicator and regular contributor to the New York Times.

  20. The joy of x a guided tour of math, from one to infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A delightful tour of the greatest ideas of math, showing how math intersects with philosophy, science, art, business, current events, and everyday life, by an acclaimed science communicator and regular contributor to the New York Times.

  1. Crossing the Border: Reconstructing and Re-Aligning Teacher and Principal Identities through a Study Tour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Paul; Potter, Ian; Bennett, Kenrick; Carter, Talia S; Hylton-Fraser, Kadia; WilliamsonTeape, Katherine; Nelson-Mayne, Shernette

    2015-01-01

    A Study Tour is an opportunity for reflection in a new context. It emphasises experiential learning and offers both group and self-directed activities, enabling participants to explore new territories, cultures and people...

  2. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  3. Personalized Location-Based Recommendation Services for Tour Planning in Mobile Tourism Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chien-Chih; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    Travel and tour planning is a process of searching, selecting, grouping and sequencing destination related products and services including attractions, accommodations, restaurants, and activities. Personalized recommendation services aim at suggesting products and services to meet users’ preferences and needs, while location-based services focus on providing information based on users’ current positions. Due to the fast growing of user needs in the mobile tourism domain, how to provide personalized location-based tour recommendation services becomes a critical research and practical issue. The objective of this paper is to propose a system architecture and design methods for facilitating the delivery of location-based recommendation services to support personalized tour planning. Based on tourists’ current location and time, as well as personal preferences and needs, various recommendations regarding sightseeing spots, hotels, restaurants, and packaged tour plans can be generated efficiently. An application prototype is also implemented to illustrate and test the system feasibility and effectiveness.

  4. "Foton Cup" the Fourth China International [Syria] Auto Exhibition Tour Starts in April

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ On March 22, 2006, the press con ference of "Foton Cup" the Fourth China International (Syria) Auto Exhibition Tour was held in Beijing. Yu Zhen, Chairman of China Machinery Industry Federation sent his congratulations words to the organization committee. Zhang Xiaoyu, Vice Chairman of China Machinery Industry Federation addressed on the conference. Li Jianning, the Director of the Media and Publication Center of CCPIT expressed his expectation for this Exhibition Tour.And many representatives of the participant enterprises also gave speeches.

  5. The Impact of Age on the Ability to Perform under Pressure: Golfers on the PGA Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Harold O. FRIED; Tauer, Loren W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about aging and the ability to perform under pressure on the PGA tour. Performance increases with golfing skill, but may first increase and then decrease with age as experience interacts with changes in physical condition. Similarly, mental fortitude or the ability of a golfer to perform under pressure may first increase and then decrease with age as experience interacts with changes in the ability to concentrate. Net performance on the tour is the result of both physical golfin...

  6. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  7. The Skills of Practical Writing for Tour Guide(Ⅱ)--Points for Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静妍

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about the skills of practical writing for Tour Guide.This article dissertates several points--the interpretation of the source language,structure of the target language and choice of the right word,that should be given more attention in translation.As a Tour Guide,one needs to have these skills and the ability of describing sceneries beautifully and accurately by writing.

  8. Evaluation of a virtual tour for children undergoing same-day surgery and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourigny, Jocelyne; Clendinneng, Debbie; Chartrand, Julie; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a virtual tour entitled, "Surgery Virtual Tour," offered on a Web site of a university-affiliated pediatric center. A pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the level of health care knowledge, emotional state, degree of utilization, and perceived usefulness of the Virtual Tour. The convenience sample consisted of 138 children having same-day surgery and their parents. The "Surgery Virtual Tour" was used by 55% of 138 families. Children who viewed the Web site had statistically significant higher knowledge scores than those who did not. Although there was no statistically significant difference in emotional distress for children in either group before the surgery (Time 1) to the day of the surgery (Time 2), parents' level of emotional distress increased significantly from Time 1 to Time 2 when they took the Virtual Tour. The results of this study will help clinicians and managers build virtual tours for children undergoing same-day surgery and their parents.

  9. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PT. ALLIANCE VAST TOURS TERHADAP WISATAWAN PENGGUNA JASA PERJALANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Pradipa Artawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia especially Bali has a huge potential in the field of tourism. It can be seen from a wide range of beautiful natural scenery, culture, history of the nation, festivals and ceremonies are unique, different kinds of art and crafts, and a number of very attractive place for tourists throughout the year . The study aims is to determine the marketing strategy of the company's tour packages PT. Vast Alliance Tour who can be success to attract tourists to use the services at PT. Vast Alliance Tour. The analysis using SWOT to determine what the is right strategy which can be used to market package of PT. Vast Alliance Tour. This study led to the conclusion that that the marketing strategies undertaken by PT. Vast Alliance Tour in promoting its products through website, brochures, and sales calls. Products offered by PT. Vast Alliance Tour package in the form of packages like rafting, water sports, cruise, spa, and and much more. Strategy undertaken in this study using the SWOT analysis is to combine the strengths and opportunities that can cover the weaknesses and threats that exist in the relevant product market.

  10. Los Alamos County Fire Department LAFD: TA-55 PF-4 Facility Familiarization Tour, OJT 55260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will conduct familiarization tours for Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) personnel at the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at Technical Area (TA)-55. These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient the firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes the ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern within the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.

  11. An efficient approach to the travelling salesman problem using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Frederico Carvalho; Dória Neto, Adrião Duarte; Costa, José Alfredo Ferreira

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an approach to the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM algorithm has interesting topological information about its neurons configuration on cartesian space, which can be used to solve optimization problems. Aspects of initialization, parameters adaptation, and complexity analysis of the proposed SOM based algorithm are discussed. The results show an average deviation of 3.7% from the optimal tour length for a set of 12 TSP instances.

  12. Past primary sex-ratio estimates of 4 populations of Loggerhead sea turtle based on TSP durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsinjon, Jonathan; Kaska, Yakup; Tucker, Tony; LeBlanc, Anne Marie; Williams, Kristina; Rostal, David; Girondot, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Ectothermic species are supposed to be strongly affected by climate change and particularly those that exhibit temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD). Actually, predicting the embryonic response of such organism to incubation-temperature variations in natural conditions remains challenging. In order to assess the vulnerability of sea turtles, primary sex-ratio estimates should be produced at pertinent ecological time and spatial scales. Although information on this important demographic parameter is one of the priorities for conservation purpose, accurate methodology to produce such an estimate is still lacking. The most commonly used method invocates incubation duration as a proxy for sex-ratio. This method is inappropriate because temperature influences incubation duration during all development whereas sex is influenced by temperature during only part of development. The thermosensitive period of development for sex determination (TSP) lies in the middle third of development. A model of embryonic growth must be used to define precisely the position of the TSP at non-constant incubation temperatures. The thermal reaction norm for embryonic growth rate have been estimated for 4 distinct populations of the globally distributed and threatened marine turtle Caretta caretta. A thermal reaction norm describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of temperatures. Moreover, incubation temperatures have been reconstructed for the last 35 years using a multi-correlative model with climate temperature. After development of embryos have been modelled, we estimated the primary sex-ratio based on the duration of the TSP. Our results suggests that Loggerhead sea turtles nesting phenology is linked with the period within which both sexes can be produced in variable proportions. Several hypotheses will be discussed to explain why Caretta caretta could be more resilient to climate change than generally thought for sex determination.

  13. Ambiental dust speciation and metal content variation in TSP, PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban atmospheric air of Harare (Zimbabwe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvarega, A T; Taru, P

    2008-09-01

    Levels of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) as well as levels of Pb, Co, Ni and Cd in TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) have been determined in atmospheric particulates collected at Loius Mountbatten School (Harare). The samples were collected for a period of 6 months from July to December 2002. The average levels of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) measured at the site are 106.11, 59.70 and 40.55 mg m(-3) respectively. The average level of TSP at Loius Mountbatten School is 106.11 mg m(-3), which is higher than the annual WHO guideline limit of 90 mg m(-3). The average level of PM(10) measured at Loius Mountbatten School is 59.70 mg m(-3), and is higher than the US-EPA and UK-EU guideline limit of 50 mg m(-3). The average level of PM(2.5) measured at the site are also higher than the WHO and US-EPA annual guideline limit of 15 mg m(-3). The analysis of metal concentrations in TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) was done using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). The analysis showed the following average elemental concentrations: 0.157 mg Pb m(-3) in TSP, 0.166 mg Pb m(-3) in PM(10), 0.185 mg Pb m(-3) in PM(2.5), 0.009 mg Co m(-3) in TSP, 0.007 mg Co m(-3) in PM(10), 0.011 mg Co m(-3) in PM(2.5), 0.223 mg Ni m(-3) in TSP, 0.166 mg Ni m(-3) in PM(10), 0.180 mg Ni m(-3) in PM(2.5) and 0.005 mg Cd m(-3) in TSP, 0.006 mg Cd m(-3) in PM(10), 0.005 mg Cd m(-3) in PM(2.5). The levels of Pb and Ni were generally higher than those of Co and Cd and this could have been due to high traffic volumes and various industrial activities in the Workington Industrial Area.

  14. New Solution to TSP with Lingo%Lingo关于TSP问题的新解及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄盛; 张英瑞

    2011-01-01

    目前关于lingo软件求解旅行商售货员问题(Traveling Salesman Problem,TSP)的解法基本上都是采用了二维坐标形式,本文采用了三维坐标形式运用lingo软件对TSP给出新解,并给出若干应用.可以看到lingo软件求解效果还是不错的,而且直观意义很明显,容易理解和控制.

  15. Phytoavailability and speciation of aluminum carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuiliang; Wang, Ping; Fan, Chinbay Q.; Xu, Hui

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an abundant metal in airborne particulate matter. Al concentrations carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) of the Nanjing atmosphere were distinctly higher in soils of industrial areas than the background concentration of the soils. This study aimed to assess the influence of the soils varying in their degree of contamination on the soil-to-plant transfer and translocation of Al to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability and speciation of Al carried by TSP which was collected at urban and industrial sites over a 12-month period in the atmosphere of Nanjing, China. The extractable noncrystalline Al in environmental particulate samples could be operationally fractionated into insoluble (Alin), oxide (Alox), organic (Alor), carbonate (Alca), and exchangeable species (Alex) using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that relatively high Al concentrations in TSP and soil samples were observed at the industrial site due to emissions from a local industry that manufactures Al-based products. The distribution sequence of Al species was quite similar for TSP and soil samples, which was Alin > Alor > Alox > Alca > Alex. The order of industrial particulate matter (IPM) was Alin > Alox > Alca > Alex > Alor. Alor was not detectable. A greater migration of Alex species entered the pine roots and the highest Al contents were accumulated in the roots and declined in the aerial portions. The soil-to-pine Al transfer was extremely low even when grown on industrial Al-contaminated soils. A significant positive correlation was found between the Al contents in pine seedlings and rhizospheric Alex contents. In contrast, there was a strong negative correlation between rhizospheric Alex contents and seedling biomass. For the spiked soils, under the influence of IPM, Al phytoavailability decreased with elevated rhizospheric Al and Alex. Collectively, this study provided evidence

  16. TSP-1-1223 A/G Polymorphism as a Potential Predictor of the Recurrence Risk of Bladder Cancer in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. TSP-1 is a glycoprotein that functions in the biology of bladder cancer. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of TSP-1-1223 A/G polymorphism (rs2169830 and the clinical characteristics of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods. TaqMan assay was performed to determine the genotype of 609 cases and 670 control subjects in a Chinese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the polymorphism and the risk of bladder cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine TSP-1 mRNA expression. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. No significant differences were detected in the genotype frequencies of healthy control subjects and patients with bladder cancer. By contrast, the time until the first recurrence differed significantly between genotypes (P=0.017. The expression of TSP-1 mRNA in bladder cancer tissues was lower in patients with an AG genotype than in those with an AA genotype. The lowest expression was observed in patients with a GG genotype. Conclusions. In conclusion, TSP-1-1223 A/G polymorphism may contribute to the recurrence of bladder cancer in Chinese population.

  17. Konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "Food Leaders"

    OpenAIRE

    Masterova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs "Konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "Food Leaders". Darba mērķis ir izpētīt uzņēmuma konkurētspēju un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās attīstīšanai. Darbs sastāv no 3 daļām. Pirmā daļa ir veltīta konkurences un konkurētspējas teorētiskiem aspektiem: konkurences un konkurētspējas definīcijas, konkurētspējīgās priekšrocības radīšanas un attīstīšanas priekšnosacījumi un vērtēšanas metodes. Darba otrajā ir dots detalizēts uzņēmuma apraksts, pētīta nozares ...

  18. Nursing education and health care in China: a study tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonza, Marjorie A; Tucker-Allen, Sallie

    2007-01-01

    The authors visited six health care facilities in three cities (Beijing, Xi'an and Kunming) in China while on a ten-day People to People Ambassador and American Academy of Nursing sponsored tour. Hospitals visited were Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), ranked the #1 hospital in China with over 1,800 beds and 1,350 nurses; 6th Affiliated Hospital at Beijing University, the Institute of Mental Health, known as the National Center for Mental Health; Community Healthcare Service Station of Fuxing Hospital; Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Pan Long District; the Kunming Medical College Nursing School, and the Faculty of Nursing at Xi''an Jiaotong University. In 1952, the new government closed higher education programs and secondary technical level programs became dominant. BSN programs were re-established in 1983 when PUMC re-established the nursing program. There are 1,307,800 RNs in China to care for 1.3 billion persons. BSN graduates do not have to take the licensure examination; they are awarded licensure after graduating from college and working for one year.

  19. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  20. Angelo State Society of Physics Students Road Tour 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen; Sauncy, Toni

    2011-10-01

    For the past seven years at the end of each spring semester, the ASU Society of Physics Students has journied throughout Texas for a week long outreach to various K-12 schools. During the week long outreach effort, a variety of physics demonstrations were presented to over 1300 students, teachers and school administrators. The goal of this public engagement activity is to both encourage younger students to consider following STEM related career paths and to spark an overall interest in science. Demonstrations focused on several aspects of physics. For the 2011 Road Tour, we paid special homage to the 100th anniversary of Ernest Rutherford's postulation of his model of the atom by explaining his results and their implications in 1911. In addition to adding several new demonstrations, the tradition of having a custom laser light show for each school was continued. As always, the fan favorite ``Nitrogen Bomb'' and a new nitrogen thunder cloud were added to our grand finales. The team, consisting of two faculty advisors and eleven students, was able to leave lasting impressions in a new and exciting way across central Texas.

  1. A Virtual Tour of the Radio Astronomy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, S. B.; Finley, D. G.; Claussen, M. J.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching Degree at New Mexico Tech and participating in the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program sponsored by the National Science Foundation, spent eight weeks as interns researching and working on projects at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) which will directly benefit students in their classrooms and also impact other science educators. One of the products of the interships is a set of web pages for NRAO's web page educational section. The purpose of these web pages is to familiarize students, teachers, and other people with the process that a radio astronomer goes through to do radio astronomy science. A virtual web tour was created of this process. This required interviewing radio astronomers and other professionals involved with this process at the NRAO (e.g. engineers, data analysts, and operations people), and synthesizing the interviews into a descriptive, visual-based set of web pages. These pages do meet the National as well as New Mexico Standards and Benchmarks for Science Education. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. A Context-Aware Tour Guide: User Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gulliver

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although examples of tourist guides abound, the role of context aware feedback in such systems is an issue that has been insufficiently explored. Given the potential importance of such feedback, this paper investigates, from a usability perspective, two tour guide systems developed for Brunel University: one with context-aware user feedback and the other without. An empirical study was undertaken in which each of the applications was assessed through the prism of three usability measurements: efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction. Incorporating the participant feedback gathered as a result, the paper compares the use of the two applications in order to determine the impact of real-time feedback with respect to user location. Efficiency, understood as the time taken by a participant to successfully complete a task, was found to be significantly affected by the use of context-aware functionality. Effectiveness, understood as the amount of information a participant assimilated from the application, was shown not to be impacted by the provision of context-aware feedback, even though average experiment duration was found to be significantly shorter in this case. Lastly, participants' subjective satisfaction when using context-aware functionality was shown to be significantly higher than when using the non-context aware application.

  3. Tours: étude chrono-chorématique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rodier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesarodunum fut une cité romaine sur la rive gauche de la Loire. La Cité réduite du IVe siècle fut doublée par le bourg de Châteauneuf associé à l’abbaye Saint-Martin. Réunie dans les enceintes des XIVe siècle et XVIIe siècle, Tours reste bipolaire jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle lorsque la grande route nord-sud entre cité et bourg, radiale parisienne, devient l’axe majeur de l'extension selon le modèle des villes de val. Confinée entre Loire et Cher jusqu’au XIXe siècle la ville déborde après 1950 sur les plateaux en y dédoublant les espaces d’activités, à un carrefour d’autoroutes.

  4. A Guided Tour of Mathematical Methods - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel

    2004-09-01

    Mathematical methods are essential tools for all physical scientists. This second edition provides a comprehensive tour of the mathematical knowledge and techniques that are needed by students in this area. In contrast to more traditional textbooks, all the material is presented in the form of problems. Within these problems the basic mathematical theory and its physical applications are well integrated. The mathematical insights that the student acquires are therefore driven by their physical insight. Topics that are covered include vector calculus, linear algebra, Fourier analysis, scale analysis, complex integration, Green's functions, normal modes, tensor calculus, and perturbation theory. The second edition contains new chapters on dimensional analysis, variational calculus, and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals. This book can be used by undergraduates, and lower-level graduate students in the physical sciences. It can serve as a stand-alone text, or as a source of problems and examples to complement other textbooks. All the material is presented in the form of problems Mathematical insights are gained by getting the reader to develop answers themselves Many applications of the mathematics are given

  5. The In-Transit Vigilant Covering Tour Problem of Routing Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    15 Figure 2. A classic VRP ...17 Figure 3. Solution for a VRP ........................................................................................18 Figure 4. Solution...of NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ), and Covering Salesman Problem (CSP) etc. We will

  6. Modelamiento de distribución de productos cárnicos como un TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem con teoría de grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Gómez-Montoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its main objective the use of the TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem with graph theory in order to design routing strategies in a distribution network, looking forward an efficient way to be made in regard to distance and time used for attending the customer’s requirements. Additionally, the paper develops a case of application of the methodology in a Meat Company located in the city of Medellín. As a result, we find that the use of TSP with graph produces a route with the minimum distance in the distribution network; it was demonstrated in the case of application. Keywords: Distribution, graph, routing, transport, TSP

  7. Enhancing the Urea-N Use Efficiency in Maize (Zea mays Cultivation on Acid Soils using Urea Amended with Zeolite and TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Ammonia loss significantly reduces urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce ammonia loss are laboratory oriented, as such limited in reflecting actual field conditions. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP and zeolite (Clinoptilolite on soil pH, soil nitrate, soil exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Approach: The treatments evaluated were: (i Normal N, P, K application (74.34 g urea, 27.36 g TSP, 24.12 g KCl (T1, (ii Urea-TSP mixture (74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP+24.12 g KCl (T2, (iii 74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP+9.0 g zeolite (T3, (iv 74.34 g urea+27.36 g TSP+13.5 g zeolite (T4 and (v No fertilization (T5. Note, the same amount of 24.12 g KCl was used in T3 and T4 plots. Standard procedures were used to determine the selected chemical properties of zeolite, soil, TSP and urea. The pH of the urea, zeolite, soil and TSP were determined in a 1:2.5 soil: distilled water suspension and/or 0.01 N CaCl2 using a glass electrode. The CEC of the zeolite was determined by the CsCl method. Soil CEC was determined by leaching with 1 N ammonium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 7.0 followed by steam distillation. Soil samples at harvest were analyzed for pH using the method previously outlined. Exchangeable ammonium and nitrate at harvest were extracted from the soil samples by the method of Keeney and Nelson and the amount determined using a LACHAT Autoanalyzer. Total N of the plant tissues (stem and leaf was determined by the Micro-Kjeldhal method. Results: Urea amended with TSP and zeolite treatments and Urea only (urea without additives did not have long term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf

  8. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  9. Berlin: Sustainability and Tour Guides in a Partial Dark Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Leshem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When guiding in Berlin about the Holocaust or about the Cold War, tour guides often hear the phrase: “I didn’t come here for that, but I want to see that as well...” Many of Berlin’s 10 Million visitors per year claim to have an attraction towards both the morbid and the lighter side of the city. Following from that popular sentiment it is argued that Berlin can be defined as a Partial Dark Tourism Destination. As such, it is further argued that Berlin is prone to an increase of socio-economic and socio-cultural negative impacts. The premise of the research is that Berlin’s tour guides function as a link between the residents of the city and the visitors. The thesis, then, is that tour guides play a role and can contribute to development of social, cultural and economic urban tourism sustainability. An analysis of tourism impacts and tourists-residents relations is presented, in which the tour guide plays a role in influencing the visitor’s behaviour. I conclude that tour guides have greater influence on social, cultural and economic behaviour of the tourist than previously considered, and therefore a potential to enhance sustainable tourism development in Berlin. The significance of this research is in the way it points out to the roles Berlin tour guides play in facilitation of sustainable tourism development in the city. Furthermore, the research shows the ways in which tour guides contribute to increasing responsible tourist behaviour.

  10. Elemental compositions of PM2.5 and TSP in Lijiang, southeastern edge of Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningning Zhang; Junji Cao; Hongmei Xu; Chongshu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    PM2.5 and total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Lijiang,southeastern Tibetan Plateau,China.Sixteen elements (Al,Si,S,K,Ca,Cr,Mn,Ti,Fe,Ni,Zn,As,Br,Sb,Pb and Cu) were analyzed to investigate their elemental compositions during the pre-monsoon period.The results showed that Ca was the most abundant element in both PM2.5 and TSP samples.The enrichment factors (EFs) of Si,Ti,Ca,Fe,K and Mn were all below 10 for both PM2.5 and TSP,and these elements also had lower PM2.5/TSP ratios (0.32-0.34),suggesting that they were mainly derived from crustal sources.Elements Cu,Zn,S,Br and Sb showed strong enrichment in PM2.5 and TSP samples,with their PM2.5/TSP ratios ranging from 0.66 to 0.97,indicating that they were enriched in the fine fractions and influenced by anthropogenic sources.Analysis of the wind field at 500 hPa and calculations of back trajectories indicated that Al,Si,Ca,Ti,Cr,Mn and Fe can be influenced by transport from northwestern China during the dust-storm season,and that S,K,Ni,Br and Pb reached high concentrations during westerly transport from south Asia.Combined with the principle component analysis and correlation analysis,elements of PM2.5 samples were mainly from crustal sources,biomass burning emissions and regional traffic-related sources.

  11. The Effects of Land Use Patterns on Tour Type Choice. The Application of a Hybrid Choice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Abreu e Silva, João; Sottile, Eleonora; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The relations between travel behavior and land use patterns have been the object of intensive research in the last two decades. Due to their immediate policy implications, mode choice and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) have been the main focus of attention. Other relevant dimensions, like trip...... chaining, tour type choice, and number of tours have received less attention. This work aims to contribute to the research dealing with the role of land use patterns on tour type choice. To pursue this objective, a tour type choice is modeled using a hybrid choice model that allows simulating the effect...

  12. Uptake of 111In-labeled fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 reflects transferrin receptor expression in normal organs and tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugyo, Aya; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sudo, Hitomi; Nomura, Fumiko; Satoh, Hirokazu; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kurosawa, Gene; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tsuneo

    2017-03-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is an attractive molecule for targeted therapy of cancer. Various TfR-targeted therapeutic agents such as anti-TfR antibodies conjugated with anticancer agents have been developed. An antibody that recognizes both human and murine TfR is needed to predict the toxicity of antibody-based agents before clinical trials, there is no such antibody to date. In this study, a new fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 that recognizes both human and murine TfR was developed and the correlation analysis of the radiolabeled antibody uptake and TfR expression in two murine strains was conducted. TSP-A18 was selected using extracellular portions of human and murine TfR from a human antibody library. The cross-reactivity of TSP-A18 with human and murine cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays with [111In]TSP-A18 showed that TSP-A18 bound highly to TfR-expressing MIAPaCa-2 cells with high affinity. Biodistribution studies of [111In]TSP-A18 and [67Ga]citrate (a transferrin-mediated imaging probe) were conducted in C57BL/6J and BALB/c-nu/nu mice. [111In]TSP-A18 was accumulated highly in the spleen and bone containing marrow component of both strains, whereas high [67Ga]citrate uptake was only observed in bone containing marrow component and not in the spleen. Western blotting indicated the spleen showed the strongest TfR expression compared with other organs in both strains. There was significant correlation between [111In]TSP-A18 uptake and TfR protein expression in both strains, whereas there was significant correlation of [67Ga]citrate uptake with TfR expression only in C57BL/6J. These findings suggest that the difference in TfR expression between murine strains should be carefully considered when testing for the toxicity of anti-TfR antibody in mice and the uptake of anti-TfR antibody could reflect tissue TfR expression more accurately compared with that of transferrin-mediated imaging probe such as [67Ga]citrate.

  13. Hierarchical Approach in Clustering to Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajar, Abdulah; Herman, Nanna Suryana; Abu, Nur Azman; Shahib, Sahrin

    There has been growing interest in studying combinatorial optimization problems by clustering strategy, with a special emphasis on the traveling salesman problem (TSP). TSP naturally arises as a sub problem in much transportation, manufacturing and logistics application, this problem has caught much attention of mathematicians and computer scientists. A clustering approach will decompose TSP into sub graph and form cluster, so it may reduce problem size into smaller problem. Impact of hierarchical approach will be investigated to produce a better clustering strategy that fit into Euclidean TSP. Clustering strategy to Euclidean TSP consist of two main step, there are; clustering and tour construction. The significant of this research is clustering approach solution result has error less than 10% compare to best known solution (TSPLIB) and there is improvement to a hierarchical clustering algorithm in order to fit in such Euclidean TSP solution method.

  14. Decision Factors for Domestic Package Tours – Case Study of a Region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerine Bresler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that perceived risk is an inhibitor for the emerging domestic market to develop a culture of going on holiday, which is necessary for the sustainable development of tourism in South Africa. Entrenching a culture of travel can be expedited through appropriate package tours in the same way as it stimulated domestic travel in former Eastern European societies. Packaged tours provide convenience, and both psychological and financial security in a single transaction which can be considered a surrogate for the benefit of risk avoidance when visiting friends and relatives. A survey was conducted in the most promising region, namely the province Gauteng, among the potential market to identify the importance of decision factors for domestic packaged tours. The most important perceived decision criteria were cancellation possibility, affordability, and safety whilst on tour and the three least important were radio promotion, train transport and proximity. The results may be used by the National Department of Tourism to promote domestic tourism, as well as by new and small tour operators to improve decision-making and render competition more knowledge-based. It would thus serve the needs of both tourist buyers and tourism sellers and contribute to sustainable development.

  15. A F o cus on Far Eastern Tourists – Tour Operator Selection Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Çelik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tour operators are becoming more important in the long haul destination market. Identifying tour operator selection criteria is crucial to orientate marketing strategies. The aim of the study was to determine the tour operation selection criteria of a package holiday maker visiting Turkey from the Far East according to the nationality. Data was drawn up and analyzed from tourists who came from three of these countries namely: Japan, South Korea, and China between February and April 2013 in Cappadocia. Quantitative methodology employing One-way ANOVA analysis was used. Deduction was made by analysing the tour operator selection criteria data that nationality was not a meaningful differentiation for a tourist in their assessment of the “Service Quality’” and “Opportunity to interact with other people’” items referred to in the survey questionnaire. Other items from the resulting data gave meaningful differences in cross - cultural behaviour. Results from the study provide important cues for tour operator managers to consider developing different promotional strategy initiatives to engage and attract more Japanese, South Korean, and Chinese tourists to Turkey.

  16. Tour de France versus Vuelta a España: which is harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesus; Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad; Chicharro, Jose L

    2003-05-01

    To compare the total exercise loads (intensity x volume) of the Vuelta a España and Tour de France during the last year. Seven professional road cyclists (28 +/- 1 yr; [OV0312]O(2max): 74.6 +/- 2.2 mL.kg-1.min-1) who participated in both Tour and Vuelta during the years 1997, 1999, 2000, or 2001 were collected as subjects. They wore a heart rate (HR) telemeter during each stage of the two races, and exercise intensity was divided into three phases according to the reference HR values obtained during a previous ramp cycle-ergometer test: phase I (RCP). Total volume and intensity were integrated as a single variable. The score for volume x intensity in each phase was computed by multiplying the accumulated duration in this phase by a multiplier for this particular phase. The total score for Tour and Vuelta was obtained by summating the results of the three phases. The total loads (volume x intensity) did not significantly differ between the two races (P > 0.05), despite a significantly longer total exercise time of the Tour (P < 0.05) (5552 +/- 176 vs 5086 +/- 290 min). The physiological loads imposed on cyclists' bodies do not differ between the Tour and Vuelta, despite the longer duration of daily stages in the former race.

  17. EKSPEKTASI DAN PERSEPSI WISATAWAN TERHADAP KUALITAS PELAYANAN PADA MARINA SRIKANDI TOUR & TRAVEL DI PADANGBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Natha Dwipayana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences between expectation and perception of visitor about service quality of a travel agency were the background of this research which is entitled “Visitor’s Perception And Expectation of Service Quality At Marina Srikandi Tour And Travel In Padang Bai. Through this research, a thought to maintain professionalism of travel agency with qualified standards, understand different visitor expectations was a major thing that want to be achieved. Background of problem in this research was divided into two problems, such as (1 what are visitor expectation and perception about service quality at Marina Srikandi Tour and travel? (2 How is the visitor’s satisfaction about service quality which is given by Marina Srikandi Tour and travel? Based on the background of problems above, there were two aims of study in this research, they are: (1 to know visitor expectation and perception about service quality at Marina Srikandi Tour and travel, and (2 to know visitor’s satisfaction about service quality which is given by Marina Srikandi Tour and travel.

  18. Awakening to the other: reflections on developing intercultural competence through an undergraduate study tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa E; Francis, Lyn; van der Riet, Pamela; Dedkhard, Saowapa; Junlapeeya, Piyatida; Orwat, Edith

    2014-12-01

    For the past 4 years, undergraduate students from the Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, have undertaken a two week cultural study tour in Thailand, being exposed to a broad range of cultural interactions, health settings in rural and remote areas, and health-treatment approaches, including traditional and complementary therapies. Student evaluations and reflections were collected after the 2010 and 2011 study tours. This paper reports on findings following thematic analysis of the data, which identified central themes, including connectivity to others, "awakenings", "embodiment", and looking to the future. Findings included a recognition by students of a growth in awareness and change in perspective, which they felt would impact on their future approach in caring for patients from culturally- and linguistically-diverse backgrounds. We conclude that the study tour provided an effective way of sensitizing students to cultural differences and promoting cross-cultural awareness.

  19. BOLSHOI THEATRE‟S TOUR THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE AMERICAN PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mikhailovna PCHELKINA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the American media coverage of the Bolshoi Theatre‟s tour. The main aim of the article is to show that the Bolshoi Theatre‟s tour became not just one of the elements of intercultural communication (what is quite natural for cultural events, but also became a kind of cultural code through which Americans identify not only Russian culture, but the country as a whole. In this regard, the article analyzes the publications of the main US printed media dedicated to the tour of Bolshoi Theatre, makes conclusions about the tone of publica-tions and the degree of interest of leading American pub-lishers to this cultural event.

  20. Parallel optimization algorithm for drone inspection in the building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyński, Maciej; BoŻejko, Wojciech; Skorupka, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an approach for Vehicle Routing Problem with Drones (VRPD) in case of building inspection from the air. In autonomic inspection process there is a need to determine of the optimal route for inspection drone. This is especially important issue because of the very limited flight time of modern multicopters. The method of determining solutions for Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP), described in this paper bases on Parallel Evolutionary Algorithm (ParEA)with cooperative and independent approach for communication between threads. This method described first by Bożejko and Wodecki [1] bases on the observation that if exists some number of elements on certain positions in a number of permutations which are local minima, then those elements will be in the same position in the optimal solution for TSP problem. Numerical experiments were made on BEM computational cluster with using MPI library.

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP demand...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... bill of lading will list the TSP with whom the Government has a contract. ...

  3. Early Onset of HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL): Systematic Search and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro D; Kachimarek, Amanda C; Bittencourt, Achiléa L

    2017-06-05

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some regions and its vertical transmission occurs mainly through breastfeeding. About 10% of carriers develop associated diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and infectious dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). We searched for available case reports of early-onset HAM/TSP and ATL to evaluate demographic and disease aspects in infantile-juvenile patients. In the reviewed literature, 27 HAM/TSP and 31 ATL cases were found. In almost all of them, the most likely route of transmission was through breastfeeding. ATL is rarely reported, notwithstanding it may be underestimated because T-cell lymphomas are not investigated for HTLV-1 infection in this age group. IDH was frequently associated with HAM/TSP. The investigation of HTLV-1 infection in pregnant women is an important matter of public health and should be mandatory in endemic countries. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 博乐市PM_(10)与TSP相关性分析%Correlmton Analysis of PM10 and TSP Bole City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    塔西买买提·阿布拉; 阿比提·吐尔逊

    2012-01-01

    选用博乐市2010年大气PM10与TSP监测数据月均值,分析了PM10与TSP在大气中的浓度变化相关性趋势、沙尘暴天气对其相关性的影响以及PM10占TSP中的浓度比,并得出PM10与TSP的浓度变化趋势除沙尘暴天气干扰外非常相似,具有很好的相关性。%Using atmospheric PM10 and TSP monitoring data monthly mean of Bole City in 2010, analyzed PMi0 and TSP concentrations change trend in the atmosphere, sandstorms correlation and PMIo accounts for the concentration of TSP, came to the trend of PMl0 and TSP c.onc.entrations in addition to sanclstonns interference was very similar, with good correlation.

  5. 77 FR 35751 - Academy Express, L.L.C.-Acquisition of the Properties of Entertainment Tours, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Academy Express, L.L.C.--Acquisition of the Properties of Entertainment Tours... an application under 49 U.S.C. 14303 for its acquisition of the properties of Entertainment Tours... charter bus operator. Academy operates mostly in interstate commerce and to a lesser extent in...

  6. Launch your Audience into Lunar Orbit - A case study of the Apollo 11 Google Earth Tour (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askay, S.

    2009-12-01

    Google Earth 5.0 added support for 'Touring' in KML which allows content creators to create narrated, guided flights in the virtual globe. Given the complexity of many geospatial visualizations in KML, even a simple tour can provide an introduction and contextual foundation that will empower users to explore your content. However, to-date few developers have taken full advantage of the touring language's capabilities to create truly engaging user experiences. For the launch of Moon in Google Earth, the presenter created a KML tour which harnesses some of these advanced features, particularly the ability to dynamically manipulate 2D/3D features through space and time. This case study of the "Apollo 11" KML tour will dissect some of these innovative techniques and provide considerations for creating your own cutting-edge KML tours. Some specific topics covered will include how to: fade-in and out photos on-screen, animate and follow a 3D model along a path (or GPS track), dynamically scale Sketchup models to compensate for clipping at high altitude, and considerations for pre-caching content for smooth tour playback. This session will include both conceptual explanations of what is possible with KML Touring and some in-depth technical explanations of the KML code required.

  7. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies: Small Hotels and Tour Operators in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegene, Demeke; Olden, Anthony; Abdelnour-Nocera, Jose

    2016-01-01

    research question is: what are the factors affecting the adoption of ICT in the small hotel and tour operator sector? The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the adoption of ICT in small hotels and tour operators in Ethiopia’s capital city, Addis Ababa. The sector was chosen because...

  8. The Experiential Learning Impact of International and Domestic Study Tours: Class Excursions That Are More than Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lanier, Lilia

    2017-01-01

    Experiential education programs, such as international and domestic study tours, bridge the limitations of formal learning classroom by allowing students to experience reality in a new learning dimension. This mixed-methods study explores experiential learning during a domestic interior design study tour to New York City and an international…

  9. Pre-Trip Expectations and Post-Trip Satisfaction with Marine Tour Interpretation in Hawaii: Applying the Norm Activation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Kerrie; Needham, Mark D.; Szuster, Brian W.; Jordan, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines environmental education by focusing on recreationist expectations for interpretation on marine tours, satisfaction with this interpretation and whether expectations were met, and how these perceptions correlate with components of the norm activation model. Recreationists surveyed before and after tours to Molokini, Hawaii (n…

  10. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated profitable tour problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem (CPTP) which is a special case of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints (ESPPRC). The CPTP belongs to the group of problems known as traveling salesman problems with profits. In CPTP each customer is associated...... with a profit and a demand and the objective is to find a capacitated tour (rooted in a depot node) that minimizes the total travel distance minus the profit of the visited customers. The CPTP can be recognized as the sub-problem in many column generation applications, where it is traditionally solved through...

  11. Heat Up Vietnam's Market——The 2nd China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ This was the first time for China Auto International Exhibition Tour to walk out of the country.In 2003,the auto delegation drove on the road of Vietnam to display their products to the local communities.Being the neighbor of China and also a potential market,Vietnam had kept high economic growth since its launch of reform and opening-up.In the second session Tour,the Chinese made large-scaled coaches,SUVs and mini vehicles received high reputation from the audience.

  12. Walk into Africa——The 6th China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The November of 2008 witnessed the great success of the Sixth China Auto International (Algeria & Egypt) Exhibition Tour.More than 10 renowned domestic auto enterprises,selecting more than 30 automobiles of China independent brands,accompanied by more than 50 delegates of enterprises participated in the Tour,which was lasted from November 27 to December 7,2008.The activity not only took the Chinese homegrown automobile brands to the beautiful African nations,but also sent the greetings from the Chinese people to the friends in Algeria and Egypt.

  13. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  14. 肺癌细胞A549抗原相关旋毛虫Tsp06172基因的克隆及原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the Tsp06172 gene of Trichinella spiralis in A549 lung cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高江明; 徐晓芳; 吕萌; 左绍志; 宫鹏涛; 杨举; 李赫; 李建华; 张国才

    2013-01-01

    目的 克隆旋毛虫(Trichinella spiralis)与肺癌细胞A549相关抗原Tsp06172基因,并进行原核表达. 方法 采用RT-PCR方法扩增Tsp06172基因,连接原核表达载体pET-28a,转化入感受态细胞BL21,IPTG诱导表达,经SDS-PAGE和Western blot鉴定表达产物. 结果 重组表达质粒经双酶切及测序鉴定正确.表达分子质量单位约为16 ku的融合蛋白.Western blot检测融合蛋白能被抗A549细胞的多克隆抗体识别. 结论 构建的原核表达载体pET-28a Tsp06172表达具有A549细胞反应原性的蛋白,为旋毛虫Tsp06172重组蛋白功能的研究了奠定基础.%Objective To clone and express the Trichinella spiralis Tsp06172 gene in BL21. Methods The Tsp06172 gene was amplified with RT-PCR and then subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. BL21 containing the recombinant plasmid pET-28a-Tsp06172 was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was detected and i-dentified with SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Results The recombinant expression plasmid was successfully constructed. After induction in an E. coli system. SDS-PAGE results showed that a fusion protein of about 16 ku was successfully expressed. Western blotting indicated that the fusion protein was readily recognized by polyclonal antibodies from A549 cells. Conclusion The recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-Tsp06172 expressed the corresponding protein in BL21. This finding lays the foundation for research into the function of the Tsp06172 protein.

  15. Producer-Scrounger Method to Solve Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Akhand

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms inspired from natural phenomena are seem to be efficient to solve various optimization problems. This paper investigates a new technique inspiring from the animal group living behavior to solve traveling salesman problem (TSP, the most popular combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed producer-scrounger method (PSM models roles and interactions of three types of animal group members: producer, scrounger and dispersed. PSM considers a producer having the best tour, few dispersed members having worse tours and scroungers. In each iteration, the producer scans for better tour, scroungers explore new tours while moving toward producer‘s tour; and dispersed members randomly checks new tours. For producer‘s scanning, PSM randomly selects a city from the producer‘s tour and rearranges its connection with several near cities for better tours. Swap operator and swap sequence based operation is employed in PSM to update a scrounger towards the producer. The proposed PSM has been tested on a large number of benchmark TSPs and outcomes compared to genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. Experimental results revealed that proposed PSM is a good technique to solve TSP providing the best tours in most of the TSPs.

  16. An integrated TSP-GA with EOL cost model for selecting the best EOL option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakri Ghazalli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our research works on integrating design for disassembly with cost model for end-of-life (EOL product. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to optimize disassembly sequence of the EOL product. We integrate a traveling salesman problem approach with genetic algorithm in finding the optimal disassembly sequence for disassembling the EOL product. Based on this optimal sequence, the second objective is to identify the best EOL option. We employ EOL profits and net present value of parts and subassemblies of the EOL product to determine the best EOL option of components and parts of the EOL product. The predicted results showed that the developed cost model has reached a good correspondence with the established methods.

  17. HTLV-1 integration into transcriptionally active genomic regions is associated with proviral expression and with HAM/TSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran N Meekings

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes leukaemia or chronic inflammatory disease in approximately 5% of infected hosts. The level of proviral expression of HTLV-1 differs significantly among infected people, even at the same proviral load (proportion of infected mononuclear cells in the circulation. A high level of expression of the HTLV-1 provirus is associated with a high proviral load and a high risk of the inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. But the factors that control the rate of HTLV-1 proviral expression remain unknown. Here we show that proviral integration sites of HTLV-1 in vivo are not randomly distributed within the human genome but are associated with transcriptionally active regions. Comparison of proviral integration sites between individuals with high and low levels of proviral expression, and between provirus-expressing and provirus non-expressing cells from within an individual, demonstrated that frequent integration into transcription units was associated with an increased rate of proviral expression. An increased frequency of integration sites in transcription units in individuals with high proviral expression was also associated with the inflammatory disease HAM/TSP. By comparing the distribution of integration sites in human lymphocytes infected in short-term cell culture with those from persistent infection in vivo, we infer the action of two selective forces that shape the distribution of integration sites in vivo: positive selection for cells containing proviral integration sites in transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and negative selection against cells with proviral integration sites within transcription units.

  18. The Dynamic Multi-objective Multi-vehicle Covering Tour Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Routing Problem VEGA Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm VRP Vehicle Routing Problem VRPTW Vehicle routing problem with time windows xiv THE DYNAMIC MULTI...the TSP, CTP and Vehicle Routing Problem ( VRP ). Reviews of work in this area include [16, 39, 89, 90]. Recent developments enabling real-time...version of the VRP . Jozefowiez, et al. [85] study a bi-objective CTP which minimizes the total route cost ( f1(R)) and the distance from the nodes to be

  19. tourrGui: A gWidgets GUI for the Tour to Explore High-Dimensional Data Using Low-Dimensional Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a graphical user interface (GUI for the tourr package in R. The tour is a dynamic graphical method for viewing multivariate data. The GUI allows users to interact with a tour in order to explore the data for structures like clustering, outliers, nonlinear dependence. Users can pause the tour, choose a subset of variables, color points by other variables, and switch between several different types of tours.

  20. 分层协同进化免疫算法及其在TSP问题中的应用%Hierarchical Co-Evolution Immune Algorithm and Its Application on TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建辉; 章兢; 张小刚; 刘朝华

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve Traveling Salesman Problem(TSP) more efficient using artificial immune algorithm, using for reference of hierarchical and co-evolutionary idea,a two-floor model based on multiple-population immune evolution as well as Hierarchical Co-evolution Immune Algorithm (HCIA) based on competition-cooperation is put forward. Multiple subpopulations are operated by bottom floor immure operators: local optimization immunodominance、clonal expansion and other clonal selection operatas,amelioraion of antibody diversity treed on improved Panicle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm. Multiple subpopulations are also operated by top floor genetic operators: selection,antibody migration、mulation. Through those operators, excellent antibody affinity maturation and diversity of antibody subpopulation distribution was enhanced, the balance between in the depth and breadth of the search-optimizing was acquired. Experimental results for TSP indicate that HCIA has a remarkable quality of the global convergence reliability and convergence velocity.%为提高人工免疫算法求解TSP问题的效率,借鉴分层和协同进化的思想,构造了一种基于多子种群免疫进化的两层框架模型,在此模型的基础上提出了一种基于竞争一合作的分层协同进化免疫算法(Hierarchical Co-evolution Immune Algorithm,HCIA).HCIA通过对若干个子种群进行低层免疫操作:局部最优免疫优势、克隆扩增及克隆选择算子、基于改进粒子群优化算法的抗体多样性改善和高层遗传操作:选择、抗体迁移、变异,增强优秀抗体实现亲和度成熟的机会,提高抗体群分布的多样性,在深度搜索和广度寻优之间取得了平衡.针对TSP实验结果表明,HCIA具有可靠的全局收敛性及较快的收敛速度.

  1. Stability of Solutions to Classes of Traveling Salesman Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niendorf, Moritz; Kabamba, Pierre T; Girard, Anouck R

    2016-04-01

    By performing stability analysis on an optimal tour for problems belonging to classes of the traveling salesman problem (TSP), this paper derives margins of optimality for a solution with respect to disturbances in the problem data. Specifically, we consider the asymmetric sequence-dependent TSP, where the sequence dependence is driven by the dynamics of a stack. This is a generalization of the symmetric non sequence-dependent version of the TSP. Furthermore, we also consider the symmetric sequence-dependent variant and the asymmetric non sequence-dependent variant. Amongst others these problems have applications in logistics and unmanned aircraft mission planning. Changing external conditions such as traffic or weather may alter task costs, which can render an initially optimal itinerary suboptimal. Instead of optimizing the itinerary every time task costs change, stability criteria allow for fast evaluation of whether itineraries remain optimal. This paper develops a method to compute stability regions for the best tour in a set of tours for the symmetric TSP and extends the results to the asymmetric problem as well as their sequence-dependent counterparts. As the TSP is NP-hard, heuristic methods are frequently used to solve it. The presented approach is also applicable to analyze stability regions for a tour obtained through application of the k -opt heuristic with respect to the k -neighborhood. A dimensionless criticality metric for edges is proposed, such that a high criticality of an edge indicates that the optimal tour is more susceptible to cost changes in that edge. Multiple examples demonstrate the application of the developed stability computation method as well as the edge criticality measure that facilitates an intuitive assessment of instances of the TSP.

  2. JARINGAN SARAF TIRUAN SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF UNTUK PENYELESAIAN TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Gunadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP is one among the NP-complete problem. TSP is defined as follows. A traveling salesperson has a number of cities to visit. The sequence in which the salesperson visits diffrents cities is called a tour. A tour should be such that every city is visited once and only once. The goal is to find a tour that minimize the total distance of a tour. TSP can be solved by Exhaustive algorithm, but this algorithm is no efficient for large number of cities. A neural network can be used to solve this optimization problem by choosing appropriate architecture to find optimal solution. A Neural network can be used to solve optimization by chosing apropriate architecture to find optimal solution. Algorithm of Neural network reduced a signifcant execution time for number of cities more than 9, and has optimization 83% of best solution from exhaustive algorithm. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP adalah problem optimasi kombinasional yang tergolong dalam NP-complete problem. TSP adalah problem untuk menentukan urutan dari sejumlah kota yang harus dilalui oleh seorang sales, setiap kota hanya boleh dilalui sekali dan hanya sekali dalam perjalanan, dan perjalanan berakhir pada kota awal dimana seorang sales memulai perjalananya. TSP ini dapat dilakukan secara sederhana dengan Algorithma Exhaustive, yaitu dengan mencari semua kombinasi yang mungkin terjadi, kemudian memilih kombinasi dengan jarak terdekat. Algorithma Exhaustive ini menjadi tidak efisien bila jumlah kota yang besar, karena mempunyai kompleksitas sebesar n!/2n. Jaringan saraf tiruan (JST dapat digunakan untuk menyelesaikan problem optimasi dengan memilih arsitektur jaringan yang sesuai untuk mendapatkan solusi yang optimal. Algorithma dengan menggunakan jaringan saraf tiruan memberikan reduksi waktu eksekusi yang sangat signifikan untuk jumlah kota lebih besar 9, dan dapat memberikan persentase optimasi sebesar 83 % dari solusi yang

  3. Visiting cultural heritage with a tour guide robot: a user evaluation study in-the-wild.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne; Ludden, Geke; Evers, Vanessa; Tapus, Adriana; André, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Claude; Ferland, François; Ammi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a user evaluation study on location at the Royal Alcázar in Seville, Spain, with the fully autonomous tour guide robot FROG. In this robot, technological innovations in navigation and vision were integrated with state-of-the-art design for robot behavior in order to provide

  4. A PostgreSQL/PostGIS Implementation for the Sightseeing Tour Planning Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah .

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a procedure for finding the best multi stops route for sightseeing tour through a road network. The procedure involves building a database containing nodes and road network in PostgreSQL, calculating the shortest distance between a pair of nodes using pgDijkstra module, and solving the tour problem using a function written in PL/pgSQL. The function was developed based on the Nearest Insertion Algorithm for solving the Travelling Salesman Problem. The algorithm inserts a sightseeing attraction (node at the best position in the existing route, which is between a pair of nodes that yields the minimum difference between the total tour time before and after the new node was inserted. The test result shows that the function can solve the problem within acceptable runtime for web application for total destination nodes of 22. It is concluded that the whole procedure was suitable for developing Web GIS application that solve the sightseeing tour planning problem.

  5. European Study Tour Applications of Experiential Learning Processes in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an application of Kolb's (1981; 1984) experiential learning cycle in the context of international marketing education. Two study tours, in which International Marketing students at a U.S. college visited various cities in Europe, are described, with an emphasis on the ways in which differences in the structure of the tours…

  6. Welcome to the Land of the Ideas: The Goethe Institute Fellowship Tour of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    There are many valid reasons for participating in an educators' tour of Germany. It is a nation that has a legacy of literary and political thought that has had a profound impact on the evolution of Western civilization. Germany has offered the world artistic and scientific genius and been the source of devastating war and unprecedented genocide.…

  7. 75 FR 53980 - Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Field Tours for the Pinedale Anticline Working Group AGENCY: Bureau... Pinedale Anticline Working Group (PAWG) charter, the U.S. Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Land... Advisory Committee Act group which develops recommendations and provides advice to the BLM on...

  8. 76 FR 16703 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... Jobs Act of 2010 (SBJA). On Monday, March 7, 2011, SBA announced a series of public meetings on its...://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Small Business Jobs...

  9. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 127 Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having... provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (SBJA). This document corrects the DATES section and the Event Information table. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard L. Miller, Small Business Job's...

  10. 76 FR 17471 - Air Tour Management Plan Environmental Assessment for Mount Rainier National Park, WA; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Director's Order 12: Conservation Planning, Environmental Impact Analysis, and Decision-making, and NPS... Planning, Environment and Public Comment System at: http://parkplanning.nps.gov/MORA_ATMP or sent to the...://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/arc/programs/air_tour_management_plan/ NPS Planning...

  11. GuideBot. A Tour Guide System Based on Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín López

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of tour guide mobile robots in different environments such as museums, exhibitions and fairs. This type of robot should have autonomy, robust perception and navigation systems, and should also be oriented towards close interaction with humans. In this paper we present an automatic tour guide system based on a set of mobile platforms that interact with visitors to help them in different tasks. These tasks include giving tours to visitors, helping them find points of interest in a building and providing information about elements in the stands in a fair. Over the last few years, many tour guide robots have been developed and used in museums and at events. Most of these systems are based on a single robot and they do not include mechanisms to exchange information with the building automation system. The approach presented here uses several robots connected to a central server. The system also includes different devices in the building that are connected through a fieldbus to the central server. The system was developed with the Robotics Integrated Development Environment (RIDE and was tested intensively at different events.

  12. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  13. Queer Choreographies of Care: A Guided Tour of an Arts and Social Welfare Initiative in Manchester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a guided tour of the Men's Room, an arts and social welfare project that works with young men with experiences of homelessness, sex work and the criminal justice system. Focusing on three "dwelling moments" that capture how the project occupies space and time, the article describes how a queer spatial practice…

  14. Education and Conservation Benefits of Marine Wildlife Tours: Developing Free-Choice Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Marine wildlife tours can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors, including emotional (i.e., affective) responses and learning (i.e., cognition). Interpretive programs cover the biology, ecology, and behavior of marine species; best practice guidelines; and human threats to marine areas. The author reviews the…

  15. Food Sovereignty Tours: Can “alternative tourism” contribute to food sovereignty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brimm; T. Kerssen; Z.W. Brent

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When Food First founded its educational travel program Food Sovereignty Tours in 2010, it had already organized dozens of trips to destinations like Cuba and Kerala, India—places that had carried out radical reforms to greatly improve literacy rates, access to

  16. COTTON USA’S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    COTTON USA’s Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International’s("CCI")representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40

  17. James Hutton's Geological Tours of Scotland: Romanticism, Literary Strategies, and the Scientific Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focussing on the relationship between science and literature, this article attempts to read scientific writing as literature. It explores a somewhat neglected element of the story of the emergence of geology in the late eighteenth century--James Hutton's unpublished accounts of the tours of Scotland that he undertook in the years…

  18. Securing Field Learning Using a Twenty-First Century Cook's Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook's Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand's North Island over a 4-year period. Student-generated video diaries summarized landscape features and processes at fieldsites, empowering students through active learning and small…

  19. Changing Patterns of Diversity in Europe: Lessons from an OECD Study Tour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses observations from an IMHE study tour of four European countries to examine developments in new and traditional universities and to explore management challenges facing higher education as it responds to changing economic, social, and educational needs. Discusses various developments that show the need to constantly re-interpret what it…

  20. How can a tour guide robot’s orientation influence visitors’ orientation and formations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne E.; Ludden, Geke D.S.; Dijk, van Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a field study with a tour guide robot that guided visitors through a historical site. Our focus was to determine how a robot’s orientation behaviour influenced visitors’ orientation and the formations groups of visitors formed around the robot. During the study a remotecon

  1. CPAFFC Sends Student Delegation On Winter Camp Tour of the U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by Brigham Young University (BYU)-Hawaii of the U-nited States, a 21-member middle school student delegation, organized by the CPAFFC with the aim of enhancing friendship between the Chinese and American students, made a winter camp tour of the United States from January 29 to February 12.

  2. Users' Perspectives on Tour-Guide Training Courses Using 3D Tourist Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Mo, Huai-en

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan is currently attempting to develop itself into a twenty-first century tourist hub to take advantage of today's thriving global tourism economy. In the coming years, Taiwan anticipates an urgent demand for tour guides, and there is a clear need for training solutions that can serve a rapidly growing population. Computer-mediated virtual 3D…

  3. How can a tour guide robot’s orientation influence visitors’ orientation and formations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a field study with a tour guide robot that guided visitors through a historical site. Our focus was to determine how a robot’s orientation behaviour influenced visitors’ orientation and the formations groups of visitors formed around the robot. During the study a

  4. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREW INSPECT SPACE SUITS DURING KSC TOUR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cosmonaut Training Chief Vladimir Shatalov [left, looking down] examines an Apollo spacesuit during a visit to KSC. With Shatalov are Astronaut Donald Slayton [center] and Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov. The Apollo Soyuz Test Project astronauts and cosmonauts spent three days in the KSC area during which time they inspected equipment and facilities, toured the Center and visited Disney World.

  5. Users' Perspectives on Tour-Guide Training Courses Using 3D Tourist Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Mo, Huai-en

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan is currently attempting to develop itself into a twenty-first century tourist hub to take advantage of today's thriving global tourism economy. In the coming years, Taiwan anticipates an urgent demand for tour guides, and there is a clear need for training solutions that can serve a rapidly growing population. Computer-mediated virtual 3D…

  6. Meta-Travel: A Critical Inquiry into a China Study Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Jennifer; Gwak, Sonya; Lesnick, Joy; Jackson, Kara; Olitsky, Stacey

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study tours are among the fastest growing of study abroad experiences and serve the largest percentage of students choosing to study abroad. Fifty-six percent of students studying abroad go on short-term study trips lasting anywhere from two to eight weeks. These trips have the advantage of being able to provide study travel experiences…

  7. Krachtwerk on tour : 26 practices of recovery and empowerment in the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Eefje; Holten, Joep; Huber, Max; Metze, Rosalie; Lochtenberg, Michiel; Sedney, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, a group of 6 professionals associated with the HvA Research and development Centre for society and Law made a study trip to the USA. Under the name "Krachtwerk on tour" they traveled three weeks through the USA, covering about 7000 km from Boston to San Francisco and Berkeley, throu

  8. Using Tours Plus "Tutor Tapes" to Teach Humanities in Honolulu's Inner City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    English 41, an introductory humanities course taught at Honolulu Community College, presented a foundation in art, religion, architecture, and music. Many class members were employed adults, including policemen and firefighters, who often missed off-campus tours and lectures. Tutor tapes were used to offset the problem of absenteeism. A student…

  9. Food Sovereignty Tours: Can “alternative tourism” contribute to food sovereignty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brimm; T. Kerssen; Z.W. Brent

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When Food First founded its educational travel program Food Sovereignty Tours in 2010, it had already organized dozens of trips to destinations like Cuba and Kerala, India—places that had carried out radical reforms to greatly improve literacy rates, access to healthcar

  10. Constructing a Social Justice Tour: Pedagogy, Race, and Student Learning through Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnd, Natchee

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high-impact learning project that combines geography, history, and ethnic studies. It describes the construction of the course, student outcomes, and the final and publicly presented collaborative project: the Social Justice Tour of Corvallis. Based on work in a small largely white town, this project presents a…

  11. Touring the Demolished Slum? Slum Tourism in the Face of Delhi's Gentrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    slum tourism, the article attempts to answer this question by analyzing the case of the NGO, Salaam Baalak Trust. This NGO conducted slum tours for tourists from the global North in the interstitial spaces around New Delhi Railway Station until 2010, when the slum they used as an example of their work...

  12. How can a tour guide robot’s orientation influence visitors’ orientation and formations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a field study with a tour guide robot that guided visitors through a historical site. Our focus was to determine how a robot’s orientation behaviour influenced visitors’ orientation and the formations groups of visitors formed around the robot. During the study a remotecon

  13. Crossing the Border: Reconstructing and Re-Aligning Teacher and Principal Identities through a Study Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Potter, Ian; Bennett, Kenrick; Carter, Talia S.; Hylton-Fraser, Kadia; WilliamsonTeape, Katherine; Nelson-Mayne, Shernette

    2015-01-01

    A Study Tour is an opportunity for reflection in a new context. It emphasises experiential learning and offers both group and self-directed activities, enabling participants to explore new territories, cultures and people. It is a transformative reflectivce activity. This paper learns from the case study of a transformative experience for a group…

  14. Fifty tours are being planned to mark CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 16 October 2004, CERN will open its doors to the public. The Visits Service is already busy with preparations for this day of special events to mark the fiftieth anniversary and is recruiting volunteers. A date for your diaries! On 16 October 2004, CERN will be holding an Open Day to mark its golden jubilee. The public will be invited to discover 50 years of history through tours of 50 different sites. Over thirty sites for the tours have already been identified, including the experiment halls, the assembly halls for the LHC detectors and magnets as well as the computer centre and the fire station. With a programme offering tours, talks, a play on a scientific theme and a variety of workshops, there will be something for everybody. A number of evening tours will be organised specifically for the inhabitants of Cessy, St Genis, Meyrin and Ferney Voltaire, where the experiment halls for CMS, ALICE, ATLAS and LHCb are respectively located. An area will even be set aside with stimulating games to enterta...

  15. European Study Tour Applications of Experiential Learning Processes in Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an application of Kolb's (1981; 1984) experiential learning cycle in the context of international marketing education. Two study tours, in which International Marketing students at a U.S. college visited various cities in Europe, are described, with an emphasis on the ways in which differences in the structure of the tours…

  16. The Multiple Vehicle TSP with Time Windows and Equity Constraints over a Multiple Day Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the multiple vehicle traveling salesman problem cast over a multiple day routing scenario, with time windows and equity constraints. It develops an optimal column generation procedure and heuristic variations which solve test problems derived from the overnight delivery business. Extensive empirical testing indicates the judicious chose of a few routes for each day can incorporate equity at little or no additional cost. Federal Express Naval Postgraduate School Re...

  17. 低剂量微丝解聚剂对地塞米松诱导的牛小梁细胞骨架及基质蛋白TSP-1的影响%Effects of low dose of latrunculin-A on actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix protein TSP-1 in dexamethasone-induced bovine TMCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹娟; 张德秀

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究低剂量的肌动蛋白微丝解聚剂Latrunculin(LAT)-A对地塞米松诱导的牛小梁细胞肌动蛋白细胞骨架及细胞外基质蛋白TSP-1产生的影响.方法体外培养牛眼小梁细胞,分别用地塞米松和LAT-A在不同条件下孵育,免疫荧光显微镜观察细胞骨架形态和结构的改变并用免疫组织化学法对TSP-1的表达进行定位和半定量分析.结果培养的小梁细胞NSE染色阳性,ⅧR:Ag染色阴性,TSP-1染色阳性.经地塞米松诱导后微丝重组杂乱,细胞外TSP-1表达减弱.LAT-A可部分逆转此重组,促进其恢复;LAT-A可抑制TSP-1表达,且随作用时间的延长抑制作用更强. 结论 低剂量的LAT-A可以逆转由地塞米松诱导的细胞骨架的改变,并对TSP-1的产生有抑制作用.

  18. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  19. Financial Support of Tour Operator Activities: Issues of Implementation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Valeryevna Zavyalova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issues of implementation of financial support of tour operator activities in the Russian Federation, which have so far impeded the guaranteeing of protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian tourists at a proper level, allows to formulate practical recommendations and suggestions for improvement of Russian legislation in order to enhance the efficiency of legal regulation of tourism field and protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens. The article presents a comparative study of the Russian financial guarantee institution and its foreign analogues, defines the causes of emergence of the institution of financial support of tour operator activities in Russian legislation and imposition of a prohibition on tour operator activities. We have come to the conclusion that acknowledgment of financial support of tour operator activities as financial guarantees of tour operator’s liability. Analysis of current Russian legislation allowed to detect its contradictions and develop practical recommendations for improvement of Russian tourism legislation. In particular, it allowed to draw a conclusion of the need to eliminate the non-conformance of standards of article 17.6 of the Federal law NO 132-FZ “On foundations of tourist activity in the Russian Federation” (“Tourist activity law” further on issued on 24.11.1996 to the standards of item 1 of article 48; item 1 of article 53; item 1, item 3 of article 56; article 402 of the Civil code of the Russian Federation (part one; federal law № 51-FZ issued on 30.11.1994 (the Civil code of the Russian Federation.

  20. Google Earth-Based Grand Tours of the World's Ocean Basins and Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, K. K.; De Paor, D. G.; Suranovic, B.; Robinson, C.; Firth, J. V.; Rand, C.

    2016-12-01

    The GEODE project has produced a collection of Google Earth-based marine geology teaching resources that offer grand tours of the world's ocean basins and marine sediments. We use a map of oceanic crustal ages from Müller et al (2008; doi:10.1029/2007GC001743), and a set of emergent COLLADA models of IODP drill core data as a basis for a Google Earth tour introducing students to the world's ocean basins. Most students are familiar with basic seafloor spreading patterns but teaching experience suggests that few students have an appreciation of the number of abandoned ocean basins on Earth. Students also lack a valid visualization of the west Pacific where the oldest crust forms an isolated triangular patch and the ocean floor becomes younger towards the subduction zones. Our tour links geographic locations to mechanical models of rifting, seafloor spreading, subduction, and transform faulting. Google Earth's built-in earthquake and volcano data are related to ocean floor patterns. Marine sediments are explored in a Google Earth tour that draws on exemplary IODP core samples of a range of sediment types (e.g., turbidites, diatom ooze). Information and links are used to connect location to sediment type. This tour compliments a physical core kit of core catcher sections that can be employed for classroom instruction (geode.net/marine-core-kit/). At a larger scale, we use data from IMLGS to explore the distribution of the marine sediments types in the modern global ocean. More than 2,500 sites are plotted with access to original data. Students are guided to compare modern "type sections" of primary marine sediment lithologies, as well as examine site transects to address questions of bathymetric setting, ocean circulation, chemistry (e.g., CCD), and bioproductivity as influences on modern seafloor sedimentation. KMZ files, student exercises, and tips for instructors are available at geode.net/exploring-marine-sediments-using-google-earth.

  1. PENGARUH KUALITAS PELAYANAN TOUR LEADER TERHADAP LOYALITAS KONSUMEN PADA TRAVEL AGENT KENCANA WISATA TANJUNG DUREN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggy Cariena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of traveler is affecting  the tourism sector.The role of tour leader is very significant to support the success of a tour. Tour leader as a front liner of the company is needed to maintain the consumer’s satisfaction which is also affect the consumer’s loyalty to the company. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Service Quality toward Consumer’s loyalty from Kencana Wisata Tanjung Duren Jakarta. Data was collected by using the questionnaire. The types of data are quantitative which  obtained by calculating data from the questionnaire. The method of sampling used purposive with the determination of respondents .The data method analyzed used double regression analysis techniques , double correlation, analysis of determination ,T- test and F-test with significant level of 5 percent .Assisted by using data processing program SPSS ( statistical package for social science 15. The research result indicates that service quality of tour leader and consumer’s loyalty has a positive relation partially. Simultaneously,indicates that tangible (X1, empathy (X2, reliability (X3, responsiveness (X4 and assurance (X5 loyalty  (Y with value 0,834  which means significantly affecting consumer’s at travel agent Kencana Wisata Tanjung Duren Jakarta. The writer’s  suggestion is Kencana Wisata management should give special attention to maintain the honest behavior and make the tour leader more trustable to boost the consumer’s satisfactian which by the end can affect the consumer’s loyalty to the company.

  2. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  3. ANALISIS KEBUTUHAN TENAGA KERJA RESERVASI TERHADAP PERENCANAAN PENGEMBANGAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA PADA CV. CAN TOUR & TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Christina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment remains the fundamental probel faced by many countries including Indonesia. One of the efforts the Government of Indonesia in extending employment opportunities is to develop the tourism sector. Bali is one of the potential tourist destinastions and it needs to be marketed. Cooperation between the Travel Bureau with the provider of the accommodation or hotel is one of the ways the potential market and the most instrumental in the development of the company, namely human resources required or called by labor. CV. CAN Tour and Travel is one of the tourist industry in Bali trip with a number of guest handling that quite a lot. This research aims to know the availability of labor needs resevartion in order CV. CAN Tour and Travel development and also to find out how the workforce qualification is required. Determination technique using the key informant that was labor reservation CV. CAN Tour and Travel, while the base of the informant was CV. CAN Tour and Travel Manager. Data analysis technique used is the analysis of workload and workforce needs analysis. The research results obtained indicate that shortage of time working as many as 210 minutes. So the manpower needed by CV. CAN Tour and Travel is two people with the fact that there is only 1 nowaday. It can be seen from the burden of the work done in a day’s work and the workforce absences. So labor needs on the Reservation Department is supposed to be 3 people, with 2 staff 1 reservations and ticketing staff. It was necessary increase manpower in the Labour Departmen’s Reservation in the reservation and also training to develop the ability to work.

  4. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between ACs and HCs. In contrast to the IL-21 mRNA expression, the serum level of the IL-21 protein was significantly lower in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p < 0.05). Furthermore, higher expression of Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p < 0.05). In addition, Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  5. Russia's China Year Embraces Chinese Auto to Russia——The 5th China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2007 was the Russia's China Year,and one of big events for the remarkable year was the 5th China Auto International (Russia) Exhibition Tour.The tour flamed up the Chinese heat in this Eastern European nation.In 2006,Russia ranked the first largest country that imported autos from China,an impressive leap from that of the 2005,which was only ranked 6th.Therefore,when the organizing committee decided that the 5th China Auto International Exhibition Tour would be held in Russia,many automakers showed great interests.

  6. Ant colonies for the travelling salesman problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, M; Gambardella, L M

    1997-01-01

    We describe an artificial ant colony capable of solving the travelling salesman problem (TSP). Ants of the artificial colony are able to generate successively shorter feasible tours by using information accumulated in the form of a pheromone trail deposited on the edges of the TSP graph. Computer simulations demonstrate that the artificial ant colony is capable of generating good solutions to both symmetric and asymmetric instances of the TSP. The method is an example, like simulated annealing, neural networks and evolutionary computation, of the successful use of a natural metaphor to design an optimization algorithm.

  7. Combinatorial optimization problem solution based on improved genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a classic combinatorial optimization problem. It is a simplified form of many complex problems. In the process of study and research, it is understood that the parameters that affect the performance of genetic algorithm mainly include the quality of initial population, the population size, and crossover probability and mutation probability values. As a result, an improved genetic algorithm for solving TSP problems is put forward. The population is graded according to individual similarity, and different operations are performed to different levels of individuals. In addition, elitist retention strategy is adopted at each level, and the crossover operator and mutation operator are improved. Several experiments are designed to verify the feasibility of the algorithm. Through the experimental results analysis, it is proved that the improved algorithm can improve the accuracy and efficiency of the solution.

  8. 用B和B′算法求解TSP问题%Sloving TSP Question Taking Advantage of B and B′Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    B算法和B′算法都是A*算法的变种,TSP(Travelling Salesman Problem)问题为NP完全问题,无一般的多项式复杂度算法. 但采用合适的启发函数后,利用B算法或B′算法,可在多项式时间内解出. 作者利用C+ +的继承功能统一算法形式,实现一个完成TSP问题求解的通用搜索算法.%B and B′ algorithm are deformations of A. algorithm. TSP question is a NP complete question. There is no common algorithm whose time complexity equals to ploynomial. However, we can solve it taking advantage of B and B′ algorithm. An unified algorithm is put forward in this paper.

  9. Expression at a 20L scale and purification of the extracellular domain of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 recombinant protein: a vaccine candidate for human intestinal schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Brelsford, Jill; Deumic, Vehid; Plieskatt, Jordan; Rezende, Wanderson C; Tsao, Eric; Kalampanayil, Bose; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-11-01

    A novel recombinant protein vaccine for human schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is under development. The Sm-TSP-2 schistosomiasis vaccine is comprised of a 9 kDa recombinant protein corresponding to the extracellular domain of a unique S. mansoni tetraspanin. Here, we describe the cloning and the expression of the external loop of Sm-TSP-2 recombinant protein secreted by Pichia Pink the process development at 20L scale fermentation, and the two-steps purification, which resulted in a protein recovery yield of 31% and a protein purity of 97%. The developed processes are suitable for the production of purified protein for subsequent formulation and Phase 1 clinical studies.

  10. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase in office environment in Shanghai, China: occurrence and human exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, total suspended particles (TSP with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209 were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs. Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs, indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase in office environment in Shanghai, China: occurrence and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Chen, Ling; Ngoc, Duong Minh; Duan, Yan-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bo; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total suspended particles (TSP) with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209) were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs). Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm) bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs), indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai.

  13. Targeted disruption of a novel gene contiguous to both glucocerebrodisidase (GC) and thrombospondin 3 (TSP3), results in an embryonic lethal phenotype in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, P.; Shingu, T. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LaMarca, M.E. [Clinical Neuroscience Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a new murine gene, termed gene X, that spans the 6 kb interval separating GC from TSP3. Mutations in GC result in Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Gene X and GC are transcribed convergently; their major polyadenylation sites are separated by only 431 bp. On the other hand, gene X and TSP3 are transcribed divergently and share a bidirectional promoter. The cDNA for gene X encodes a 317 amino acid protein, without either a signal sequence or N-linked glycosylation. Gene X is expressed ubiquitously in tissues of the young adult mouse, but no close homologues have been found in the DNA or protein data bases. A targeted point mutation was introduced into the GC gene (Asn to Ser in exon 9) by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to establish a mouse model for a mild form of Gaucher disease. In the process, a PGK-neomycin gene cassette was inserted in the 3{prime} flanking region of GC as a selectable marker, in a sequence that was subsequently identified as exon 8 of gene X. Mice homozygous for the combined mutation die early in gestation. Since the amino acid mutation in humans is associated with milder type 1 Gaucher disease, we conclude that gene X is essential for embryonic development in mice. The locations of human and murine GC, gene X and TSP3 are similar, but the human genome includes a duplication that has produced GC and gene X pseudogenes. We are currently studying the possible functional interactions of GC, gene X and TSP3 in both mice and humans.

  14. Delivering successful projects with TSP(SM) and six sigma a practical guide to implementing team software process(SM)

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Delivering successful projects means the ability to produce high quality software within budget and on time-consistently, but when one mentions quality to software engineers or project managers, they talk about how impossible it is to eliminate defects from software. This assumption is passed on and on until it becomes accepted wisdom, with the power of a self-fulfilling prophecy. And when a project fails to arrive on time or up to standards, team members will turn on each other. The project got delayed because the engineers did a poor job in development or too much was promised upfront for this short of a timeline.In Delivering Successful Projects with TSPSM and Six Sigma: A Practical Guide to Implementing Team Software ProcessSM, you will learn how to effectively manage the development of a software project and deliver it in line with customer expectations. This refreshing volume -Offers real-world case studies about the author's experience at Microsoft successfully implementing TSP to achieve higher qualit...

  15. Mosquito Host-Seeking Algorithm for TSP Problem%仿生蚊子追踪算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯翔; 张进文; 虞慧群

    2014-01-01

    旅行商问题(Traveling Salesman Problem,TSP)是NP完全问题中最为著名的问题,它易于陈述而难于求解,至今尚未找到准确有效的求解大规模TSP问题的方法.文中提出了能求出TSP有效近似最优解的新的蚊子追踪(Mosquito Host Seeking,MHS)算法,证明了蚊子的目标追踪行为和MHS数学模型的一致性、蚊子追踪算法的收敛性,并通过理论证明确定了MHS算法中各参数的选择范围.蚊子追踪算法是一个全新的仿生算法.文中以TSP问题为载体,详细提出了蚊子追踪算法的动机、生物学模型、数学模型、算法、理论基础(数学证明)及大量实验结果.从理论和实验两方面证明了蚊子追踪算法能够求出TSP问题理论上的优化解.

  16. 栖热菌噬茵体TSP4密码子偏嗜性及其对基因异源表达的影响%Codon usage bias of Thermus phage TSP4 and its effect on protein heterologous expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛寒; 张琦; 李秋鹏; 季秀玲; 魏云林; 林连兵

    2012-01-01

    为了探索噬菌体TSP4、栖热菌模式菌株Thermus thermophilusHB27中6种蛋白编码序列和Escherichi- coli基因组遗传密码子使用偏嗜性,探索TSP4基因密码子偏嗜性对其基因异源表达的影响本研究利用生物学软件Editseq和RSCU算法统计噬菌体TSP4密码子使用频率并分析其偏嗜性,与栖热菌HB27的同源基因以及常温菌E.coli基因组的密码子使用偏嗜性进行对比分析.结果显示,噬菌体TSP4与栖热菌HB27优势密码子相似度高达85%,而与E-coli的相似性仅有65%.为了验证分析结果,选取TSP4基因组中一个潜在分子伴侣基因序列在E捌iB12I和EcoliRosetta(补充了BL21菌株中缺失的6个稀有密码子)中进行异源表达.噬菌体TSP4与其宿主菌HB27之间密码子高相似性说明在长期的进化过程中TSP4在基因水平上形成对宿主的一种适应性机制.异源表达结果显示,分子伴侣基因在EcoliBL21中未见明显表达,但在Rosetta中高效表达,说明Rosetta中补充的6个稀有密码子明显有助于分子伴侣基因的表达,该结果也进一步证明密码子偏嗜性是否一致在很大程度上影响基因的表达.%This study is to analyze the codon usage bias of six protein - coding sequences in the genomes of phage TSP4, Thermus thermophilus HB27 and Escherichia coli, and to investigate the effects of codon bias on the heterologous expression of TSP4 genes. Biological software Editseq and algorithm of RSCU were used to analyze the frequency of synonymous codon usage of TSP4 genes to obtain an index of codon usage bias, which-was further compared with that of Thermus HB27 and E. coli homologous genes. The results showed that, based on these com- pared sequences ,TSP4 shared 85% similarity of codon usage frequency with Thermus HB27 but only 65% with E. coli. Higher similarity between phage TSP4 and HB27 indicated that TSP4 might possess an adaptation mecha- nism at the genetic

  17. Incorporating single detector failure into the ROP detector layout optimization for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: Doddy.Kastanya@snclavalin.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ROP TSP value needs to be adjusted when any detector in the system fails. • Single detector failure criterion has been incorporated into the detector layout optimization as a constraint. • Results show that the optimized detector layout is more robust with respect to its vulnerability to a single detector failure. • An early rejection scheme has been introduced to speed-up the optimization process. - Abstract: In CANDU{sup ®} reactors, the regional overpower protection (ROP) systems are designed to protect the reactor against overpower in the fuel which could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. In the CANDU{sup ®} 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, each of which is connected to a fast-acting shutdown system. Each ROP system consists of a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal flux detector assemblies. The placement of these ROP detectors is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In the past few years, two algorithms, DETPLASA and ADORE, have been developed to optimize the detector layout for the ROP systems in CANDU reactors. These algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. The objective of the optimization process is typically either to maximize the TSP value for a given number of detectors in the system or to minimize the number of detectors in the system to obtain a target TSP value. One measure to determine the robustness of the optimized detector layout is to evaluate the maximum decrease (penalty) in TSP value when any single detector in the system fails. The smaller the penalty, the more robust the design is. Therefore, in order to ensure that the optimized detector layout is robust, the single detector failure (SDF) criterion has been incorporated as an additional constraint into the ADORE algorithm. Results from this study indicate that there

  18. 基于求解 TSP 问题的改进贪婪算法%An Improved Greedy Heuristic Based on Solving Traveling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶卫振; 金淳

    2012-01-01

      分析了求解旅行商问题(Traveling Salesman Problem,TSP)的经典贪婪算法(Greedy Heuristic,GR)的特点,发现影响 GR 求解质量的主要因素是在构造后期添加的边过长,从而导致最终求解质量不高.为此,借鉴Held Karp 模型的思路,构造了一种新的距离矩阵改造法(Transforming Distance Matrix, TDM). GR 结合 TDM 得到的改进贪婪算法 GR-TDM 能够有效地克服传统 GR 在构造后期添加长边的缺点.通过计算来自 TSP 算例标准库和 TSP 世界挑战赛网站中的40个算例表明,GR-TDM 耗时较 GR 仅增加了0.5~2%,然而 GR-TDM 的求解质量较传统的 GR 提高了43%.另外,通过与当前构建型算法比较发现,GR-TDM 的求解性能达到一流构建型算法水平.

  19. Downregulation of histone methyltransferase EHMT2 in CD4(+) T-cells may protect HTLV-1-infected individuals against HAM/TSP development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaço, Camila Schoueri; de Matos, Adriano Reis; Estrêla, Martha Silva; Rocha-Júnior, Maurício Cristiano; Otaguiri, Kátia Kaori; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone; Pittella Silva, Fabio; Haddad, Rodrigo

    2017-06-12

    Approximately 5% of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals will develop one of the HTLV-1-related diseases, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia. However, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of symptoms have not been fully clarified. It is believed that viral factors, host genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in this process. Studies have shown the involvement of histone methyltransferases in retrovirus infection, but no study observed their expression in HTLV-1-infected patients. Among them, euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (EHMT)-1 and EHMT-2 were related to retroviral latency in HIV-1 infection. We investigated whether histone methyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 exert any influence on HAM/TSP development by assessing their expression levels in CD4(+) T-cells from HTLV-1-infected patients. CD4(+) T-cells were immunomagnetically isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HTLV-1-infected or non-infected individuals and the expression levels of EHMT1 and EHMT2 were determined by RT-qPCR. We observed that EHMT2 was negatively regulated in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers compared to non-infected individuals. No difference was observed for EHMT1. These results suggest that EHMT2 downregulation in CD4(+) T-cells may be linked to a protection mechanism against the development of HAM/TSP.

  20. Concentrations of ambient air particulates (TSP, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) and ionic species at offshore areas near Taiwan Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Huang, Shih-Han; Lin, Chi-Kwong

    2006-05-20

    The concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP), fine particles PM(2.5) (with aerodynamic diameter ions were studied at two offshore sampling sites, Taichung Harbor (TH) and Wuci Traffic (WT), near Taiwan Strait in central Taiwan during March 2004 to January 2005. Statistical analyses were also carried out to estimate the possible sources of particulate pollution. Experimental results showed that the average mass concentrations of TSP, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) at TH and WT sampling sites were 154.54 +/- 31.45 and 113.59 +/- 31.94 microg m(-3), 54.03 +/- 16.92 and 42.76 +/- 12.52 microg m(-3), and 30.31+/- 9.79 and 24.16 +/- 7.27 microg m(-3), respectively. The dominant inorganic ions at two sampling sites were SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and NH(4)(+) for TSP and PM(2.5), but that were Ca(2+), Cl(-), and Na(+) for PM(2.5-10). The concentrations of most particulates and inorganic ions were higher in winter at both two sampling sites, and were higher at TH than WT sampling site in each season. From statistical analysis, air-slake of crust surface, sea-salt aerosols, agriculture activities, coal combustion, and mobile vehicles were the possible emission sources of particulate pollution at TH and WT sampling sites.

  1. Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of sCAR-TSP-1, and Induced Apoptosis in Leukemic Cells k562%融合蛋白sCAR-TSP-1原核表达纯化及诱导白血病细胞K562凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁天祥; 谌贺宽子; 陈磊; 武虎; 唐斌

    2012-01-01

    According to thrombospondin-l(TSP-l) amino acid sequence(RFYWMWK), to the ade-novirus receptor sCAR as template, the 8 amino acids corresponding gene nucleotide amplified by PCR from sCAR, sCAR-TSP-1, connected to the expression vector pQE30, is transformed into E. coli M15 obtained after engineering bacteria. The strain induced by IPTG, efficient expression with histidine label in the form of inclusion body of the fusion protein sCAR-TSP-1. Inclusion body after urea denaturation dissolved, PBS dilution refolding, Ni ion affinity chromatography purification, and obtains the target proteia SDS-PAGE analysis shows, there is an obvious specificity protein band. At the same time, the experimental results show that the fusion protein in sCAR-TSP-1 cells of leukemia cell K562 has obvious apoptosis.%根据thrombospondin-1( TSP-1)氨基酸序列(RFYVVMWK),以已有的腺病毒受体sCAR为模板,将8个氨基酸对应基因核苷酸通过PCR扩增于sCAR之后,得到sCAR-TSP-1,连接到表达载体pQE30上,转化大肠杆菌M15后获得工程茵.该菌株经IPTG诱导后,高效表达出带有组氨酸标签以包涵体形式存在的融合蛋白;sARTSP-1.包涵体经过尿素变性溶解、PBS稀释复性、Ni离子亲和层析柱纯化,获得目的蛋白.SDS-PAGE分析表明,有一条明显的特异性蛋白条带.同时细胞实验结果表明融合蛋白sCAR-TSP-1对白血病细胞K562有明显凋亡作用.

  2. Varaždin Borl Jeruzalem Tour On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the Vienna meridian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On Saturday, June 9, 2012, the Croatian Cartographic Society organized a tour and a visit to the oldest trigonometric point in Croatia on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the Vienna meridian arc survey. The tour was included in the Program of Professional Improvement of the Croatian Chamber of Chartered Engineers of Geodesy, and the Committee for Permanent Professional Improvement decided to award 5 (five points a person.

  3. A cluster of Zika virus infection in a Chinese tour group returning from Fiji and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Fu, Tao; Mao, Haiyan; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Junhang; Rutherford, Shannon; Ren, Jiangping; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Yin; Zhu, Zhihong; Qi, Xiaohua; Gong, Zhenyu; Liu, Qiyong; Yu, Hongjie; Zhu, Liebo; Chen, Wenxian; Chen, Zhiping; Zhang, Yanjun; Chen, Enfu

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is currently causing extensive outbreaks in a number of countries in South and Central America and the Caribbean and has been associated with foetal abnormalities. We report an outbreak of Zika virus infection in a Chinese tour-group returning from a nine day holiday in Fiji and Samoa. The index case was a 38-year old male who developed symptoms while travelling back from Fiji to Hong Kong on the 14th February, 2016. A field investigation was initiated to define the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of Zika virus infection in this tour group and revealed two further symptomatic infections and one asymptomatic infection among the 33 travellers; an overall infection attack rate of 12% in these travellers. Active surveillance led to detection of Zika virus RNA in the serum of one case four days prior to onset of symptoms and detection of Zika virus in saliva from one asymptomatic infection.

  4. COTTON USA'S Buyers Tour to Be Held in China in June

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ COTTON USA's Supply Chain Marketing Buyers Tour will be held in China from 7th to 11th June.Cotton Council International's ("CCI") representative offices in the U.S.,Europe and North East Asia have recruited nearly 40 renowned global buyers and retailers including,Gardeur,Gerry Weber,Marks & Spencer,Max Mara,K&L Ruppert,Debenhams,Polo Ralph Lauren coming to China to attend Buyers Tour,and 37 COTTON USA licensed suppliers from China and North and South East Asian regions will also participate in the trade fair to demonstrate their quality products,which will not only ensure the buyers to receive quality fabrics and garments,but also assist the suppliers to create a forum to meet their buvers and to thrive their business.

  5. CERN hosts Tour du canton de Genève stage

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    CERN hosted the first stage of the 10th Tour du canton de Genève on the evening of Wednesday 26 May. The Tour du canton is an annual race run in four stages over four weeks, and this year started at CERN as part of the Golden Jubilee celebrations. The event attracted over 2000 runners, including over 40 from CERN, as well as a large crowd of onlookers. The 10.5 km route started and finished outside CERN's Main Building, taking in the Swiss countryside, crossing into France and coming back through the tunnel linking the two CERN sites. CERN runners finished in second place in the Enterprise category just 13 seconds behind Rolex S.A., setting up an exciting contest for the remaining stages at Bernex, Meyrin and Jussy.

  6. L'isomorphisme entre les tours de Lubin-Tate et de Drinfeld

    CERN Document Server

    Fargues, Laurent; Lafforgue, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Ce livre contient une démonstration détaillée et complète de l'existence d'un isomorphisme équivariant entre les tours p-adiques de Lubin-Tate et de Drinfeld. Le résultat est établi en égales et inégales caractéristiques. Il y est également donné comme application une démonstration du fait que les cohomologies équivariantes de ces deux tours sont isomorphes, un résultat qui a des applications à l'étude de la correspondance de Langlands locale. Au cours de la preuve des rappels et des compléments sont donnés sur la structure des deux espaces de modules précédents, les groupes formels p-divisibl

  7. The Expression of IL-8 mRNA,TSP-1 mRNA and Their Clinicopathologic Value in the Breast Cancer%乳腺癌IL-8mRNA和TSP-1mRNA检测及临床病理意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树根; 尹新民; 李艳春

    2004-01-01

    目的研究乳腺癌和小叶增生组织中IL-8mRNA和TSP-1mRNA表达水平及临床病理意义.方法 58例乳腺癌和15例小叶增生病例标本经10%福尔马林固定后常规制作石蜡包埋切片.IL-8mRNA、TSP-1mRNA染色方法为原位杂交法.结果乳腺癌IL-8mRNA阳性率明显高于小叶增生(56.9% vs 13.3%,P<0.01),但TSP-1mRNA则相反(48.3% vs 86.7%,P<0.01),且IL-8mRNA阳性和TSP-1mRNA阴性表达小叶增生均为相同病例;组织学分级I级和淋巴结未转移病例IL-8mRNA和TSP-1mRNA表达可能是反映乳腺癌生物学行为和预后的重要标记物.结论联合两者检测乳腺良性病变中的表达对预防和早期发现乳腺癌可能有重要临床意义.

  8. Tour Year in Ngari——An Interview With CPC Ngari Prefectural Committee Secretary Dorje Cering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEXEI; KANGZHUB

    2002-01-01

    Tourism has become a pillar industry of the autonomous region. Major tour items include the Yarlung Cultural Festival in Shannan, the Qomolongma Cultural, Festival in Xigaze, the Darmar Festival in Gyangze, the Kamba Art Festival in Qamdo, the Gongbo New Year in Nyingchi, the Horse Race in Nagqu, as well as others like the Sagya Dawa Festival, Ongkor (Bumper Harvest Festival), Shoton (Sour Milk Drinking) Festival and Bathing Festival.

  9. ANALISIS KUALITAS KINERJA PRAMUWISATA TERHADAP KEPUASAN WISATAWAN JEPANG PADA PARADISE BALI TOUR AND TRAVEL DI BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Adi Palguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The type of data used are qualitative and quantitative data, while-for the data source is the primary and secondary data. Techniques of data collection is conducted through observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The sampling technique used purposive sampling i.e. applied particular consideration determined by the researcher itself. In another words the researchers have their own criteria toward the Japanese tourists who had ever utilized the services of Paradise Bali Tour and Travel. The result of this study shows that tourists are satisfied by the performance of the Japanese tour guides in Paradise Bali Tour and Travel, with an average rate of suitability is 74.39 percent. Being used Cartesian diagram to analyze the indicators to be a top priority and must be done in accordance with expectations of tourists, such as: guides appearance and neatness and another items and must be used by guide when pick-up the guests, providing clear and accurate information about the condition of destination, and efficiency of time and speedy when pick up the tourists. Indicators are considered important and needed to be maintained its performance are the mastering of foreign languages by guides in order to fluent communication, the courtesy of guides when providing services. Indicators considered less important by tourists but its implementation is quite well done, namely responsiveness guides in providing clear and concise information. Indicator that overestimated by tourist but it have done very well, such as the convenience of tourists when receiving services from the guide during the tour taken place.

  10. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks cou...

  11. VIRTUAL TOUR ENVIRONMENT OF CUBA’S NATIONAL SCHOOL OF ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Napolitano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba’s National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  12. Digital imaging of autoradiographs from paintings by Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, C O; Laurenze, C; Schmidt, C; Slusallek, K

    1999-01-01

    The artistic work of the painter Georges de La Tour has been studied very intensively in the last few years, mainly by French and US-American art historians and natural scientists. To support the in-depth analysis of two paintings from the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, USA, two similar paintings from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin have been investigated. The method of neutron activation autoradiography has been applied using imaging plates with digital image processing.

  13. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their pr...

  14. 2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Hazard

    2005-05-07

    This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

  15. The 14th China International Education Exhibition Tour(Spring 2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Approved by the Ministry of Education and sponsored by the Chinese Service Center for Scholarly Exchange (CSCSE), the 14th China International Education Exhibition Tour (CIEET) will be held in Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guangzhou between February 28 and March 15, and the 6th Studying Abroad and Diversification of Human Resources Training Forum will be held in Beijing on February 28.

  16. Magnetometer instrument team studies for the definition phase of the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The work performed by the magnetic fields investigation team during the mission definition phases of the Outer Planets Grand Tour (OPGT) and the Mariner Jupiter Saturn (MJS) Missions is reported. This work involved three tasks: (1) defining the objectives of the magnetic fields investigations, (2) defining the magnetometer systems required to meet these objectives, and (3) developing and testing hardware elements in certain mission-specific areas.

  17. Meet Cambodia's Needs——The 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 3rd China Auto International Exhibition Tour in 2005 gathered 39 well-known Chinese home brands,traveled across the Indo-China Peninsula and finally arrived at Phnom Penh,the capital of Cambodia.The Chinese automobiles got warm welcome from the local people due to the low price and good quality of the Chinese automobiles and living standard of this developing country.

  18. Which laboratory variable is related with time trial performance time in the Tour de France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A; Hoyos, J; Perez, M; Santalla, A; Earnest, C; Chicharro, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between several physiological variables that can be easily obtained during cycle ergometer gradual testing (for example, peak power output (Wpeak), VO2max, or ventilatory threshold (VT)) and actual (>50 km) time trials (TT) time performance during the Tour de France. Methods: We collected data in professional cyclists from the first TT of the 1998 Tour de France (TT1, 58 km distance; n = 6 cyclists) and the first (TT2, 56.5 km; n = 5) and second TT of the 1999 Tour de France (TT3, 57 km; n = 5). Results: A negative relationship was found between power output (W) at VT (VTWatt) and TT final time (s) in TT1 (r = –0.864; p = 0.026; standard error of estimate (SEE) of 73 s; and 95% confidence limits (95% CL) –0.98; –0.18), TT2 (r = –0.77; p = 0.27; SEE of 139 s; and 95% CL –0.98; 0.35), and TT3 (r = –0.923; p = 0.025; SEE of 94 s; and 95% CL –1.00; –0.22). Conclusions: Actual performance in long TT during the Tour de France (>50 km distance, performed after at least 1–2 weeks of continuous competition), in which some cumulative fatigue inevitably occurs, is related, at least in part, to the power output that elicits the VT. No other routine physiological variable (for example, VO2max or Wpeak) is related to performance in this type of event. PMID:15388555

  19. A virtual tour of geological heritage: Valourising geodiversity using Google Earth and QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Graña, A. M.; Goy, J. L.; Cimarra, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    When making land-use plans, it is necessary to inventory and catalogue the geological heritage and geodiversity of a site to establish an apolitical conservation protection plan to meet the educational and social needs of society. New technologies make it possible to create virtual databases using virtual globes - e.g., Google Earth - and other personal-use geomatics applications (smartphones, tablets, PDAs) for accessing geological heritage information in “real time” for scientific, educational, and cultural purposes via a virtual geological itinerary. Seventeen mapped and georeferenced geosites have been created in Keyhole Markup Language for use in map layers used in geological itinerary stops for different applications. A virtual tour has been developed for Las Quilamas Natural Park, which is located in the Spanish Central System, using geological layers and topographic and digital terrain models that can be overlaid in a 3D model. The Google Earth application was used to import the geosite placemarks. For each geosite, a tab has been developed that shows a description of the geology with photographs and diagrams and that evaluates the scientific, educational, and tourism quality. Augmented reality allows the user to access these georeferenced thematic layers and overlay data, images, and graphics in real time on their mobile devices. These virtual tours can be incorporated into subject guides designed by public. Seven educational and interpretive panels describing some of the geosites were designed and tagged with a QR code that could be printed at each stop or in the printed itinerary. These QR codes can be scanned with the camera found on most mobile devices, and video virtual tours can be viewed on these devices. The virtual tour of the geological heritage can be used to show tourists the geological history of the Las Quilamas Natural Park using new geomatics technologies (virtual globes, augmented reality, and QR codes).

  20. Tianjin Cathay Future Children’s Art Troupe’s Performance Tour in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Tianjin Cathay Future Children’s Art Troupe (TCFCAT) has cooperated with the CPAFFC for more than 10 years in making performance tours to more than 70 countries. During the (northern) summer vacation, a 24-member TCFCAT delegation-all of them children under the age of nine-visited Ecuador for an extended run of performances, along with one each in Venezuela and Costa Rica.

  1. Productization of a Potential New Service of Culinary Tours : Case Company: Holiday Club Saimaa

    OpenAIRE

    Karaseva, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The research was conducted for a case company Holiday Club Saimaa. The purpose of the study was to analyse the market for a potential new service of culinary tours in Holiday Club Saimaa and productize this service for the company. The preliminary information for the research was gathered from resources such as scientific literature, the Internet resources, and also from a Bachelor's thesis by Anatoly Lvov. Moreover, the data were collected via personal interviewing of potential customers:...

  2. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Sa-ngiamwibool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks could help the learners realize while working on their projects. This study was triangulated. The elicitation instruments were project instructions, CLT and awareness-raising tasks, pretests and posttests based on TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication, learner logs, interviews, and observation notes. The study revealed that, first, on the awareness of local wisdom in a tour-related project work, the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom through theme-centered learning process. Second, on the enhancement of CLT and awareness-raising, CLT allowed the learners to deal with interactive, spontaneous, and more meaningful communication actively while awareness-raising helped the learners consciously focus on semantic, linguistic, and pragmatic aspects of the target language. Lastly, on object of awareness, CLT and awareness-raising tasks could lead the learners to realize these objects of awareness: nature of experiential learning, subject content, and skill content. For pedagogical implications, project-based teaching with the support of CLT and awareness-raising tasks can raise learner awareness of local wisdom in tour-related topics effectively. Pedagogical implications illustrated some practical applications of CLT and awareness-raising tasks for enhancing learner awareness in ESP project work in a Thai classroom. Future inquiry should replicate this study or apply to business or other ESP project instructions

  3. 交通拥堵对TSP排放的影响分析%Effect of Traffic Jam on Distribution of TSP Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷玮; 夏晓梅; 张德礼; 陆纯; 胡环

    2011-01-01

    在上海市杨浦区军工路部分路段采集TSP浓度、气压、温度、分车型车流量、区段车速、信号配时等数据,通过多元回归方法分析小型车交通量,大型车交通量,拖挂车交通量及区段车速对TSP浓度的影响,建立起TSP浓度与上述交通变量的函数关系,并通过AIMSUN交通仿真软件以及基础采集数据,建立军工路路网,模拟四种交通拥堵状况(重度拥堵,中度拥堵,轻度拥堵,基本畅通)的产生和消散过程.综合分析路段交通拥堵对道路TSP排放和分布的影响.分析整理得出道路TSP小时排放总量和拥堵程度成正比关系,且TSP污染主要集中在车辆拥挤怠速的部分,车辆拥挤排队的队尾部分是TSP排放源强最高、源强增长最快的区域,增长率达到240%~290%.%Concentration of TSP, pressure, temperature, traffic volume and speed were collected in some sections of Jungong Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, and functional relations between the concentration of TSP, speed and traffic volume of small and medium-size car and container trailer were established on the basis of multiple regression analysis of raw datum. AIMSUN, micro-traffic simulation software, was used to establish the network and then simulate the congestion of different levels including severe congestion, moderate congestion, mild congestion and free stream.Functional relation was combined with simulation result to analyze traffic jam effect on the distribution of TSP emission. It was found that TSP emissions volume per hour has a direct proportional relation with level of congestion, and idling area is the major area of TSP emissions, and trail of vehicle queue cover the highest growth rate of pollutant intensity that reaches range from 240% to 290%.

  4. Business Ethics of Tour Operators – The Case Study of TUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Šuleić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of participants in tourism, both in offer and in demand, has conditioned the need for the creation ethical codices based on legislative regulations and moral principles. Among central figures in tourism, there are travel agencies and tour operators, the intermediaries between service providers and service users, in other words, passengers. The tour operators who are engaged in initiating tourism provide the services on foreign markets and tend to adapt their business to the laws and customs of the countries in which they run a business. TUI, as a leading European tour operator, which has even its representation in Serbia, can be a good example of the implementation of its business codes of ethics, but also adapting to the business customs being valid in the country in which TUI operates. Because of this, the aim of this work was to examine under what ethical standards TUI operates in Serbia in the domain of different stakeholders. The results of the research can be useful for different stakeholders.

  5. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  6. CERN hosts Tour du canton de Genève stage

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN's John Osborne (TS) at the start of the 10 km with more than 1700 other runners. Good luck to the CERN runners in the forthcoming stages! CERN hosted the first stage of the 10th Tour du canton de Genève on the evening of Wednesday 26 May. The Tour du canton is an annual race run in four stages over four weeks, and this year started at CERN as part of the Golden Jubilee celebrations. The event attracted over 2000 runners, including over 40 from CERN, as well as a large crowd of onlookers. The 10.5 km route started and finished outside CERN's Main Building, taking in the Swiss countryside, crossing into France and coming back through the tunnel linking the two CERN sites. CERN runners finished in second place in the Enterprise category just 13 seconds behind Rolex S.A., setting up an exciting contest for the remaining stages at Bernex, Meyrin and Jussy.Results are on the Tour du canton website.

  7. SPECULATION ON DEVELOPING TOUR RESOURCES OF THE TOURNAMENT ATHLETICS IN HARBIN CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Li-li

    2003-01-01

    The exploitation and utilization of the tour resources of tournament athletics, including skiling, boat sail-ing, archery, ice engraving, snow engraving, has become a new trend of the development of Chinese tourism. Due tothe unique cold climate and superior geographic location, Harbin is a promising city for developing tour resources of tourna-ment athletics. Based on the analysis of the superiority and peculiarity of Harbin, the speculation on development of tourresources of tournament athletics in Harbin is proposed as follows: 1 ) Harbin should develop its special tour resources oftournament athletics associated with needs of market; 2) Harbin should take the advantages of rich resources and devel-op ice and snow entertainment in winter and travel for sight-seeing and spending summer; 3 ) the adjustment of the layoutof ice and snow resources should be based on the idea of taking Harbin as the center and all-side opening at the largcscale in the way of radiation; 4) tourism should be developed by the combined efforts of various departments to make feasi-ble plan, and the organizers should pay much attention to ensuring the safety of tourists.

  8. Seasonal Characteristic Analysis of TSP Micro-morphology in Urumqi%乌鲁木齐市TSP微观形貌特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新春; 钟玉婷; 何清; 杨兴华; 杨浩

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the morphology and energy spectrum of TSP of the samples in 2009 from the radar station, satellite stations, Tree-ring laboratory and Baiyanggou station were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results showed that the morphologies and EDX spectra of TSP had significant seasonal and spatial characteristics. In spring the particles were larger and the shapes were irregular, which means they may come from dust storms. In summer the particles were less and smaller, which means they may contained soil dust and plant pollen. In autumn the particles were fleeciness chains of smoke. In winter, the particles were bigger, round and typical coal fly ashes. Urban TSP particulate quantity was more than those at Baiyanggou Station. Urban TSP morphology was affected by coal in autumn and winter. TSP of Urumqi contained Si,S,Ca,Al,Fe,Mg,Cl,Na. The elements of TSP had significant content in Urumqi. Si,Ca, Al,Na,Mg were higher in spring and summer, Si,S,Ca,Al, Fe,Cl were higher in autumn and winter. The element types of TSP were less in Baiyanggou Station and S,Fe which were representative emissions of characteristic were less.%利用环境扫描电镜(SEM/EDS)分别对2009年四季在雷达站、卫星站、年轮实验室和白杨沟站采集的TSP样品进行微观形貌和能谱分析,结果表明:乌鲁木齐市TSP形貌具有明显的时空分布特征。春季TSP颗粒较大,形状不规则,可能来源沙尘;夏季TSP中颗粒少且小,可能含有土壤扬尘和植物花粉;秋季TSP颗粒多为蓬松链状,可能是烟尘聚集体;冬季TSP颗粒较大,形状规则的颗粒增多且多为圆形,是典型的燃煤飞灰形态。北郊、市区TSP中颗粒物数量高于南郊山区的白杨沟站,秋冬季燃煤对北郊和市区TSP形貌影响较大。TSP主要含Si、S、Ca、AJ、Fe、Mg、C1、Na,说明TSP来源广泛,并且由多种颗粒混合而成。春夏

  9. Preference-based Pareto optimization of multi-objective traveling salesman problems%基于偏好信息的多目标旅行商问题Pareto优化求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋

    2011-01-01

    多目标旅行商问题(MOTSP)是经典旅行商问题的扩展,其优化目标包含了距离、成本、收益及风险等多个相互冲突的指标.本文提出了一种基于偏好的Pareto演化算法p-PEA用于建模并求解此NP-hard问题.该优化算法建立在MOTSP的智能体仿真模型之上,从而解决了数学建模不能真实再现实际MOTSP中众多影响因素的问题.通过仿真的方法,算法能够得到MOTSP可行解的各项评价指标值.在此基础士,通过设计演化算法搜索问题的Pareto优化解集.其中,将决策者的决策偏好信息引入到Pareto优化解集的求解过程中,所得结果将更合理.最后,以一个130个城市的旅行商问题为例验证了算法的有效性.%The multi-objective traveling salesman problems (MOTSP) are a generalization of the well-known traveling salesman problem where multiple conflicting objectives include optimizing distance, cost, profit, risk of the tour, etc. This paper proposes a preference-based Pareto evolutionary algorithm, named p-PEA, to model and solve this NP-hard problem. The algorithm is built on framework of agent-based simulation model, where MOTSP is represented as an agent model. In this way, various factors of practical MOTSP are easier involved in the model, than the mathematics approaches. Based on agent simulation, multi-objective data of feasible solutions are collected from simulation output. Furthermore, an evolutionary algorithm is adopted to search Pareto-optimal solutions. In the p-PEA algorithm, preference information of decision-maker is introduced to search preferred Pareto-optimal solutions. Finally, the proposed p-PEA algorithm is applied to a bi-objective TSP instance with 130 cities to demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

  10. Virtual tours as a new teaching tool in geoscience: an example from the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Antoine; Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Nomade, Jérome

    2013-04-01

    , these panorama can be linked together to travel from place to place. Last, but not least, the display of any type of information (video of the last year teachers' explanation, close up of a structure, graphic plot, text content, interpreted geological sections etc.) can be integrated in the virtual tour. From this, it is easy to build a full educational virtual tour that can include the information provided in the field book, and even become the field book itself. These virtual tours can be used with any device (laptop, tablet, smartphone...), hence have the potential become key players in field teaching. Finally, these virtual tours can help physically impaired students to complete their geological curriculum with the indispensable field experience they would not have had otherwise. Here we present an example of such a virtual tour build in 2012 across the European Alps during the 1st International Field Course organized by Grenoble University, ETH Zürich and Milano University. This virtual tour covers the Grimsel Pass Aar Massif Hercynian Basement (granite, shear zone and the underground NAGRA test site), the Zermatt area (two continents and two oceans packed together), the Aiguille du Midi incredible overview on most of the W-Alps, and the back limb of the Nappe de Morcles and its relation with the surrounding blocks. Link to the virtual tour: http://www.alpesphoto.com/temp/visites/Suisse/build/virtualtour.swf

  11. Optimization of Operation Sequence in CNC Machine Tools Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Qudeiri, Jaber; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Ramli, Rizauddin

    The productivity of machine tools is significantly improved by using microcomputer based CAD/CAM systems for NC program generation. Currently, many commercial CAD/CAM packages that provide automatic NC programming have been developed and applied to various cutting processes. Many cutting processes machined by CNC machine tools. In this paper, we attempt to find an efficient solution approach to determine the best sequence of operations for a set of operations that located in asymmetrical locations and different levels. In order to find the best sequence of operations that achieves the shortest cutting tool travel path (CTTP), genetic algorithm is introduced. After the sequence is optimized, the G-codes that use to code for the travel time is created. CTTP can be formulated as a special case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The incorporation of genetic algorithm and TSP can be included in the commercial CAD/CAM packages to optimize the CTTP during automatic generation of NC programs.

  12. A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization method for solving traveling salesman problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Borna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traveling salesman problem (TSP is a well-established NP-complete problem and many evolutionary techniques like particle swarm optimization (PSO are used to optimize existing solutions for that. PSO is a method inspired by the social behavior of birds. In PSO, each member will change its position in the search space, according to personal or social experience of the whole society. In this paper, we combine the principles of PSO and crossover operator of genetic algorithm to propose a heuristic algorithm for solving the TSP more efficiently. Finally, some experimental results on our algorithm are applied in some instances in TSPLIB to demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods which also show that our algorithm can achieve better results than other approaches.

  13. IL28B gene polymorphism SNP rs8099917 genotype GG is associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in HTLV-1 carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Assone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860 are associated with HAM/TSP.The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients. The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System.A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR = 2.03; IC95% = 0.96-4.27 and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR = 7.61; IC95%  = 1.82-31.72.Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results.

  14. IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

    2014-01-01

    Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR = 2.03; IC95% = 0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR = 7.61; IC95% = 1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

  15. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the virulence activator TcpP in Vibrio cholerae is initiated by the tail-specific protease (Tsp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Wei Ping; Matson, Jyl S; DiRita, Victor J

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae uses a multiprotein transcriptional regulatory cascade to control expression of virulence factors cholera toxin and toxin-co-regulated pilus. Two proteins in this cascade are ToxR and TcpP - unusual membrane-localized transcription factors with relatively undefined periplasmic domains and transcription activator cytoplasmic domains. TcpP and ToxR function with each other and two other membrane-localized proteins, TcpH and ToxS, to activate transcription of toxT, encoding the direct activator of toxin and pilus genes. Under some conditions, TcpP is degraded in a two-step proteolytic pathway known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), thereby inactivating the cascade. The second step in this proteolytic pathway involves the zinc metalloprotease YaeL; V. cholerae cells lacking YaeL accumulate a truncated yet active form of TcpP termed TcpP*. We hypothesized that a protease acting prior to YaeL degrades TcpP to TcpP*, which is the substrate of YaeL. In this study, we demonstrate that a C-terminal protease called Tsp degrades TcpP to form TcpP*, which is then acted upon by YaeL. We present evidence that TcpH and Tsp serve to protect full-length TcpP from spurious proteolysis by YaeL. Cleavage by Tsp occurs in the periplasmic domain of TcpP and requires residues TcpPA172 and TcpPI174 for wild-type activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. THE STUDY OF SCATTERED TO TOPOGRAPHY METHOD IN TSP%巷道超前探测散射成像处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金红娣; 潘冬明; 杨光

    2012-01-01

    At home and abroad, during the process of the channel tunnel construction, TSP has been used to detect small structures such as fault, collapse column . Because the fault plane and collapse column interface is undulating, the received energy of the reflected wave is weak, therefore it is difficult to image ahead of the tunnel. The scattered topography method based on Huygens-Fresnel principle can take full advantage of the information of the full wave field seismic signals. Scattered wave offers a new image method for TSP due to the good migration effect. In this particle, Building exploring tunnel model to study the effect of scattered topography, and prove the feasibility of the scattered topography used in the TSP.%国内外在隧道施工过程中已开始应用反射波法超前探测前方小构造,如断层、陷落柱.由于前方的断层面、陷落柱界面起伏不平,所以接收到的反射波能量较弱,难以精确成像,而基了惠更斯原理的散射成像方法能充分利用地震信号的全波场信息,具有较好的偏移成像效果,散射成像为巷道超前探测提供了一种可行的成像方法.笔者通过建立巷道超前探测模型,分析了散射成像处理技术的效果,验证了散射成像方法应用于巷道超前探测的可行性.

  17. TSP Symposium 2012 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Eiffel ) and therefore the software components to be considered are classes. The corresponding specifications are pre- and post-conditions to methods...visible state of an instance of the class). In the original DbC proposal, all the specifications are written in the language Eiffel itself and are...computable (i.e., they are checkable at run-time). Therefore, DbC within Eiffel provides at least the following: • A notation for expressing the

  18. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, D. G.; Eastwood, W. J.; Jones, P. I.; Johnson, R.; Marshall, S.; Hannah, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD), and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students). A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular). Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  19. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kingston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD, and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS and geographical information systems (GIS. The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students. A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular. Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  20. RAISING LEARNER AWARENESS OF LOCAL WISDOM IN TOUR-RELATED PROJECT TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Sa-ngiamwibool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how CLT (Communicative Language Teaching and awareness-raising enhanced Thai learners’ awareness of their local wisdom in a tour-related project work with three specific purposes, which were to explore how the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom to create their project, what extent CLT and awareness-raising tasks developed their communicative competence of the target language, and what object of awareness that the tasks could help the learners realize while working on their projects. This study was triangulated. The elicitation instruments were project instructions, CLT and awareness-raising tasks, pretests and posttests based on TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication, learner logs, interviews, and observation notes. The study revealed that, first, on the awareness of local wisdom in a tour-related project work, the learners interacted with textual representations of their local wisdom through theme-centered learning process. Second, on the enhancement of CLT and awareness-raising, CLT allowed the learners to deal with interactive, spontaneous, and more meaningful communication actively while awareness-raising helped the learners consciously focus on semantic, linguistic, and pragmatic aspects of the target language. Lastly, on object of awareness, CLT and awareness-raising tasks could lead the learners to realize these objects of awareness: nature of experiential learning, subject content, and skill content. For pedagogical implications, project-based teaching with the support of CLT and awareness-raising tasks can raise learner awareness of local wisdom in tour-related topics effectively. Pedagogical implications illustrated some practical applications of CLT and awareness-raising tasks for enhancing learner awareness in ESP project work in a Thai classroom. Future inquiry should replicate this study or apply to business or other ESP project instructions.