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Sample records for optimal resource allocation

  1. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  2. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  3. RAOPS: Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safegurards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    RAOPS--Resource Allocation Optimization Program for Safeguards is extended to a multiobjective return function having the detection probability and expected detection time as criteria. The expected detection time is included as a constraint, based on the well-known Avenhaus model of the optimum number of inventory periods. Examples of computation are provided.

  4. Discussion of Optimal Allocation of Resources Theory for Communication Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiao-lin; YU Hua; SU Hua-ying

    2004-01-01

    The theory on the resource optimal allocation is discussed in this article. On the base of the discussion, for the main problems existing in the resource allocation of communication enterprises, the reasonable allocating measures are put forward.

  5. Negotiating Socially Optimal Allocations of Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endriss, U; Sadri, F; Toni, F; 10.1613/jair.1870

    2011-01-01

    A multiagent system may be thought of as an artificial society of autonomous software agents and we can apply concepts borrowed from welfare economics and social choice theory to assess the social welfare of such an agent society. In this paper, we study an abstract negotiation framework where agents can agree on multilateral deals to exchange bundles of indivisible resources. We then analyse how these deals affect social welfare for different instances of the basic framework and different interpretations of the concept of social welfare itself. In particular, we show how certain classes of deals are both sufficient and necessary to guarantee that a socially optimal allocation of resources will be reached eventually.

  6. Optimal Joint Multiple Resource Allocation Method for Cloud Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. To provide cloud computing services economically, it is important to optimize resource allocation under the assumption that the required resource can be taken from a shared resource pool. In addition, to be able to provide processing ability and storage capacity, it is necessary to allocate bandwidth to access them at the same time. This paper proposes an optimal resource allocation method for cloud computing environments. First, this paper develops a resource allocation model of cloud computing environments, assuming both processing ability and bandwidth are allocated simultaneously to each service request and rented out on an hourly basis. The allocated resources are dedicated to each service request. Next, this paper proposes an optimal joint multiple resource allocation method, based on the above resource allocation model. It is demonstrated by simulation evaluation that the p...

  7. Simplifying rules for optimal allocation of preventive care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2012-04-01

    Given the limited resources for preventive care, policy-makers need to consider the efficiency/cost-effectiveness of preventive measures, such as drugs and vaccines, when allocating preventive care resources. However, in many settings only limited information on lifetime costs and effects of preventive measures exists. Therefore, it seems useful to provide policy-makers with some simplifying rules when allocating preventive care resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relevance of risk and severity of the disease to be prevented for the optimal allocation of preventive care resources. The report shows - based on a constrained optimization model - that optimal allocation of preventive care resources does, in fact, depend on both factors. Resources should be allocated to the prevention of diseases with a higher probability of occurrence or larger severity. This article also identifies situations where preventive care resources should be allocated to the prevention of less severe disease.

  8. Optimal Constrained Resource Allocation Strategies under Low Risk Circumstances

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Visan, Costel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider multiple constrained resource allocation problems, where the constraints can be specified by formulating activity dependency restrictions or by using game-theoretic models. All the problems are focused on generic resources, with a few exceptions which consider financial resources in particular. The problems consider low-risk circumstances and the values of the uncertain variables which are used by the algorithms are the expected values of the variables. For each of the considered problems we propose novel algorithmic solutions for computing optimal resource allocation strategies. The presented solutions are optimal or near-optimal from the perspective of their time complexity. The considered problems have applications in a broad range of domains, like workflow scheduling in industry (e.g. in the mining and metallurgical industry) or the financial sector, motion planning, facility location and data transfer or job scheduling and resource management in Grids, clouds or other distribute...

  9. USMC Logistics Resource Allocation Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Logistics, Supply Chain Management, Modeling and Optimization, Linear Program. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION... Algebraic Modeling System GR Grounding Rod GUI Graphical User Interface HADR Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief HL Headlight JHSV Joint High...many optimization methods which are applicable to a logistical transportation problem is elusive at best. The method presented through MARPOM is

  10. Resource Allocation in Public Cluster with Extended Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Z.; Handoko, L. T.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an optimization algorithm for resource allocation in the LIPI Public Cluster to optimize its usage according to incoming requests from users. The tool is an extended and modified genetic algorithm developed to match specific natures of public cluster. We present a detail analysis of optimization, and compare the results with the exact calculation. We show that it would be very useful and could realize an automatic decision making system for public clusters.

  11. optimization of water resources allocation in semi-arid region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eng Obi Ibeje

    engineeribeje@yahoo.com,. 2Department of ... This study is aimed at achieving optimal water resources allocation in the semi-arid areas using Dadin-Nkowa dam in Gombe State as a case study. .... China applied this methodology in solving.

  12. OPTIMAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN GENERAL COURNOTCOMPETITIVE EQUILIBRIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ervik, Inger Sommerfelt; Soegaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional economic theory stipulates that output in Cournot competition is too low relative to that which is attained in perfect competition. We revisit this result in a General Cournot-competitive Equilibrium model with two industries that di er only in terms of productivity. We show that in general equilibrium, the more ecient industry produces too little and the less ecient industry produces too much compared to an optimal scenario with perfect competition.

  13. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  14. Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Preciado, Victor M; Enyioha, Chinwendu; Jadbabaie, Ali; Pappas, George

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing protection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available: (i) Preventive resources able to defend nodes against the spreading (such as vaccines in a viral infection process), and (ii) corrective resources able to neutralize the spreading after it has reached a node (such as antidotes). We assume that both preventive and corrective resources have an associated cost and study the problem of finding the cost-optimal distribution of resources throughout the nodes of the network. We analyze these questions in the context of viral spreading processes in directed networks. We study the following two problems: (i) Given a fixed budget, find the optimal allocation of preventive and corrective resources in the network to achieve the highest level of containment, and (ii) when a budget is not specified, find the minimum budget required to control the spreading...

  15. Dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The model proposed in this paper addresses a dynamic optimization model for allocating medical resources in epidemic controlling.Design/methodology/approach: In this work, a three-level and dynamic linear programming model for allocating medical resources based on epidemic diffusion model is proposed. The epidemic diffusion model is used to construct the forecasting mechanism for dynamic demand of medical resources. Heuristic algorithm coupled with MTLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the model. A numerical example is presented for testing the model’s practical applicability.Findings: The main contribution of the present study is that a discrete time-space network model to study the medical resources allocation problem when an epidemic outbreak is formulated. It takes consideration of the time evolution and dynamic nature of the demand, which is different from most existing researches on medical resources allocation.Practical implications: In our model, the medicine logistics operation problem has been decomposed into several mutually correlated sub-problems, and then be solved systematically in the same decision scheme. Thus, the result will be much more suitable for real operations.Originality/value: In our model, the rationale that the medical resources allocated in early periods will take effect in subduing the spread of the epidemic spread and thus impact the demand in later periods has been for the first time incorporated. A win-win emergency rescue effect is achieved by the integrated and dynamic optimization model. The total rescue cost is controlled effectively, and meanwhile, inventory level in each urban health departments is restored and raised gradually.

  16. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security.

  17. Hybrid particle swarm optimization for multiobjective resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Li Xiaoxing; Gu Chunqin

    2008-01-01

    Resource allocation (RA) is the problem of allocating resources among various artifacts or business units to meet one or more expected goals,such as maximizing the profits,minimizing the costs,or achieving the best qualities.A complex multiobjective RA is addressed,and a multiobjective mathematical model is used to find solutions efficiently.Then,an improved particle swarm algorithm (mO_PSO) is proposed combined with a new particle diversity controller policies and dissipation operation.Meanwhile,a modified Pareto methods used in PSO to deal with multiobjectives optimization is presented.The effectiveness of the provided algorithm is validated by its application to some illustrative example dealing with multiobjective RA problems and with the comparative experiment with other algorithm.

  18. Optimal and Fair Resource Allocation for Multiuser Wireless Multimedia Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zhangyu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal and fair strategy for multiuser multimedia radio resource allocation (RRA based on coopetition, which suggests a judicious mixture of competition and cooperation. We formulate the co-opetition strategy as sum utility maximization at constraints from both Physical (PHY and Application (APP layers. We show that the maximization can be solved efficiently employing the well-defined Layering as Optimization Decomposition (LOD method. Moreover, the coopetition strategy is applied to power allocation among multiple video users, and evaluated through comparing with existing- competition based strategy. Numerical results indicate that, the co-opetition strategy adapts the best to the changes of network conditions, participating users, and so forth. It is also shown that the coopetition can lead to an improved number of satisfied users, and in the meanwhile provide more flexible tradeoff between system efficiency and fairness among users.

  19. Optimal resource allocation solutions for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Awoyemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks (CRN are currently gaining immense recognition as the most-likely next-generation wireless communication paradigm, because of their enticing promise of mitigating the spectrum scarcity and/or underutilisation challenge. Indisputably, for this promise to ever materialise, CRN must of necessity devise appropriate mechanisms to judiciously allocate their rather scarce or limited resources (spectrum and others among their numerous users. ‘Resource allocation (RA in CRN', which essentially describes mechanisms that can effectively and optimally carry out such allocation, so as to achieve the utmost for the network, has therefore recently become an important research focus. However, in most research works on RA in CRN, a highly significant factor that describes a more realistic and practical consideration of CRN has been ignored (or only partially explored, i.e., the aspect of the heterogeneity of CRN. To address this important aspect, in this paper, RA models that incorporate the most essential concepts of heterogeneity, as applicable to CRN, are developed and the imports of such inclusion in the overall networking are investigated. Furthermore, to fully explore the relevance and implications of the various heterogeneous classifications to the RA formulations, weights are attached to the different classes and their effects on the network performance are studied. In solving the developed complex RA problems for heterogeneous CRN, a solution approach that examines and exploits the structure of the problem in achieving a less-complex reformulation, is extensively employed. This approach, as the results presented show, makes it possible to obtain optimal solutions to the rather difficult RA problems of heterogeneous CRN.

  20. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  1. A Novel Algorithm for Optimizing Multiple Services Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Gawanmeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resource provisioning becomes more and more challenging problem in cloud computing environment since cloudbased services become more numerous and dynamic. The problem of scheduling multiple tasks for multiple users on a given number of resources is considered NP-Complete problem, and therefore, several heuristic based research methods were proposed, yet, there are still many improvements can be done, since the problem has several optimization parameters. In addition, most proposed solutions are built on top of several assumptions and simplifications by applying computational methods such as game theory, fuzzy logic, or evolutionary computing. This paper presents an algorithm to address the problem of resource allocation across a cloud-based network, where several resources are available, and the cost of computational service depends on the amount of computation. The algorithm is applicable without restrictions on cost vector or compaction time matrix as opposed to methods in the literature. In addition, the execution of the algorithm shows better utility compared to methods applied on similar problems.

  2. Playing games against nature: optimal policies for renewable resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Ermon, Stefano; Gomes, Carla P; Selman, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a class of Markov decision processes that arise as a natural model for many renewable resource allocation problems. Upon extending results from the inventory control literature, we prove that they admit a closed form solution and we show how to exploit this structure to speed up its computation. We consider the application of the proposed framework to several problems arising in very different domains, and as part of the ongoing effort in the emerging field of Computational Sustainability we discuss in detail its application to the Northern Pacific Halibut marine fishery. Our approach is applied to a model based on real world data, obtaining a policy with a guaranteed lower bound on the utility function that is structurally very different from the one currently employed.

  3. Cognitive radio based optimal channel sensing and resources allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Nayeem, M. N.; Kamarudin, L. M.; Jakaria, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is the latest type of wireless technoloy that is proposed to mitigate spectrum saturation problem. İn cognitve radio, secondary user will use primary user's spectrum during primary user's absence without interupting primary user's transmission. This paper focuses on practical cognitive radio network development process using Android based smart phone for the data transmission. Energy detector based sensing method was proposed and used here because it doesnot require primary user's information. Bluetooth and Wi-fi are the two available types of spectrum that was sensed for CR detection. Simulation showed cognitive radio network can be developed using Android based smart phones. So, a complete application was developed using Java based Android Eclipse program. Finally, the application was uploaded and run on Android based smart phone to form and verify CR network for channel sensing and resource allocation. The observed efficiency of the application was around 81%.

  4. An optimization algorithm for multipath parallel allocation for service resource in the simulation task workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiteng; Zhang, Hongjun; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yong; Zhang, Xuliang

    2014-01-01

    Service oriented modeling and simulation are hot issues in the field of modeling and simulation, and there is need to call service resources when simulation task workflow is running. How to optimize the service resource allocation to ensure that the task is complete effectively is an important issue in this area. In military modeling and simulation field, it is important to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation, in which multipath service resource parallel allocation model is built and multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is used for optimization and solution. The multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is to extend parallel search space to improve search efficiency. Through the simulation experiment, this paper investigates the effect for the probability of success in simulation task workflow from different optimization algorithm, service allocation strategy, and path number, and the simulation result shows that the optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation is an effective method to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow.

  5. An Optimization Algorithm for Multipath Parallel Allocation for Service Resource in the Simulation Task Workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiteng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Service oriented modeling and simulation are hot issues in the field of modeling and simulation, and there is need to call service resources when simulation task workflow is running. How to optimize the service resource allocation to ensure that the task is complete effectively is an important issue in this area. In military modeling and simulation field, it is important to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation, in which multipath service resource parallel allocation model is built and multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is used for optimization and solution. The multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is to extend parallel search space to improve search efficiency. Through the simulation experiment, this paper investigates the effect for the probability of success in simulation task workflow from different optimization algorithm, service allocation strategy, and path number, and the simulation result shows that the optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation is an effective method to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow.

  6. Hybrid Genetic Crossover Based Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Efficient Resource Allocation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.

  7. Optimizing MPBSM Resource Allocation Based on Revenue Management: A China Mobile Sichuan Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to determining the network service level of telecom operators is resource allocation for mobile phone base station maintenance (MPBSM. Given intense market competition and higher consumer requirements for network service levels, an increasing proportion of resources have been allocated to MPBSM. Maintenance costs account for the rising fraction of direct costs, and the management of MPBSM resource allocation presents special challenges to telecom operators. China Mobile is the largest telecom operator in the world. Its subsidiary, China Mobile Sichuan, is the first in China to use revenue management in improving MPBSM resource allocation. On the basis of comprehensive revenue (including both economic revenue and social revenue, the subsidiary established a classification model of its base stations. The model scientifically classifies more than 25,000 base stations according to comprehensive revenue. China Mobile Sichuan also conducted differentiation allocation of MPBSM resources on the basis of the classification results. Furthermore, it optimized the assessment system of the telecom base stations to establish an assurance system for the use of MPBSM resources. After half-year implementation, the cell availability of both VIP base stations and total base stations significantly improved. The optimization also reduced economic losses to RMB 10.134 million, and enhanced customer satisfaction with network service by 3.2%.

  8. A Study on Optimal Resource Allocation of Taxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Xiao Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As taxis play an increasingly important role in urban traffic system, the research on the supply and demand of taxis and the design of an optimal model of taxis supply has an importantly practical significance. In this paper, we used the traffic bureau data of Guangzhou, and determined the rate of empty driving as the index to establish the model. Nonlinear programming method was uesd to establish the optimal model of taxis quantity to meet the maximum income and maximum passenger satisfaction. Finally we got the optimal number of taxis was 37537.59

  9. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  10. Optimal Resource Allocation and Relay Selection in Bandwidth and Time Exchange Based Cooperative Forwarding

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Muhammad Nazmul; Kompella, Sastry

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate joint optimal relay selection and resource allocation that are fundamental to the understanding of bandwidth exchange (BE) and time exchange (TE) enabled incentivized cooperative forwarding in wireless networks. We consider a network where N nodes transmit data in the uplink to an access point (AP) or base station (BS). We first consider the scenario where each node gets an initial amount (equal, optimal or arbitrary) of resource in the form of bandwidth or time, and uses this resource as a flexible incentive for two hop relaying. We focus on ?-fair network utility maximization (NUM) and total power minimization in this environment. For both BE and TE, we show the concavity or convexity of the resource allocation problem for a fixed relay set. Defining the link weights of each relay pair as the utility gain due to cooperation (over noncooperation), we show that the optimal relay selection, often a combinatorially cumbersome problem, reduces to the maximum weighted matching (MWM) ...

  11. Optimal resource allocation in General Cournot-competitive equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfelt Ervik, Inger; Soegaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional economic theory stipulates that output in Cournot competition is too low relative to that which is attained in perfect competition. We revisit this result in a General Cournot-competitive Equilibrium model with two industries that differ only in terms of productivity. We show that in general equilibrium, the more efficient industry produces too little and the less efficient industry produces too much compared to an optimal scenario with perfect competition.

  12. Optimal allocation of resources in a biomarker setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Hendrickson, Sara; Willett, Walter

    2015-01-30

    Nutrient intake is often measured with substantial error both in commonly used surrogate instruments such as a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and in gold standard-type instruments such as a diet record (DR). If there is a correlated error between the FFQ and DR, then standard measurement error correction methods based on regression calibration can produce biased estimates of the regression coefficient (λ) of true intake on surrogate intake. However, if a biomarker exists and the error in the biomarker is independent of the error in the FFQ and DR, then the method of triads can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of λ, provided that there are replicate biomarker data on at least a subsample of validation study subjects. Because biomarker measurements are expensive, for a fixed budget, one can use a either design where a large number of subjects have one biomarker measure and only a small subsample is replicated or a design that has a smaller number of subjects and has most or all subjects validated. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the proportion of subjects with replicated biomarker measures, where optimization is with respect to minimizing the variance of ln(λ̂). The methodology is illustrated using vitamin C intake data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study where plasma vitamin C is the biomarker. In this example, the optimal validation study design is to have 21% of subjects with replicated biomarker measures.

  13. Resource Allocation Optimization Model of Collaborative Logistics Network Based on Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-feng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative logistics network resource allocation can effectively meet the needs of customers. It can realize the overall benefit maximization of the logistics network and ensure that collaborative logistics network runs orderly at the time of creating value. Therefore, this article is based on the relationship of collaborative logistics network supplier, the transit warehouse, and sellers, and we consider the uncertainty of time to establish a bilevel programming model with random constraints and propose a genetic simulated annealing hybrid intelligent algorithm to solve it. Numerical example shows that the method has stronger robustness and convergence; it can achieve collaborative logistics network resource allocation rationalization and optimization.

  14. On the Optimal Allocation of R&D Resources for Climate Change Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, G J; Clarke, L E

    2003-11-03

    While technology studies and integrated assessment models incorporating endogenous technological change have demonstrated that advancing technology is a crucial component of an optimal greenhouse gas abatement strategy, the R&D process itself has received little analytical attention. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering and exploring the optimal allocation of R&D resources for climate change technology development. The framework is then applied to a stylized application that considers the allocation between R&D focused on resolving uncertainties about the retention of sequestration and R&D focused on improving the performance of renewable energy technologies.

  15. Network Optimization Models for Resource Allocation in Developing Military Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    authors including [1], [4], [10] and [13]. In particular, RCSP problems of limited size can be solved through special-purpose algorithms such as those...developed in [3] and [7], or through efficient general-purpose algorithms available in commercial optimization software packages. 2 To demonstrate the...a3)3(d2,a2) (a2,0) 4 (an,0) 2n-1 2n (0,0) (dn,an) 2(n-1)…. ÷ ø ö ç è æ 0,2 s a ÷ ø ö ç è æ 0,3 s a ÷ ø ö ç è æ 0,4 s a ( ) i ii i i i stt s a

  16. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  17. Node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm for the optimal allocation of water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohua; YANG Zhifeng; SHEN Zhenyao; LI Jianqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method, node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm (NOEGA), is proposed for solving water resources optimal allocation problems, in which the capacity of water resources is split into a number of smaller parts so that successive operations can be overlapped. Our objective is to maximize the whole benefit function. To overcome the "dimensionality and algorithm complexity curse" while searching for solutions and looking for an optimal solution, the operations of one-point crossover operator, gene exchange operator, gene random operator, gene shift operator and node ordinal strings are established. It is proved to be an effective optimal method in searching for global solutions. The NOEGA does not need a diversity of initial population, and it does not have the problem of immature convergence. The results of two cases show that using NOEGA to solve the optimal allocation model is very efficient and robust. In addition, the algorithm complexity of NOEGA is discussed.

  18. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  19. An Optimization Algorithm for Multipath Parallel Allocation for Service Resource in the Simulation Task Workflow

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiteng Wang; Hongjun Zhang; Rui Zhang; Yong Li; Xuliang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Service oriented modeling and simulation are hot issues in the field of modeling and simulation, and there is need to call service resources when simulation task workflow is running. How to optimize the service resource allocation to ensure that the task is complete effectively is an important issue in this area. In military modeling and simulation field, it is important to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimiz...

  20. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future.......Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current...

  1. Cellular trade-offs and optimal resource allocation during cyanobacterial diurnal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Knoop, Henning; Bockmayr, Alexander; Steuer, Ralf

    2017-07-18

    Cyanobacteria are an integral part of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and a promising resource for the synthesis of renewable bioproducts from atmospheric CO2 Growth and metabolism of cyanobacteria are inherently tied to the diurnal rhythm of light availability. As yet, however, insight into the stoichiometric and energetic constraints of cyanobacterial diurnal growth is limited. Here, we develop a computational framework to investigate the optimal allocation of cellular resources during diurnal phototrophic growth using a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We formulate phototrophic growth as an autocatalytic process and solve the resulting time-dependent resource allocation problem using constraint-based analysis. Based on a narrow and well-defined set of parameters, our approach results in an ab initio prediction of growth properties over a full diurnal cycle. The computational model allows us to study the optimality of metabolite partitioning during diurnal growth. The cyclic pattern of glycogen accumulation, an emergent property of the model, has timing characteristics that are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings. The approach presented here provides insight into the time-dependent resource allocation problem of phototrophic diurnal growth and may serve as a general framework to assess the optimality of metabolic strategies that evolved in phototrophic organisms under diurnal conditions.

  2. Optimal Scheduling for Fair Resource Allocation in Ad Hoc Networks with Elastic and Inelastic Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of congestion control and scheduling in ad hoc wireless networks that have to support a mixture of best-effort and real-time traffic. Optimization and stochastic network theory have been successful in designing architectures for fair resource allocation to meet long-term throughput demands. However, to the best of our knowledge, strict packet delay deadlines were not considered in this framework previously. In this paper, we propose for the first time a model for incorporating the quality of service (QoS) requirements of packets with deadlines in the optimization framework. The solution to the problem results in a joint congestion control and scheduling algorithm which fairly allocates resources to meet the fairness objectives of both elastic and inelastic flows, and per-packet delay requirements of inelastic flows.

  3. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits, such as...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  4. Nearly Optimal Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA in 2-D Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ksairi, Nassar; Ciblat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a resource allocation algorithm for the downlink of sectorized two-dimensional (2-D) OFDMA cellular networks assuming statistical Channel State Information (CSI) and fractional frequency reuse. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in a distributed fashion without the need to any central controlling units. Its performance is analyzed assuming fast fading Rayleigh channels and Gaussian distributed multicell interference. We show that the transmit power of this simple algorithm tends, as the number of users grows to infinity, to the same limit as the minimal power required to satisfy all users' rate requirements i.e., the proposed resource allocation algorithm is asymptotically optimal. As a byproduct of this asymptotic analysis, we characterize a relevant value of the reuse factor that only depends on an average state of the network.

  5. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.

    2016-01-06

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  6. Optimal distributed resource allocation in a wireless sensor network for control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian-lin; WU Zhi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Wireless technology is applied increasingly in networked control systems. A new form of wireless network called wireless sensor network can bring control systems some advantages, such as flexibility and feasibility of network deployment at low costs, while it also raises some new challenges. First, the communication resources shared by all the control loops are limited.Second, the wireless and multi-hop character of sensor network makes the resources scheduling more difficult. Thus, how to effectively allocate the limited communication resources for those control loops is an important problem. In this paper, this problem is formulated as an optimal sampling frequency assignment problem, where the objective function is to maximize the utility of control systems, subject to channel capacity constraints. Then an iterative distributed algorithm based on local buffer information is proposed. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively allocate the limited communication resource in a distributed way. It can achieve the optimal quality of the control system and adapt to the network load changes.

  7. A decision-analytic approach to the optimal allocation of resources for endangered species consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Shelley, Kevin J.; Morey, Steve; Chan, Jeffrey; LaTier, Andrea; Scafidi, Carolyn; Crouse, Deborah T.; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The resources available to support conservation work, whether time or money, are limited. Decision makers need methods to help them identify the optimal allocation of limited resources to meet conservation goals, and decision analysis is uniquely suited to assist with the development of such methods. In recent years, a number of case studies have been described that examine optimal conservation decisions under fiscal constraints; here we develop methods to look at other types of constraints, including limited staff and regulatory deadlines. In the US, Section Seven consultation, an important component of protection under the federal Endangered Species Act, requires that federal agencies overseeing projects consult with federal biologists to avoid jeopardizing species. A benefit of consultation is negotiation of project modifications that lessen impacts on species, so staff time allocated to consultation supports conservation. However, some offices have experienced declining staff, potentially reducing the efficacy of consultation. This is true of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Washington Fish and Wildlife Office (WFWO) and its consultation work on federally-threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). To improve effectiveness, WFWO managers needed a tool to help allocate this work to maximize conservation benefits. We used a decision-analytic approach to score projects based on the value of staff time investment, and then identified an optimal decision rule for how scored projects would be allocated across bins, where projects in different bins received different time investments. We found that, given current staff, the optimal decision rule placed 80% of informal consultations (those where expected effects are beneficial, insignificant, or discountable) in a short bin where they would be completed without negotiating changes. The remaining 20% would be placed in a long bin, warranting an investment of seven days, including time for negotiation. For formal

  8. Optimal Water Resources Allocation under the Constraint of Land Use in the Heihe River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water scarcity and irrational utilization have become the pivotal issues for the sustainable development of river basins in China. This paper attempts to propose a new perspective for the optimization of water resources allocation in a typical river basin. In order to conduct an accurate and feasible program for water resources allocation in the water-deficient river basin, a multi-objective and multi-constraint programming model was developed by embedding land use effect as a constraint on water allocation, which was currently solely decided by water resources demand in different water use sectors. The program includes two layers, namely water allocation among different counties located in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and among domestic, industrial, agricultural and ecological uses within one county. Empirical analysis shows that the structural change of land use has an important influence and restriction on the water resources allocation in the river basin. The least cultivated areas that ensure food security and the constraint of construction land quota have great impact on agricultural and industrial water allocation. Moreover, the quantitative change of ecological land greatly affects ecological water allocation. The results demonstrate that the optimal program calculated from land use embedded model can well predicate the actual situation of water allocation in the future. To ensure regional sustainable development, it is vital that reasonable water-saving measures in each water use sector and ecological protection policies be taken.

  9. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives. PMID:27077865

  10. A Novel Optimal Joint Resource Allocation Method in Cooperative Multicarrier Networks: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Weigui; Ao, Hong; Chu, Jian; Zhou, Quan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Kang; Li, Yi; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-12

    With the increasing demands for better transmission speed and robust quality of service (QoS), the capacity constrained backhaul gradually becomes a bottleneck in cooperative wireless networks, e.g., in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario in joint processing mode of LTE-Advanced Pro. This paper focuses on resource allocation within capacity constrained backhaul in uplink cooperative wireless networks, where two base stations (BSs) equipped with single antennae serve multiple single-antennae users via multi-carrier transmission mode. In this work, we propose a novel cooperative transmission scheme based on compress-and-forward with user pairing to solve the joint mixed integer programming problem. To maximize the system capacity under the limited backhaul, we formulate the joint optimization problem of user sorting, subcarrier mapping and backhaul resource sharing among different pairs (subcarriers for users). A novel robust and efficient centralized algorithm based on alternating optimization strategy and perfect mapping is proposed. Simulations show that our novel method can improve the system capacity significantly under the constraint of the backhaul resource compared with the blind alternatives.

  11. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  12. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nils; Mairet, Francis; Gouzé, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment. PMID:26958858

  13. Dynamical Allocation of Cellular Resources as an Optimal Control Problem: Novel Insights into Microbial Growth Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Giordano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial physiology exhibits growth laws that relate the macromolecular composition of the cell to the growth rate. Recent work has shown that these empirical regularities can be derived from coarse-grained models of resource allocation. While these studies focus on steady-state growth, such conditions are rarely found in natural habitats, where microorganisms are continually challenged by environmental fluctuations. The aim of this paper is to extend the study of microbial growth strategies to dynamical environments, using a self-replicator model. We formulate dynamical growth maximization as an optimal control problem that can be solved using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We compare this theoretical gold standard with different possible implementations of growth control in bacterial cells. We find that simple control strategies enabling growth-rate maximization at steady state are suboptimal for transitions from one growth regime to another, for example when shifting bacterial cells to a medium supporting a higher growth rate. A near-optimal control strategy in dynamical conditions is shown to require information on several, rather than a single physiological variable. Interestingly, this strategy has structural analogies with the regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis by ppGpp in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. It involves sensing a mismatch between precursor and ribosome concentrations, as well as the adjustment of ribosome synthesis in a switch-like manner. Our results show how the capability of regulatory systems to integrate information about several physiological variables is critical for optimizing growth in a changing environment.

  14. Optimized Hybrid Resource Allocation in Wireless Cellular Networks with and without Channel Reassignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, it is important to determine an optimal channel assignment scheme so that the available channels, which are considered as “limited” resources in cellular networks, are used as efficiently as possible. The objective of the channel assignment scheme is to minimize the call-blocking and the call-dropping probabilities. In this paper, we present two efficient integer linear programming (ILP formulations, for optimally allocating a channel (from a pool of available channels to an incoming call such that both “hard” and “soft” constraints are satisfied. Our first formulation, ILP1, does not allow channel reassignment of the existing calls, while our second formulation, ILP2, allows such reassignment. Both formulations can handle hard constraints, which includes co-site and adjacent channel constraints, in addition to the standard co-channel constraints. The simplified problem (with only co-channel constraints can be treated as a special case of our formulation. In addition to the hard constraints, we also consider soft constraints, such as, the packing condition, resonance condition, and limiting rearrangements, to further improve the network performance. We present the simulation results on a benchmark 49 cell environment with 70 channels that validate the performance of our approach.

  15. Optimal resource allocation to survival and reproduction in parasitic wasps foraging in fragmented habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnberg, Eric; Coquillard, Patrick; Vet, Louise E M; Hoffmeister, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of human land use represents the major cause of habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation can have dramatic consequences on species richness and trophic interactions within food webs. Although the associated ecological consequences have been studied by several authors, the evolutionary effects on interacting species have received little research attention. Using a genetic algorithm, we quantified how habitat fragmentation and environmental variability affect the optimal reproductive strategies of parasitic wasps foraging for hosts. As observed in real animal species, the model is based on the existence of a negative trade-off between survival and reproduction resulting from competitive allocation of resources to either somatic maintenance or egg production. We also asked to what degree plasticity along this trade-off would be optimal, when plasticity is costly. We found that habitat fragmentation can indeed have strong effects on the reproductive strategies adopted by parasitoids. With increasing habitat fragmentation animals should invest in greater longevity with lower fecundity; yet, especially in unpredictable environments, some level of phenotypic plasticity should be selected for. Other consequences in terms of learning ability of foraging animals were also observed. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed.

  16. Optimal resource allocation to survival and reproduction in parasitic wasps foraging in fragmented habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wajnberg

    Full Text Available Expansion and intensification of human land use represents the major cause of habitat fragmentation. Such fragmentation can have dramatic consequences on species richness and trophic interactions within food webs. Although the associated ecological consequences have been studied by several authors, the evolutionary effects on interacting species have received little research attention. Using a genetic algorithm, we quantified how habitat fragmentation and environmental variability affect the optimal reproductive strategies of parasitic wasps foraging for hosts. As observed in real animal species, the model is based on the existence of a negative trade-off between survival and reproduction resulting from competitive allocation of resources to either somatic maintenance or egg production. We also asked to what degree plasticity along this trade-off would be optimal, when plasticity is costly. We found that habitat fragmentation can indeed have strong effects on the reproductive strategies adopted by parasitoids. With increasing habitat fragmentation animals should invest in greater longevity with lower fecundity; yet, especially in unpredictable environments, some level of phenotypic plasticity should be selected for. Other consequences in terms of learning ability of foraging animals were also observed. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed.

  17. RAT Selection and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Networks - OPNET Modeler in Optimization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of optimal selection of Radio Access Technology (RAT) and assignment of resources in a multistandard wireless network scenario. It is shown how OPNET Modeler can be used to perform optimization studies using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) solvers. In this way...

  18. RAT Selection and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Networks - OPNET Modeler in Optimization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of optimal selection of Radio Access Technology (RAT) and assignment of resources in a multistandard wireless network scenario. It is shown how OPNET Modeler can be used to perform optimization studies using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) solvers. In this way...... an ongoing simulation is continuously fed with optimal assignment results. The setup allows the bounds of performance indicators to be defined and enables analysis and comparison with heuristic approaches and such results are given for the considered scenario....

  19. Method for optimizing resource allocation in a government organization. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarin, James

    1994-01-01

    The managers in Federal agencies are challenged to control the extensive activities in government and still provide high-quality products and services to the American taxpayers. Considering today's complex social and economic environment and the $3.8 billion daily cost of operating the Federal Government, it is evident that there is a need to develop decision-making tools for accurate resource allocation and total quality management. The goal of this thesis is to provide a methodical process that will aid managers in Federal Government to make budgetary decisions based on the cost of services, the agency's objectives, and the customers' perception of the agency's product. A general resource allocation procedure was developed in this study that can be applied to any government organization. A government organization, hereafter the 'organization,' is assumed to be a multidivision enterprise. This procedure was applied to a small organization for the proof of the concept. This organization is the Technical Services Directorate (TSD) at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. As part of the procedure, a nonlinear programming model was developed to account for the resources of the organization, the outputs produced by the organization, the decision-maker's views, and the customers' satisfaction with the organization. The information on the resources of the organization was acquired from current budget levels of the organization and the human resources assigned to the divisions. The outputs of the organization were defined and measured by identifying metrics that assess the outputs, the most challenging task in this study. The decision-maker's views are represented in the model as weights assigned to the various outputs and were quantified by using the analytic hierarchy process. The customer's opinions regarding the outputs of the organization were collected through questionnaires that were designed for each division individually. Following the philosophy of

  20. The evolution of optimal resource allocation and mating systems in hermaphroditic perennial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiang; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2016-01-01

    By incorporating the effects of inbreeding depression (ID) on both juveniles and adults survivorship, we developed a new theoretical model for hermaphroditic perennial plants. Our model showed that the effect of the selfing rate on the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) reproductive allocation depends on three parameters: (1) the self-fertilized juvenile relative survivorship (SFJRS), (2) the self-fertilized adult relative survivorship (SFARS) and (3) the growth rate of self-fertilized adult, where the SFJRS is the survivorship of self-fertilized juveniles divided by the survivorship of outcrossed juveniles, and likewise for the SFARS. However, the ESS sex allocation decreases as the selfing rate increases. This relationship seems independent of the SFJRS, the SFARS, and the growth rate of self-fertilized adults. Additionally, our model showed that the complete outcrossing is an ESS when the fraction of juvenile inbreeding depression (FJID) is less than 1/2 − τ, where τ is the self-fertilized adults mortality rate caused by ID. In contrast, the complete selfing also acts as an ESS when the FJID is greater than 1/2 − τ. These results could explain the diversity of mating strategies and related resource allocations for plants. PMID:27681446

  1. Biobjective Optimization of Radio Access Technology Selection and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; D’Andreagiovanni, Fabio; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel optimization model for resource assignment in heterogeneous wireless network. The model adopts two objective functions maximizing the number of served users and the minimum granted utility at once. A distinctive feature of our new model is to consider two consecutive time slots...

  2. Optimal resource allocation and load scheduling for a multi-commodity smart energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Shi, H.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kling, W.L.; Konsman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing introduction of district heating systems together with hybrid energy appliances as heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power installations, results in new opportunities for optimizing the available resources in multi-commodity smart energy systems, including electricity, heat and

  3. Resource Allocation Problems with Concave Reward Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a resource allocation problem there is a common-pool resource, which has to be divided among agents. Each agent is characterized by a claim on this pool and an individual concave reward function on assigned resources. An assignment of resources is optimal if the total joint reward is ma

  4. Adaptive computational resource allocation for sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-hong; FEI E; YAN Yu-jie

    2008-01-01

    To efficiently utilize the limited computational resource in real-time sensor networks, this paper focu-ses on the challenge of computational resource allocation in sensor networks and provides a solution with the method of economies. It designs a mieroeconomic system in which the applications distribute their computational resource consumption across sensor networks by virtue of mobile agent. Further, it proposes the market-based computational resource allocation policy named MCRA which satisfies the uniform consumption of computational energy in network and the optimal division of the single computational capacity for multiple tasks. The simula-tion in the scenario of target tracing demonstrates that MCRA realizes an efficient allocation of computational re-sources according to the priority of tasks, achieves the superior allocation performance and equilibrium perform-ance compared to traditional allocation policies, and ultimately prolongs the system lifetime.

  5. Recovery and Resource Allocation Strategies to Maximize Mobile Network Survivability by Using Game Theories and Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With more and more mobile device users, an increasingly important and critical issue is how to efficiently evaluate mobile network survivability. In this paper, a novel metric called Average Degree of Disconnectivity (Average DOD is proposed, in which the concept of probability is calculated by the contest success function. The DOD metric is used to evaluate the damage degree of the network, where the larger the value of the Average DOD, the more the damage degree of the network. A multiround network attack-defense scenario as a mathematical model is used to support network operators to predict all the strategies both cyber attacker and network defender would likely take. In addition, the Average DOD would be used to evaluate the damage degree of the network. In each round, the attacker could use the attack resources to launch attacks on the nodes of the target network. Meanwhile, the network defender could reallocate its existing resources to recover compromised nodes and allocate defense resources to protect the survival nodes of the network. In the approach to solving this problem, the “gradient method” and “game theory” are adopted to find the optimal resource allocation strategies for both the cyber attacker and mobile network defender.

  6. Attentional resource allocation in visuotactile processing depends on the task, but optimal visuotactile integration does not depend on attentional resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil eWahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans constantly process and integrate sensory input from multiple sensory modalities. However, the amount of input that can be processed is constrained by limited attentional resources. A matter of ongoing debate is whether attentional resources are shared across sensory modalities, and whether multisensory integration is dependent on attentional resources. Previous research suggested that the distribution of attentional resources across sensory modalities depends on the the type of tasks. Here, we tested a novel task combination in a dual task paradigm: Participants performed a self-terminated visual search task and a localization task in either separate sensory modalities (i.e., haptics and vision or both within the visual modality. Tasks considerably interfered. However, participants performed the visual search task faster when the localization task was performed in the tactile modality in comparison to performing both tasks within the visual modality. This finding indicates that tasks performed in separate sensory modalities rely in part on distinct attentional resources. Nevertheless, participants integrated visuotactile information optimally in the localization task even when attentional resources were diverted to the visual search task. Overall, our findings suggest that visual search and tactile localization partly rely on distinct attentional resources, and that optimal visuotactile integration is not dependent on attentional resources.

  7. Development of a Computational Framework for Stochastic Co-optimization of Water and Energy Resource Allocations under Climatic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Y.; Mahinthakumar, K.; Arumugam, S.; DeCarolis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the lack of a consistent approach to assimilate probabilistic forecasts for water and energy systems, utilization of climate forecasts for conjunctive management of these two systems is very limited. Prognostic management of these two systems presents a stochastic co-optimization problem that seeks to determine reservoir releases and power allocation strategies while minimizing the expected operational costs subject to probabilistic climate forecast constraints. To address these issues, we propose a high performance computing (HPC) enabled computational framework for stochastic co-optimization of water and energy resource allocations under climate uncertainty. The computational framework embodies a new paradigm shift in which attributes of climate (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and its forecasted probability distribution are employed conjointly to inform seasonal water availability and electricity demand. The HPC enabled cyberinfrastructure framework is developed to perform detailed stochastic analyses, and to better quantify and reduce the uncertainties associated with water and power systems management by utilizing improved hydro-climatic forecasts. In this presentation, our stochastic multi-objective solver extended from Optimus (Optimization Methods for Universal Simulators), is introduced. The solver uses parallel cooperative multi-swarm method to solve for efficient solution of large-scale simulation-optimization problems on parallel supercomputers. The cyberinfrastructure harnesses HPC resources to perform intensive computations using ensemble forecast models of streamflow and power demand. The stochastic multi-objective particle swarm optimizer we developed is used to co-optimize water and power system models under constraints over a large number of ensembles. The framework sheds light on the application of climate forecasts and cyber-innovation framework to improve management and promote the sustainability of water and energy systems.

  8. Optimizing resource allocation and patient flow: process analysis and reorganization in three chemotherapy outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Morgan; Bodie, Kelly; Porter, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Victoria; Tarasuk, Joy; Trembley, Jodie; Trudeau, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing human and physical resources is a major concern for cancer care decision-makers and practitioners. This issue is particularly acute in the context of ambulatory out patient chemotherapy clinics, especially when - as is the case almost everywhere in the industrialized world - the number of people requiring systemic therapy is increasing while budgets, staffing and physical space remain static. Recent initiatives at three hospital-based chemotherapy units - in Halifax, Toronto and Kingston - shed light on the value of process analysis and reorganization for using existing human and physical resources to their full potential, improving patient flow and enhancing patient satisfaction. The steps taken in these settings are broadly applicable to other healthcare settings and would likely result in similar benefits in those environments.

  9. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  10. Analysis of Optimal Allocation of Health Resources%卫生资源配置优化浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永波; 孙景泰

    2012-01-01

    The optimal allocation of health resources is the demand for fully satisfying our country's increasingly expanded and abundant medical treatment, is the important work of tallying with medical health reform and development, is the good guarantee to create harmonious society and increase public health level of body and mind. This paper carried out discussion on how to optimize configuration of health resources in China, and the existent problems in practice management, which has important practical significance for creating the health resources service system of tallying with national conditions, improving health service development level and creating significant benefits.%优化配置卫生资源是充分满足我国日益扩充、丰富的医疗救治需求,契合医疗卫生改革发展的重要工作,是创建和谐社会、提升大众身心健康水平的良好保证.因此本文就我国卫生资源如何优化配置,实践管理中包含的问题展开探讨,对创建契合国情的卫生资源服务体系,提升医疗卫生服务发展水平,创设显著效益有重要的实践意义.

  11. 浅谈商业银行人力资源的优化配置%Discussion on the optimal allocation of human resources in commercial banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦嘉华

    2016-01-01

    通过分析商业银行人力资源配置存在的问题,提出了优化商业银行人力资源配置的目标体系、建立人力资源配置的调整机制、优化人力资源内部管理结构、调整人力资源的优化配置、优化人力资源的组合配置方式和完善人力资源配置的保障体系等优化人力资源配置的措施和建议。%By analyzing the existing problems in human resource allocation of commercial banks, this paper puts forward the measures of optimizing objective system of human resources allocation of commercial banks, establishing adjustment mechanism, optimizing internal management structure of human resources, optimizing human resources allocation, optimizing combination configuration mode of human resources and improving security system of human resources.

  12. Improving the Performance of Bus Platforms by Means of Segmentation and Optimized Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppänen V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consider a processor organization consisting of a number of client modules and server modules (jointly called devices, like memory units and arithmetic-logic processing units. Suppose that these devices are interconnected with a bus which is segmented in such a way that devices connected to a particular segment can communicate in parallel to the data transfer operations going on in the other segments. This is achieved by a control logic which is able to reserve a continuous subsequence of the segments necessary to establish a path from the source to the target device. Given the frequency of data transfer operations between the devices, our task is to determine an efficient segmentation and segment-to-device assignment of this on-chip architecture. This task is formulated as an optimization problem which considers the amount of data transfer operations performed via the bus segments. The problem turns out to be NP hard but we propose efficient local search-based heuristics for it. The heuristics are applied to sample cases, and the outcome is an improved performance in terms of a shorter execution time.

  13. Improving the Performance of Bus Platforms by Means of Segmentation and Optimized Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seceleanu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a processor organization consisting of a number of client modules and server modules (jointly called devices, like memory units and arithmetic-logic processing units. Suppose that these devices are interconnected with a bus which is segmented in such a way that devices connected to a particular segment can communicate in parallel to the data transfer operations going on in the other segments. This is achieved by a control logic which is able to reserve a continuous subsequence of the segments necessary to establish a path from the source to the target device. Given the frequency of data transfer operations between the devices, our task is to determine an efficient segmentation and segment-to-device assignment of this on-chip architecture. This task is formulated as an optimization problem which considers the amount of data transfer operations performed via the bus segments. The problem turns out to be NP hard but we propose efficient local search-based heuristics for it. The heuristics are applied to sample cases, and the outcome is an improved performance in terms of a shorter execution time.

  14. Multi-Objective, Auto-Optimization Modeling for Resource Allocation Decision Making in the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    mental /behavioral health , and prescriptions. TRICARE Prime enrollees are guaranteed access within time limits. Drive time to the primary care site...efficiency: concept, measurement techniques and review of hospital efficiency studies. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 10(2), 35-43...for Resource Allocation Decision Making in the Military Health System Bastian, Nathaniel D. Center for Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems

  15. Resource pooling for frameless network architecture with adaptive resource allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XiaoDong; WANG Da; TAO XiaoFeng; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    The system capacity for future mobile communication needs to be increased to fulfill the emerging requirements of mobile services and innumerable applications. The cellular topology has for long been regarded as the most promising way to provide the required increase in capacity. However with the emerging densification of cell deployments, the traditional cellular structure limits the efficiency of the resource, and the coordination between different types of base stations is more complicated and entails heavy cost. Consequently, this study proposes frameless network architecture (FNA) to release the cell boundaries, enabling the topology needed to implement the FNA resource allocation strategy. This strategy is based on resource pooling incorporating a new resource dimension-antenna/antenna array. Within this architecture, an adaptive resource allocation method based on genetic algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution for the multi-dimensional resource allocation problem. Maximum throughput and proportional fair resource allocation criteria are considered. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture and resource allocation method can achieve performance gains for both criteria with a relatively low complexity compared to existing schemes.

  16. Optimal Allocation of Public Sports Resources Viewed from Law%法学视域下体育公共资源的优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2012-01-01

    Based on the explanation of public resources and public sports resources,the paper represents the legal value orientation and controling principles of optimal allocation of public sports resources.The paper proposes the countermeasures for the optimal allocation of the public sports resources,such as prefecting the government licensed management system,standardizing the administrative charging,promoting the public sports financial system reform and improving the decision mechanism of the citizens participating in the optimal allocation of public sports resources%在对公共资源与体育公共资源进行释义的基础上,阐述了体育公共资源优化配置的法律价值取向和法律控制原则,并提出法律视域下体育公共资源优化配置的对策:完善政府特许经营制度;规范行政收费行为;推进体育公共财政体制改革;健全与完善公民参与体育公共资源优化配置的决策机制。

  17. Resource Allocation Among Agents with MDP-Induced Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, D A; 10.1613/jair.2102

    2011-01-01

    Allocating scarce resources among agents to maximize global utility is, in general, computationally challenging. We focus on problems where resources enable agents to execute actions in stochastic environments, modeled as Markov decision processes (MDPs), such that the value of a resource bundle is defined as the expected value of the optimal MDP policy realizable given these resources. We present an algorithm that simultaneously solves the resource-allocation and the policy-optimization problems. This allows us to avoid explicitly representing utilities over exponentially many resource bundles, leading to drastic (often exponential) reductions in computational complexity. We then use this algorithm in the context of self-interested agents to design a combinatorial auction for allocating resources. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by showing that it can, in minutes, optimally solve problems for which a straightforward combinatorial resource-allocation technique would require the ag...

  18. Traffic resource allocation for complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Xiang; Hu Mao-Bin; Long Jian-Cheng; Ding Jian-Xun; Shi Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an optimal resource allocation strategy is proposed to enhance traffic dynamics in complex networks.The network resources are the total node packet-delivering capacity and the total link bandwidth.An analytical method is developed to estimate the overall network capacity by using the concept of efficient betweenness (ratio of algorithmic betweenness and local processing capacity).Three network structures (scale-free,small-world,and random networks) and two typical routing protocols (shortest path protocol and efficient routing protocol) are adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy.Our results show that the network capacity is reversely proportional to the average path length for a particular routing protocol and the shortest path protocol can achieve the largest network capacity when the proposed resource allocation strategy is adopted.

  19. Resource Allocation Using Metaheuristic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M. Connor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on solving problems in the area of software project management using metaheuristic search algorithmsand as such is resea rch in the field of search based software engineering. The main aim of this research is to ev aluate the performance of different metaheuristic search techniques in resource allocat ion and scheduling problemsthat would be typical of software development projects.This paper reports a set of experiments which evaluate the performance of three algorithms, namely simulat ed annealing, tabu search and genetic algorithms. The experimental results indicate thata ll of themetaheuristics search techniques can be used to solve problems in resource allocation an d scheduling within a software project. Finally, a comparative analysis suggests that overa ll the genetic algorithm had performed better than simulated annealing and tabu search.

  20. Distributed algorithms for resource allocation and routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zengjian

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we study distributed algorithms in the context of two fundamental problems in distributed systems, resource allocation and routing. Resource allocation studies how to distribute workload evenly to resources. We consider two different resource allocation models, the diffusive load balancing and the weighted balls-into-bins games. Routing studies how to deliver messages from source to estination efficiently. We design routing algorithms for broadcasting and gossiping in ad hoc n...

  1. Statistical Mechanics of Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We provide a mathematical model to investigate the resource allocation problem for agents, say, university graduates who are looking for their positions in labor markets. The basic model is described by the so-called Potts spin glass which is well-known in the research field of statistical physics. In the model, each Potts spin (a tiny magnet in atomic scale length) represents the action of each student, and it takes a discrete variable corresponding to the company he/she applies for. We construct the energy to include three distinct effects on the students' behavior, namely, collective effect, market history and international ranking of companies. In this model system, the correlations (the adjacent matrix) between students are taken into account through the pairwise spin-spin interactions. We carry out computer simulations to examine the efficiency of the model. We also show that some chiral representation of the Potts spin enables us to obtain some analytical insights into our labor markets.

  2. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  3. Study on optimized allocation of teaching resources of higher education in Henan Province%河南省高等教育教师资源优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈启霞; 吴德宇

    2015-01-01

    Through the investigation to the universities teachers and students status resources in Henan Province, we find out the basic situation of university teacher resources and student status in Henan province. In view of the specific problem of teacher resources optimization disposition in Henan province, we put forward some reasonable suggestions of college teacher resources optimization allocation in Henan province.%Through the investigation to the universities teachers and students status resources in Henan Province, we find out the basic situation of university teacher resources and student status in Henan province. In view of the specific problem of teacher resources optimization disposition in Henan province, we put forward some reasonable suggestions of college teacher resources optimization allocation in Henan province.

  4. GAMS在灌区水资源优化分配中的应用%The Application of GAMS Software in Water Resource Optimal Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布海力切木·阿布都热哈克尔; 吾买尔·吐尔逊

    2013-01-01

    水资源的短缺是全球性问题,水资源优化分配是重要的农业节水措施,是目前农业节水研究的重大课题之一.当水资源优化分配中未知量较多时,传统的手工计算方法已不能满足需要,必须用计算机模型来计算.GAMS是国外应用较广的计算机语言,能通过很简单的计算程序迅速求解线性规划、非线性规划、整数规划问题.通过GAMS语言,建立了简单的灌区水资源分配模型,求解了不同水库泄水条件下的各用户最优水量分配方式.%Water resource scarcity is a global issue.Water resource optimal allocation is one of the agricultural water saving measurement,is the important topic of the current irrigation water resource saving research.It is extremely hard or even impossible to calculate the optimal water allocation by hand when the problem includes many variables,so computer modeling is the only way to solve the problem.The GAMS is a very popular model at aboard,and suits for solving the linear,non-linear,and integer problems.Through a simple water allocation issue to introduce the GAMS model and its main characteristics,and don' t modifying the entire model but only changing the amount of water released from reservoir to calculate the net benefit response to the different reservoir release.

  5. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS ... control, III this case, involves determining the optimum network resources - in terms ..... Oriented Network Simulator) Designer” a business. Unit of Cadence ...

  6. On the Ramified Optimal Allocation Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal allocation problem with ramified transport technology in a spatial economy. Ramified transportation is used to model the transport economy of scale in group transportation observed widely in both nature and efficiently designed transport systems of branching structures. The ramified allocation problem aims at finding an optimal allocation plan as well as an associated optimal allocation path to minimize overall cost of transporting commodity from factories to households. This problem differentiates itself from existing ramified transportation literature in that the distribution of production among factories is not fixed but endogenously determined as observed in many allocation practices. It's shown that due to the transport economy of scale in ramified transportation, each optimal allocation plan corresponds equivalently to an optimal assignment map from households to factories. This optimal assignment map provides a natural partition of both households and allocation paths. We...

  7. Dynamic cache resources allocation for energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ming; ZOU Xue-cheng; LEI Jian-ming; LIU Zheng-lin

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mechanism of low overhead and less runtime, termed dynamic cache resources allocation (DCRA), which allocates each application with required cache resources. The mechanism collects cache hit-miss information at runtime and then analyzes the information and decides how many cache resources should be allocated to the current executing application. The amount of cache resources varies dynamically to reduce the total number of misses and energy consumption. The study of several applications from SPEC2000 shows that significant energy saving is achieved for the application based on the DCRA with an average of 39% savings.

  8. Optimizing reproductive phenology in a two-resource world: a dynamic allocation model of plant growth predicts later reproduction in phosphorus-limited plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Eric A.; Shea, Katriona; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Timing of reproduction is a key life-history trait that is regulated by resource availability. Delayed reproduction in soils with low phosphorus availability is common among annuals, in contrast to the accelerated reproduction typical of other low-nutrient environments. It is hypothesized that this anomalous response arises from the high marginal value of additional allocation to root growth caused by the low mobility of phosphorus in soils. Methods To better understand the benefits and costs of such delayed reproduction, a two-resource dynamic allocation model of plant growth and reproduction is presented. The model incorporates growth, respiration, and carbon and phosphorus acquisition of both root and shoot tissue, and considers the reallocation of resources from senescent leaves. The model is parameterized with data from Arabidopsis and the optimal reproductive phenology is explored in a range of environments. Key Results The model predicts delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus environments. Reproductive timing in low-phosphorus environments is quite sensitive to phosphorus mobility, but is less sensitive to the temporal distribution of mortality risks. In low-phosphorus environments, the relative metabolic cost of roots was greater, and reproductive allocation reduced, compared with high-phosphorus conditions. The model suggests that delayed reproduction in response to low phosphorus availability may be reduced in plants adapted to environments where phosphorus mobility is greater. Conclusions Delayed reproduction in low-phosphorus soils can be a beneficial response allowing for increased acquisition and utilization of phosphorus. This finding has implications both for efforts to breed crops for low-phosphorus soils, and for efforts to understand how climate change may impact plant growth and productivity in low-phosphorus environments. PMID:21712299

  9. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr M.

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  10. Hierarchical Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks using Graph Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sadr, Sanam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical approach to resource allocation in open-access femtocell networks. The major challenge in femtocell networks is interference management which in our system, based on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, translates to which user should be allocated which physical resource block (or fraction thereof) from which femtocell access point (FAP). The globally optimal solution requires integer programming and is mathematically intractable. We propose a hierarchical three-stage solution: first, the load of each FAP is estimated considering the number of users connected to the FAP, their average channel gain and required data rates. Second, based on each FAP's load, the physical resource blocks (PRBs) are allocated to FAPs in a manner that minimizes the interference by coloring the modified interference graph. Finally, the resource allocation is performed at each FAP considering users' instantaneous channel gain. The two major advantages of this suboptimal approach are the significa...

  11. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic Performance in ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... while the dependent variables were students' academic performance.

  12. Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achievements and Challenges of Resource Allocation for Health in a ... and challenges of a resource allocation process in a decentralized health system in ... planning and management aspects for the allocation of financial resources from the ...

  13. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  14. Radio resource allocation over fading channels under statistical delay constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents radio resource allocation schemes for buffer-aided communications systems over fading channels under statistical delay constraints in terms of upper-bounded average delay or delay-outage probability. This Brief starts by considering a source-destination communications link with data arriving at the source transmission buffer. The first scenario, the joint optimal data admission control and power allocation problem for throughput maximization is considered, where the source is assumed to have a maximum power and an average delay constraints. The second scenario, optimal power allocation problems for energy harvesting (EH) communications systems under average delay or delay-outage constraints are explored, where the EH source harvests random amounts of energy from renewable energy sources, and stores the harvested energy in a battery during data transmission. Online resource allocation algorithms are developed when the statistical knowledge of the random channel fading, data arrivals...

  15. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  16. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  17. Behind the Resource Domino. Part II: Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, F. C.; Bumbarger, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the problem of allocation and acquisition of resources from an administrative point of view. Suggests that an administrator's accountability as a leader is fixed in how efficiently and effectively resources are deployed in the organizational goal attainment efforts. (Author/DN)

  18. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking...

  19. LTE Dynamic Resource Allocation Algorithm based on QoS Optimization%基于QoS优化的LTE动态资源分配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑智华

    2014-01-01

    文中对下一代移动通信系统LTE的动态资源分配算法进行研究,通过分析不同业务类型的QoS需求,设定用户使用业务类型的QoS参数,确定优先级大小,通过QOS 来表示不同业务的时间延迟;同时对小区切换用户的优先等级分析,设置了切换因子,提出了基于QoS优化的改进算法,并进行系统仿真计算分析,结果表明和传统算法相比,系统性能得到有效改进,进一步提高了系统公平性并增加小区吞吐量。%LTE dynamic resource allocation algorithm for the next generation mobile communication systems is discussed. Through the analysis on different types of traffic QoS requirements, the QoS parameters of us-er service types are determined and priority levels also established, and QoS is used to display different service time-delays. Meanwhile, the handoff factor is also set up through priority analysis of the cell hand-off users. Thus the modified dynamic resource allocation algorithm based on QoS optimization is further proposed and simulated. Simulation results show that the system performance is effectively improved, mo-reover,the system fairness and cell throughput also increased as compared with traditional algorithms.

  20. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  1. Capacity Analysis of a Family Care Clinic Using Computer Simulation to Determine Optimal Enrollment Under Capitated Resource Allocation Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    throughout the Capacity Analysis 16 locations, entities, and resources within the simulation ( PROMODEL 1996). This will be especially useful when... PROMODEL Corporation. Paul, R., & Kuljis, J. (1995). A generic simulation package for organizing outpatient clinics. Proceedings of the HIMSS 1995 Winter...Command. PROMODEL Corporation. (1996). User’s guide to MedModel® healthcare simulation software. Orem, UT: PROMODEL Corporation. Searle, S. (1971

  2. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    An aircraft turn-round refers to the set of processes taking place from when an aircraft parks at its arrival stand until the time it departs from its departure stand. When handling a turn-round, the different processes involved (arrival, disembarkation of passengers, cleaning, etc.) require...... different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources...... to handle a given set of aircraft turn-rounds. We develop a set packing-based model formulation of the problem which is both flexible in the sense that it can encapsulate any type of resource required during the handling of a turn-round and strong in the sense that conflicts that occur when two or more turn...

  3. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  4. Auction-Based Resource Allocation in Digital Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Marzolla, Moreno; D'Angelo, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of portable devices (PDAs, smartphones, digital multimedia players, and so forth) allows mobile users to carry around a pool of computing, storage and communication resources. Sharing these resources with other users ("Digital Organisms" -- DOs) opens the door to novel interesting scenarios, where people trade resources to allow the execution, anytime and anywhere, of applications that require a mix of capabilities. In this paper we present a fully distributed approach for resource sharing among multiple devices owned by different mobile users. Our scheme enables DOs to trade computing/networking facilities through an auction-based mechanism, without the need of a central control. We use a set of numerical experiments to compare our approach with an optimal (centralized) allocation strategy that, given the set of resource demands and offers, maximizes the number of matches. Results confirm the effectiveness of our approach since it produces a fair allocation of resources with low computation...

  5. An Improved Dynamic Joint Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on SFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-cell interference (ICI is the main factor affecting system capacity and spectral efficiency. Effective spectrum resource management is an important and challenging issue for the design of wireless communication systems. The soft frequency reuse (SFR is regarded as an interesting approach to significantly eliminate ICI. However, the allocation of resource is fixed prior to system deployment in static SFR. To overcome this drawback, this paper adopts a distributed method and proposes an improved dynamic joint resource allocation algorithm (DJRA. The improved scheme adaptively adjusts resource allocation based on the real-time user distribution. DJRA first detects the edge-user distribution vector to determine the optimal scheme, which guarantees that all the users have available resources and the number of iterations is reduced. Then, the DJRA maximizes the throughput for each cell via optimizing resource and power allocation. Due to further eliminate interference, the sector partition method is used in the center region and in view of fairness among users, the novel approach adds the proportional fair algorithm at the end of DJRA. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous approaches for improving the system capacity and cell edge user performance.

  6. Ethics and resource allocation: an economist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper debates some of the issues involved in attempting to apply economic analysis to the health care sector when medical ethics plays such an important part in determining the allocation of resources in that sector. Two distinct ethical positions are highlighted as being fundamental to the understanding of resource allocation in this sector -- deontological and utilitarian theories of ethics. It is argued that medical ethics are often narrowly conceived in that there is a tendency for the individual, rather than society at large, to form the focal point of the production of the service "health care'. Thus medical ethics have been dominated by individualistic ethical coded which do not fully consider questions relating to resource allocation at a social level. It is further argued that the structure of the health care sector augments these "individualistic' ethics. It is also suggested that different actors in the health care sector address questions of resource allocation with respect to different time periods, and that this serves to further enhance the influence of "individualistic' ethical codes in this sector.

  7. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  8. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  9. A New Approach to Optimal Allocation of Reactive Power Ancillary Service in Distribution Systems in the Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important Distribution System Operators (DSO schemes addresses the Volt/Var control (VVC problem. Developing a cost-based reactive power dispatch model for distribution systems, in which the reactive powers are appropriately priced, can motivate Distributed Energy Resources (DERs to participate actively in VVC. In this paper, new reactive power cost models for DERs, including synchronous machine-based DGs and wind turbines (WTs, are formulated based on their capability curves. To address VVC in the context of competitive electricity markets in distribution systems, first, in a day-ahead active power market, the initial active power dispatch of generation units is estimated considering environmental and economic aspects. Based on the results of the initial active power dispatch, the proposed VVC model is executed to optimally allocate reactive power support among all providers. Another novelty of this paper lies in the pricing scheme that rewards transformers and capacitors for tap and step changing, respectively, while incorporating the reactive power dispatch model. A Benders decomposition algorithm is employed as a solution method to solve the proposed reactive power dispatch, which is a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP problem. Finally, a typical 22-bus distribution network is used to verify the efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. 基于最低人员伤亡的资源优化配置模型研究%Study of optimized allocation model for emergency resource based on minimal casualties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪海; 李明泽; 李忠伟

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is aiming at introducing an optimized allocation model for emergency resource based on the minimal casualties in case of incidence of an unexpected disaster involving the entire city sphere. In order to optimize the emergency resource allocation based on the existing available emergency resources to be allocated, first of all, we have made careful consideration of the means for such kind of allocation. The so-called emergency resources can be divided into human resources, material resources and message resources according to their ability to perform their own respective functions. The urban emergency-available shelter, for instance, is a special temporary place that can provide secure refuge and basic facilities for people to shelter themselves in during the recovery period after a natural disaster. Also, it is an important means for the international society to deal with the emergent events and victims for mutual benefits. In order to minimize the total economic loss and minimize the number of casualty, it is desirable to allocate the available resources in an optimized manner. However, the traditional or habitual manner to manage the emergency resources in our country is based on the local authorities' experience without any clear-minded guide or theory for appropriate quantitative or qualitative allocation criteria and often leads to the failure to achieve the best advantage of the resources as is expected. And, secondly, the most influential factor for optimizing resource allocation in disaster-hitting period is time-urgency. The reason for this is obvious because the response to the disaster sufferers must be prompt, instantaneous and immediate, or unconditional. Therefore, we have given a detailed discussion over the most influential parameters that are likely relevant here. What is more, we have brought about a fatality model open to an open discussion. In our model, we have illustrated all the fatalities involving the likely

  11. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    capacity as a potential bottleneck that may slow this growth. Many European airports are already operating at the limit of their capacity; moreover, they are under competitive pressure from both nearby airports and fast-growing mega-hubs in the Middle East. Providing efficient and reliable airport...... that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...... to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark...

  12. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Campaign as shown in Figure 7. This radar is an experimental frequency agile, high-resolution originally developed for the purpose of iceberg detection...Information Theory , Under Review 2015. [24] A. Pezeshki, A. Calderbank, W. Moran, and S. Howard, “Doppler resilient golay complemn- tary waveforms...IEEE Transactions on Information Theory , vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 4254–4266, 2008. [25] W. Dang, A. Pezeshki, S. Howard, B. Moran, and R. Calderbank

  13. Survey On Scheduling And Radio Resources Allocation In Lte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayssal Bendaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an essential task of the enhanced NodeB eNodeB element in LTE architecture, the Radio Resource Manager RRM, which aims to accept or reject requests for connection to the network based on some constraints and ensuring optimal distribution of radio resources between Users Equipments UEs. Its main functionalities include Admission Control AC and Packet Scheduling PS. This paper will center mainly on the PS part of the RRM task, which performs the radio resource allocation in both uplink and downlink directions. Several approaches and algorithms have been proposed in the literature to address this need (allocate resources efficiently, the diversity and multitude of algorithms is related to the factors considered for the optimal management of radio resource, specifically, the traffic type and the QoS (Quality of Service requested by the UE. In this article, an art’s state of the radio resource allocation strategies and a detailed study of several scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE (uplink and downlink are made. Therefore, we offer our evaluation and criticism.

  14. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  15. Unconstrained and Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Kewen

    2011-01-01

    First, we study the Unconstrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (UFTRA) problem (a.k.a. FTFA problem in \\cite{shihongftfa}). In the problem, we are given a set of sites equipped with an unconstrained number of facilities as resources, and a set of clients with set $\\mathcal{R}$ as corresponding connection requirements, where every facility belonging to the same site has an identical opening (operating) cost and every client-facility pair has a connection cost. The objective is to allocate facilities from sites to satisfy $\\mathcal{R}$ at a minimum total cost. Next, we introduce the Constrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (CFTRA) problem. It differs from UFTRA in that the number of resources available at each site $i$ is limited by $R_{i}$. Both problems are practical extensions of the classical Fault-Tolerant Facility Location (FTFL) problem \\cite{Jain00FTFL}. For instance, their solutions provide optimal resource allocation (w.r.t. enterprises) and leasing (w.r.t. clients) strategies for the cont...

  16. A Survey on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Vinothina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a new age technology that has got huge potentials in enterprises and markets. Clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced significantly. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications, based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Because of the uniqueness of the model, resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper, various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail. It is believed that this paper would benefit both cloud users and researchers in overcoming the challenges faced.

  17. Study of Water Resources Optimal Allocation Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群算法的水资源优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙金霞; 刘彬; 谢新民; 鹿海员

    2012-01-01

    为了合理分配引大济湟工程从大通河调出的7.5×108 m3水量,以满足引大济湟工程受水区的生活、生产及生态用水需求,通过建立以供水净效益最大、供水系统总缺水量最小为目标函数的水资源优化配置模型,运用粒子群算法得到了受水区4类水源、5类用水户在2015、2020、2030三个规划水平年的多年平均情况下的水资源优化配置方案.结果表明,2015、2020、2030年净外调水量分别为3.10×108、6.05×108、7.34×10 8 m3,缺水量分别为0.69×108、0.64×108、2.15×108 m3,部分区域农业用水存在缺口,仍需采取必要的节水措施.%In order to allocate reasonably the 7. 5 X 108m3 water resources transfer from Datong river to Huangshui river and satisfy the demand of domestic water, production water and ecological water of Yindajihuang benefited regions, water resources optimal allocation model is established by taking maximization water supply net benefits and minimization water shortage of water supply system as the objective function. And water resources optimal allocation program of four kinds of water sources and five kinds of water sectors in yearly average at the 2015, 2020, 2030 target level year is ob tained with particle swarm optimization. The results show that in 2015, 2020, 2030, the net diversion water is 3. 10× 108m3 , 6. 05×108m3 , 7. 34×108m3, respectively; the shortage water is 0. 69×108m3 , 0. 64×108m3, 2. 15×108m3, re spectively; there is still a gap of agriculture irrigation in some areas; so it is important to take necessary water saving measures.

  18. Cross-Layer Optimal Rate Allocation for Heterogeneous Wireless Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous multicast is an efficient communication scheme especially for multimedia applications running over multihop networks. The term heterogeneous refers to the phenomenon when multicast receivers in the same session require service at different rates commensurate with their capabilities. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions over multihop wireless networks. We propose an iterative algorithm that achieves the optimal rates for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions such that the aggregate utility for all sessions is maximized. We present the formulation of the multicast resource allocation problem as a nonlinear optimization model and highlight the cross-layer framework that can solve this problem in a distributed ad hoc network environment with asynchronous computations. Our simulations show that the algorithm achieves optimal resource utilization, guarantees fairness among multicast sessions, provides flexibility in allocating rates over different parts of the multicast sessions, and adapts to changing conditions such as dynamic channel capacity and node mobility. Our results show that the proposed algorithm not only provides flexibility in allocating resources across multicast sessions, but also increases the aggregate system utility and improves the overall system throughput by almost 30% compared to homogeneous multicast.

  19. Resource allocation for relay assisted cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-09-16

    In this paper, we present two optimal resource allocation schemes that maximize throughput and symbol correct rate (SCR). The throughput and SCR are derived. The derived throughput and SCR are optimized with respect to the sensing time, the source transmission power and the relay transmission power. Numerical results show that the optimal sensing time is dependent on the primary user\\'s signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). They also show that SCR increases with increase in the number of relays. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Discussion of the practice of optimizing the allocation of human resources in class A tertiary hospital%创建三甲医院中优化人力资源配置的实践探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 张玉洁; 孙忠河

    2014-01-01

    本文基于对创建三级甲等医院过程中的人力资源管理进行探索,阐述了安徽省某医院在创建三级甲等医院过程中人力资源配置呈现的主要特点,指出了优化医院人力资源管理的主要措施。通过系统阐述该院人力资源配置现状以及存在的问题,逐步按照三甲医院评审要求优化人力资源配置,对医院创建三甲过程中实施人力资源配置的具体步骤进行探讨,指出了创建过程中优化人力资源所取得的成效。本文对其他医院实施等级医院创建工作、优化人员配置提供策略,具有一定的借鉴和引导作用。%This paper has explored the management of human resources in the process of creating class A tertiary hos-pital, expounded the main characteristics of the allocation of human resources in class A tertiary hospital, pointed out the main measures of optimization of hospital human resource management. Based on the comprehensive elaboration of the present situation and existing problems of the hospital human resource configuration, gradually optimizing the allo-cation of human resources according to the requirement of class A tertiary hospital. By discussing the specific steps in the implementation of human resource allocation, this paper also points out the efficiency of optimizing the allocation of human resources. For other hospitals, this paper also has certain reference and guiding function, especially in the pro-cess of creating class A tertiary hospital and optimizing the allocation of human resources.

  1. An improved resource allocation algorithm based on double auction for optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaolin; Yang, Xiaolong; Shen, Huang; Chen, Qianbin

    2007-11-01

    For the resource allocation of optical network, grid economy can be introduced to optimize the utilization of resource. Double auction algorithm is appropriate for grid economy, but the speed of convergence of many algorithms is too slow. In this paper we proposed double auction supported optical resource scheduling framework, and then described an improved algorithm on double auction based resource allocation for optical network. We attempt to speed the course of auction and utilize price parameter to adjust the overlay. Simulation results show that our scheme can optimize the equilibrium of overlay, and optical resource can be allocated and scheduled efficiently.

  2. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  3. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senescence more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the

  4. 高校对口支援中教育资源优化配置的理念研究%Philosophy Study on Optimal Allocation of Educational Resources in the Partnership Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成端

    2012-01-01

    西部高校对口支援工作中最核心的工作是教育资源的支援与优化配置。如何对受援高等学校公平、透明、有效配置教育资源一直是我国教育行政管理部门在西部高校对口支援工作中希望研究解决的问题。教育资源配置理念决定了教育资源配置的效果。基于教育部陈希副部长对今后对口支援工作提出的“四个显著提升”战略,使政府、支援学校和受援学校3个主体有效互动,研究提出了“政府主导,资源共享,绩效优先,验收后补”的政府对高校对口支援教育资源优化配置的理念,以及“强化领导,培育特色,提高质量,形成机制”的受援高校内部对对口支援教育资源的优化配置理念。%The core of partnership support in west colleges and universities is to support the educational resources and optimize their distribution. How to give the recipient universities a fair, transparent, and effec- tive allocation of educational resources is always the problem in partnership support of west colleges and uni- versifies studied and solved by the higher education administration. sources decides the effect of optimal allocation of resources. Based The philosophy of optimal allocation of re- on the strategy of " the Four Distinct Up-port, and to make by the deputy minister in Ministry of Education CHEN Xi for the future partnership sup- the government, supporting universities, and recipient universities in three of the main ef- fective interaction, the paper proposes the philosophy of " Government - led, Resource Sharing, Performance Priority, Complement after Acceptance" for government optimizing the allocation of educational resources with partnership support in colleges and universities, and the philosophy of ing the Characteristics, allocation of educational Strengthen the Leadership, Nurtur- Improve the Quality, Form the Mechanism" for recipient universities optimizing the

  5. Discrete resource allocation in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Ester, Edward F; Awh, Edward

    2009-10-01

    Are resources in visual working memory allocated in a continuous or a discrete fashion? On one hand, flexible resource models suggest that capacity is determined by a central resource pool that can be flexibly divided such that items of greater complexity receive a larger share of resources. On the other hand, if capacity in working memory is defined in terms of discrete storage "slots," then observers may be able to determine which items are assigned to a slot but not how resources are divided between stored items. To test these predictions, the authors manipulated the relative complexity of the items to be stored while holding the number items constant. Although mnemonic resolution declined when set size increased (Experiment 1), resolution for a given item was unaffected by large variations in the complexity of the other items to be stored when set size was held constant (Experiments 2-4). Thus, resources in visual working memory are distributed in a discrete slot-based fashion, even when interitem variations in complexity motivate an asymmetrical division of resources across items. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Resource Allocation for Delay Differentiated Traffic in Multiuser OFDM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meixia; Zhang, Fan

    2007-01-01

    Most existing work on adaptive allocation of subcarriers and power in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems has focused on homogeneous traffic consisting solely of either delay-constrained data (guaranteed service) or non-delay-constrained data (best-effort service). In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation problem in a heterogeneous multiuser OFDM system with both delay-constrained (DC) and non-delay-constrained (NDC) traffic. The objective is to maximize the sum-rate of all the users with NDC traffic while maintaining guaranteed rates for the users with DC traffic under a total transmit power constraint. Through our analysis we show that the optimal power allocation over subcarriers follows a multi-level water-filling principle; moreover, the valid candidates competing for each subcarrier include only one NDC user but all DC users. By converting this combinatorial problem with exponential complexity into a convex problem or showing that it can be solved in the dual...

  7. Decomposition method for zonal resource allocation problems in telecommunication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, I. V.; Kashuba, A. Yu

    2016-11-01

    We consider problems of optimal resource allocation in telecommunication networks. We first give an optimization formulation for the case where the network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth) among users of one region with quadratic charge and fee functions and present simple and efficient solution methods. Next, we consider a more general problem for a provider of a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters) with common capacity constraints. We obtain a convex quadratic optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we suggest to reduce the initial problem to a single-dimensional optimization problem, but calculation of the cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, which coincide with the above single region problem. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new methods.

  8. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  9. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  10. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  11. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  12. A Hybrid Dynamic Programming Method for Concave Resource Allocation Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜计荣; 孙小玲

    2005-01-01

    Concave resource allocation problem is an integer programming problem of minimizing a nonincreasing concave function subject to a convex nondecreasing constraint and bounded integer variables. This class of problems are encountered in optimization models involving economies of scale. In this paper, a new hybrid dynamic programming method was proposed for solving concave resource allocation problems. A convex underestimating function was used to approximate the objective function and the resulting convex subproblem was solved with dynamic programming technique after transforming it into a 0-1 linear knapsack problem. To ensure the convergence, monotonicity and domain cut technique was employed to remove certain integer boxes and partition the revised domain into a union of integer boxes. Computational results were given to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  13. Location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive radio systems, in order for the secondary users to opportunistically share the spectrum without interfering the primary users, an accurate spectrum measurement and a precise estimation of the interference at the primary users are necessary but are challenging tasks. Since it is impractical in cognitive radio systems to assume that the channel state information of the interference link is available at the cognitive transmitter, the interference at the primary users is hard to be estimated accurately. This paper introduces a resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems, which utilizes location information of the primary and secondary users instead of the channel state information of the interference link. Simulation results show that it is indeed effective to incorporate location information into resource allocation so that a near-optimal capacity is achieved.

  14. Research and Realization of an Optimized Resource Allocation Algorithm in Grid Computing System%优化的资源配置算法在网格计算系统中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建鸿; 马懋德

    2016-01-01

    Grid computing has become one of the most popular topics in both research community and commercial companies.Allocation policy is one of the most important factors,which affect the performance of Grid Computing system.A new Grid Computing System based on an optimized resource allocation algorithm was proposed in this paper.It contains four components:Grid User,Grid Broker,Grid Resource and Grid Information Service.The optimized resource allocation algorithm,consisting of user side resource allocation and resource side job scheduling, was emphasized in this paper.With the combination of both sides’efforts,the jobs will be allocated to the most appropriate resources and completed in the most suitable order to meet the requirements of users.At last,the experiments and results comparison with traditional particle swarm optimization and Max-min scheduling are presented,which proves that the proposed algorithm has better performance than the other two algorithms.%资源配置算法是影响网格计算系统性能的一个最重要的因素。本文提出了一个基于资源优化配置算法的网格计算系统,系统包含网格用户、网格broker,网格资源和网格信息服务中心四个部分。其中重点介绍了资源优化配置算法,包含了用户端的资源配置与资源端的请求排列两部分。通过这两部分算法的优化,可以将请求分配到最合适的资源并且按照用户要求被处理。最后将本算法与两个已有的资源配置算法依据请求完成成功率、完成时间、平均等待时间三个参数进行对比,体现出本系统的优越性。

  15. Resource Allocation of Agricultural Science and Technology R&D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D(research and development)both at home and abroad,including the amount and function of agricultural science and technology research funds,human resources in the resources of agricultural science and technology R&D,the efficiency of resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D,the management system of agricultural scientific innovation and the operation status of scientific funds,is analyzed.The problems in the current resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D are put forward,including unreasonable resource allocation;low efficiency,and low efficiency of the transformation of agricultural scientific achievements.The highly effective resource allocation of agricultural science and technology R&D is analyzed from the aspects of resource allocation structure,environment,channel,spatial layout and industrial chain.

  16. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  17. 中国水资源优化配置定量研究进展%Quantitative Studies of the Optimization Allocation of Water Resources in China-A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太政; 侯景伟; 陈准

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain a basic outline of the development of quantitative studies of water resource allocation, journal articles from Chinese HowNet (CNKI) were reviewed. First, core journals, Master's and doctoral dissertations about quantitative study on optimization allocation for water resources were downloaded from CNKI. Second, statistical analysis of these papers was done according to their publication time and type, literature source and content, and research topics. After that, methods from political economy, ecology, planning and fuzzy mathematics, systematics and artificial intelligence were used to obtain the evolution and development trend of the quantitative study on optimization allocation for water resources. The main solutions for the above five methods were game theory, ecological-economic-social development, planning-fuzzy mathematics, decomposition and coordination theory of large-scale system and genetic algorithms. Crossover, fusion and penetration between the five methods increased the depth and breadth of the optimization allocation study of water resources. There were more paper counts, better quality and standardization, more research teams, more in-depth content and more extensive cross-disciplines in recent years. Content and model of water resources allocation were used monotonously to comprehensively. Technology of water resources allocation was employed traditionally to intelligently. Diverse and integrated evaluation methods for allocation results were employed. Multi-source, multi-dimensional, multi-type, multi-angle and multi-content study methods reflect the complex and interdisciplinary characteristics of water resources allocation. The most cutting-edge theories and methods from various disciplines were used for optimization allocation study for water resources. These theories and methods not only provided reasonable solutions to a variety of complex issues that exist in water resources allocation, but also enriched the theory of

  18. MAC Layer Resource Allocation for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Shen; Xuemin Sherman Shen; Tom HLuan; Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) can provide low-cost, timely healthcare services and are expected to be widely used for e-healthcare in hospitals. In a hospital, space is often limited and multiple WBANs have to coexist in an area and share the same channel in order to provide healthcare services to different patients. This causes severe interference between WBANs that could significantly reduce the network throughput and increase the amount of power consumed by sensors placed on the body. There-fore, an efficient channel-resource allocation scheme in the medium access control (MAC) layer is crucial. In this paper, we devel-op a centralized MAC layer resource allocation scheme for a WBAN. We focus on mitigating the interference between WBANs and reducing the power consumed by sensors. Channel and buffer state are reported by smartphones deployed in each WBAN, and channel access allocation is performed by a central controller to maximize network throughput. Sensors have strict limitations in terms of energy consumption and computing capability and cannot provide all the necessary information for channel allocation in a timely manner. This deteriorates network performance. We exploit the temporal correlation of the body area channel in order to minimize the number of channel state reports necessary. We view the network design as a partly observable optimization prob-lem and develop a myopic policy, which we then simulate in Matlab.

  19. CPU and memory allocation optimization using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David

    2002-12-01

    The allocation of CPU time and memory resources, are well known problems in organizations with a large number of users, and a single mainframe. Usually the amount of resources given to a single user is based on its own statistics, not on the entire statistics of the organization therefore patterns are not well identified and the allocation system is prodigal. In this work the authors suggest a fuzzy logic based algorithm to optimize the CPU and memory distribution between the users based on the history of the users. The algorithm works separately on heavy users and light users since they have different patterns to be observed. The result is a set of rules, generated by the fuzzy logic inference engine that will allow the system to use its computing ability in an optimized manner. Test results on data taken from the Faculty of Engineering in Tel Aviv University, demonstrate the abilities of the new algorithm.

  20. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  1. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie; Zeng, Chang-Chang

    2010-11-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  2. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  4. Optimal Water Resources Allocation of Lakefront River Network Region Based on Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm%基于协同进化遗传算法的滨湖河网地区水资源优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洪泽; 董增川; 赵焱

    2014-01-01

    Coevolutionary genetic algorithm is a kind of GA based on multi-population’s concurrent evolution ,which is more suit-able for solving the complex optimization problems because multi-population can better correspond to objects of different na-ture .Lakefront river network region has the patterns of interlaced streams ,multiple water sources ,and complex water supply relationship ,which brings more difficulties to the optimal water resources allocation .An optimal water resources allocation mod-el was established base on the coevolutionary genetic algorithm combined with water demand coefficients to allocate water re-sources in Sihong County near the Hongze Lake .The results showed that the multi-population pattern of coevolutionary genetic algorithm can handle the difficulties in the optimal water resources allocation of lakefront river network region .The results were reasonable ,indicating good applicability of coevolutionary genetic algorithm and therefore realizing the highly efficient utilization of water resources .%由于多个种群可以更好地对应实际问题中性质差异较大的不同对象,因此基于多个种群同时进化的协同进化遗传算法更适用于解决复杂的实际优化问题。针对滨湖河网地区河道交织、水源众多、供水关系复杂、水资源优化配置难度较大的问题,将协同进化遗传算法引入滨湖河网地区水资源优化配置研究,结合需水缩减系数,建立了水资源优化配置模型,并对毗邻洪泽湖的泗洪县进行了水资源优化配置,模拟结果合理,证明基于协同进化遗传算法的适用性好,可实现研究区水资源高效利用。

  5. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-25

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems.

  6. 我国科技项目资源配置的基本特征及优化对策%The Basic Characteristics of Resource Allocation of Scientific and Technological Projects and Optimization Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司课题组

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyses the basic characteristics of resource allocation of scientific and technological projects on the base of data of national survey of all R&D resources of 2000. It also provides some policies to solve the problems of inequality of resource allocation between regions and industries and that of decentralization and shortage of inputs.

  7. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shattock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods: We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1 when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2 when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion: Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8% decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6% reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions: Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to

  8. Multi- Path Routing and Resource Allocation in Active Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wu-ping; YAN Pu-liu; WU Ming

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm of traffic distribution called active multi-path routing (AMR) in active network is proposed.AMR adopts multi-path routing and applies nonlinear optimize approximate method to distribute network traffic amongmultiple paths. It is combined to bandwidth resource allocation and the congestion restraint mechanism to avoid congestion happening and worsen. So network performance can be improved greatly. The frame of AMR includes adaptive trafficallocation model, the conception of supply bandwidth and its'allocation model, the principle of congestion restraint and its'model, and the implement of AMR based on multi-agents system in active network. Through simulations, AMR has distinct effects on network performance. The results show AMR is a valid traffic regulation algorithm.

  9. Mobile devices and computing cloud resources allocation for interactive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczyk Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile devices such as smartphones or iPads for various interactive applications is currently very common. In the case of complex applications, e.g. chess games, the capabilities of these devices are insufficient to run the application in real time. One of the solutions is to use cloud computing. However, there is an optimization problem of mobile device and cloud resources allocation. An iterative heuristic algorithm for application distribution is proposed. The algorithm minimizes the energy cost of application execution with constrained execution time.

  10. An Efficient Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. El-Zoghdy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation in heterogeneous parallel and distributed computing systems is the process of allocating user tasks to processing elements for execution such that some performance objective is optimized. In this paper, a new resource allocation algorithm for the computing grid environment is proposed. It takes into account the heterogeneity of the computational resources. It resolves the single point of failure problem which many of the current algorithms suffer from. In this algorithm, any site manager receives two kinds of tasks namely, remote tasks arriving from its associated local grid manager, and local tasks submitted directly to the site manager by local users in its domain. It allocates the grid workload based on the resources occupation ratio and the communication cost. The grid overall mean task response time is considered as the main performance metric that need to be minimized. The simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation algorithm improves the grid overall mean task response time. (Abstract

  11. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  12. Dynamic resource allocation in disaster response: tradeoffs in wildfire suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrovic

    Full Text Available Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1 the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2 delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy.

  13. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  14. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  15. Cognitive cost as dynamic allocation of energetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, S Thomas; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely recognized that thinking is somehow costly, involving cognitive effort and producing mental fatigue, these costs have alternatively been assumed to exist, treated as the brain's assessment of lost opportunities, or suggested to be metabolic but with implausible biological bases. We present a model of cognitive cost based on the novel idea that the brain senses and plans for longer-term allocation of metabolic resources by purposively conserving brain activity. We identify several distinct ways the brain might control its metabolic output, and show how a control-theoretic model that models decision-making with an energy budget can explain cognitive effort avoidance in terms of an optimal allocation of limited energetic resources. The model accounts for both subject responsiveness to reward and the detrimental effects of hypoglycemia on cognitive function. A critical component of the model is using astrocytic glycogen as a plausible basis for limited energetic reserves. Glycogen acts as an energy buffer that can temporarily support high neural activity beyond the rate supported by blood glucose supply. The published dynamics of glycogen depletion and repletion are consonant with a broad array of phenomena associated with cognitive cost. Our model thus subsumes both the "cost/benefit" and "limited resource" models of cognitive cost while retaining valuable contributions of each. We discuss how the rational control of metabolic resources could underpin the control of attention, working memory, cognitive look ahead, and model-free vs. model-based policy learning.

  16. How do people learn to allocate resources? Comparing two learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Laine, Tei

    2003-11-01

    How do people learn to allocate resources? To answer this question, 2 major learning models are compared, each incorporating different learning principles. One is a global search model, which assumes that allocations are made probabilistically on the basis of expectations formed through the entire history of past decisions. The 2nd is a local adaptation model, which assumes that allocations are made by comparing the present decision with the most successful decision up to that point, ignoring all other past decisions. In 2 studies, participants repeatedly allocated a capital resource to 3 financial assets. Substantial learning effects occurred, although the optimal allocation was often not found. From the calibrated models of Study 1, a priori predictions were derived and tested in Study 2. This generalization test shows that the local adaptation model provides a better account of learning in resource allocations than the global search model.

  17. Resource allocation for epidemic control in metapopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available Deployment of limited resources is an issue of major importance for decision-making in crisis events. This is especially true for large-scale outbreaks of infectious diseases. Little is known when it comes to identifying the most efficient way of deploying scarce resources for control when disease outbreaks occur in different but interconnected regions. The policy maker is frequently faced with the challenge of optimizing efficiency (e.g. minimizing the burden of infection while accounting for social equity (e.g. equal opportunity for infected individuals to access treatment. For a large range of diseases described by a simple SIRS model, we consider strategies that should be used to minimize the discounted number of infected individuals during the course of an epidemic. We show that when faced with the dilemma of choosing between socially equitable and purely efficient strategies, the choice of the control strategy should be informed by key measurable epidemiological factors such as the basic reproductive number and the efficiency of the treatment measure. Our model provides new insights for policy makers in the optimal deployment of limited resources for control in the event of epidemic outbreaks at the landscape scale.

  18. A COMPREHENSIVE DEA APPROACH FOR THE RESOURCE ALLOCATION PROBLEM BASED ON SCALE ECONOMIES CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the resource allocation problem based on data envelopment analysis(DEA)which is generally found in practice such as in public services and in production process.In management context,the resource allocation has to achieve the effective-efficient-equality aim and tries to balance the different desires of two management layers:central manager and each sector.In mathematical programming context,to solve the resource allocation asks for introducing many optimization techniques such as multiple-objective programming and goal programming.We construct an algorithm framework by using comprehensive DEA tools including CCR,BCC models,inverse DEA model,the most compromising common weights analysis model,and extra resource allocation algorithm.Returns to scale characteristic is put major place for analyzing DMUs' scale economies and used to select DMU candidates before resource allocation.By combining extra resource allocation algorithm with scale economies target,we propose a resource allocation solution,which can achieve the effective-efficient-equality target and also provide information for future resource allocation.Many numerical examples are discussed in this paper,which also verify our work.

  19. New resource allocation scheme for cognitive relay networks with opportunistic access

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, a new resource allocation scheme to minimize Symbol Error rate (SER) for relay assisted cognitive radio networks is studied. A cognitive relay network with amplify-and-forward (AF) fixed gain relays and opportunistic access to the licensed spectrum is considered. The SER objective function and the optimization constraints are derived first. The resource allocation algorithm is then derived using the Langrangian multiplier method. Closed form expressions are derived for the source and relay powers and, symbol time. Analytical results show that the optimal power allocation follows an extended water-filling solution. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  1. Optimization of Power Allocation for Multiusers in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-spot-beam satellite communication systems have played a key role in global seamless communication. However, satellite power resources are scarce and expensive, due to the limitations of satellite platform. Therefore, this paper proposes optimizing the power allocation of each user in order to improve the power utilization efficiency. Initially the capacity allocated to each user is calculated according to the satellite link budget equations, which can be achieved in the practical satellite communication systems. The problem of power allocation is then formulated as a convex optimization, taking account of a trade-off between the maximization of the total system capacity and the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Finally, an iterative algorithm based on the duality theory is proposed to obtain the optimal solution to the optimization. Compared with the traditional uniform resource allocation or proportional resource allocation algorithms, the proposed optimal power allocation algorithm improves the fairness of power allocation amongst the users. Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with both the numbers of the spot beams and users. As a result, the proposed power allocation algorithm is easy to be implemented in practice.

  2. 4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation. The complexity of the proposed resource allocation algorithms is analyzed, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by simulations. This concise and practical book directly addresses common problems relating to femtocells and resource management. It serves as a useful tool for researchers in the field. Advanced-level students or professionals interested in femtocells and networks will also find the co...

  3. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  4. Multisorted Tree-Algebras for Hierarchical Resources Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patrick Zobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generic abstract model for the study of disparities between goals and results in hierarchical multiresources allocation systems. In an organization, disparities in resource allocation may occur, when, after comparison of a resource allocation decision with an allocation reference goal or property, some agents have surplus resources to accomplish their tasks, while at the same time other agents have deficits of expected resources. In the real world, these situations are frequently encountered in organizations facing scarcity of resources and/or inefficient management. These disparities can be corrected using allocation decisions, by measuring and reducing gradually such disparities and their related costs, without totally canceling the existing resource distribution. While a lot of research has been carried out in the area of resource allocation, this specific class of problems has not yet been formally studied. The paper exposes the results of an exploratory research study of this class of problems. It identifies the commonalities of the family of hierarchical multiresource allocation systems and proposes the concept of multisorted tree-algebra for the modeling of these problems. The research presented here is not yet an in-depth descriptive research study of the mathematical theory of multisorted tree-algebra, but a formal study on modelling hierarchical multiresource allocation problems.

  5. 基于数量折扣的升级替代产品资源优化配置%Resources optimal allocation for upgrade alternative products based on quantity discount

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费玉莲; 蒋曼曼; 陈达强; 韩威

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the raw material resources allocation problem of two-stage supply chain constituted by one manufacturer and one retailer under asymmetric information,a optimization approach by combining game theory with quantity strategies was proposed.On this basis,the upgrade alternative raw material resources optimal allocation model was established.Through adjusting the product replacement rate and the quantity discount rate,the retailers was encouraged to share their private information,and the raw material resources needed for the production were allocated reasonably.Thus the maximum profits of supply chain node enterprises were realized.The numerical examples were presented to verify the results.The results showed that the alternative products' resources allocation promotion was realized by using quantity discount strategies,and the expected profit of supply chain node enterprises had Pareto improvement.%针对非对称信息下单一制造商和零售商组成的二级供应链原材料资源分配问题,提出一种将博弈论和数量折扣策略相结合的优化方法,在此基础上建立了升级替代产品的原材料资源优化配置模型.通过调整产品替代率和数量折扣系数来激励零售商共享其私有信息,合理配置制造商生产所需的原材料资源,实现供应链节点企业的利润最大化.通过数值模拟对分析结果进行验证,结果表明,采用数量折扣策略不但能实现升级替代产品资源优化配置,而且能使供应链节点企业的期望利润有Pareto改进.

  6. A Study on Resource Allocation with Buying Behaviour in B to B Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Toshiya

    B to B commerce is an important research issue for increasing profitability in global market. A sophisticated B to B commerce requires optimality in resource allocation with human behaviour dynamism. A market-oriented programming calculates a Pareto-optimal resource allocation in the market by computing competitive equilibrium of an artificial economy. In this paper we newly propose a resource allocation algorithm based on market-oriented programming with consumers buying behaviour for B to B commerce. Supply agents in the computational market decide their supply plan by estimating the demand agents’ behaviour in this method. Careful constructions of the agents according to the buying behaviour can lead to efficient distributed resource allocation, and the behaviour of the agents can be analysed in economic terms.

  7. An OFDMA resource allocation algorithm based on coalitional games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacci Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work investigates a fair adaptive resource management criterion (in terms of transmit powers and subchannel assignment for the uplink of an orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network, populated by mobile users with constraints in terms of target data rates. The inherent optimization problem is tackled with the analytical tools of coalitional game theory, and a practical algorithm based on Markov modeling is introduced. The proposed scheme allows the mobile devices to fulfill their rate demands exactly with a minimum utilization of network resources. Simulation results show that the average number of operations of the proposed iterative algorithm are much lower than K · N, where N and K are the number of allocated subcarriers and of mobile terminals.

  8. Joint scheduling and resource allocation for multiple video decoding tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Brian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a joint resource allocation and scheduling algorithm for video decoding on a resource-constrained system. By decomposing a multimedia task into decoding jobs using quality-driven priority classes, we demonstrate using queuing theoretic analysis that significant power savings can be achieved under small video quality degradation without requiring the encoder to adapt its transmitted bitstream. Based on this scheduling algorithm, we propose an algorithm for maximizing the sum of video qualities in a multiple task environment, while minimizing system energy consumption, without requiring tasks to reveal information about their performances to the system or to other potentially exploitative applications. Importantly, we offer a method to optimize the performance of multiple video decoding tasks on an energy-constrained system, while protecting private information about the system and the applications.

  9. A Heuristic Algorithm for Resource Allocation/Reallocation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja Balachandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 1-opt heuristic approach to solve resource allocation/reallocation problem which is known as 0/1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem (MMKP. The intercept matrix of the constraints is employed to find optimal or near-optimal solution of the MMKP. This heuristic approach is tested for 33 benchmark problems taken from OR library of sizes upto 7000, and the results have been compared with optimum solutions. Computational complexity is proved to be (2 of solving heuristically MMKP using this approach. The performance of our heuristic is compared with the best state-of-art heuristic algorithms with respect to the quality of the solutions found. The encouraging results especially for relatively large-size test problems indicate that this heuristic approach can successfully be used for finding good solutions for highly constrained NP-hard problems.

  10. Optimal taxation of exhaustible resource under monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jeong-Bin [Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-Dong, Jinju, 660-701 Kyeongsangnam-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of using taxes (or subsidies) to correct the inefficient resource allocation under monopoly. In this paper, the question raised is 'what would be the optimal tax on resource extraction under monopoly?' Ultimately, it is shown that taxes may be devised to generate price and extraction paths under monopoly that are identical to those under the competitive equilibrium. Tax policy can thus be used as an instrument for changing the distortionary resource allocation generated by the monopolist.

  11. Exploring coordinated software and hardware support for hardware resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Boneti, Carlos Santieri de

    2009-01-01

    Multithreaded processors are now common in the industry as they offer high performance at a low cost. Traditionally, in such processors, the assignation of hardware resources between the multiple threads is done implicitly, by the hardware policies. However, a new class of multithreaded hardware allows the explicit allocation of resources to be controlled or biased by the software. Currently, there is little or no coordination between the allocation of resources done by the hardware and the p...

  12. A Dynamic Pricing Reverse Auction-Based Resource Allocation Mechanism in Cloud Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented reverse auction is an efficient and cost-effective method for resource allocation in cloud workflow systems since it can dynamically allocate resources depending on the supply-demand relationship of the cloud market. However, during the auction the price of cloud resource is usually fixed, and the current resource allocation mechanisms cannot adapt to the changeable market properly which results in the low efficiency of resource utilization. To address such a problem, a dynamic pricing reverse auction-based resource allocation mechanism is proposed. During the auction, resource providers can change prices according to the trading situation so that our novel mechanism can increase the chances of making a deal and improve efficiency of resource utilization. In addition, resource providers can improve their competitiveness in the market by lowering prices, and thus users can obtain cheaper resources in shorter time which would decrease monetary cost and completion time for workflow execution. Experiments with different situations and problem sizes are conducted for dynamic pricing-based allocation mechanism (DPAM on resource utilization and the measurement of Time⁎Cost (TC. The results show that our DPAM can outperform its representative in resource utilization, monetary cost, and completion time and also obtain the optimal price reduction rates.

  13. Optimization Allocation of Water Resources in Longkou City Based on WEAP Model%基于WEAP模型的龙口市水资源优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞勇; 刘青勇; 徐征和; 孟凡海

    2011-01-01

    以龙口市为例,利用WEAP(Water Evaluation And Planning,水资源评估和规划系统)软件建立了水资源优化配置模型.该模型把满意度函数作为水资源优化配置模型的目标函数,满意度函数包括3个子函数,即:社会效益、经济效益和环境效益.在不同的节水和经济发展速度下的5个方案进行了模拟计算,求得社会效益,经济效益以及环境效益,再通过分析3个子函数的权重,计算最终的满意度,选择最优方案.同时,为龙口市未来的水资源开发利用提供了可靠的科学依据.%Taking Longkou as an example, the optimization allocation model of water resources is established with WEAP.This model takes into consideration degree of satisfaction, including social benefits, economic benefits and environmental benefits ,as the objective function of optimization allocation of water resources.Five scenarios under different water-saving and rates of economic developments are simulated in order to obtain the values of social benefits , the economic benefits and environmental benefits, by analyzing weights of the three sub-formulas, calculateing degree of satisfaction, then selecting the best solution.At the same time, the result has provided the most reliable scientific evidence for the future development and utilization of water resources of Longkou.

  14. Scheduling Patients’ Appointments: Allocation of Healthcare Service Using Simulation Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Shun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the service industry, scheduling medical procedures causes difficulties for both patients and management. Factors such as fluctuations in customer demand and service time affect the appointment scheduling systems’ performance in terms of, for example, patients’ waiting time, idle time of resources, and total cost/profits. This research implements four appointment scheduling policies, i.e., constant arrival, mixed patient arrival, three-section pattern arrival, and irregular arrival, in an ultrasound department of a hospital in Taiwan. By simulating the four implemented policies’ optimization procedures, optimal or near-optimal solutions can be obtained for patients per arrival, patients’ inter-arrival time, and the number of the time slots for arrived patients. Furthermore, three objective functions are tested, and the results are discussed. The managerial implications and discussions are summarized to demonstrate how outcomes can be useful for hospital managers seeking to allocate their healthcare service capacities.

  15. Suboptimal Rate Adaptive Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Sadr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the performance of low complexity adaptive resource allocation in the downlink of OFDMA systems with fixed or variable rate requirements (with fairness consideration. Two suboptimal resource allocation algorithms are proposed using the simplifying assumption of transmit power over the entire bandwidth. The objective of the first algorithm is to maximize the total throughput while maintaining rate proportionality among the users. The proposed suboptimal algorithm prioritizes the user with the highest sensitivity to the subcarrier allocation, and the variance over the subchannel gains is used to define the sensitivity of each user. The second algorithm concerns rate adaptive resource allocation in multiuser systems with fixed rate constraints. We propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power allocation algorithm which prioritizes the users with the highest required data rates. The main feature of this algorithm is its low complexity while achieving the rate requirements.

  16. 地方高校实验资源优化配置及路径选择%The optimal allocation and path selection of experimental resources at local colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯小燕

    2011-01-01

    The optimal allocation of experimental resources is vital to the improvement of teaching and research level, as well as to the quality of serving local economic and social development for local colleges. Based on the understanding and definition of Experimental Resources of Local College, this paper explores the goals and the path design of resource optimization at local colleges, and discusses some relative problems of controversy and uncertainty, and consequently provides some thoughts and methods.%实验资源优化配置是地方高校提高教学、科研水平和服务地方经济社会发展质量的重要途径.基于对地方高校实验资源概念的理解和界定,对地方高校实验资源优化配置的目标和路径作了设计,并就相关争议性和不确定性问题进行了讨论.

  17. Dynamic pricing and automated resource allocation for complex information services reinforcement learning and combinatorial auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Schwind, Michael; Fandel, G

    2007-01-01

    Many firms provide their customers with online information products which require limited resources such as server capacity. This book develops allocation mechanisms that aim to ensure an efficient resource allocation in modern IT-services. Recent methods of artificial intelligence, such as neural networks and reinforcement learning, and nature-oriented optimization methods, such as genetic algorithms and simulated annealing, are advanced and applied to allocation processes in distributed IT-infrastructures, e.g. grid systems. The author presents two methods, both of which using the users??? w

  18. Strategically Allocating Resources to Support Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    As the enduring economic recession forces state and local governments to cut education budgets, astute allocation of resources is becoming more important. The author analyses three basic categories of educational resources: money, human capital, and time before moving to a discussion of resources as a component of school reform. The author…

  19. A distributed resource allocation algorithm for many processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Resource allocation is the problem that a process may enter a critical section CS of its code only when its resource requirements are not in conflict with those of other processes in their critical sections. For each execution of CS, these requirements are given anew. In the resource requirements, l

  20. A distributed resource allocation algorithm for many processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Resource allocation is the problem that a process may enter a critical section CS of its code only when its resource requirements are not in conflict with those of other processes in their critical sections. For each execution of CS, these requirements are given anew. In the resource requirements,

  1. Theory and model of water resources complex adaptive allocation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOJianshi; WANGZhongjing; WENGWenbin

    2003-01-01

    Complex adaptive system theory is a new and important embranchment of system science,which provides a new thought to research water resources allocation system.Based on the analysis of complexity and complex adaptive mechanism of water resources allocation system,a fire-new analysis model is presented in this paper.With the description of Dynamical mechanism of system,behavior characters of agents and the evalustion method of system status,an integrity research system is built to analyse the evolvement rule of water resources allocation system.And a brief research for the impact of water resources allocation in beneficial regions of the Water Transfer from south to North China Project is conducted.

  2. Dynamic computing resource allocation in online flood monitoring and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, S.; Podhoranyi, M.; Vavrik, R.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents tools and methodologies for dynamic allocation of high performance computing resources during operation of the Floreon+ online flood monitoring and prediction system. The resource allocation is done throughout the execution of supported simulations to meet the required service quality levels for system operation. It also ensures flexible reactions to changing weather and flood situations, as it is not economically feasible to operate online flood monitoring systems in the full performance mode during non-flood seasons. Different service quality levels are therefore described for different flooding scenarios, and the runtime manager controls them by allocating only minimal resources currently expected to meet the deadlines. Finally, an experiment covering all presented aspects of computing resource allocation in rainfall-runoff and Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation is performed for the area of the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic.

  3. Radio resource allocation in OFDMA multi-cell networks

    CERN Document Server

    Detti, Paolo; Abrardo, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of allocating users to radio resources (i.e., subcarriers) in the downlink of an OFDMA cellular network is addressed. We consider a multi-cellular environment with a realistic interference model and a margin adaptive approach, i.e., we aim at minimizing total transmission power while maintaining a certain given rate for each user. The computational complexity issues of the resulting model is discussed and proving that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Heuristic approaches, based on network flow models, that finds optima under suitable conditions, or "reasonably good" solutions in the general case are presented. Computational experiences show that, in a comparison with a commercial state-of-the-art optimization solver, the proposed algorithms are effective in terms of solution quality and CPU times.

  4. Optimal Rate Allocation in Cluster-Tree WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lopez Vicario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors’ proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled.

  5. Algorithms for the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kataoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation (MSTRA in two ways, as discrete and continuous optimization problems (d-MSTRA/c-MSTRA, prove these to be NP-hard, and present algorithms to solve these problems to optimality. We reformulate d-MSTRA as the knapsack constrained minimum spanning tree problem, and solve this problem using a previously published branch-and-bound algorithm. By applying a ‘peg test’, the size of d-MSTRA is (significantly reduced. To solve c-MSTRA, we introduce the concept of f-fractionalsolution, and prove that an optimal solution can be found within this class of solutions. Based on this fact, as well as conditions for ‘pruning’ subproblems, we develop an enumerative algorithm to solve c-MSTRA to optimality. We implement these algorithms in ANSI C programming language and, through extensive numerical tests, evaluate the performance of the developed codes on various types of instances.

  6. Resource Allocation Scheme Based on Neural Network and Group Search Optimization in Cloud Environment%云环境下基于神经网络和群搜索优化的资源分配机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳佳; 王兴伟; 高程希; 黄敏

    2014-01-01

    make price adapt to the fluctuating market. Finally, due to the fact that the problem of winner determination in combinatorial auction is NP-complete, a group search optimization algorithm is adopted to find the specific resource allocation solution with market surplus and total reputation optimized. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Schenone

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertemporal Resource Allocation and Income Tax Evasion The discrimination again a saving, in favour of present consumption, due to the income tar has been studied, at least, since the late thirties and was mentioned by John Stuart Mill more than a century ago.This paper is concerned with the effect of evading such a tax on the discrimination against savings and capital accumulation. In particular, we want to study a situation in which the probability of detecting an evader is an increasing function of his accumulated evasion in the past. This is consistent with the tax authorities being stricter in the control of taxpayers with a relatively high net wealth, with respect lo the incomes declared.

  8. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao;

    2015-01-01

    be the focus in China in future research:More attention need to paid to studying the unified management policy and mechanism of water resources, studying the water resources cycle and transformation under environmental change, studying new methods for water resources carrying capacity and evaluation......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area....... The progress of research on the rational allocation of water resources in irrigation districts both at home and abroad may be summarized in four key aspects of the policy regarding water re?sources management:① The mechanism of water resource cycle and ② Transformation in irrigation district, ③ The water...

  9. Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Buffered Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Awoyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources available for operation in cognitive radio networks (CRN are generally limited, making it imperative for efficient resource allocation (RA models to be designed for them. However, in most RA designs, a significant limiting factor to the RA’s productivity has hitherto been mostly ignored, the fact that different users or user categories do have different delay tolerance profiles. To address this, in this paper, an appropriate RA model for heterogeneous CRN with delay considerations is developed and analysed. In the model, the demands of users are first categorised and then, based on the distances of users from the controlling secondary user base station and with the assumption that the users are mobile, the user demands are placed in different queues having different service capacities and the resulting network is analysed using queueing theory. Furthermore, to achieve optimality in the RA process, an important concept is introduced whereby some demands from one queue are moved to another queue where they have a better chance of enhanced service, thereby giving rise to the possibility of an improvement in the overall performance of the network. The performance results obtained from the analysis, particularly the blocking probability and network throughput, show that the queueing model incorporated into the RA process can help in achieving optimality for the heterogeneous CRN with buffered data.

  10. Location-Based Resource Allocation for OFDMA Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. It has been proposed as a suitable solution for the spectrum scarcity caused by the increase in frequency demand. The concept is based on allowing unlicensed users, called cognitive or secondary users, to share the unoccupied frequency bands with their owners, called the primary users, under constraints on the interference they cause to them. In order to estimate this interference, the cognitive system usually uses the channel state information to the primary user, which is often impractical to obtain. However, we propose to use location information, which is easier to obtain, to estimate this interference. The purpose of this work is to propose a subchannel and power allocation method which maximizes the secondary users\\' total capacity under the constraints of limited budget power and total interference to the primary under certain threshold. We model the problem as a constrained optimization problem for both downlink and uplink cases. Then, we propose low-complexity resource allocation schemes based on the waterfilling algorithm. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method with comparison to the exhaustive search algorithm.

  11. Scheme Optimization of Water Resources Allocation Based on AHP-Fuzzy Decision Model%基于AHP-模糊决策模型的水资源配置方案优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶; 唐德善; 李晓英

    2013-01-01

    In order to make water resources allocution planning of Tailanhe basin in Xinjiang autonomous region more scientifically and rationally,AHP is used to establish comprehensive evaluation index system.And then the AHP-fuzzy decision optimization model is built by combining AHP with fuzzy consistent matrix.The optimal water resources allocation scheme is selected from four respects of water resource state,water use efficiency,flood protection and social economy.The results indicate that the proposed model reduces the influence of subjective empirical factors in optimal selection process and makes scheme selection more scientifically and reliably; furthermore,it has quick computing speed and easily implementation.%为使新疆台兰河流域水资源配置方案优选过程更加科学合理,运用层次分析法构造了综合评价指标体系,并结合模糊一致矩阵建立了AHP-模糊决策优选模型,从水资源情况、用水效率、防洪安全、社会经济四方面优选出水资源配置最佳方案.结果表明,该模型减少了优选过程中的主观经验因素,使方案比选的过程更科学、结果更可信,且运算时间短、简单可行.

  12. 基于可信性理论的水资源优化配置模型%A Credibility Theory-Based Model for Optimal Water Resources Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘年磊; 赵林; 毛国柱

    2012-01-01

    According to the uncertainty and complexity in urban water resources and water environment systems, a credibility fuzzy chance constrained programming (CFCCP) model was proposed and applied to determine the optimal allocation of water resources in Hengshui City, Hebei Province, China. The model was aimed at identifying the maximum economic, social and environmental benefits to the city. The decision-making variables in the model were water allocation in different sectors of the whole region and the development of the region. The sectors were constrained by water supply and demand. A Monkey Algorithm ( MA) -based fuzzy simulation which reflects the effects of the uncertainty factors on the system benefits was designed to solve the model. The risk and system return tradeoff schemes of water resources allocation were provided at a confidence level of 0. 8 for each planning level year. The results show that the regional economic benefits were 198,365. 30 x 104 and 266,227. 30 x 10* yuan, the water shortage were 25,299. 36 x 104 and 20,990. 96 x 104 m3, the emissions of pollutants were 12,808. 47 and 13 ,000. 44 t. The allocation results can provide a scientific basis for future water allocation decisions. Compared to traditional optimization algorithms, the MA-based fuzzy simulation was proven to be effectiveness in solving multi-dimension problems.%针对城市水资源与水环境系统中存在的不确定性与复杂性,提出了模糊环境下基于可信性理论的CFCCP模型(可信性模糊机会约束规划模型),并将其应用于衡水市水资源优化配置模型的研究中.CFCCP模型以衡水市经济、社会与环境效益最大化为目标,以供需水量、区域协调发展等为不确定性约束,以各水源在各子区不同部门间的分配为决策变量,并且设计了基于模糊模拟的猴群算法进行求解.CFCCP模型可反映不确定性因素对系统收益的影响,计算了各规划水平年置信水平为0.8时的水资源配

  13. Resource Allocation and Relay Selection for Collaborative Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Astaneh, Saeed Akhavan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relay selection problem for a decode and forward collaborative network. Users are able to collaborate; decode messages of each other, re-encode and forward along with their own messages. We study the performance obtained from collaboration in terms of 1) increasing the achievable rate, 2) saving the transmit energy and 3) reducing the resource requirement (resource means time-bandwidth). To ensure fairness, we fix the transmit-energy-to-rate ratio among all users. We allocate resource optimally for the collaborative protocol (CP), and compare the result with the non-collaborative protocol (NCP) where users transmits their messages directly. The collaboration gain is a function of the channel gain and available energies and allows us 1) to decide to collaborate or not, 2) to select one relay among the possible relay users, and 3) to determine the involved gain and loss of possible collaboration. A considerable gain can be obtained if the direct source-destination channel gain is significantl...

  14. A Decentralized Heuristic Approach towards Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Geun Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Femtocells represent a novel configuration for existing cellular communication, contributing towards the improvement of coverage and throughput. The dense deployment of these femtocells causes significant femto-macro and femto-femto interference, consequently deteriorating the throughput of femtocells. In this study, we compare two heuristic approaches, i.e., particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA, for joint power assignment and resource allocation, within the context of the femtocell environment. The supposition made in this joint optimization is that the discrete power levels are available for the assignment. Furthermore, we have employed two variants of each PSO and GA: inertia weight and constriction factor model for PSO, and twopoint and uniform crossover for GA. The two proposed algorithms are in a decentralized manner, with no involvement of any centralized entity. The comparison is carried out between the two proposed algorithms for the aforementioned joint optimization problem. The contrast includes the performance metrics: including average objective function, min–max throughput of the femtocells, average throughput of the femto users, outage rate and time complexity. The results demonstrate that the decentralized PSO constriction factor outperforms the others in terms of the aforementioned performance metrics.

  15. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  16. Research on the Sustainable Development of the Optimal Allocation of Water Resources%面向可持续发展的水资源优化配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽琴; 谢新民; 韩剑桥; 吕自鑫; 杜明月

    2013-01-01

    According to the relationship between the sustainable development and the optimal allocation of water resources, the evaluation system based on the sustainable development of optimal allocation of water resources is established in respect of the index system water resources carrying capacity, and the social economic and ecological environment. Then, based on the method of the membership degree calculation of engineering fuzzy set theory, sustainable degree and sustainable development ability are measured. Shanshan County is taken as an example to evaluate the sustainable degree with actual index value from the regional water resources supply and demand balance of simulation results. It is found that the sustainable degree of Shanshan County increases gradually with the increase in planning level years (2015, 2020, and 2030). In 2030 the sustainable degree will reach 0. 74, which is in the higher level of sustainable development The countermeasures of sustainable development based on multi-objective are suggested.%结合可持续发展与水资源优化配置的关系,从水资源承载能力、经济社会和生态环境指标体系三方面建立了基于可持续发展的水资源优化配置的评价体系.以工程模糊集理论中的隶属度计算方法为基础,进行评价因子可持续度的计算,衡量区域可持续发展能力.以鄯善县为例,采用区域水资源供需平衡的模拟计算结果,作为指标评价体系的实际指标值,进行鄯善县水资源配置可持续度的评判.结果表明:鄯善县的可持续度随着规划水平年(2015、2020、2030年)的延续而逐渐增大.2030年鄯善县可持续度达到0.74,处于中上级可持续发展水平.最后给出了鄯善县多目标协同可持续发展的策略.

  17. Mechanism Design for Base Station Association and Resource Allocation in Downlink OFDMA Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    We consider a resource management problem in a multi-cell downlink OFDMA network, whereby the goal is to find the optimal per base station resource allocation and user-base station assignment. The users are assumed to be strategic/selfish who have private information on downlink channel states and noise levels. To induce truthfulness among the users as well as to enhance the spectrum efficiency, the resource management strategy needs to be both incentive compatible and efficient. However, due to the mixed (discrete and continuous) nature of resource management in this context, the implementation of any incentive compatible mechanism that maximizes the system throughput is NP-hard. We consider the dominant strategy implementation of an approximately optimal resource management scheme via a computationally tractable mechanism. The proposed mechanism is decentralized and dynamic. More importantly, it ensures the truthfulness of the users and it implements a resource allocation solution that yields at least 1/2 o...

  18. Modeling the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in resource allocation in wing-dimorphic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth G; Roff, Derek A

    2010-06-01

    In nature, resource availability varies spatially and temporally both within and across generations, leading to variation in the amount of energy available to individuals. The optimal allocation strategy can change, depending on the amount of resources available to allocate to life-history functions. If so, selection should favor the evolution of allocation strategies that can respond to variation in environmental resource levels. We address this issue by using two quantitative genetic simulation models in a model system for studying trade-offs, wing-dimorphic insects. Wing dimorphic insects typically exhibit a trade-off in the allocation of resources between migratory ability and reproduction. In our models, we focus on allocation as a genetic trait and model the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in this trait in response to spatiotemporal variation in resource availability. We show that the evolved allocation strategy depends on the predictability of resource levels across time. Specifically, selection favors higher investment in flight under poor conditions in predictable environments and lower investment in unpredictable environments.

  19. Process Completing Sequences for Resource Allocation Systems with Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Foh Chew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of establishing live resource allocation in workflows with synchronization stages. Establishing live resource allocation in this class of systems is challenging since deciding whether a given level of resource capacities is sufficient to complete a single process is NP-complete. In this paper, we develop two necessary conditions and one sufficient condition that provide quickly computable tests for the existence of process completing sequences. The necessary conditions are based on the sequence of completions of subprocesses that merge together at a synchronization. Although the worst case complexity is O(2, we expect the number of subprocesses combined at any synchronization will be sufficiently small so that total computation time remains manageable. The sufficient condition uses a reduction scheme that computes a sufficient capacity level of each resource type to complete and merge all subprocesses. The worst case complexity is O(⋅, where is the number of synchronizations. Finally, the paper develops capacity bounds and polynomial methods for generating feasible resource allocation sequences for merging systems with single unit allocation. This method is based on single step look-ahead for deadly marked siphons and is O(2. Throughout the paper, we use a class of Petri nets called Generalized Augmented Marked Graphs to represent our resource allocation systems.

  20. A framework for resources allocation in virtualised C-RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Samman, Imad; Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    the performance gains of different resource allocation schemes in legacy LTE air interface virtualization. Moreover Cloud — based mobile networks are anticipated to play a significant role for next generation mobile networks. This paper investigates the potential deployment benefits of a novel resource...... virtualization algorithm (Traffic Aware Joint Scheduling) in Cloud-RANs (C-RAN). Air interface resources are coordinated and allocated dynamically by a hypervisor among different virtual operators (VOs). Three distinctive schemes are proposed and evaluated against standard Round Robin (RR) C-RAN scheduling...

  1. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  2. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, Larry Joseph, III

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze school level data related to the allocation of resources, and to determine how those resources are used to increase student achievement in the Hampton School District. The study was based on an analysis of one school district located in Los Angeles County in Southern California. All of the…

  3. Resource allocation in academic health centers: creating common metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Keith A; Castellanos, Nathan; Wartman, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Optimizing resource allocation is essential for effective academic health center (AHC) management, yet guidelines and principles for doing so in the research and educational arenas remain limited. To address this issue, the authors analyzed responses to the 2007-2008 Association of Academic Health Centers census using ratio analysis. The concept was to normalize data from an individual institution to that same institution, by creating a ratio of two separate values from the institution (e.g., total faculty FTEs/total FTEs). The ratios were then compared across institutions. Generally, this strategy minimizes the effect of institution size on the responses, size being the predominant limitation of using absolute values for developing meaningful metrics. In so doing, ratio analysis provides a range of responses that can be displayed in graphical form to determine the range and distribution of values. The data can then be readily scrutinized to determine where any given institution falls within the distribution. Staffing ratios and operating ratios from up to 54 institutions are reported. For ratios including faculty numbers in the numerator or denominator, the range of values is wide and minimally discriminatory, reflecting heterogeneity across institutions in faculty definitions. Values for financial ratios, in particular total payroll expense/total operating expense, are more tightly clustered, reflecting in part the use of units with a uniform definition (i.e., dollars), and emphasizing the utility of such ratios in decision guidelines. The authors describe how to apply these insights to develop metrics for resource allocation in the research and educational arenas.

  4. Atypical resource allocation may contribute to many aspects of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Goldknopf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature and on reports by people with autism, this paper suggests that atypical resource allocation is a factor that contributes to many aspects of autism spectrum conditions, including difficulties with language and social cognition, atypical sensory and attentional experiences, executive and motor challenges, and perceptual and conceptual strengths and weaknesses. Drawing upon resource theoretical approaches that suggest that perception, cognition, and action draw upon multiple pools of resources, the approach states that compared with resources in typical cognition, resources in autism are narrowed or reduced, especially in people with strong sensory symptoms. In narrowed attention, resources are restricted to smaller areas and to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition; resources may be more intense than in typical cognition. In reduced attentional capacity, overall resources are reduced; resources may be restricted to fewer modalities, stages of processing, and cognitive processes than in typical cognition, or the amount of resources allocated to each area or process may be reduced. Possible neural bases of the hypothesized atypical resource allocation, relations to other approaches, limitations, and tests of the hypotheses are discussed.

  5. Relay selection and resource allocation for two-way DF-AF cognitive radio networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, the problem of relay selection and optimal resource allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using half duplex amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward protocols is investigated. The primary and secondary users are assumed to access the spectrum simultaneously, in a way that the interference introduced to the primary users should be below a certain tolerated limit. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods are used to find the optimal power allocation. A suboptimal approach based on a genetic algorithm is also presented. Simulation results show that the proposed suboptimal algorithm offers a performance close to the optimal performance with a considerable complexity saving. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Optimal land use allocation of urban fringe in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jianzhou; LIU Yansui; CHEN Wenli

    2012-01-01

    In response to the strong drive for social and economic development,local governments have implemented urban master plans,providing measures and timeframes to address the continuous demand for land and to alleviate urban problems.In this paper,a multi-objective model was constructed to discuss the problem,including economic benefits and ecological effectiveness,in terms of land use optimization.A genetic algorithm was then adopted to solve the model,and a performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis were conducted using Pareto optimality.Results showed that a set of tradeoffs could be acquired by the allocation of land use.In addition,the Pareto solutions proved the model to be efficient; for example,a limit of 13,500 ha of urban area conformed to plan recommendations.The reduction in crop land,orchard land,grassland,and unused land provided further efficiencies.These results implied that further potential regional land resources remain and that the urban master plan is able to support sustainable local development in the years to come,as well as verified that it is feasible to use land use allocation multi-objective modeling and genetic algorithms.

  7. Research on optimal allocation of rescue resources for forest fire in Daxing'anling%大兴安岭森林火灾应急资源优化调度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠振; 郭利泉; 董夏丹

    2014-01-01

    针对大兴安岭森林火灾救援中的单出救点、多需求点的二级应急资源分配系统,首先,基于大兴安岭森林火灾的发生规律、火势蔓延的影响因子,以及火势蔓延模式,改进已有的林火火势蔓延趋势模型。其次,根据着火点火势蔓延速度,区分受灾点灾情程度,确定分配应急资源的优先度。最后,进行应急资源分配和救援消防车辆的优化调度。针对前者,以森林损失和救援开支费用最小为目标,建立资源分配优化模型;针对后者,以火灾应急物流系统所需时间最少和费用最小为目标,建立多目标优化模型,并用免疫克隆算法进行求解。实例证明该模型完善了森林火灾救援中应急资源调度体系,为资源的合理调配提供了指导。%For the rescue resources allocation system consisting of single depot and multi-demand sites in Daxing'anling forest fire emergency,the existing flame spread trend model is firstly improved by studying the regularity and characteristics of the forest fires which had happened in Daxing'anling, the factors affecting the flame spread and the flame spread styles.Secondly,based on the flame spread speed,the damage degrees in the sites are distinguished and the allocation priority of rescue resources is determined.Finally,the problems of allocating rescue resources and dispatching fire engines are studied.For the former,a model is established under the condition of minimizing the forest loss and rescue cost.For the latter,a multi-objective optimization model is built with the objective to minimize the needed time and costs,and immune clonal algorithm is used to solve the model.Examples prove that the model can improve the rescue resources allocation system for forest fire,and provide guidance for reasonable resources arrangement.

  8. Approximate Dynamic Programming for Military Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    combinatorial optimization, the DWTA prob- lem suffers from the curses of dimensionality and optimality is often computationally intractability. As such...exponentially. These are known as dynamic programming’s curses of dimensionality [82]. Much of the existing research focuses on solution techniques for...simultaneously. • The outcomes of each stage are observed prior to the following stage (this can either be perfect knowledge or stochastic, though Hosein [47

  9. Allocating Internal Audit Resources for Fraud Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Mieke; Lybaert, Nadine; Vanhoof, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Corporate fraud these days represents a huge cost to our economy. To counter this cost, organizations allocate lots of resources in terms of internal audit. Mostly, these audits are performed at a random sample of observations. This paper provides a methodology to help allocating efforts of internal audit more efficiently. Academic literature concerning fraud detection already concentrated on how data mining techniques can be of value in the fight against fraud. In this paper w...

  10. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Desktop Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismi A S,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing (or the use of computational grids is the application of several computers to a single problem at the same time. In grid computing ,the computing becomes pervasive and individual users(or client applicationgain access to computing resources (processors ,storage ,data,applications,and so onas needed with little or noknowledge of where those resources are located or what the underlying technologies, hardware ,operating system and so on. This paper address the problem of resource scheduling ,and there are so many resource scheduling algorithms .Resource scheduling algorithm may be centralized one and distributed one. One of the latest one is the multi-variable best fit algorithm, which deals with storage systems, and it enhanced in this work. and this algorithm is dealing withdata grids for blade servers. so, this algorithm is modified for computational grids, especially with desktop systems with minimum spanning algorithm for node selection and it is giving good results. In desktop grid environment, dynamic scheduling becomes very important and globus like toolkits are not having the scheduler as its own, and it needs other schedulers are not specially for computational grids.

  11. Proportional Fair Resource Allocation for Uplink OFDMA Network Using Priority-Ranked Bargaining Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingkang; Hu, Yupei; Xie, Gang; Zhao, Yi; Shen, Junyang; Liu, Yuan'an; Gao, Jin-Chun

    In this paper, we focus on the adaptive resource allocation issue for uplink OFDMA systems. The resources are allocated according to a proportional fairness criterion, which can strike an alterable balance between fairness and efficiency. Optimization theory is used to analyze the multi-constraint resource allocation problem and some heuristic characteristics about the optimal solution are obtained. To deal with the cohesiveness of the necessary conditions, we resort to bargaining theory that has been deeply investigated in game theory. Firstly, we summarize some assumptions about bargaining theory and show their similarities with the resource allocation process. Then we propose a priority-ranked bargaining model, whose primary contribution is applying the economic thought to the resource allocation process. A priority-ranked bargaining algorithm (PRBA) is subsequently proposed to permit the base station to auction the subcarriers one by one according to the users' current priority. By adjusting the predefined rate ratio flexibly, PRBA can achieve different degrees of fairness among the users' capacity. Simulation results show that PRBA can achieve similar performance of the max-min scheme and the NBS scheme in the case of appropriate predefined rate ratio.

  12. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Pan, Xu; Liu, Feng-Hong; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth vs. for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g., light, nutrients, and water) using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome). Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  13. Biomass Allocation of Stoloniferous and Rhizomatous Plant in Response to Resource Availability: A Phylogenetic Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Fang eXie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation to different functions is central in life-history theory. Plasticity of functional traits allows clonal plants to regulate their resource allocation to meet changing environments. In this study, biomass allocation traits of clonal plants were categorized into absolute biomass for vegetative growth versus for reproduction, and their relative ratios based on a data set including 115 species and derived from 139 published literatures. We examined general pattern of biomass allocation of clonal plants in response to availabilities of resource (e.g. light, nutrients and water using phylogenetic meta-analysis. We also tested whether the pattern differed among clonal organ types (stolon vs. rhizome. Overall, we found that stoloniferous plants were more sensitive to light intensity than rhizomatous plants, preferentially allocating biomass to vegetative growth, aboveground part and clonal reproduction under shaded conditions. Under nutrient- and water-poor condition, rhizomatous plants were constrained more by ontogeny than by resource availability, preferentially allocating biomass to belowground part. Biomass allocation between belowground and aboveground part of clonal plants generally supported the optimal allocation theory. No general pattern of trade-off was found between growth and reproduction, and neither between sexual and clonal reproduction. Using phylogenetic meta-analysis can avoid possible confounding effects of phylogeny on the results. Our results shown the optimal allocation theory explained a general trend, which the clonal plants are able to plastically regulate their biomass allocation, to cope with changing resource availability, at least in stoloniferous and rhizomatous plants.

  14. MULTI-AGENT BASED SIMULATION OF OPTIMAL URBAN LAND USE ALLOCATION IN THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE YANGTZE RIVER, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of land-use allocation is one of important approaches to achieve regional sustainable development. This study selects Chang-Zhu-Tan agglomeration as study area and proposed a new land use optimization allocation model. Using multi-agent based simulation model, the future urban land use optimization allocation was simulated in 2020 and 2030 under three different scenarios. This kind of quantitative information about urban land use optimization allocation and urban expansions in future would be of great interest to urban planning, water and land resource management, and climate change research.

  15. Multi-Agent Based Simulation of Optimal Urban Land Use Allocation in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Huang, W.; Jin, W.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    The optimization of land-use allocation is one of important approaches to achieve regional sustainable development. This study selects Chang-Zhu-Tan agglomeration as study area and proposed a new land use optimization allocation model. Using multi-agent based simulation model, the future urban land use optimization allocation was simulated in 2020 and 2030 under three different scenarios. This kind of quantitative information about urban land use optimization allocation and urban expansions in future would be of great interest to urban planning, water and land resource management, and climate change research.

  16. Research on Evaluation of resource allocation efficiency of transportation system based on DEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhehui; Du, Linan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we select the time series data onto 1985-2015 years, construct the land (shoreline) resources, capital and labor as inputs. The index system of the output is freight volume and passenger volume, we use Quantitative analysis based on DEA method evaluated the resource allocation efficiency of railway, highway, water transport and civil aviation in China. Research shows that the resource allocation efficiency of various modes of transport has obvious difference, and the impact on scale efficiency is more significant. The most important two ways to optimize the allocation of resources to improve the efficiency of the combination of various modes of transport is promoting the co-ordination of various modes of transport and constructing integrated transportation system.

  17. Load Balancing in Local Computational Grids within Resource Allocation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Golmohammadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A suitable resource allocation method in computational grids should schedule resources in a way that provides the requirements of the users and the resource providers; i.e., the maximum number of tasks should be completed in their time and budget constraints and the received load be distributed equally between resources. This is a decision-making problem, while the scheduler should select a resource from all ones. This process is a multi criteria decision-making problem; because of affect of different properties of resources on this decision. The goal of this decision-making process is balancing the load and completing the tasks in their defined constraints. The proposed algorithm is an analytic hierarchy process based Resource Allocation (ARA method. This method estimates a value for the preference of each resource and then selects the appropriate resource based on the allocated values. The simulations show the ARA method decreases the task failure rate at least 48% and increases the balance factor more than 3.4%.

  18. Allocation Strategies of Virtual Resources in Cloud-Computing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Giridhar Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing, Cloud computing facilitates pay per model as per user demand and requirement. Collection of virtual machines including both computational and storage resources will form the Cloud. In Cloud computing, the main objective is to provide efficient access to remote and geographically distributed resources. Cloud faces many challenges, one of them is scheduling/allocation problem. Scheduling refers to a set of policies to control the order of work to be performed by a computer system. A good scheduler adapts its allocation strategy according to the changing environment and the type of task. In this paper we will see FCFS, Round Robin scheduling in addition to Linear Integer Programming an approach of resource allocation.

  19. Auction-based resource allocation game under a hierarchical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingying; Zou, Suli; Ma, Zhongjing

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a class of auction-based resource allocation games under a hierarchical structure, such that each supplier is assigned a certain amount of resource from a single provider and allocates it to its buyers with auction mechanisms. To implement the efficient allocations for the underlying hierarchical system, we first design an auction mechanism, for each local system composed of a supplier and its buyers, which inherits the advantages of the progressive second price mechanism. By employing a dynamic algorithm, each local system converges to its own efficient Nash equilibrium, at which the efficient resource allocation is achieved and the bidding prices of all the buyers in this local system are identical with each other. After the local systems reach their own equilibria respectively, the resources assigned to suppliers are readjusted via a dynamic hierarchical algorithm with respect to the bidding prices associated with the implemented equilibria of local systems. By applying the proposed hierarchical process, the formulated hierarchical system can converge to the efficient allocation under certain mild conditions. The developed results in this work are demonstrated with simulations.

  20. Optimal allocation of testing effort during testing and debugging phases: a control theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, P. K.; Pham, Hoang; Chanda, Udayan; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-09-01

    Allocation of efforts to a software development project during the testing phase is a multifaceted task for software managers. The challenges become stiffer when the nature of the development process is considered in the dynamic environment. Many software reliability growth models have been proposed in last decade to minimise the total testing-effort expenditures, but mostly under static assumption. The main purpose of this article is to investigate an optimal resource allocation plan to minimise the cost of software during the testing and operational phase under dynamic condition. An elaborate optimisation policy based on the optimal control theory is proposed and numerical examples are illustrated. This article also studies the optimal resource allocation problems for various conditions by examining the behaviour of the model parameters and also suggests policy for the optimal release time of the software. The experimental results greatly help us to identify the contribution of each selected parameter and its weight.

  1. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Schultz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness.

  2. 基于用户需求的馆藏期刊资源的优化配置%The Optimal Allocation of Library Journal Resources Based on User Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚艳秋

    2015-01-01

    Periodical resources allocation related to the building of library resources, In the present case of the database widely using, It is the subject of this article:how rational allocation of print journals and electronic journals, and satisfy the needs of readers.%期刊资源配置关系到馆藏资源建设,在目前数据库广泛使用情况下,如何合理配置印刷型和电子期刊,最大限度地满足读者的需求,是文章探讨的问题。

  3. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, D.; Krause, A.; Gardner, B.; Converse, S.J.; Morey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consider the problem of protecting endangered species by selecting patches of land to be used for conservation purposes. Typically, the availability of patches changes over time, and recommendations must be made dynamically. This is a challenging prototypical example of a sequential optimization problem under uncertainty in computational sustainability. Existing techniques do not scale to problems of realistic size. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for adaptively making recommendations for dynamic conservation planning, and prove that it obtains near-optimal performance. We further evaluate our approach on a detailed reserve design case study of conservation planning for three rare species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Copyright ?? 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

  4. Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-11-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.

  5. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Cognitive Radios: A Generalized Sensing Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-12-31

    In this paper, two resource allocation schemes for energy efficient cognitive radio systems are proposed. Our design considers resource allocation approaches that adopt spectrum sharing combined with soft-sensing information, adaptive sensing thresholds, and adaptive power to achieve an energy efficient system. An energy per good-bit metric is considered as an energy efficient objective function. A multi-carrier system, such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is considered in the framework. The proposed resource allocation schemes, using different approaches, are designated as sub-optimal and optimal. The sub-optimal approach is attained by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy. The optimal approach utilizes the calculus of variation theory to optimize a problem of instantaneous objective function subject to average and instantaneous constraints with respect to functional optimization variables. In addition to the analytical results, selected numerical results are provided to quantify the impact of soft-sensing information and the optimal adaptive sensing threshold on the system performance.

  6. A cross-layer resource allocation scheme for spatial multiplexing-based MIMO-OFDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shatri Hussein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for the downlink of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA system. The sum rate maximization itself cannot cope with fairness among users. Hence, we address this problem in the context of the utility-based resource allocation presented in earlier papers. This resource allocation method allows to enhance the efficiency and guarantee fairness among users by exploiting multiuser diversity, frequency diversity, as well as time diversity. In this paper, we treat the overall utility as the quality of service indicator and design utility functions with respect to the average transmission rate in order to simultaneously provide two services, real-time and best-effort. Since the optimal solutions are extremely computationally complex to obtain, we propose a suboptimal joint subchannel and power control algorithm that converges very fast and simplifies the MIMO resource allocation problem into a single-input single-output resource allocation problem. Simulation results indicate that using the proposed method achieves near-optimum solutions, and the available resources are distributed more fairly among users.

  7. Combination of Pareto ant colony algorithm with remote sensing for optimal allocation of water resources%Pareto蚁群算法与遥感技术耦合的水资源优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯景伟; 孔云峰; 孙九林

    2012-01-01

    为了尝试用Pareto蚁群算法(PACA)和遥感技术(RS)来求解复杂的水资源优化配置问题,建立了以经济、社会和生态环境综合效益最大为目标,以供水、需水、水质等为约束条件的基于像元的水资源优化配置模型.通过局部信息素强度限制、全局信息素动态更新、Pareto解集过滤器构建等策略,使蚂蚁向信息素浓度大的优化边界移动,以提高PACA的全局搜索能力和收敛速度.以中原地区某县为仿真对象,借助RS获取其土地利用类型,利用PACA在栅格地图上求解水资源优化配置模型,并得到水资源最优配置方案.最后PACA与遗传算法(GA)和BP神经网络算法(BP-ANN)进行了比较.结果表明,PACA能有效地求解大范围、多目标水资源优化配置模型,并提高了算法的全局搜索能力、收敛速度和计算结果的精度.%To solve the optimal allocation problem of water resources with Pareto ant colony algorithm (PACA) and remote sensing (RS), we develop an optimization model in pixel scales. This model produces the largest social, economic, and environmental benefits under constraints on water supply, water demand and water quality. By limiting the local pheromone scope, dynamically updating the global pheromone and filtering the Pareto solution set, we improve the PACA to make ants move towards the optimal border with higher pheromone density, and enhance the global search capability and raise the convergence rate. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the PACA, a county in central China is selected as the simulation object, from which the data of the land-use pattern is obtained by using the RS technology. By solving the multi-objective model, we obtain the optimal allocation scheme for water resources with the aid of PACA on a raster map. Performance and convergence of the PACA are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and BP neural network algorithm (BP-ANN); results show that PACA can

  8. ON OPTIMAL LOCAL BUFFER ALLOCATION IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    An optimal design problem of local buffer allocation in the FMS is discussed in order to maximize a reward earned from processed jobs at all workstations. Structural properties of the optimal design problem are analyzed for the model with two job routing policies. Based on these properties, approaches to optimal solutions are given.

  9. Statistical Mechanics of Competitive Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Chatterjee, Arnab; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2013-01-01

    Demand outstrips available resources in most situations, which gives rise to competition, interaction and learning. In this article, we review a broad spectrum of multi-agent models of competition and the methods used to understand them analytically. We emphasize the power of concepts and tools from statistical mechanics to understand and explain fully collective phenomena such as phase transitions and long memory, and the mapping between agent heterogeneity and physical disorder. As these methods can be applied to any large-scale model made up of heterogeneous adaptive agent with non-linear interaction, they provide a prospective unifying paradigm for many scientific disciplines.

  10. Objective function of cost in optimal tolerance allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An objective function model is proposed for cost in optimizing and allocating tolerance with consideration of manufacturing conditions. With the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, a manufacturing difficulty coefficient is derived, which takes into account of several factors affecting the manufacturing cost, including the forming means of the blank, size, machining surface features, operator's skills and machinability of materials.The coefficient is then converted into a weight factor used in the inversed square model representing the relationship between the cost and tolerance, and, hence, an objective function for cost is established in optimizing and allocating tolerance. The higher is the manufacturing difficulty coefficient, the higher is the relative manufacturing cost and the higher is the weight factor of the tolerance allocation, which indicates the increase of the tolerance's effects on the total manufacturing cost and, therefore, a larger tolerance should be allocated. The computer-aided tolerance allocation utilizing this model makes it more convenient, accurate and practicable.

  11. Resource allocation in shared spectrum access communications for operators with diverse service requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Mirza Golam; Villardi, Gabriel Porto; Ishizu, Kentaro; Kojima, Fumihide; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we study inter-operator spectrum sharing and intra-operator resource allocation in shared spectrum access communication systems and propose efficient dynamic solutions to address both inter-operator and intra-operator resource allocation optimization problems. For inter-operator spectrum sharing, we present two competent approaches, namely the subcarrier gain-based sharing and fragmentation-based sharing, which carry out fair and flexible allocation of the available shareable spectrum among the operators subject to certain well-defined sharing rules, traffic demands, and channel propagation characteristics. The subcarrier gain-based spectrum sharing scheme has been found to be more efficient in terms of achieved throughput. However, the fragmentation-based sharing is more attractive in terms of computational complexity. For intra-operator resource allocation, we consider resource allocation problem with users' dissimilar service requirements, where the operator supports users with delay constraint and non-delay constraint service requirements, simultaneously. This optimization problem is a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem and non-convex, which is computationally very expensive, and the complexity grows exponentially with the number of integer variables. We propose less-complex and efficient suboptimal solution based on formulating exact linearization, linear approximation, and convexification techniques for the non-linear and/or non-convex objective functions and constraints. Extensive simulation performance analysis has been carried out that validates the efficiency of the proposed solution.

  12. Fairness based resource allocation for multiuser MISO-OFDMA systems with beamforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Kai; WANG Ying; CHEN Zi-xiong; ZHANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Resource allocation problem in multiuser multiple input single output-orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MISO-OFDMA) systems with downlink beamforming for frequency selective fading channels is studied. The article aims at maximizing system throughput with the constraints of total power and bit error rate (BER) while supporting fairness among users. The downlink proportional fairness (PF) scheduling problem is reformulated as a maximization of the sum of logarithmic user data rate. From necessary conditions on optimality obtained analytically by Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition, an efficient user selection and resource allocation algorithm is proposed. The computer simulations reveal that the proposed algorithm achieves tradeoff between system throughput and fairness among users.

  13. STUDY ON STRATEGY OF DYNAMIC JOINT ROUTING AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN LAYERED OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yang; Xu Zhanqi; Zhao Ruiqin; Liu Zengji

    2008-01-01

    A layered network model for optical transport networks is proposed in this paper, which involves Internet Protocol (IP), Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) layers. The strategy of Dynamic Joint Routing and Resource Allocation (DJRRA) and its algorithm description are also presented for the proposed layered network model. DJRRA optimizes the bandwidth usage of interface links between different layers and the logic links inside all layers. The simulation results show that DJRRA can reduce the blocking probability and increase network throughput effectively, which is in contrast to the classical separate sequential routing and resource allocation solutions.

  14. Joint Uplink Resource Allocation Algorithm with Proportional-Fair in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we exploit the uplink radio resource allocation considering proportional fairness among users in heterogeneous wireless networks. Meanwhile, multi-mode user terminals are assumed to have the capability of using multiple radio access technologies simultaneously. To this end, a joint optimization problem is formulated for power and bandwidth allocation for uplink transmission. Since the formulated primal problem is difficult to solve directly, we make continuous relaxation and obtain a near-optimal solution using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and then propose a joint resource allocation algorithm. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm work, and the algorithm provides superior system throughput and much better fairness among users comparing to a heuristic algorithm

  15. Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy%基于系统性策略的灌溉水资源时空优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程帅; 张树清

    2015-01-01

    随着社会、经济的发展以及人口数量的急剧增长,人类对水资源的需求量越来越大.在水资源日益短缺的情况下,科学合理地规划与管理灌溉水资源对提高水分利用率和保障粮食安全具有十分重要的意义.研究人员对此开展了大量卓有成效的工作,但多专注于特定的方面或尺度,深入性很强,系统性、整体性较弱.本文从管理的综合性与技术的集成性出发,提出了用于灌溉水资源时空优化配置的多层次多尺度框架,并阐明了框架内各组成部分的基础理论,以智能算法在各类模型求解中的应用为主线回顾和总结了前人的研究成果.基于系统性策略来研究灌溉水资源优化配置问题,既可以从时间尺度上总体控制灌溉用水总量,也可以从空间尺度上减少灌溉水量的损失,为提升灌区灌溉水资源管理水平,提高水分生产率以保障粮食安全提供科学依据与技术支撑.%With the development of the society and economy,as well as the rapid increase oi population,more and more water is needed by human,which intensified the shortage of water resources.The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation,so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security.Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use.However,present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale,which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation.By summarizing previous related studies,especially those based on intelligent algorithms,this article proposed a multi-level,multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water,and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework.Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water

  16. Resource Allocation for Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhifallah, Oussama

    2016-04-01

    Cloud-radio access network (CRAN) is expected to be the core network architecture for next generation mobile radio system. In CRANs, joint signal processing is performed at multiple cloud computing centers (clouds) that are connected to several base stations (BSs) via high capacity backhaul links. As a result, large-scale interference management and network power consumption reduction can be effectively achieved. Unlike recent works on CRANs which consider a single cloud processing and treat inter-cloud interference as background noise, the first part of this thesis focuses on the more practical scenario of the downlink of a multi-cloud radio access network where BSs are connected to each cloud through wireline backhaul links. Assume that each cloud serves a set of pre-known single-antenna mobile users (MUs). This part focuses on minimizing the network total power consumption subject to practical constraints. The problems are solved using sophisticated techniques from optimization theory (e.g. Dual Decomposition-based algorithm and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based algorithm). One highlight of this part is that the proposed solutions can be implemented in a distributed fashion by allowing a reasonable information exchange between the coupled clouds. Additionally, feasible solutions of the considered optimization problems can be estimated locally at each iteration. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms converge to the centralized algorithms in a reasonable number of iterations. To further account of the backhaul congestion due to densification in CRANs, the second part of this thesis considers the downlink of a cache-enabled CRAN where each BS is equipped with a local-cache with limited size used to store the popular files without the need for backhauling. Further, each cache-enabled BS is connected to the cloud via limited capacity backhaul link and can serve a set of pre-known single antenna MUs. This part

  17. 基于多目标鱼群-蚁群算法的水资源优化配置%Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on the Multi-Objective Fish-Ant Colony Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯景伟; 孔云峰; 孙九林

    2011-01-01

    To resolve complex problems on optimal allocation of water resources with intelligent optimal methods, a multi-objective optimization model was built and the multi-objective fish-ant colony algorithm (MFACA) was designed. This model, based on principles of efficiency, fairness, and harmoniousness, is aimed at producing the largest economic, social, and environmental benefits. The objective of economic benefit is the largest direct economic benefit produced by regional water supply. The objective of social benefit is referred to as the smallest regional water deficit. The objective of environmental benefit is to ensure the smallest discharge of major contaminants. Constraints included water supply, water demand, water settings, economic development, and its harmony. In this model, constraints of water supply include possible water yield and ground water yield. Constraints of water demand include living, industrial, agricultural, and environmental water. Constraints of water settings include overall merit index and water quality. The optimal allocation model had the characteristics of large-scale system, multiple objectives, multiple constraints, multiple levels, and multiple associations. To solve this complicated model, the multi-objective fish-ant colony algorithm was established in accordance with the integration of pheromone positive feedback of the ant colony optimization (ACO) and fast track change and jumping out of local extremum of the artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFA). A swarm degree in the AFA was used to avoid possible premature problems at the initial stage of ACO. It was not strict for MFACA to set parameters and initial values of a mathematical model. The objective functions and constraints were not necessarily continuous and differentiable. This algorithm has a faster convergence rate and a higher optimization power. In order to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the MFACA, surveys were done in Zhenping County, Henan

  18. Power Efficient Resource Allocation for Clouds Using Ant Colony Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chimakurthi, Lskrao

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the rapidly improving technologies. It provides scalable resources needed for the ap- plications hosted on it. As cloud-based services become more dynamic, resource provisioning becomes more challenging. The QoS constrained resource allocation problem is considered in this paper, in which customers are willing to host their applications on the provider's cloud with a given SLA requirements for performance such as throughput and response time. Since, the data centers hosting the applications consume huge amounts of energy and cause huge operational costs, solutions that reduce energy consumption as well as operational costs are gaining importance. In this work, we propose an energy efficient mechanism that allocates the cloud resources to the applications without violating the given service level agreements(SLA) using Ant colony framework.

  19. A Greedy Double Auction Mechanism for Grid Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Luo, Siwei; Gao, Zhan

    To improve the resource utilization and satisfy more users, a Greedy Double Auction Mechanism(GDAM) is proposed to allocate resources in grid environments. GDAM trades resources at discriminatory price instead of uniform price, reflecting the variance in requirements for profits and quantities. Moreover, GDAM applies different auction rules to different cases, over-demand, over-supply and equilibrium of demand and supply. As a new mechanism for grid resource allocation, GDAM is proved to be strategy-proof, economically efficient, weakly budget-balanced and individual rational. Simulation results also confirm that GDAM outperforms the traditional one on both the total trade amount and the user satisfaction percentage, specially as more users are involved in the auction market.

  20. Resource Allocation to Government Documents Departments in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1985-01-01

    Explores both the allocation of resources to documents departments in academic libraries and the wide variation in local levels of support. Ways in which documents librarians may change levels of support through sources within and beyond their libraries are suggested. (CLB)

  1. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  2. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  3. How and Why Decision Models Influence Marketing Resource Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Lilien (Gary); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind); K. Starke (Katrin); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe study how and why model-based Decision Support Systems (DSSs) influence managerial decision making, in the context of marketing budgeting and resource allocation. We consider several questions: (1) What does it mean for a DSS to be "good?"; (2) What is the relationship between an anch

  4. Multi-Constraint multi-processor Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrouzian, A.R.B.; Goswami, D.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Ara, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a Multi-Constraint Resource Allocation (MuCoRA) method for applications from multiple domains onto multi-processors. In particular, we address a mapping problem for multiple throughput-constrained streaming applications and multiple latency-constrained feedback control application

  5. Job Admission and Resource Allocation in Distributed Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joel; Bansal, Nikhil; Hildrum, Kirsten; Parekh, Sujay; Rajan, Deepak; Wagle, Rohit; Wu, Kun-Lung

    This paper describes a new and novel scheme for job admission and resource allocation employed by the SODA scheduler in System S. Capable of processing enormous quantities of streaming data, System S is a large-scale, distributed stream processing system designed to handle complex applications. The problem of scheduling in distributed, stream-based systems is quite unlike that in more traditional systems. And the requirements for System S, in particular, are more stringent than one might expect even in a “standard” stream-based design. For example, in System S, the offered load is expected to vastly exceed system capacity. So a careful job admission scheme is essential. The jobs in System S are essentially directed graphs, with software “processing elements” (PEs) as vertices and data streams as edges connecting the PEs. The jobs themselves are often heavily interconnected. Thus resource allocation of individual PEs must be done carefully in order to balance the flow. We describe the design of the SODA scheduler, with particular emphasis on the component, known as macroQ, which performs the job admission and resource allocation tasks. We demonstrate by experiments the natural trade-offs between job admission and resource allocation.

  6. RPOA Model-Based Optimal Resource Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha El. Attar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal utilization of resources is the core of the provisioning process in the cloud computing. Sometimes the local resources of a data center are not adequate to satisfy the users’ requirements. So, the providers need to create several data centers at different geographical area around the world and spread the users’ applications on these resources to satisfy both service providers and customers QoS requirements. By considering the expansion of the resources and applications, the transmission cost and time have to be concerned as significant factors in the allocation process. According to the work of our previous paper, a Resource Provision Optimal Algorithm (RPOA based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO has been introduced to find the near optimal resource utilization with considering the customer budget and suitable for deadline time. This paper is considered an enhancement to RPOA algorithm to find the near optimal resource utilization with considering the data transfer time and cost, in addition to the customer budget and deadline time, in the performance measurement.

  7. Optimization of Joint Power and Bandwidth Allocation in Multi-Spot-Beam Satellite Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spot-beam technique has been widely applied in modern satellite communication systems. However, the satellite power and bandwidth resources in a multi-spot-beam satellite communication system are scarce and expensive; it is urgent to utilize the resources efficiently. To this end, dynamically allocating the power and bandwidth is an available way. This paper initially formulates the problem of resource joint allocation as a convex optimization problem, taking into account a compromise between the maximum total system capacity and the fairness among the spot beams. A joint bandwidth and power allocation iterative algorithm based on duality theory is then proposed to obtain the optimal solution of this optimization problem. Compared with the existing separate bandwidth or power optimal allocation algorithms, it is shown that the joint allocation algorithm improves both the total system capacity and the fairness among spot beams. Moreover, it is easy to be implemented in practice, as the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is linear with the number of spot beams.

  8. Resource allocation model and deadlock-free optimization scheduling for underground locomotive transportation%井下机车运输调度的资源分配模型及无死锁优化调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方欢; 陆阳; 徐自军; 杨娟

    2013-01-01

    A deadlock-free scheduling scheme and optimization for underground locomotive transportation system are presented.Firstly,three resource allocation Petri net models under different dispatching policies are modeled,their corresponding maximal makings boundary setting algorithms are designed,and the deadlock-free property of dispatching under maximal marking boundary setting is proved.Then,a genetic algorithm is proposed to minimize the time cost and energy cost,in which the transitions sequence is encoded as a chromosome,the feasibility of chromosomes are tested and amended by judging the transition firing condition,so that each chromosome can be decoded into a feasible schedule to satisfy all resource allocation constraints.Finally,an experimental example is simulated.The designed maximal marking boundary setting algorithm of deadlock-free schedule and genetic algorithm provide reliable theoretical foundation for underground locomotive transportation dispatching.%对井下机车运输系统进行无死锁调度和性能优化,首先,建立三种不同调度策略下的资源分配Petri网模型,设计对应调度策略下无死锁标识的最大边界设置算法,证明了调度策略在最大标识边界设置下的无死锁性.然后,以最小化时耗和能耗为优化目标,利用遗传算法,采用变迁标号的自然编码方式,通过检查变迁的引发条件检测染色体的可行性,修复不可行的染色体使其对应的调度满足资源约束,从而保证了算法所利用的所有染色体均可对应系统的可行调度,最后进行实例仿真.设计的无死锁调度的最大标识边界设置算法和遗传算法为井下机车的运输调度提供了可靠的理论基础.

  9. Estimation of distribution algorithm for resource allocation in green cooperative cognitive radio sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Pareek, Udit; Lee, Daniel C; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2013-04-12

    Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN). The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP), which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  10. Discussion of Resource Allocation and Optimization in University Library Management%高校图书馆管理中的资源配置与优化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建

    2012-01-01

      To complete resource allocation and optimization of the library management is an important part of the construction of university modernization, it plays a significant role in promoting the overall progress and development of the university. At present, problems such as the management consciousness is relatively weak, system mechanism is not sound, management personnel quality is not high, structure is not rational etc. in university library management and optimization are still exist. Through the analysis of the reasons, and combined with actual situations, strategies and measures such as perfecting the book management system, improving management quality, optimizing books management structure, the development and utilization of library resources were explored, in order to improve utilization efficiency and level of the management of college libraries, promote university library management work better serve other work, ensure the overall rapid development of university.%  做好图书馆管理中的资源配置与优化,是高校现代化建设的重要组成部分,对于全面推进高校发展进步具有积极的意义与作用。当前,高校图书馆管理与优化依然存在着管理意识较为淡薄、体制机制不够健全、管理人员素质不高、图书结构不尽合理等问题。通过分析存在问题的原因,并结合实际探索健全图书管理制度,提升管理人员素质,优化图书管理结构,开发利用图书资源等对策与措施,以期不断提高高校图书管理的利用效率和水平,促进高校图书管理工作更好地服务其他工作,确保高校全面快速发展。

  11. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP owners’ satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners’ satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network.

  12. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Sami M.; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I.; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  13. Optimal Sensor Allocation for Fault Detection and Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Automatic fault diagnostic schemes rely on various types of sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, vibration, etc) to measure the system parameters. Efficacy of a diagnostic scheme is largely dependent on the amount and quality of information available from these sensors. The reliability of sensors, as well as the weight, volume, power, and cost constraints, often makes it impractical to monitor a large number of system parameters. An optimized sensor allocation that maximizes the fault diagnosibility, subject to specified weight, volume, power, and cost constraints is required. Use of optimal sensor allocation strategies during the design phase can ensure better diagnostics at a reduced cost for a system incorporating a high degree of built-in testing. In this paper, we propose an approach that employs multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) and optimization techniques for optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in complex systems. Keywords: sensor allocation, multiple fault diagnosis, Lagrangian relaxation, approximate belief revision, multidimensional knapsack problem.

  14. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-07

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil.

  15. Sources and resources: importance of nutrients, resource allocation, and ecology in microalgal cultivation for lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Matthew W; Hise, Adam; Lohman, Egan J; Bell, Tisza; Gardner, Rob D; Corredor, Luisa; Moll, Karen; Peyton, Brent M; Characklis, Gregory W; Gerlach, Robin

    2014-06-01

    Regardless of current market conditions and availability of conventional petroleum sources, alternatives are needed to circumvent future economic and environmental impacts from continued exploration and harvesting of conventional hydrocarbons. Diatoms and green algae (microalgae) are eukaryotic photoautotrophs that can utilize inorganic carbon (e.g., CO2) as a carbon source and sunlight as an energy source, and many microalgae can store carbon and energy in the form of neutral lipids. In addition to accumulating useful precursors for biofuels and chemical feed stocks, the use of autotrophic microorganisms can further contribute to reduced CO2 emissions through utilization of atmospheric CO2. Because of the inherent connection between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in biological systems, macronutrient deprivation has been proven to significantly enhance lipid accumulation in different diatom and algae species. However, much work is needed to understand the link between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in controlling resource allocation at different levels of biological resolution (cellular versus ecological). An improved understanding of the relationship between the effects of N, P, and micronutrient availability on carbon resource allocation (cell growth versus lipid storage) in microalgae is needed in conjunction with life cycle analysis. This mini-review will briefly discuss the current literature on the use of nutrient deprivation and other conditions to control and optimize microalgal growth in the context of cell and lipid accumulation for scale-up processes.

  16. A study of multiagent systems for resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haixiao; Shao, Zhichao; Li, Shanfei; Tan, Xianglin

    2017-03-01

    The agent and multiagent system is one of the most active methods for solving complicated problems as to resource allocation recently. Here, an agent can be considered as a computer program who takes autonomous actions to obtain some units of resources for individual purposes and common goals. The environment can be referred to the place where scattered resources and agent behavior-restricted rules are stored. And a multiagent system is a type of computing system built upon multiple situated agents who interact with each other under mechanisms. This paper aims to overview the techniques regarding agents and the environment.

  17. Energy Criteria for Resource Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Resource optimization in building design is based on the total system over its expected useful life. Alternative environmental systems can be evaluated in terms of resource costs and goal effectiveness. (Author/MF)

  18. Joint Power and Resource Allocation for Block-Fading Relay-Assisted Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    We provide the solution for optimizing the power and resource allocation over block-fading relay-assisted broadcast channels in order to maximize the long term average achievable rates region of the users. The problem formulation assumes regenerative (repetition coding) decode-and-forward (DF) relaying strategy, long-term average total transmitted power constraint, orthogonal multiplexing of the users messages within the channel blocks, possibility to use a direct transmission (DT) mode from the base station to the user terminal directly or a relaying (DF) transmission mode, and partial channel state information. We show that our optimization problem can be transformed into an equivalent "no-relaying" broadcast channel optimization problem with each actual user substituted by two virtual users having different channel qualities and multiplexing weights. The proposed power and resource allocation strategies are expressed in closed-form that can be applied practically in centralized relay-assisted wireless netw...

  19. Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.

  20. Resource Allocation for Selection-Based Cooperative OFDM Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Kianoush

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers resource allocation to achieve max-min fairness in a selection-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing network wherein source nodes are assisted by fixed decode-and-forward relays. Crucial design questions such as whether to relay, relay assignment and power allocation form a combinatorial problem with exponential solution complexity. The first set of problems assume perfect source-relay channels and that sources distribute power equally across subcarriers. The solutions based on these simplifications help illustrate our general methodology and also why these solutions provide tight bounds. We then formulate the general problem of transmission strategy selection, relay assignment, and power allocation at the sources and relays considering all communication channels, i.e., imperfect source-relay channels. In both sets of problems, transmissions over subcarriers are assumed to be independent. Given the attendant problems of synchronization and the implementation using a FFT/IFFT pa...

  1. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  2. Exploiting Interference Alignment in Multi-Cell Cooperative OFDMA Resource Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Da, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies interference alignment (IA) based multi-cell cooperative resource allocation for the downlink OFDMA with universal frequency reuse. Unlike the traditional scheme that treats subcarriers as separate dimensions for resource allocation, the IA technique is utilized to enable frequency-domain precoding over parallel subcarriers. In this paper, the joint optimization of frequency-domain precoding via IA, subcarrier user selection and power allocation is investigated for a cooperative three-cell OFDMA system to maximize the downlink throughput. Numerical results for a simplified symmetric channel setup reveal that the IA-based scheme achieves notable throughput gains over the traditional scheme only when the inter-cell interference link has a comparable strength as the direct link, and the receiver SNR is sufficiently large. Motivated by this observation, a practical hybrid scheme is proposed for cellular systems with heterogenous channel conditions, where the total spectrum is divided into two s...

  3. Optimizing Earth Allocation for Rock-Fill Dam Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Denghua; HU Chengshun; ZHANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    An optimal allocation of earth is of great significance to reduce the project cost and duration in the construction of rock-fill dams. The earth allocation is a dynamic system affected by various time-space constraints. Based on previous studies, a new method of optimizing this dynamic system as a static one is presented. In order to build a generalized and flexible model of the problem, some man-made constraints were investigated in building the mathematic model. Linear programming and simplex method are introduced to solve the optimization problem of earth allocation. A case study in a large-scale rock-fill dam construction project is presented to demonstrate the proposed method and its successful application shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  4. Resource Allocation for Downlink Multi-Cell OFDMA Cognitive Radio Network Using Hungarian Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Forouzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of resource allocation for downlink part of an OFDM-based multi-cell cognitive radio network which consists of multiple secondary transmitters and receivers communicating simultaneously in the presence of multiple primary users. We present a new framework to maximize the total data throughput of secondary users by means of subchannel assignment, while ensuring interference leakage to PUs is below a threshold. In this framework, we first formulate the resource allocation problem as a nonlinear and non-convex optimization problem. Then we represent the problem as a maximum weighted matching in a bipartite graph and propose an iterative algorithm based on Hungarian method to solve it. The present contribution develops an efficient subchannel allocation algorithm that assigns subchannels to the secondary users without the perfect knowledge of fading channel gain between cognitive radio transmitter and primary receivers. The performance of the proposed subcarrier allocation algorithm is compared with a blind subchannel allocation as well as another scheme with the perfect knowledge of channel-state information. Simulation results reveal that a significant performance advantage can still be realized, even if the optimization at the secondary network is based on imperfect network information.

  5. Optimization of reliability allocation strategies through use of genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E.; Painton, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines a novel optimization technique called genetic algorithms and its application to the optimization of reliability allocation strategies. Reliability allocation should occur in the initial stages of design, when the objective is to determine an optimal breakdown or allocation of reliability to certain components or subassemblies in order to meet system specifications. The reliability allocation optimization is applied to the design of a cluster tool, a highly complex piece of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. The problem formulation is presented, including decision variables, performance measures and constraints, and genetic algorithm parameters. Piecewise ``effort curves`` specifying the amount of effort required to achieve a certain level of reliability for each component of subassembly are defined. The genetic algorithm evolves or picks those combinations of ``effort`` or reliability levels for each component which optimize the objective of maximizing Mean Time Between Failures while staying within a budget. The results show that the genetic algorithm is very efficient at finding a set of robust solutions. A time history of the optimization is presented, along with histograms or the solution space fitness, MTBF, and cost for comparative purposes.

  6. Mixed strategies and natural selection in resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Berezovkaya, Faina; Karev, Georgy

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate choice of strategy for resource allocation may frequently determine whether a population will be able to survive under the conditions of severe resource limitations. Here we focus on two classes of strategies allocation of resources towards rapid proliferation, or towards slower proliferation but increased physiological and environmental maintenance. We propose a generalized framework, where individuals within a population can use either strategy in different proportion for utilization of a common dynamical resource in order to maximize their fitness. We use the model to address two major questions, namely, whether either strategy is more likely to be selected for as a result of natural selection, and, if one allows for the possibility of resource over-consumption, whether either strategy is preferable for avoiding population collapse due to resource exhaustion. Analytical and numerical results suggest that the ultimate choice of strategy is determined primarily by the initial distribution of individuals in the population, and that while investment in physiological and environmental maintenance is a preferable strategy in a homogeneous population, no generalized prediction can be made about heterogeneous populations.

  7. Proactive Resource Allocation: Turning Predictable Behavior into Spectral Gain

    CERN Document Server

    El-Gamal, Hesham; Eryilmaz, Atilla

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of proactive resource allocation in which the predictability of user behavior is exploited to balance the wireless traffic over time, and hence, significantly reduce the bandwidth required to achieve a given blocking/outage probability. We start with a simple model in which the smart wireless devices are assumed to predict the arrival of new requests and submit them to the network T time slots in advance. Using tools from large deviation theory, we quantify the resulting prediction diversity gain to establish that the decay rate of the outage event probabilities increases linearly with the prediction duration T. This model is then generalized to incorporate the effect of prediction errors and the randomness in the prediction lookahead time T. Remarkably, we also show that, in the cognitive networking scenario, the appropriate use of proactive resource allocation by the primary users results in more spectral opportunities for the secondary users at a marginal, or no, cos...

  8. The veil of ignorance and health resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Some authors view the veil of ignorance as a preferred method for allocating resources because it imposes impartiality by stripping deliberators of knowledge of their personal identity. Using some prominent examples of such reasoning in the health care sector, I will argue for the following claims. First, choice behind a veil of ignorance often fails to provide clear guidance regarding resource allocation. Second, regardless of whether definite results could be derived from the veil, these results do not in themselves have important moral standing. This is partly because the veil does not determine which features are morally relevant for a given distributive problem. Third, even when we have settled the question of what features to count, choice behind a veil of ignorance arguably fails to take persons seriously. Ultimately, we do not need the veil to solve distributive problems, and we have good reason to appeal to some other distributive model.

  9. A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yong; RAO Min; LI Lei; CHEN Yu; JIANG Jianfeng; ZHANG Mingde; SUN Xiaohan

    2005-01-01

    A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in the WDM optical networks is proposed, basing on the integrated considerations of the impacts of transmission impairments and service classification on dynamic resource allocation in the optical layer.In this model, the priorities of optical connection requests are mapped into different thresholds of transmission impairments, and a uniform method which is adopted to evaluate the virtual wavelength path (VWP) candidates is defined. The Advanced Preferred Wavelength Sets Algorithm (A-PWS) and the heuristic Dynamic Min-Cost & Optical Virtual Wavelength Path Algorithm (DMC-OVWP) are presented addressing the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem based on dynamic traffic and multi priorities in wavelength-routed optical networks. For a received optical connection request,DMC-OVWP is employed to calculate a list of the VWP candidates, and an appropriate VWP which matches the request's priority is picked up to establish the lightpath by analyzing the transmission qualities of the VWP candidates.

  10. Nutrient mediation of behavioral plasticity and resource allocation in a xylem-feeding leafhopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Brent V; Andersen, Peter C; Mizell, Russell F

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical for nutrient-limited organisms that allocate ingested nutrients to the competing demands of reproduction and survivorship. Leafhoppers that feed on xylem fluid allow assessment of plasticity in response to the constant selective pressure of nutritional inadequacy. We examined feeding behavior (host selection and consumption rates) and nutrient allocation (fecundity, change in body mass and composition) of the xylem fluid-feeding leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) on ten genotypes of related Prunus germplasm when adults first seasonally appear, and later during population peaks, to examine the effects of genotypes and season on plasticity of life history and behavioral traits. Behavior and resource allocation to life history traits were both mediated by xylem nutrients, although nutrients impacting behavior differed from those mediating life history. Host selection and consumption varied with genotype between June and July, yet behavior consistently reflected concentrations of dietary glutamine. Resource allocations also increased linearly with nutrient concentrations, but were best correlated to ingested essential amino acids rather than glutamine. Body mass and composition were highly correlated to dietary essential amino acids in June; 6 weeks later, fecundity was instead proportional to essential amino acids. The discrepancy in nutrients which impact behavior versus those mediating life history may explain the weak preference-performance linkage documented for many insects. The demarcation in allocating resources to biomass in June to fecundity in July suggests increased allocation to reproduction during periods of nutrient stress as predicted by the theory of optimal resource allocation; other contributing biotic and abiotic factors are also discussed.

  11. Solving the optimal attention allocation problem in manual control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Within the context of the optimal control model of human response, analytic expressions for the gradients of closed-loop performance metrics with respect to human operator attention allocation are derived. These derivatives serve as the basis for a gradient algorithm that determines the optimal attention that a human should allocate among several display indicators in a steady-state manual control task. Application of the human modeling techniques are made to study the hover control task for a CH-46 VTOL flight tested by NASA.

  12. Priority-based Resource Allocation for RT and NRT Traffics in OFDMA Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation and QoS provisioning for real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) services in OFDMA systems. The proposed algorithm tightly couples the subchannel allocation and packet scheduling together through an integrated cross......-layer approach in which each packet is assigned a priority value by taking both the instantaneous channel condition and the QoS requirements into account. An efficient suboptimal algorithm with low computational complexity is proposed to solve the linear optimization problem. Simulation results show...

  13. ROBUST RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN LTE NETWORKS BY CHANNEL AND RELAY ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANTHAKUMAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The radio resource allocation in wireless communication is analysed in this paper. Pair of users communicates each other through multiple two way relays in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmission systems. The total throughput is maximized by relay selection, channel and relay assignment, subcarrier pairing and subcarrier allocation by prim’s algorithm. The graphical theory approach has used to solve the problem optimally in polynomial time. The evaluation of the network total throughput with respect to transmit power node and the number of relay nodes are analysed through simulation. In this work, the improvement in sum rate with optimum carrier assignment using proposed algorithm is demonstrated against the classical work.

  14. Fairness resource allocation and scheduling for IEEE 802.16 Mesh networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Peng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.16 standard provides a scheme for creating multi-hop relay networks, which can be deployed as a high speed wide area wireless network at low cost. Although the standard defines signaling mechanisms in mesh mode, however, it doesn’t specify wireless resource management in the protocol. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation with the goal of providing fairness access to wireless channel for all the nodes as well as high network throughput in IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. We first define node’s unsatisfactory index and throughput function. Then, a multi-objective programming formulation is proposed for optimizing network performance. Accordingly, a dynamic programming based resource allocation and scheduling algorithm is presented to provide an optimal resource allocation to achieve fairness among different nodes as well as high network throughput in IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm significantly provides both fairness of channel access and optimal network throughput.

  15. Optimal power allocation for homogeneous and heterogeneous CA-MIMO systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI QiMei; KANG PeiChuan; HUANG XueQing; VALKAMA Mikko; NIEMELA Jarno

    2013-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) technique has been adopted by 3GPP LTE-Advanced due to its ability of enhancing the spectrum efficiency and peak data rates through aggregating multiple component carriers (CCs). Two main factors make power control optimization very essential for CA-MIMO radio link: the different channel characteristics in multiple CCs, and multiple power constraint conditions (per-CC, per-antenna and pertransmitter power constraints) in the actual CA system deployment. This paper firstly derives the degenerate conditions of optimal power allocation for a single-transmitter CA-MIMO system. Stemming from the derived degenerate conditions, we propose a modified hybrid gradient optimal power allocation(MHGOPA) algorithm to maximize the system performance. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed resource allocation approach by comparing with baseline average power allocation algorithm. Finally, we extend the MHGOPA algorithm into a heterogeneous CA network with multiple transmitters working simultaneously.

  16. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  17. A distributed resource allocation algorithm for many processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hesselink, Wim H

    2012-01-01

    Resource allocation is the problem that a process may enter a critical section CS of its code only when its resource requirements are not in conflict with those of other processes in their critical sections. For each execution of CS, these requirements are given anew. In the resource requirements, levels can be distinguished, such as e.g. read access or write access. We allow infinitely many processes that communicate by reliable asynchronous messages and have finite memory. A simple starvation-free solution is presented. Processes only wait for one another when they have conflicting resource requirements. The correctness of the solution is argued with invariants and temporal logic. It has been verified with the proof assistant PVS.

  18. 水库移民安置中水土资源优化配置与生态补偿%Water and Soil Resources Optimization Allocation and Ecological Compensation in the Process of Reservoir Resettlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜仁贵; 解建仓; 汪妮; 李建勋

    2012-01-01

    水库建设所产生的移民安置问题影响着工程进展、库区与移民安置区的稳定发展,在库区移民实物指标调查与多源数据集成应用基础上对水库移民安置中水土资源进行优化配置与生态补偿,促进库区和移民安置区可持续发展。采用现代信息技术对移民实物指标进行采集、处理与集成应用,建立面向水库移民安置的移民信息系统,为水库淹没影响范围的确定与移民安置实施提供辅助决策支持方法,对库区和移民安置区的水土资源与生态进行综合考虑,以此指导水土资源的优化配置和生态补偿。以陕西省引汉济渭调水工程三河口水库移民安置为应用实例,对采集的三河口水库移民实物指标进行统计分析,通过移民信息系统对实物指标进行空间展示,采用问卷调查确定移民安置方式和移民安置区,提出移民安置区水土资源优化配置与生态补偿措施。在水库移民安置过程中对水资源、土地资源和生态环境进行综合考虑有助于移民安置的科学有序进行,库区和移民安置区后期的稳定与可持续发展,在同类工程中具有一定的指导意义。%Resettlement caused by the construction of the reservoir affects the project process and stable development of reservoir area and resettlement area,the paper researches water and soil resources optimization allocation and ecological compensation in the process of the reservoir resettlement on the basic of the investigation of immigration physical indicators and integrated application of multi-source data,so as to enhance sustainable development of reservoir area and resettlement area.Modern information technologies were used to collect,process and integrated application for the immigration physical indicators,immigration information system was established on reservoir resettlement which provided decision support methods for the designation of reservoir submerged

  19. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  20. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  1. Discrete rate resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems with location information

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a resource allocation algorithm based on location information for cognitive radio systems. The location information allows a practical implementation of cognitive radio systems when the channel state knowledge of the interference links with the primary users is not available. Using this information and measurements, the secondary users estimate the pathloss between the secondary and primary users to avoid interfering the primary users while sharing the frequency bands. The major improvement in this paper is low-complex algorithms for downlink and uplink resource allocations with integer bit distributions, where collocated subchannel constraint is considered in uplink case. We show, through numerical simulations, that for the downlink case, the proposed algorithm is indeed optimal while for the uplink case, it is near-optimal. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. Cross-Layer Resource Allocation Scheme Under Heterogeneous Constraints for Next Generation High Rate WPAN

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Ayman; Helard, Jean-Francois; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2312

    2010-01-01

    In the next generation wireless networks, the growing demand for new wireless applications is accompanied with high expectations for better quality of service (QoS) fulfillment especially for multimedia applications. Furthermore, the coexistence of future unlicensed users with existing licensed users is becoming a challenging task in the next generation communication systems to overcome the underutilization of the spectrum. A QoS and interference aware resource allocation is thus of special interest in order to respond to the heterogeneous constraints of the next generation networks. In this work, we address the issue of resource allocation under heterogeneous constraints for unlicensed multiband ultra-wideband (UWB) systems in the context of Future Home Networks, i.e. the wireless personal area network (WPAN). The problem is first studied analytically using a heterogeneous constrained optimization problem formulation. After studying the characteristics of the optimal solution, we propose a low-complexity sub...

  3. Adaptive dynamic resource allocation in annual eusocial insects: environmental variation will not necessarily promote graded control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strohm Erhard

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the classical model of Macevicz and Oster, annual eusocial insects should show a clear dichotomous "bang-bang" strategy of resource allocation; colony fitness is maximised when a period of pure colony growth (exclusive production of workers is followed by a single reproductive period characterised by the exclusive production of sexuals. However, in several species graded investment strategies with a simultaneous production of workers and sexuals have been observed. Such deviations from the "bang-bang" strategy are usually interpreted as an adaptive (bet-hedging response to environmental fluctuations such as variation in season length or food availability. To generate predictions about the optimal investment pattern of insect colonies in fluctuating environments, we slightly modified Macevicz and Oster's classical model of annual colony dynamics and used a dynamic programming approach nested into a recurrence procedure for the solution of the stochastic optimal control problem. Results 1 The optimal switching time between pure colony growth and the exclusive production of sexuals decreases with increasing environmental variance. 2 Yet, for reasonable levels of environmental fluctuations no deviation from the typical bang-bang strategy is predicted. 3 Model calculations for the halictid bee Lasioglossum malachurum reveal that bet-hedging is not likely to be the reason for the graded allocation into sexuals versus workers observed in this species. 4 When environmental variance reaches a critical level our model predicts an abrupt change from dichotomous behaviour to graded allocation strategies, but the transition between colony growth and production of sexuals is not necessarily monotonic. Both, the critical level of environmental variance as well as the characteristic pattern of resource allocation strongly depend on the type of function used to describe environmental fluctuations. Conclusion Up to now bet

  4. Resource Allocation in a Generalized Framework for Virtualized Heterogeneous Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a prevailing concept in 5G, virtualization provides efficient coordination among multiple radio access technologies (RATs and enables multiple service providers (SPs to share different RATs’ infrastructure. This paper proposes a generic framework for virtualizing heterogeneous wireless network with different RATs. A novel “VMAC” (virtualized medium access control concept is introduced to converge different RAT protocols and perform inter-RAT resource allocation. To suit the proposed framework, a virtualization based resource allocation scheme is devised. We formulate the problem as a mixed combinatorial optimization, which jointly considers network access and rate allocation. First, to solve the network access problem, “adaptability ratio” is developed to model the fact that different RATs possess different adaptability to different services. And a Grey Relational Analysis (GRA method is adopted to calculate the adaptability ratio. Second, services are modeled as players, bargaining for RAT resources in a Nash bargaining game. And a closed-form Nash bargaining solution (NBS is derived. Combining adaptability ratio with NBS, a novel resource allocation algorithm is devised. Through simulation, the superiority and feasibility of the proposed algorithm are validated.

  5. Hospital competition, resource allocation and quality of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwanziger Jack

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of approaches have been used to contain escalating hospital costs. One approach is intensifying price competition. The increase in price based competition, which changes the incentives hospitals face, coupled with the fact that consumers can more easily evaluate the quality of hotel services compared with the quality of clinical care, may lead hospitals to allocate more resources into hotel rather than clinical services. Methods To test this hypothesis we studied hospitals in California in 1982 and 1989, comparing resource allocations prior to and following selective contracting, a period during which the focus of competition changed from quality to price. We estimated the relationship between clinical outcomes, measured as risk-adjusted-mortality rates, and resources. Results In 1989, higher competition was associated with lower clinical expenditures levels compared with 1982. The trend was stronger for non-profit hospitals. Lower clinical resource use was associated with worse risk adjusted mortality outcomes. Conclusions This study raises concerns that cost reductions may be associated with increased mortality.

  6. Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks with Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2017-03-28

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for a two-tier phantom cellular network, The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. We consider densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem taking into consideration the inevitable interference in this setup and imperfect channel estimation impairments. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing this network EE performance metric. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some system parameters on the performance of these strategies, such as phantom cells resource units share, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell , number of pilots, and the phantom cells transmission power budget. It is found that increasing the number of pilots will deteriorate the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing phantom cells transmission power budget will not affect the EE of the whole setup significantly. In addition, we observed that it is always useful to allocate most of the network resource units to the phantom cells tier.

  7. An Architecture of IoT Service Delegation and Resource Allocation Based on Collaboration between Fog and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide utilization of cloud computing (e.g., services, applications, and resources, some of the services, applications, and smart devices are not able to fully benefit from this attractive cloud computing paradigm due to the following issues: (1 smart devices might be lacking in their capacity (e.g., processing, memory, storage, battery, and resource allocation, (2 they might be lacking in their network resources, and (3 the high network latency to centralized server in cloud might not be efficient for delay-sensitive application, services, and resource allocations requests. Fog computing is promising paradigm that can extend cloud resources to edge of network, solving the abovementioned issue. As a result, in this work, we propose an architecture of IoT service delegation and resource allocation based on collaboration between fog and cloud computing. We provide new algorithm that is decision rules of linearized decision tree based on three conditions (services size, completion time, and VMs capacity for managing and delegating user request in order to balance workload. Moreover, we propose algorithm to allocate resources to meet service level agreement (SLA and quality of services (QoS as well as optimizing big data distribution in fog and cloud computing. Our simulation result shows that our proposed approach can efficiently balance workload, improve resource allocation efficiently, optimize big data distribution, and show better performance than other existing methods.

  8. A cross-layer design approach on spectrum allocation and resource scheduling in cognitive PMP networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Min-jian ZHAO; Qiao ZHOU; Shi-ju LI

    2008-01-01

    We propose the spectrum allocation and resource scheduling algorithms in cognitive point to multipoint (PMP)networks with rapid changes of spectrum opportunities and present a media access control (MAC) protocol based on these algorithms. The objective of spectrum allocation is to make efficient use of the spectrum while maintaining the transceiver synchronization on frequency and time in the network. The objective of resource scheduling is to guarantee the quality of service (QoS)requirements of different kinds of connections and to minimize the total energy consumption in the network as well. By sensing only a small set of possible channels in each slot based on the state transition probability of each channel, our spectrum allocation algorithm achieves high spectrum efficiency in the network. The resource scheduling problem is divided into three sub problems and we derive optimal solutions to these problems by greedy algorithm and convex optimization. The simulation results show that our algorithm can make efficient use of the spectrum and the network resources at a cost of low computational complexity.

  9. Fairness-Aware and Energy Efficiency Resource Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Relaying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fairness-aware resource allocation scheme in a cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple (OFDM network is proposed based on jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing, power allocation, and channel-user assignment. Compared with traditional OFDM relaying networks, the source is permitted to retransfer the same data transmitted by it in the first time slot, further improving the system capacity performance. The problem which maximizes the energy efficiency (EE of the system with total power constraint and minimal spectral efficiency constraint is formulated into a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem which has an intractable complexity in general. The optimization model is simplified into a typical fractional programming problem which is testified to be quasiconcave. Thus we can adopt Dinkelbach method to deal with MINLP problem proposed to achieve the optimal solution. The simulation results show that the joint resource allocation method proposed can achieve an optimal EE performance under the minimum system service rate requirement with a good global convergence.

  10. Multiple-Agent Task Allocation Algorithm Utilizing Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Task allocation in multiple agent system has been widely applied many application fields, such as unmanned aerial vehicle, multi-robot system and manufacturing system et al. Therefore, it becomes one of the hot topics in distributed artificial intelligence research field for several years. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel task allocation algorithm in multiple agent systems utilizing ant colony optimization. Firstly, the basic structure of agent organization is described, which include context-aware module, information processing module, the executing module, decision-making and intelligent control module, knowledge base and task table. Based the above agent structure, these module utilize the knowledge in the external environment to process the information in agent communicating. Secondly, we point out that task allocation process in multiple agent systems can be implement by creating the space to the mapping of the multi-agent organization. Thirdly, a modified multiple agent system oriented ant colony optimization algorithm is given, which contain pre-processing steps and the task allocation results are obtained by executing the trust region sqp algorithm in local solver. Finally, performance evaluation is conducted by experiments comparing with Random strategy and Instant optimal strategy, and very positive results are obtained

  11. Children's allocation of resources in social dominance situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Rawan; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice; Kaufmann, Laurence; Reboul, Anne; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments with preschoolers (36 to 78 months) and 8-year-old children (Experiment 1, N = 173; Experiment 2, N = 132) investigated the development of children's resource distribution in dominance contexts. On the basis of the distributive justice literature, 2 opposite predictions were tested. Children could match resource allocation with the unequal social setting they observe and thus favor a dominant individual over a subordinate 1. Alternatively, children could choose to compensate the subordinate if they consider that the dominance asymmetry should be counteracted. Two experiments using a giving task (Experiment 1) and a taking task (Experiment 2) led to the same results. In both experiments, children took dominance into account when allocating resources. Moreover, their distributive decisions were similarly affected by age: Although 3- and 4-year-old children favored the dominant individual, 5-year-old children showed no preference and 8-year-old children strongly favored the subordinate. Several mechanisms accounting for this developmental pattern are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach.

  13. Equity in healthcare resource allocation decision making: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Haylee; Sarkies, Mitchell; Martin, Jennifer; Haines, Terry

    2017-02-01

    To identify elements of endorsed definitions of equity in healthcare and classify domains of these definitions so that policy makers, managers, clinicians, and politicians can form an operational definition of equity that reflects the values and preferences of the society they serve. Systematic review where verbatim text describing explicit and implicit definitions of equity were extracted and subjected to a thematic analysis. The full holdings of the AMED, CINAHL plus, OVID Medline, Scopus, PsychInfo and ProQuest (ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, ProQuest Social Science Journals) were individually searched in April 2015. Studies were included if they provided an original, explicit or implicit definition of equity in regards to healthcare resource allocation decision making. Papers that only cited earlier definitions of equity and provided no new information or extensions to this definition were excluded. The search strategy yielded 74 papers appropriate for this review; 60 of these provided an explicit definition of equity, with a further 14 papers discussing implicit elements of equity that the authors endorsed in regards to healthcare resource allocation decision making. FIVE KEY THEMES EMERGED: i) Equalisation across the health service supply/access/outcome chain, ii) Need or potential to benefit, iii) Groupings of equalisation, iv) Caveats to equalisation, and v) Close enough is good enough. There is great inconsistency in definitions of equity endorsed by different authors. Operational definitions of equity need to be more explicit in addressing these five thematic areas before they can be directly applied to healthcare resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The JPL Resource Allocation Planning and Scheduling Office (RAPSO) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D. G.; Burke, E. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Resource Allocation Planning and Scheduling Office is chartered to divide the limited amount of tracking hours of the Deep Space Network amongst the various missions in as equitable allotment as can be achieved. To best deal with this division of assets and time, an interactive process has evolved that promotes discussion with agreement by consensus between all of the customers that use the Deep Space Network (DSN). Aided by a suite of tools, the task of division of asset time is then performed in three stages of granularity. Using this approach, DSN loads are either forecasted or scheduled throughout a moving 10-year window.

  15. China Adjusts Natural Gas Price for Better Allocation of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has recently increased the wholesale prices of natural gas by around 25 percent to curb demand and better allocate resources.Natural gas benchmark prices went up by 230 yuan to 1,155 yuan per thousand cubic meters,according to the announcement made by the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC)at the end of May."It is necessary to make the adjustment,as the country's natural gas price is significantly lower than that of other fuels,"said Cap Changqing,head of NDRC's pricing department.

  16. Network resource allocation attack detection with long range dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; FANG Bin-xing

    2007-01-01

    The approach of traffic abnormality detection of network resource allocation attack did not have reliable signatures to depict abnormality and identify them. However, it is crucial for us to detect attacks accurately.The technique that we adopted is inspired by long range dependence ideas. We use the number of packet arrivals of a flow in fixed-length time intervals as the signal and attempt to extend traffic invariant "self-similarity".We validate the effectiveness of the approach with simulation and trace analysis.

  17. The Implementation of Innovation and Resource Allocation with Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    All natural and living systems are governed by atomic and molecular behavior at the nanoscale. Research is now seeking systematic approaches to create revolutionary new products and technologies by control of matter at the same scale.Nanotechnology is expected to have a profound impact on our society.The vision,research and development strategy,and timeline of the nanotechnology initiative are presented by using several recent scientific discoveries, innovations and results from industry. This article demonstrates the implications of innovation for nanotechnology development. To deal with the innovation, a theory of nanotechnology development must come to terms with the developmental, organisational, and strategic dimensions of innovative resource allocation.

  18. Allocating Network Resources by Weight Between TCP Traffics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    xU ChangBiao(徐昌彪); LONG KePing(隆克平); YANG ShiZhong(杨士中)

    2003-01-01

    Under the current TCP/IP architecture, all TCP traffics compete for networkresources completely fairly, which makes it difficult to satisfy applications' versatile communicationrequirements. This paper presents an improved TCP congestion control mechanism where thecongestion window becomes ω(1 - b)W rather than (1 - b)W for every window W containing apacket loss. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that it can be easily implementedwith less additional overhead and can easily perform network resource allocation by weightedparameter w for traffics under the similar communication environments, which can efficiently leadto guaranteed relative quality of services and improve network performances.

  19. CHEP2015: Dynamic Resource Allocation with arcControlTower

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job mangement system (Panda) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experience...

  20. Dynamic Resource Allocation with the arcControlTower

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job management system (PanDA) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experienc...

  1. Pricing Resources in LTE Networks through Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Liang Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid “user churn,” which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1 maximizing operator profit and (2 maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  2. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  3. DYNAMIC RESOURCE ALLOCATION SCHEME UNDER TRAFFIC CONDITION IN SATELLITE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jia; Zong Peng

    2012-01-01

    As the traffic distribution in China mainland is far from uniform,a new traffic model in China mainland is presented on the basis of per-capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and density of population.Based on this characteristic traffic model,a new Traffic Dependent Dynamic Channel Allocation and Reservation (TDDCAR) technique is proposed,the simulation model is built,and the strategies' performance is evaluated through computer simulation.The simulation results show that,compared to the conventional Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA),TDDCAR estimates the traffic conditions in every spot beam and frequently adjusts the traffic according to current traffic conditions.Ithas achieved a significant improvement in new call blocking probability,handover blocking probability,and fair index,particularly,in heavy traffic conditions.The building of traffic model in China mainland and the analysis of the simulation results has been a key foundation for the study of resource allocation schemes in the future.

  4. Impact of water allocation strategies to manage groundwater resources in Western Australia: Equity and efficiency considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Fogarty, James

    2017-05-01

    In many parts of the world groundwater is being depleting at an alarming rate. Where groundwater extraction is licenced, regulators often respond to resource depletion by reducing all individual licences by a fixed proportion. This approach can be effective in achieving a reduction in the volume of water extracted, but the approach is not efficient. In water resource management the issue of the equity-efficiency trade-off has been explored in a number of contexts, but not in the context of allocation from a groundwater system. To contribute to this knowledge gap we conduct an empirical case study for Western Australia's most important groundwater system: the Gnangara Groundwater System (GGS). Resource depletion is a serious issue for the GGS, and substantial reductions in groundwater extraction are required to stabilise the system. Using an individual-based farm optimization model we study both the overall impact and the distributional impact of a fixed percentage water allocation cut to horticulture sector licence holders. The model is parameterised using water licence specific data on farm area and water allocation. The modelling shows that much of the impact of water allocation reductions can be mitigated through changing the cropping mix and the irrigation technology used. The modelling also shows that the scope for gains through the aggregation of holdings into larger farms is much greater than the potential losses due to water allocation reductions. The impact of water allocation cuts is also shown to impact large farms more than small farms. For example, the expected loss in net revenue per ha for a 10-ha farm is around three times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm; and the expected loss per ha for a 25-ha farm is around five times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm.

  5. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolova NY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  6. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Ermolova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  7. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Resource Allocation in Green Cooperative Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagan Anpalagan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid increase in the usage and demand of wireless sensor networks (WSN, the limited frequency spectrum available for WSN applications will be extremely crowded in the near future. More sensor devices also mean more recharging/replacement of batteries, which will cause significant impact on the global carbon footprint. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN that allocates communication resources in an environmentally friendly manner. We use shared band amplify and forward relaying for cooperative communication in the proposed CRSN. We present a multi-objective optimization architecture for resource allocation in a green cooperative cognitive radio sensor network (GC-CRSN. The proposed multi-objective framework jointly performs relay assignment and power allocation in GC-CRSN, while optimizing two conflicting objectives. The first objective is to maximize the total throughput, and the second objective is to minimize the total transmission power of CRSN. The proposed relay assignment and power allocation problem is a non-convex mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem (NC-MINLP, which is generally non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP-hard. We introduce a hybrid heuristic algorithm for this problem. The hybrid heuristic includes an estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA for performing power allocation and iterative greedy schemes for constraint satisfaction and relay assignment. We analyze the throughput and power consumption tradeoff in GC-CRSN. A detailed analysis of the performance of the proposed algorithm is presented with the simulation results.

  8. Resource CoAllocation for Scheduling Tasks with Dependencies, in Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Moise, Diana; Pop, Florin; Cristea, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Scheduling applications on wide-area distributed systems is useful for obtaining quick and reliable results in an efficient manner. Optimized scheduling algorithms are fundamentally important in order to achieve optimized resources utilization. The existing and potential applications include many fields of activity like satellite image processing and medicine. The paper proposes a scheduling algorithm for tasks with dependencies in Grid environments. CoAllocation represents a strategy that provides a schedule for task with dependencies, having as main purpose the efficiency of the schedule, in terms of load balancing and minimum time for the execution of the tasks.

  9. Proactive Resource Allocation: Harnessing the Diversity and Multicast Gains

    CERN Document Server

    Tadrous, John; Gamal, Hesham El

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of proactive resource allocation through which the predictability of user behavior is exploited to balance the wireless traffic over time, and hence, significantly reduce the bandwidth required to achieve a given blocking/outage probability. We start with a simple model in which the smart wireless devices are assumed to predict the arrival of new requests and submit them to the network T time slots in advance. Using tools from large deviation theory, we quantify the resulting prediction diversity gain} to establish that the decay rate of the outage event probabilities increases with the prediction duration T. This model is then generalized to incorporate the effect of the randomness in the prediction look-ahead time T. Remarkably, we also show that, in the cognitive networking scenario, the appropriate use of proactive resource allocation by the primary users improves the diversity gain of the secondary network at no cost in the primary network diversity. We also shed l...

  10. Cooperative Precoding/Resource Allocation Games under Spectral Mask and Total Power Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jie; Jiang, Hai

    2009-01-01

    The use of orthogonal signaling schemes such as time-, frequency-, or code-division multiplexing (T-, F-, CDM) in multi-user systems allows for power-efficient simple receivers. It is shown in this paper that by using orthogonal signaling on frequency selective fading channels, the cooperative Nash bargaining (NB)-based precoding games for multi-user systems, which aim at maximizing the information rates of all users, are simplified to the corresponding cooperative resource allocation games. The latter provides additional practically desired simplifications to transmitter design and significantly reduces the overhead during user cooperation. The complexity of the corresponding precoding/resource allocation games, however, depends on the constraints imposed on the users. If only spectral mask constraints are present, the corresponding cooperative NB problem can be formulated as a convex optimization problem and solved efficiently in a distributed manner using dual decomposition based algorithm. However, the NB...

  11. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The objective of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method to find the optimal resource allocation over the LTE resource blocks in order to serve the maximum number of users with the minimum power consumption. Moreover, we derive a closed-form expression for the power allocation problem. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it with various previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. © 2014 IFIP.

  12. Assessing the efficiency of resource allocations in bandwidth-sharing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Verloop (Maaike); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo (Sindo))

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResource allocation in bandwidth-sharing networks is inherently complex: The distributed nature of resource allocation management prohibits global coordination for efficiency, i.e., aiming at full resource usage at all times. In addition, it is well recognized that resource efficiency

  13. Assessing the efficiency of resource allocations in bandwidth-sharing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, I.M.; Núñez-Queija, R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource allocation in bandwidth-sharing networks is inherently complex: the distributed nature of resource allocation management prohibits global coordination for efficiency, i.e., aiming at full resource usage at all times. In addition, it is well recognized that resource efficiency may conflict

  14. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  15. Yoga lessons for consciousness research: a paralimbic network balancing brain resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to play a key role in shaping flexible learning and as such is thought to confer an evolutionary advantage. Attention and awareness are the perhaps most important underlying processes, yet their precise relationship is presently unclear. Both of these processes must, however, serve the evolutionary imperatives of survival and procreation. They are thus intimately bound by reward and emotion to help to prioritize efficient brain resource allocation in order to predict and optimize behaviour. Here we show how this process is served by a paralimbic network consisting primarily of regions located on the midline of the human brain. Using many different techniques, experiments have demonstrated that this network is effective and specific for self-awareness and contributes to the sense of unity of consciousness by acting as a common neural path for a wide variety of conscious experiences. Interestingly, haemodynamic activity in the network decreases with focusing on external stimuli, which has led to the idea of a default mode network. This network is one of many networks that wax and vane as resources are allocated to accommodate the different cyclical needs of the organism primarily related the fundamental pleasures afforded by evolution: food, sex and conspecifics. Here we hypothesize, however, that the paralimbic network serves a crucial role in balancing and regulating brain resource allocation, and discuss how it can be thought of as a link between current theories of so-called default mode, resting state networks and global workspace. We show how major developmental disorders of self-awareness and self-control can arise from problems in the paralimbic network as demonstrated here by the example of Asperger syndrome. We conclude that attention, awareness and emotion are integrated by a paralimbic network that helps to efficiently allocate brain resources to optimize behaviour and help survival.

  16. Service-Oriented Resource Allocation in Clouds:Pursuing Flexibility and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜; 钱柱中; 吴杰; 陆桑璐

    2015-01-01

    The networking-oblivious resource reservation model in today’s public clouds cannot guarantee the performance of tenants’ applications. Virtual networks that capture both computing and networking resource requirements of tenants have been proposed as better interfaces between cloud providers and tenants. In this paper, we propose a novel virtual network model that could specify not only absolute and relative location requirements but also time-varying resource demands. Building on top of our model, we study how to efficiently and flexibly place multiple virtual networks in a cloud, and we propose two algorithms, MIPA and SAPA, which focus on optimizing resource utilization and providing flexible placement, respectively. The mixed integer programming based MIPA transforms the placement problem into the multi-commodity flow problem through augmenting the physical network with shadow nodes and links. The simulated annealing-based SAPA achieves resource utilization efficiency through opportunistically sharing physical resources among multiple resource demands. Besides, SAPA allows cloud providers to control the trade-offs between performance guarantee and resource utilization, and between allocation optimality and running time, and allows tenants to control the trade-off between application performance and placement cost. Extensive simulation results confirm the efficiency of MIPA in resource utilization and the flexibility of SAPA in controlling trade-offs.

  17. Optimal Energy Allocation for Wireless Communications with Energy Harvesting Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chin Keong

    2011-01-01

    We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) and full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution w...

  18. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  19. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  20. 山东省普通高校体育资源配置现状与优化策略选择研究%Allocation of sports resources in colleges and optimization strategy in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振涛

    2014-01-01

    By using the method of literature,questionnaire survey,etc. ,the article analysed the dis-tribution of sports resources in colleges in Shandong province,put forwards the allocation of sports resources should fit the demand of the university students. In this research,it discovers that the structure of professional titles,ages and educational levels tend to be reasonable,but the profession-al structure mainly concentrated in track and field,ball games and gymnastics;funds can meet the basic need of teaching and training;average acreage of the field(pavilion)is less than the standard which stipulated by the Ministry of education;sports information resource allocation is still relatively backward,and the utilization rate is relatively low.%采用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法,通过对山东省普通高校体育资源配置现状的调查与分析,提出了以学生需要为特征的、资源共享的体育资源配置方式。研究认为,山东省普通高校体育人力资源年龄结构、职称结构和学历结构较合理,专业结构主要集中在球类、田径和体操等项目;高校体育经费基本能够满足体育教学和训练的需要;生均场(馆)面积均低于教育部的规定标准;体育信息资源配置方面还比较落后,利用率也比较低。

  1. Allocating HIV prevention funds in the United States: recommendations from an optimization model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Lasry

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC had an annual budget of approximately $327 million to fund health departments and community-based organizations for core HIV testing and prevention programs domestically between 2001 and 2006. Annual HIV incidence has been relatively stable since the year 2000 and was estimated at 48,600 cases in 2006 and 48,100 in 2009. Using estimates on HIV incidence, prevalence, prevention program costs and benefits, and current spending, we created an HIV resource allocation model that can generate a mathematically optimal allocation of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention's extramural budget for HIV testing, and counseling and education programs. The model's data inputs and methods were reviewed by subject matter experts internal and external to the CDC via an extensive validation process. The model projects the HIV epidemic for the United States under different allocation strategies under a fixed budget. Our objective is to support national HIV prevention planning efforts and inform the decision-making process for HIV resource allocation. Model results can be summarized into three main recommendations. First, more funds should be allocated to testing and these should further target men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. Second, counseling and education interventions ought to provide a greater focus on HIV positive persons who are aware of their status. And lastly, interventions should target those at high risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV, rather than lower-risk members of the general population. The main conclusions of the HIV resource allocation model have played a role in the introduction of new programs and provide valuable guidance to target resources and improve the impact of HIV prevention efforts in the United States.

  2. Relay Selection and Subcarrier-Pair Based Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Multirelay Cooperative OFDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient resource allocation is investigated for a relay-based multiuser cooperation orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA uplink system with amplify-and-forward (AF protocol for all relays. The objective is to maximize the total energy efficiency (EE of the uplink system with consideration of some practical limitations, such as the individual power constraint for the users and relays and the quality of service (QoS for every user. We formulate an energy-efficient resource allocation problem that seeks joint optimization of subcarrier pairing, relay selection, subcarrier assignment, and power allocation. Unlike previous optimization throughput models, we transform the considered EE problem in fractional form into an equivalent optimal problem in subtractive form, which is solved by using dual decomposition and subgradient methods. To reduce computation costs, we propose two low-complexity suboptimal schemes. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the EE of the proposed algorithms.

  3. A Comparative Study on Resource Allocation Policies in Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavani B H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the latest models used for sharing pool of resources like CPU, memory, network bandwidth, hard drive etc. over the Internet. These resources are requested by the cloud user and are used on a rented basis just like electricity, water, LPG etc. When requests are made by the cloud user, allocation has to be done by the cloud service provider. With the limited amount of resources available, resource allocation becomes a challenging task for the cloud service provider as the resources are to be virtualized and allocated. These resources can be allocated dynamically or statically based on the type of request made by the cloud user and also depending on the application. In this paper, survey on both Static and Dynamic Allocation techniques are made. Also, comparison of both static and dynamic resource allocation techniques is made.

  4. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ehlen, Mark Andrew (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  5. Invited review: resource allocation mismatch as pathway to disproportionate growth in farm animals - prerequisite for a disturbed health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K

    2017-08-14

    The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime. Priorities for these processes are mainly determined by the genetic background, the rearing system and the feeding regimen. Aim of this review was to re-discuss the impact of a proper resource allocation for a long and healthy life span in farm animals. Using the barrel model of resource allocation, resource fluxes were explained and were implemented to specific productive life conditions of different farm animal species, dairy cows, sows and poultry. Hypothetically, resource allocation mismatch neglecting maintenance is a central process, which might be associated with morphological constraints of extracellular matrix components; evidence for that was found in the literature. A potential consequence of this limitation is a phenomenon called disproportionate growth, which counteracts the genetically determined scaling rules for body and organ proportions and could have a strong impact on farm animal health and production.

  6. Resource allocation for phantom cellular networks: Energy efficiency vs spectral efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr M.

    2016-07-26

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Mean-while, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies for phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and phantom cells share of the total number of available resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It was found that increasing phantom cells share of resource blocks decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. © 2016 IEEE.

  7. Spectrum sensing and resource allocation for multicarrier cognitive radio systems under interference and power constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmese, Sener; Srinivasan, Sudharsan; Shaat, Musbah; Bader, Faouzi; Renfors, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Multicarrier waveforms have been commonly recognized as strong candidates for cognitive radio. In this paper, we study the dynamics of spectrum sensing and spectrum allocation functions in cognitive radio context using very practical signal models for the primary users (PUs), including the effects of power amplifier nonlinearities. We start by sensing the spectrum with energy detection-based wideband multichannel spectrum sensing algorithm and continue by investigating optimal resource allocation methods. Along the way, we examine the effects of spectral regrowth due to the inevitable power amplifier nonlinearities of the PU transmitters. The signal model includes frequency selective block-fading channel models for both secondary and primary transmissions. Filter bank-based wideband spectrum sensing techniques are applied for detecting spectral holes and filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) modulation is selected for transmission as an alternative multicarrier waveform to avoid the disadvantage of limited spectral containment of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based multicarrier systems. The optimization technique used for the resource allocation approach considered in this study utilizes the information obtained through spectrum sensing and knowledge of spectrum leakage effects of the underlying waveforms, including a practical power amplifier model for the PU transmitter. This study utilizes a computationally efficient algorithm to maximize the SU link capacity with power and interference constraints. It is seen that the SU transmission capacity depends critically on the spectral containment of the PU waveform, and these effects are quantified in a case study using an 802.11-g WLAN scenario.

  8. Channel Resource Allocation for VoIP Applications in Collaborative IEEE 802.11/802.16 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foh ChuanHeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between the IEEE 802.11 and the IEEE 802.16 networks operating in a common spectrum offers dynamic allocate bandwidth resources to achieve improved performance for network applications. This paper studies the bandwidth resource allocation of collaborative IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16 networks. Consider delivering data packets between mobile stations and Internet users through an access point (AP of the IEEE 802.11 network and a base station (BS of the IEEE 802.16 network operating on a common frequency band, we analyze their medium access control (MAC protocols, frame structures, and design a cooperation mechanism for the IEEE 802.11 and the IEEE 802.16 networks to share the same medium with adaptive resource allocation. Based on the mechanism, an optimized resource allocation scheme is proposed for VoIP applications. An analytical model is developed for the study to show significant improvements in voice capacity for our optimized resource allocation scheme.

  9. Asymptotically Optimal Simulation Budget Allocation under Fixed Confidence Level by Ordinal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-feng; SUNChun-Lin; CHENYong-qing

    2004-01-01

    Ordinal optimization concentrates on isolating a subset of good designs with high probability and reduces the required simulation time dramatically for discrete event simulation. To obtain the same probability level,we may optimally allocate our computing budget among different designs,instead of equally simulating all different designs. In this paper we present an effective approach to optimally allocate computing budget for discrete-event system simulation. While ordinal optimization can dramatically reduce the computation cost, our approach can further reduce the already-low cost.

  10. Software for Allocating Resources in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Borden, Chester; Zendejas, Silvino; Baldwin, John

    2003-01-01

    TIGRAS 2.0 is a computer program designed to satisfy a need for improved means for analyzing the tracking demands of interplanetary space-flight missions upon the set of ground antenna resources of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and for allocating those resources. Written in Microsoft Visual C++, TIGRAS 2.0 provides a single rich graphical analysis environment for use by diverse DSN personnel, by connecting to various data sources (relational databases or files) based on the stages of the analyses being performed. Notable among the algorithms implemented by TIGRAS 2.0 are a DSN antenna-load-forecasting algorithm and a conflict-aware DSN schedule-generating algorithm. Computers running TIGRAS 2.0 can also be connected using SOAP/XML to a Web services server that provides analysis services via the World Wide Web. TIGRAS 2.0 supports multiple windows and multiple panes in each window for users to view and use information, all in the same environment, to eliminate repeated switching among various application programs and Web pages. TIGRAS 2.0 enables the use of multiple windows for various requirements, trajectory-based time intervals during which spacecraft are viewable, ground resources, forecasts, and schedules. Each window includes a time navigation pane, a selection pane, a graphical display pane, a list pane, and a statistics pane.

  11. Resource allocation via sum-rate maximization in the uplink of multi-cell OFDMA networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    In this paper, we consider maximizing the sum rate in the uplink of a multi-cell orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network. The problem has a non-convex combinatorial structure and is known to be NP-hard. Because of the inherent complexity of implementing the optimal solution, firstly, we derive an upper bound (UB) and a lower bound (LB) to the optimal average network throughput. Moreover, we investigate the performance of a near-optimal single cell resource allocation scheme in the presence of inter-cell interference, which leads to another easily computable LB. We then develop a centralized sub-optimal scheme that is composed of a geometric programming-based power control phase in conjunction with an iterative subcarrier allocation phase. Although the scheme is computationally complex, it provides an effective benchmark for low complexity schemes even without the power control phase. Finally, we propose less complex centralized and distributed schemes that are well suited for practical scenarios. The computational complexity of all schemes is analyzed, and the performance is compared through simulations. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed low complexity schemes can achieve comparable performance with that of the centralized sub-optimal scheme in various scenarios. Moreover, comparisons with the UB and LB provide insight on the performance gap between the proposed schemes and the optimal solution. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  13. Development of a Resource Allocation Model Using Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, during decision making or negotiations, the investor and the investee may often have different opinions which result in conflicts. So, an objective standard to mitigate potential conflicts between investors and investees should be provided since it is highly important that rational decisions must be made when choosing investments from various options. However, the models currently used come with some problems for several reasons, for instance, the arbitrariness of the evaluator, the difficulty in understanding the relationships that exist among the various investment options (that is, alternatives to investments, inconsistency in priorities, and simply providing selection criteria without detailing the proportion of investment in each option or evaluating only a single investment option at a time without considering all options. Thus, in this research, we present a project selection model which can enable reasonable resource allocation or determination of return rates by considering the core competencies for various investment options. Here, core competency is based on both performance and ability to create a competitive advantage. For this, we deduce issue-specific structural power indicators and analyze quantitatively the resource allocation results based on negotiation power. Through this, it is possible to examine whether the proposed project selection model considers core competencies or not by comparing several project selection models currently used. Furthermore, the proposed model can be used on its own, or in combination with other methods. Consequently, the presented model can be used as a quantitative criterion for determining behavioral tactics, and also can be used to mitigate potential conflicts between the investor and the investee who are considering idiosyncratic investments, determined by an interplay between power and core competency.

  14. RESOURCE ALLOCATION TECHNIQUE USING LOAD MATRIX METHOD IN WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Prabhakar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient resource allocation is one of the greatest challenges in wireless cellular communication. The resource allocation schemes avoid wastage of resources by allocating resources to a mobile terminal over a short period of time, providing quality of service over wireless networks is the most stressing point for service providers. In general a high degree of sharing is efficient, but requires service protection mechanisms to guarantee the QoS for all services. In this paper we address the multi cell interference on overall radio resource utilization and propose a new strategy for resource allocation in multi cell systems. we also propose a joint management of interference within and between cells for allocation of radio resources , Simulation results are showing that there is a significant improvement in the resource utilization so that overall network performance.

  15. 社会网络视角下区域科技资源配置网络优化策略%Regional Science and Technology Resource Allocation Network Optimi-zation Strategy in the Perspective of Social Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进富; 邵美蓉; 张颖颖

    2015-01-01

    区域科技资源配置网络本质上属于创新网络,作为创新主体与资源主体互动的有效形式,其网络优化已成为提升科技资源配置效率的关键。基于社会网络视角构建了区域科技资源配置网络模型和测评指标体系;运用超效率DEA-Tobit方法分析得出网络规模、网络开放性、结构洞、联结强度和互惠性对资源配置效率均有不同程度影响,网络中心度对资源配置效率影响不显著;最后根据实证结果从政府角度提出了网络优化策略。%Regional Science and Technology Resource Al ocation networks are essential y within the Innovation Network. As an effective form of innovation and resource principal body interaction, the network optimization has become crucial to promote technological al ocation of resources. Firstly,we build a regional scientific and technological resources to configure the network structure model. Secondly,we analysis the resources principal role of network according to the social attrib-utes of technology resource owner; Thirdly, we study the effects of network structure and and empirical study; Final y, we estimate 30 provinces’ al ocated efficiency by two-stage DEA-Tobit model and analyze the relationship of network resource al ocation and resource al ocation efficien-cy . It proves the network size, network openness, links and reciprocal significantly affect the strength of the efficiency of resource al ocation,network centrality has no significant effect on the efficiency of resource al ocation,and some indicators of structural holes have a positive impact on regional science and technology resources al ocation efficiency, but some has a negative im-pact. What’s more,we propose a network optimization strategy from the viewpoint of the govern-ment .

  16. Optimal Register Allocation by Augmented Left-Edge Algorithm on Arbitrary Control-Flow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruvald Pedersen, Mark; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm for optimal register allocation in context of high-level synthesis is presented. In this paper we show how the greedy left-edge algorithm can be leveraged to obtain a globally optimal allocation, that is computed in polynomial time. By splitting variables at block boundaries, allows...... for allocation to be done using only quasi-local and local allocation - avoiding the complexity of true global allocation. As local allocation is much simpler than global allocation, this approach emphasizes efficiency and ease of implementation - at a cost of an increased number of register transfers compared...

  17. Rational allocation of water resources based on ecological groundwater levels:a case study in Jinghui Irrigation District in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Zhou, W. B.; Dong, Q. G.; Liu, B. Y.; Ma, C.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at the hydrogeological environmental problems caused by over-exploitation and unreasonable utilization of water resources in Jinghui Irrigation District, this paper discusses the ecological groundwater level of the study area and establishes a three-layer optimal allocation model of water resources based on the theory of large scale systems. Then, the genetic algorithm method was employed to optimize the model and obtain the optimal allocation of crop irrigation schedule and water resources under the condition of a 75% assurance rate. Finally, the numerical simulation model of the groundwater was applied to analyze the balance of the groundwater on the basis of the optimal allocation scheme. The results show that the upper limitation of the ecological groundwater in Jinghui Irrigation District ranged from 1.8m to 4.2m, while the lower limitation level ranged from 8m to 28m. By 2020, the condition of the groundwater imbalance that results from adopting the optimal allocation scheme will be much better than that caused by current water utilization scheme. With the exception of only a few areas, the groundwater level in most parts of Jinghui Irrigation District will not exceed the lower limitation of ecological groundwater level.

  18. Optimal Allocation of Replicates for Measurement Evaluation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislav O.Zakharkin; Kyoungmi Kim; Alfred A.Bartolucci; Grier P.Page; David B.Allison

    2006-01-01

    Optimal experimental design is important for the efficient use of modern highthroughput technologies such as microarrays and proteomics. Multiple factors including the reliability of measurement system, which itself must be estimated from prior experimental work, could influence design decisions. In this study, we describe how the optimal number of replicate measures (technical replicates) for each biological sample (biological replicate) can be determined. Different allocations of biological and technical replicates were evaluated by minimizing the variance of the ratio of technical variance (measurement error) to the total variance (sum of sampling error and measurement error). We demonstrate that if the number of biological replicates and the number of technical replicates per biological sample are variable, while the total number of available measures is fixed, then the optimal allocation of replicates for measurement evaluation experiments requires two technical replicates for each biological replicate. Therefore, it is recommended to use two technical replicates for each biological replicate if the goal is to evaluate the reproducibility of measurements.

  19. Optimal redundancy allocation for reliability systems with imperfect switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Ran; Jinlin Li; Xujie Jia; Hongrui Chu

    2014-01-01

    The problem of stochastical y al ocating redundant com-ponents to increase the system lifetime is an important topic of reliability. An optimal redundancy al ocation is proposed, which maximizes the expected lifetime of a reliability system with sub-systems consisting of components in paral el. The constraints are minimizing the total resources and the sizes of subsystems. In this system, each switching is independent with each other and works with probability p. Two optimization problems are studied by an incremental algorithm and dynamic programming technique respectively. The incremental algorithm proposed could obtain an approximate optimal solution, and the dynamic programming method could generate the optimal solution.

  20. Resource Allocation for Vertical Sectorization in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO technology has been discussed widely in the past few years. Three-dimensional MIMO (3D MIMO can be seen as a promising technique to realize massive MIMO to enhance the performance of LTE-Advanced systems. Vertical sectorization can be introduced by means of adjusting the downtilt of transmitting antennas. Thus, the radiowave from a base station (BS to a group of user equipments (UE can be divided into two beams which point at two different areas within a cell. Intrasector interference is inevitable since the resources are overlapped. In this paper, the influence of intrasector interference is analyzed and an enhanced resource allocation scheme for vertical sectorization is proposed as a method of interference cancellation. Compared with the conventional 2D MIMO scenarios, cell average throughput of the whole system can be improved by vertical sectorization. System level simulation is performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. In addition, the impacts of downtilt parameters and intersite distance (ISD on spectral efficiency and cell coverage are presented.

  1. Relay Selection and Resource Allocation in One-Way and Two-Way Cognitive Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2013-05-08

    In this work, the problem of relay selection and resource power allocation in one- way and two-way cognitive relay networks using half duplex channels with different relaying protocols is investigated. Optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection that maximize the sum rate of the secondary network without degrading the quality of service of the primary network by respecting a tolerated interference threshold were formulated. Single relay selection and optimal power allocation for two-way relaying cognitive radio networks using decode-and-forward and amplify-and-forward protocols were studied. Dual decomposition and subgradient methods were used to find the optimal power allocation. The transmission process to exchange two different messages between two transceivers for two-way relaying technique takes place in two time slots. In the first slot, the transceivers transmit their signals simultaneously to the relay. Then, during the second slot the relay broadcasts its signal to the terminals. Moreover, improvement of both spectral and energy efficiency can be achieved compared with the one-way relaying technique. As an extension, a multiple relay selection for both one-way and two-way relaying under cognitive radio scenario using amplify-and-forward were discussed. A strong optimization tool based on genetic and iterative algorithms was employed to solve the 
formulated optimization problems for both single and multiple relay selection, where discrete relay power levels were considered. Simulation results show that the practical and low-complexity heuristic approaches achieve almost the same performance of the optimal relay selection schemes either with discrete or continuous power distributions while providing a considerable saving in terms of computational complexity.

  2. Feedback-Based Resource Allocation in MapReduce-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjamin Memishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Containers are considered an optimized fine-grain alternative to virtual machines in cloud-based systems. Some of the approaches which have adopted the use of containers are the MapReduce frameworks. This paper makes an analysis of the use of containers in MapReduce-based systems, concluding that the resource utilization of these systems in terms of containers is suboptimal. In order to solve this, the paper describes AdaptCont, a proposal for optimizing the containers allocation in MapReduce systems. AdaptCont is based on the foundations of feedback systems. Two different selection approaches, Dynamic AdaptCont and Pool AdaptCont, are defined. Whereas Dynamic AdaptCont calculates the exact amount of resources per each container, Pool AdaptCont chooses a predefined container from a pool of available configurations. AdaptCont is evaluated for a particular case, the application master container of Hadoop YARN. As we can see in the evaluation, AdaptCont behaves much better than the default resource allocation mechanism of Hadoop YARN.

  3. Optimal allocation of conservation effort among subpopulations of a threatened species: how important is patch quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, Aliénor L M; Baxter, Peter W J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-04-01

    Money is often a limiting factor in conservation, and attempting to conserve endangered species can be costly. Consequently, a framework for optimizing fiscally constrained conservation decisions for a single species is needed. In this paper we find the optimal budget allocation among isolated subpopulations of a threatened species to minimize local extinction probability. We solve the problem using stochastic dynamic programming, derive a useful and simple alternative guideline for allocating funds, and test its performance using forward simulation. The model considers subpopulations that persist in habitat patches of differing quality, which in our model is reflected in different relationships between money invested and extinction risk. We discover that, in most cases, subpopulations that are less efficient to manage should receive more money than those that are more efficient to manage, due to higher investment needed to reduce extinction risk. Our simple investment guideline performs almost as well as the exact optimal strategy. We illustrate our approach with a case study of the management of the Sumatran tiger, Panthera tigris sumatrae, in Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Indonesia. We find that different budgets should be allocated to the separate tiger subpopulations in KSNP. The subpopulation that is not at risk of extinction does not require any management investment. Based on the combination of risks of extinction and habitat quality, the optimal allocation for these particular tiger subpopulations is an unusual case: subpopulations that occur in higher-quality habitat (more efficient to manage) should receive more funds than the remaining subpopulation that is in lower-quality habitat. Because the yearly budget allocated to the KSNP for tiger conservation is small, to guarantee the persistence of all the subpopulations that are currently under threat we need to prioritize those that are easier to save. When allocating resources among subpopulations

  4. Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, S G Prem; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi

    2009-01-14

    To conduct composite economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions to inform efficient utilization of resources in India. We obtained output and economic cost data for the 2005-2006 fiscal year from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programmes of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Using data from various sources, we developed a model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted. We estimated the additional HIV infections that could be averted if each intervention reached optimal coverage and the associated cost. In a year, 9688 HIV infections were averted by public-funded HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh. Scaling-up interventions to the optimal level would require US$38.8 million annually, 2.8 times the US$13.8 million economic cost in 2005-2006. This could increase the number of HIV infections averted by 2.4-fold, if with higher resources there were many-fold increases in the proportional allocation for programmes for migrant labourers, men who have sex with men and voluntary counselling and testing, and reduction of the high proportion for mass media campaigns to one-third of the 2005-2006 proportion of resource utilization. If the proportions of resource allocation for interventions remained similar to 2005-2006, the higher resources would avert 54% of the additional avertable HIV infections. The recent four-fold increase in public funding for HIV/AIDS control in India should be adequate to scale-up HIV prevention interventions to an optimal level in Andhra Pradesh, but the prevention would be suboptimal if additional investments were not preferentially directed to some particular interventions.

  5. On the use of clustering for resource allocation in wireless visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Angeliki V.; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is focused on the problem of quality-driven cross-layer optimization of Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). We consider a centralized topology where each sensor transmits directly to a Centralized Control Unit (CCU), which manages the network resources. In real environments, the visual sensors view and transmit scenes with varying amount of motion. Thus, each recorded video has its individual motion characteristics. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each WVSN node under certain quality- driven criteria and constant chip rate. We consider two approaches for the cross-layer optimization scheme. In the first, the optimal set of network resources is assigned to each node according to its individual motion characteristics. In the second approach, the nodes are partitioned into clusters according to the amount of motion in the recorded scenes. Then, all nodes within a cluster are assigned identical network resources. Both approaches result in mixed-integer optimization problems, which are solved with the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the quality/complexity trade-off for the two approaches.

  6. Resource allocation in circuit-switched all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Douglas; Barry, Richard A.; Finn, Steven G.; Parikh, Salil A.; Swanson, Eric A.; Thomas, Robert E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe an all-optical network testbed deployed in the Boston area, and research surrounding the allocation of optical resources -- frequencies and time slots -- within the network. The network was developed by a consortium of AT&T Bell Laboratories, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a grant from ARPA. The network is organized as a hierarchy consisting of local, metropolitan, and wide area nodes tea support optical broadcast and routing modes. Frequencies are shared and reused to enhance network scalability. Electronic access is provided through optical terminals that support multiple services having data rates between 10 Mbps/user and 10 Gbps/user. Of particular interest for this work is the 'B-service,' which simultaneously hops frequency and time slots on each optical terminal to allow frequency sharing within the AON. B-service provides 1.244 Gbps per optical terminal, with bandwidth for individual connections divided in increments as small as 10 Mbps. We have created interfaces between the AON and commercially available electronic circuit-switched and packet-switched networks. The packet switches provide FDDI (datacomm), T3 (telecomm), and ATM/SONET switching at backplane rates of over 3 Gbps. We show results on network applications that dynamically allocate optical bandwidth between electronic packet-switches based on the offered load presented by users. Bandwidth allocation granularity is proportional to B-Service slots (10-1244 Mbps), and switching times are on the order of one second. We have also studied the effects of wavelength changers upon the network capacity and blocking probabilities in wide area all-optical networks. Wavelength changers allow a change in the carrier frequency (within the network) without disturbing the data modulation. The study includes both a theoretical model of blocking probabilities based on network design parameters, and a computer simulation of blocking in networks with and

  7. Optimal depletion of exhaustible resources: existence and characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, T.

    1980-09-01

    A model of intertemporal allocation is considered in which there is a produced good (which can be used for consumption or for further production), and an exhaustible resource (which is essential for production), the total initial stock of which is given. The use of the resource over the (infinite) planning horizon must not exceed this available stock. A planner is assumed to evaluate consumption in each period, in terms of a utility function, and to maximize the undiscounted sum of these one-period utilities, to obtain, simultaneously, the optimal depletion of the exhaustible resource, and the optimal investment pattern. 20 references.

  8. JOINT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR WLAN&WCDMA INTEGRATED NETWORKS BASED ON SPECTRAL BANDWIDTH MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Su; Ye Qiang; Liu Shengmei; Zhou Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Next wireless network aims to integrate heterogeneous wireless access networks by sharing wireless resource.The spectral bandwidth mapping concept is proposed to uniformly describe the resource in heterogeneous wireless networks.The resources of codes and power levels in WCDMA system as well as statistical time slots in WLAN are mapped into equivalent bandwidth which can be allocated in different networks and layers.The equivalent bandwidth is jointly distributed in call admission and vertical handoff control process in an integrated WLAN/WCDMA system to optimize the network utility and guarantee the heterogeneous QoS required by calls.Numerical results show that,when the incoming traffic is moderate,the proposed scheme could receive 5%-10% increase of system revenue compared to the MDP based algorithms.

  9. Pre-allocation Strategies of Computational Resources in Cloud Computing using Adaptive Resonance Theory-2

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges of cloud computing is the management of request-response coupling and optimal allocation strategies of computational resources for the various types of service requests. In the normal situations the intelligence required to classify the nature and order of the request using standard methods is insufficient because the arrival of request is at a random fashion and it is meant for multiple resources with different priority order and variety. Hence, it becomes absolutely essential that we identify the trends of different request streams in every category by auto classifications and organize preallocation strategies in a predictive way. It calls for designs of intelligent modes of interaction between the client request and cloud computing resource manager. This paper discusses about the corresponding scheme using Adaptive Resonance Theory-2.

  10. Photoreceptor effects on plant biomass, resource allocation, and metabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deyue; Seaton, Daniel D; Krahmer, Johanna; Halliday, Karen J

    2016-07-05

    Plants sense the light environment through an ensemble of photoreceptors. Members of the phytochrome class of light receptors are known to play a critical role in seedling establishment, and are among the best-characterized plant signaling components. Phytochromes also regulate adult plant growth; however, our knowledge of this process is rather fragmented. This study demonstrates that phytochrome controls carbon allocation and biomass production in the developing plant. Phytochrome mutants have a reduced CO2 uptake, yet overaccumulate daytime sucrose and starch. This finding suggests that even though carbon fixation is impeded, the available carbon resources are not fully used for growth during the day. Supporting this notion, phytochrome depletion alters the proportion of day:night growth. In addition, phytochrome loss leads to sizeable reductions in overall growth, dry weight, total protein levels, and the expression of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes. Because cellulose and protein are major constituents of plant biomass, our data point to an important role for phytochrome in regulating these fundamental components of plant productivity. We show that phytochrome loss impacts core metabolism, leading to elevated levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, amino acids, sugar derivatives, and notably the stress metabolites proline and raffinose. Furthermore, the already growth-retarded phytochrome mutants are less responsive to growth-inhibiting abiotic stresses and have elevated expression of stress marker genes. This coordinated response appears to divert resources from energetically costly biomass production to improve resilience. In nature, this strategy may be activated in phytochrome-disabling, vegetation-dense habitats to enhance survival in potentially resource-limiting conditions.

  11. 浅谈企业的人力资源配置%Discussion on the Human Resources Allocation of Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽景

    2011-01-01

    文章首先对企业在人力资源配置方面存在的问题进行简要分析并对人力资源的合理配置问题进行论述,从知人善用、适人适位,动态优化与配置,个人与组织发展的匹配的角度出发,寻求解决人力资源配置问题的途径.%This article first analyzes the problems in human resource allocation of enterprises, discusses the rational allocation of human resources,and seeks the methods to resolve the problems in human resources allocation from the perspectives of appreciating use personal, proper human and proper job, dynamic optimization and configuration, the match between personal and organizational development.

  12. Optimal irrigation water allocation for a center pivot using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Efficient irrigation can help avoid crop water stress, undesirable leaching of nutrients, and yield reduction due to water shortage, and runoff and soil erosion due to over irrigation. Gains in water use efficiency can be achieved when water application is precisely matched to the spatially distributed crop water demand. This is important to produce high quality crops and otherwise conserve water for greatest efficiency of use. Irrigation efficiency is a term which defines irrigation performance based on indicators such as irrigation uniformity, crop production, economic return and water resources sustainability. The present paper introduces a modeling approach for optimal water allocation to a center pivot irrigation unit in consideration of these types of indicators. Landsat images, weather data and field measurements were used to develop a soil water balance model using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The model includes two main modules, one for soil water forecasting and one for optimization of water allocation. The optimization module uses Genetic Algorithms (GA) to identify optimal crop water application rates based on the crop type, growing stage and sensitivity to water stress. The forecasting module allocates water through time across the area covered by the center pivot considering the results from the previous period of irrigation and the operational limitations of the center pivot irrigation system. The model was tested for a farm equipped with a modern sprinkler irrigation system in Scipio, Utah. The solution obtained from the model used up to 30 percent less water without reducing the benefits realized by the irrigator than traditional operating procedures.

  13. Analysis of Cloud Network Management Using Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Okafor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network failure in cloud datacenter could result from inefficient resource allocation; scheduling and logical segmentation of physical machines (network constraints. This is highly undesirable in Distributed Cloud Computing Networks (DCCNs running mission critical services. Such failure has been identified in the University of Nigeria datacenter network situated in the south eastern part of Nigeria. In this paper, the architectural decomposition of a proposed DCCN was carried out while exploring its functionalities for grid performance. Virtualization services such as resource allocation and task scheduling were employed in heterogeneous server clusters. The validation of the DCCN performance was carried out using trace files from Riverbed Modeller 17.5 in order to ascertain the influence of virtualization on server resource pool. The QoS metrics considered in the analysis are: the service delay time, resource availability, throughput and utilization. From the validation analysis of the DCCN, the following results were obtained: average throughput (bytes/Sec for DCCN = 40.00%, DCell = 33.33% and BCube = 26.67%. Average resource availability response for DCCN = 38.46%, DCell = 33.33%, and BCube = 28.21%. DCCN density on resource utilization = 40% (when logically isolated and 60% (when not logically isolated. From the results, it was concluded that using virtualization in a cloud DataCenter servers will result in enhanced server performance offering lower average wait time even with a higher request rate and longer duration of resource use (service availability. By evaluating these recursive architectural designs for network operations, enterprises ready for Spine and leaf model could further develop their network resource management schemes for optimal performance.

  14. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 10: operationalising disinvestment in a conceptual framework for resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Green, Sally; Elshaug, Adam G

    2017-09-08

    This is the tenth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. After more than a decade of research, there is little published evidence of active and successful disinvestment. The paucity of frameworks, methods and tools is reported to be a factor in the lack of success. However there are clear and consistent messages in the literature that can be used to inform development of a framework for operationalising disinvestment. This paper, along with the conceptual review of disinvestment in Paper 9 of this series, aims to integrate the findings of the SHARE Program with the existing disinvestment literature to address the lack of information regarding systematic organisation-wide approaches to disinvestment at the local health service level. A framework for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting is proposed. Definitions for essential terms and key concepts underpinning the framework have been made explicit to address the lack of consistent terminology. Given the negative connotations of the word 'disinvestment' and the problems inherent in considering disinvestment in isolation, the basis for the proposed framework is 'resource allocation' to address the spectrum of decision-making from investment to disinvestment. The focus is positive: optimising healthcare, improving health outcomes, using resources effectively. The framework is based on three components: a program for decision-making, projects to implement decisions and evaluate outcomes, and research to understand and improve the program and project activities. The program consists of principles for decision-making and settings that provide opportunities to introduce systematic prompts and triggers to initiate disinvestment. The projects follow the steps in the disinvestment process. Potential methods and tools are presented, however the framework does not stipulate project design or conduct; allowing

  15. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization are derived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closed form expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of the unicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-user scalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is hence amenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider a framework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases in broadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal bandwidth and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  16. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  17. Provincial Water Resource Allocation in Agricultural Sector Using Conflict Resolution Methods in Atrak Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KazemiMeresht

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of improving the water productivity due to development in water infrastructure systems, population increasing causing the water withdrawal is triple in the last fifty years. In this situation competition on water consumption especially in the agricultural sector which is the biggest consumer in the world and also in Iran is a severe problem. Water allocation has been assessed widely in the recent past. Additionally, several studies have explored methods to incorporate conflict resolution methods in water allocation. In a general classification, there are two types of methods. One is the method based on game theory, graph theory and general models based oncooperative game into a category that has the ability to consider the stakeholder preferences and assess the several scenarios under specified policy. Although this type of methods iseligible to cooperate the stakeholder in modeling but due to their weakness on considering the information on details and their limitations in adoption with changes caused from uncertainty, they are not popular in practical cases. Another type of conflict resolution method which is eligible to considering more detailed information of systems has the optimization approach basically, has the most interests between researchers. There is namely the Nash bargaining solution, the Kalai-Smorodinesky solution, the Equal loss solution and the area monotonic solution. There are several studies which areapplied these methods to investigate about groundwater (5, 6 and10. There are a few applications of water resource allocation models which is incorporated with conflict resolution methods in Transboundary Rivers nowadays and restricted to game theory related methods (1 and 2. The aim of this study is the assessment of the application of conflict resolution methods such as symmetric and non symmetric Nash solution, non symmetricKalai-Smorodinesky, non symmetric equal loss solution and finally the area

  18. Evaluations of intergroup resource allocations: The role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Buchheister, Kelley; McGrath, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between children's social cognitive skills and their evaluations of resource allocations in intergroup contexts (N=73, 3-6years of age). Participants evaluated three snack-time resource allocation scenarios (self-disadvantaged, self-advantaged, and other-disadvantaged) in either a school ingroup or outgroup context. They evaluated the acceptability of the resource allocation and provided reasoning about their evaluation. Participants who had false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to evaluate inequality as unacceptable. In addition, participants without FB ToM evaluated unequal allocations to another child as more okay in an outgroup condition than participants with FB ToM. Participants reasoned about their allocations differently depending on the context. Results reveal the importance of FB ToM for recognizing unfair resource allocations, especially in intergroup contexts.

  19. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  20. Resource allocation and MIMO for 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the underlying technological breakthroughs that allowed the current state of wireless technology development to evolve. The book focuses on the two lower layers of the ISO/OSI layered model, specifically the physical and data link layers including the media access control sub-layer. These two layers are of particular importance to wireless systems due to the spectrum shortage, the broadcast nature of interference, and time variability in the wireless channel. Topics covered in this book include: radio resource allocation (RRA) for emerging architectures such as Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) and Device-to-Device communications (D2D); RRA for quality of service control; propagation and transceiver aspects of MIMO systems; and the design and selection of MIMO multiuser precoders. The proposed approaches for RRA and MIMO are applicable to mobile communication standards such as 3GPP’s LTE and LTE-Advanced, but also apply further to the continuously evolving wireless access technologies lan...

  1. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  2. Fuzzy logic association: performance, implementation issues, and automated resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III

    1999-07-01

    A recursive multisensor association algorithm has been developed based on fuzzy logic. It associates data from the same target for multiple sensor types. The algorithm provides an estimate of the number of targets present and reduced noise estimates of the quantities being measured. Uncertain information from many sources including other algorithms can be easily incorporated. A comparison of the algorithm to a more conventional Bayesian association algorithm is provided. The algorithm is applied to a multitarget environment for simulated data. The data from both the ESM and radar systems is noisy and the ESM data is intermittent. The radar data has probability of detection less than unity. The effects on parameter estimation, determination of the number of targets, and multisensor data association is examined for the case of a large number of targets closely spaced in the RF-PRI plane. When a sliding window is introduced to minimize memory and CPU requirements the algorithm is shown to lose little in performance, while gaining significantly in speed. The algorithm's CPU usage, computational complexity, and real-time implementation requirements are examined. Finally, the algorithm will be considered as an association algorithm for a multifunction antenna that makes use of fuzzy logic for resource allocation.

  3. Dynamic resource allocation scheme for distributed heterogeneous computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Howard T. (Inventor); Silvester, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a resource allocation in computer systems, and more particularly, to a method and associated apparatus for shortening response time and improving efficiency of a heterogeneous distributed networked computer system by reallocating the jobs queued up for busy nodes to idle, or less-busy nodes. In accordance with the algorithm (SIDA for short), the load-sharing is initiated by the server device in a manner such that extra overhead in not imposed on the system during heavily-loaded conditions. The algorithm employed in the present invention uses a dual-mode, server-initiated approach. Jobs are transferred from heavily burdened nodes (i.e., over a high threshold limit) to low burdened nodes at the initiation of the receiving node when: (1) a job finishes at a node which is burdened below a pre-established threshold level, or (2) a node is idle for a period of time as established by a wakeup timer at the node. The invention uses a combination of the local queue length and the local service rate ratio at each node as the workload indicator.

  4. Revised BCS resource-allocation methodology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-19

    An evaluation of the methodology of the Resource Allocation's Model (RAM), developed to assist in developing an efficient research, development, and demonstration program for energy conserving technologies in the residential and commercial sectors, is presented. This evaluation begins by classifying the technologies according to the markets in which they will compete once they are commercialized. Within each market group, the probable costs of the new technologies are compared to the cost of the competitive conventional product. This information is used to calculate the expected energy savings of each portfolio of projects. Portfolios are then ranked in order of increasing energy savings, and estimates made of the value of various levels of funded research in each functional use area. Finally, successful portfolios in different market groups are compared in a similar manner in order to identify the most efficient comprehensive portfolio at each research funding level. Section 2 describes the original methodology and presents some of the modifications that were made during this task. Section 3 discusses the specific changes that were made, including improvements to the model as well as the development of more reliable data. The revised methodology is then applied to one market group to demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Section 4 includes a summary of the results and an updated set of RAM runs. The final section discusses the limitations of the modified methodology and describes the aspects of RAM that need further development.

  5. Quality Assured Optimal Resource Provisioning and Scheduling Technique Based on Improved Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm (IHAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meenakshi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is the task of convenient resources to different uses. In the context of an resources, entire economy, can be assigned by different means, such as markets or central planning. Cloud computing has become a new age technology that has got huge potentials in enterprises and markets. Clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere. The fundamental motive of the resource allocation is to allot the available resource in the most effective manner. In the initial phase, a representative resource usage distribution for a group of nodes with identical resource usage patterns is evaluated as resource bundle which can be easily employed to locate a group of nodes fulfilling a standard criterion. In the document, an innovative clustering-based resource aggregation viz. the Improved Hierarchal Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm (IHAC is elegantly launched to realize the compact illustration of a set of identically behaving nodes for scalability. In the subsequent phase concerned with energetic resource allocation procedure, the hybrid optimization technique is brilliantly brought in. The novel technique is devised for scheduling functions to cloud resources which duly consider both financial and evaluation expenses. The efficiency of the novel Resource allocation system is assessed by means of several parameters such the reliability, reusability and certain other metrics. The optimal path choice is the consequence of the hybrid optimization approach. The new-fangled technique allocates the available resource based on the optimal path.

  6. Action coordination and resource allocation against user profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Pedro Ricardo da Nova

    Ageing is a natural evolution among all living things, part of the life cycle, well known by everyone. World-wide population is being older, as a result of all social-financial aspects, leaving modern societies with less active citizens and increasing older population, which demands more focus...... on context-aware information extraction, and the second system, evolving from the first, relating end-users social interaction with resource optimization (coordination). At last, various problems are discussed in the perspective of Resident and Care Staff, as being the principal service provider, inside...

  7. Intelligence Level and the Allocation of Resources for Creative Tasks: A Pupillometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Amitash; Indurkhya, Bipin; Lee, Minho

    2017-01-01

    This pupillometry study examined the relationship between intelligence and creative cognition from the resource allocation perspective. It was hypothesized that, during a creative metaphor task, individuals with higher intelligence scores would have different resource allocation patterns than individuals with lower intelligence scores. The study…

  8. Henan Cancelled Regional Restriction on Bauxite Resources Allocation for Aluminum Oxide Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Henan Province People’s Government recently printed and issued notice to announce the decision to adjust Henan’s key mineral resources allocation policy.Why should the mineral resources allocation policy need adjustment,what’s new about the new policy?

  9. The Effects of Charter School Competition on School District Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsen, David; Ni, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines two questions: (a) How does resource allocation change in school districts experiencing sustained charter school competition? (b) Among districts exposed to charter competition, are there differences in the resource allocation adjustments between those that do and do not succeed in stemming further enrollment loss to…

  10. Hardware Resource Allocation for Hardware/Software Partitioning in the LYCOS System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware resource allocation technique for hardware/software partitioning. It allocates hardware resources to the hardware data-path using information such as data-dependencies between operations in the application, and profiling information. The algorithm is useful...

  11. Minority Threat, Crime Control, and Police Resource Allocation in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Malcolm D.; Smith, Brad W.; Freng, Adrienne B.; Munoz, Ed A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined political influences on communities' allocations of fiscal and personnel resources to policing. Rational choice theory maintains that these resources are distributed in accordance with the need for crime control, whereas conflict theory argues that they are allocated with the aim of controlling racial and ethnic…

  12. Adaptive Resource Allocation and Internet Traffic Engineering on Data Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Hussein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the issues of bandwid th allocation, optimum capacity allocation, network operational cost reduction, and improve Int ernet user experience. Traffic engineering (TE is used to manipulate network traffic to achie ve certain requirements and meets certain needs. TE becomes one of the most important buildin g blocks in the design of the Internet backbone infrastructure. Research objective: effici ent allocation of bandwidth across multiple paths. Optimum path selection. Minimize network tra ffic delays and maximize bandwidth utilization over multiple network paths. The bandwi dth allocation is performed proportionally over multiple paths based on the path capacity.

  13. Resource expenditure not resource allocation: response to McDougall on cloning and dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J

    2009-05-01

    This paper offers some comments on bioethical debates about resource allocation in healthcare. It is stimulated by Rosalind McDougall's argument that it is an affront to the human dignity of people with below "liberties-level" health to fund human reproductive cloning. McDougall is right to underline the relevance of resource prioritisation to the ethics of research and provision of new biomedical technologies. This paper argues that bioethicists should be careful when offering comments about such issues. In particular, it emphasises the need to represent accurately the reality of the situation-especially when we are passing judgement on technologies that are in their infancy and whose practical application is yet to be confirmed. The paper also emphasises the importance of the actual context to bioethical debate, and note that it would be better to talk about resource expenditure rather than resource allocation when it comes to discussing the rights and wrongs of how money is spent. It also reiterates the claims made by other writers that social and political philosophy need to have a transparent and considered role in debates about resources.

  14. A Hybrid Inexact Optimization Model for Land-use Allocation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min; CAI Yunlong; GUAN Xingliang; TAN Shukui; LU Shasha

    2015-01-01

    Land scarcity has become the prominent obstacle on the way to sustainable development for China.Under the constraints of land shortage,how to allocate the finite land resources to the multiple land users in China considering various political,environmental,ecological and economic conditions have become research topics with great significance.In this study,an interval fuzzy national-scale land-use model (IFNLM) was developed for optimizing land systems of China.IFNLM is based on an integration of existing interval linear programming (ILP),and fuzzy flexible programming (FFP) techniques.IFNLM allows uncertainties expressed as discrete interval values and fuzzy sets to be incorporated within a general optimization framework.It can also facilitate national-scale land-use planning under various environmental,ecological,social conditions within a multi-period and multi-option context.Then,IFNLM was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in China.The satisfaction degree of environmental constraints is between 0.69 and 0.97,the system benefit will between 198.25 × 1012 USD and 229.67 × 1012 USD.The results indicated that the hybrid model can help generate desired policies for land-use allocation with a maximized economic benefit and minimized environmental violation risk.Optimized land-use allocation pattems can be generated from the proposed IFNLM.

  15. Modeling for transboundary water resources planning and allocation: the case of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juízo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International water resources agreements for transboundary rivers in southern Africa are generally founded in system analysis models for water planning and allocation. The Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM developed in South Africa has so far been the only model applied in official joint water resources studies aimed to form water-sharing agreements. The continuous discussion around the model performance and growing distress over it being South African, where it was originally developed, while South Africa is one of the interested parties in the process, results in an increased controversy over the system analysis results that are often only meant to guide in selecting the options for water resources management in a given set of scenarios. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the model performance of two other models; WAFLEX and WEAP21 in the Umbeluzi River Basin system where the WRYM was previously applied as part of a Joint River Basin Study. A set of basin development scenarios was equally tested in the three models and the results compared. The results show that the three models all are possible tools for system analysis of river basins in southern Africa, although the structure and complexity of the models are different. The obtained level of satisfaction for specific water users could, however, vary depending on which model was used, which causes uncertainties. The reason for the diverse results is the structurally different ways of describing allocation and prioritization of water in the three models. However, the large degrees of freedom in all system models cause even larger uncertainty in the results since the model developer can, intentionally or unintentionally, direct the results to favor certain water user. The conclusion of this study is therefore that the choice of model does not per se affect the decision of best water allocation and infrastructure layout of a shared river basin. The chosen allocation and

  16. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  17. Targeted versus universal prevention. a resource allocation model to prioritize cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogenveen Rudolf T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus brings an increased risk for cardiovascular complications and patients profit from prevention. This prevention also suits the general population. The question arises what is a better strategy: target the general population or diabetes patients. Methods A mathematical programming model was developed to calculate optimal allocations for the Dutch population of the following interventions: smoking cessation support, diet and exercise to reduce overweight, statins, and medication to reduce blood pressure. Outcomes were total lifetime health care costs and QALYs. Budget sizes were varied and the division of resources between the general population and diabetes patients was assessed. Results Full implementation of all interventions resulted in a gain of 560,000 QALY at a cost of €640 per capita, about €12,900 per QALY on average. The large majority of these QALY gains could be obtained at incremental costs below €20,000 per QALY. Low or high budgets (below €9 or above €100 per capita were predominantly spent in the general population. Moderate budgets were mostly spent in diabetes patients. Conclusions Major health gains can be realized efficiently by offering prevention to both the general and the diabetic population. However, a priori setting a specific distribution of resources is suboptimal. Resource allocation models allow accounting for capacity constraints and program size in addition to efficiency.

  18. Optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2006-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.

  19. 医院护理人力资源配置现状及优化对策%Current Situation of Nursing Human Resource Allocation of Hospitals and Optimization Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常卫华

    2011-01-01

    当前护理人员配置不足的现象在各医院较为普遍.人力资源部门应与护理部门配合,共同分析医院护理人力资源现状,从把好招聘关、优化人力资源配置、合理绩效激励机制、护理人员培训及管理者更新管理观念等几方面制定有效应对措施,逐步改善护理人力不足状况,满足临床护理工作需要.%Now it is a common phenomenon that nursing staff for hospitals to dispose are far from enough. The department of human resources should cooperate with the department of nursing to analyze the present situation in the face of nursing resources of hospitals and work out efficient measures aimed at watching the gate where employees are recruited, optimizing the disposal of human resources, rationalizing achievements-effective mechanism and renewing the management concept of the trainers and managers of the nursing staff so as to gradually improve the inadequacy of the nursing staff being supplied and meet the needs of clinical nursing.

  20. Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Tucker, Thomas (Open Grid Computing, Inc., Austin, TX); Thompson, David

    2011-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia Level II milestone 'Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance'. This milestone demonstrates the use of a scalable data collection analysis and feedback system that enables insight into how an application is utilizing the hardware resources of a high performance computing (HPC) platform in a lightweight fashion. Further we demonstrate utilizing the same mechanisms used for transporting data for remote analysis and visualization to provide low latency run-time feedback to applications. The ultimate goal of this body of work is performance optimization in the face of the ever increasing size and complexity of HPC systems.

  1. Fair Resource Allocation in Networks with Coexisting Unicast and Multirate Multicast Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Qian(董谦); Xie Jianying; Liu Fengqing; Zhu Xu

    2004-01-01

    To maximize the aggregate user utility in networks with both multirate multicast and unicast traffic, a unified convex program formulation of the problem is used to integrate multicast and unicast sessions into a common framework, which also takes into account the heterogeneity of multicast receivers. By applying a penalty function approach, a heuristic rate control algorithm is derived. In the distributed implementation of the algorithm in IP networks, core routers employ Random Early Detection (RED) to mark packets in the case of congestion; end-users analyze congestion feedback information and update their rates to calculated optimal values. With an appropriate choice of utility functions and parameters, multicast and unicast sessions can share network resources in the proportional fair manner. Simulation results prove the algorithm's effectiveness. Study is also done on the effect of bandwidth discretization density upon resource allocation fairness in a layered multicast scenario.

  2. Ant Colony Optimization for Route Allocation in Transportation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfirescu, Constantin-Bǎlǎ; Negulescu, Sorin; Oprean, Constantin; Banciu, Dorin

    2009-04-01

    The paper introduces a bio-inspired approach to solve the route allocation problem (RAP) in the transportation networks. The approach extends a well-known meta-heuristics algorithm with the real life constraints that are dealt with in the scheduling process (i.e. the uniform distribution of routes diversity for vehicles, the average distance travelled in a month, the driver's rest between subsequent trips etc.). The paper is focusing on the engineering aspects of employing bio-inspired algorithms (which proved to have near-optimal results for toy-like problems) to a real-life application domain. The approach proved to be capable of preserving the software components (agents) to the complexity and dynamics of the situation when the RAP requires incremental extensions of constraints to reflect the traffic conditions in the transportation network.

  3. Optimal Time Allocation in Backscatter Assisted Wireless Powered Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Gui, Guan; Sari, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless powered communication network (WPCN) assisted by backscatter communication (BackCom). This model consists of a power station, an information receiver and multiple users that can work in either BackCom mode or harvest-then-transmit (HTT) mode. The time block is mainly divided into two parts corresponding to the data backscattering and transmission periods, respectively. The users first backscatter data to the information receiver in time division multiple access (TDMA) during the data backscattering period. When one user works in the BackCom mode, the other users harvest energy from the power station. During the data transmission period, two schemes, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and TDMA, are considered. To maximize the system throughput, the optimal time allocation policies are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. PMID:28587171

  4. High-Performance Local Search for Task Scheduling with Human Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estellon, Bertrand; Gardi, Frédéric; Nouioua, Karim

    In this paper, a real-life problem of task scheduling with human resource allocation is addressed. This problem was approached by the authors in the context of the ROADEF 2007 Challenge, which is an international competition organized by the French Operations Research Society. The subject of the contest, proposed by the telecommunications company France Télé com, consists in planning maintenance interventions and teams of technicians needed for their achievements. The addressed combinatorial optimization problem is very hard: it contains several NP-hard subproblems and its scale (hundreds of interventions and technicians) induces a huge combinatorics. An effective and efficient local-search heuristic is described to solve this problem. This algorithm was ranked 2nd of the competition (over the 35 teams who have submitted a solution). Moreover, a methodology is revealed to design and engineer high-performance local-search heuristics for solving practically discrete optimization problems.

  5. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, R. N. J.; Kevenaar, T. A. M.; Akkermans, A. H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP) approach and a greedy search (GS) approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  6. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  7. OPTIMAL POWER ALLOCATION WITH AF AND SDF STRATEGIES IN DUAL-HOP COOPERATIVE MIMO NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiaorong; Zheng Baoyu; Zhang Jianwu

    2010-01-01

    Dual-hop cooperative Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) network with multi-relay cooperative communication is introduced. Power allocation problem with Amplify-and-Forward (AF) and Selective Decode-and-Forward (SDF) strategies in multi-node scenario are formulated and solved respectively. Optimal power allocation schemes that maximize system capacity with AF strategy are presented. In addition,optimal power allocation methods that minimize asymptotic Symbol Error Rate (SER) with SDF cooperative protocol in multi-node scenario are also proposed. Furthermore,performance comparisons are provided in terms of system capacity and approximate SER. Numerical and simulation results confirm our theoretical analysis. It is revealed that,maximum system capacity could be obtained when powers are allocated optimally with AF protocol,while minimization of system's SER could also be achieved with optimum power allocation in SDF strategy. In multi-node scenario,those optimal power allocation algorithms are superior to conventional equal power allocation schemes.

  8. Adversarial reasoning and resource allocation: the LG approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Many existing automated tools purporting to model the intelligent enemy utilize a fixed battle plan for the enemy while using flexible decisions of human players for the friendly side. According to the Naval Studies Board, "It is an open secret and a point of distress ... that too much of the substantive content of such M&S has its origin in anecdote, ..., or a narrow construction tied to stereotypical current practices of 'doctrinally correct behavior.'" Clearly, such runs lack objectivity by being heavily skewed in favor of the friendly forces. Presently, the military branches employ a variety of game-based simulators and synthetic environments, with manual (i.e., user-based) decision-making, for training and other purposes. However, without an ability to automatically generate the best strategies, tactics, and COA, the games serve mostly to display the current situation rather than form a basis for automated decision-making and effective training. We solve the problem of adversarial reasoning as a gaming problem employing Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory demonstrating significant increase in size in gaming problems solvable in real and near-real time. It appears to be a viable approach for solving such practical problems as mission planning and battle management. Essentially, LG may be structured into two layers: game construction and game solving. Game construction includes construction of a game called an LG hypergame based on a hierarchy of Abstract Board Games (ABG). Game solving includes resource allocation for constructing an advantageous initial game state and strategy generation to reach a desirable final game state in the course of the game.

  9. Optimal Computing Budget Allocation for Ordinal Optimization in Solving Stochastic Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-an Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on solving Stochastic Job Shop Scheduling Problem (SJSSP with random processing time to minimize the expected sum of earliness and tardiness costs of all jobs. To further enhance the efficiency of the simulation optimization technique of embedding Evolutionary Strategy in Ordinal Optimization (ESOO which is based on Monte Carlo simulation, we embed Optimal Computing Budget Allocation (OCBA technique into the exploration stage of ESOO to optimize the performance evaluation process by controlling the allocation of simulation times. However, while pursuing a good set of schedules, “super individuals,” which can absorb most of the given computation while others hardly get any simulation budget, may emerge according to the allocating equation of OCBA. Consequently, the schedules cannot be evaluated exactly, and thus the probability of correct selection (PCS tends to be low. Therefore, we modify OCBA to balance the computation allocation: (1 set a threshold of simulation times to detect “super individuals” and (2 follow an exclusion mechanism to marginalize them. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to an SJSSP comprising 8 jobs on 8 machines with random processing time in truncated normal, uniform, and exponential distributions, respectively. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms the ESOO method by achieving better solutions.

  10. MDP-based resource allocation for triple-play transmission on xDSL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lamartine V.; de Carvalho, Glaucio H. S.; Cardoso, Diego L.; de Carvalho, Solon V.; Frances, Carlos R. L.; Costa, João C. W. A.; Riu, Jaume Rius i.

    2007-09-01

    Many broadband services are based on multimedia applications, such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP), video conferencing, video on demand (VoD), and internet protocol television (IPTV). The combination "triple-play" is often used with IPTV. It simply means offering voice, video and data. IPTV and others services uses digital broadband networks such as ADSL2+ (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and VDSL (Very High Rate DSL) to transmit the data. We have formulated a MDP (Markov Decision Process) for a triple-play transmission on DSL environment. In this paper, we establish the relationship between DSL transmission characteristics and its finite-state Markov model for a triple-play transmission system. This relationship can be used for a resource management for multimedia applications delivered through a broadband infrastructure. The solution to our optimization problem can be found using dynamic programming (DP) techniques, such as value iteration and its variants. Our study results in a transmission strategy that chooses the optimal resource allocation according the triple-play traffic requirements, defined in technical report TR-126 (Triple-Play Services Quality of Experience Requirements) from DSL Forum, minimizing quality of service (QoS) violations with respect to bandwidth. Three traffic classes (video, audio, and best effort internet data) are defined and analyzed. Our simulation results show parameters like as blocking probability for each class, link utilization and optimal control policies. The MDP-based approach provides a satisfactory way of resource management for a DSL system.

  11. Controlling collective dynamics in complex, minority-game resource-allocation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Huang, Tie-Qiao; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various kinds of real-world complex systems, such as the traffic systems, social services institutions or organizations, or even the ecosystems. The fundamental principle underlying complex resource-allocation dynamics is Boolean interactions associated with minority games, as resources are generally limited and agents tend to choose the least used resource based on available information. A common but harmful dynamical behavior in resource-allocation systems is herding, where there are time intervals during which a large majority of the agents compete for a few resources, leaving many other resources unused. Ac- companying the herd behavior is thus strong fluctuations with time in the number of resources being used. In this paper, we articulate and establish that an intuitive control strategy, namely pinning control, is effective at harnessing the herding dynamics. In particular, by fixing the choices of resources for a few agents while leaving majority of the agents free, h...

  12. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  13. Distributed bees algorithm parameters optimization for a cost efficient target allocation in swarms of robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtić, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the distributed bees algorithm (DBA), previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA's control parameters by means of a genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots' distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  14. Guidance Value of Marine Functional Zoning System to Allocation of China’s Marine Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi; CAO; Guanshun; HE

    2015-01-01

    The issue of marine resources is receiving closer and closer attention of national marine management authorities. For this issue,it is necessary to seek basis from legal institutions of marine functional zoning system. This paper analyzed basic connotation,development process and basic characteristics of marine functional zoning system,discussed internal relation between marine functional zoning system and marine resource allocation,and studied guidance value of marine functional zoning system to allocation of marine resources.

  15. A survey on resource allocation in high performance distributed computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Hameed; Malik, Saif Ur Rehman; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Samee Ullah; Bickler, Gage; Min-Allah, Nasro; Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal; Zhang, Limin; Yongji, Wang; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal; Li, Hongxiang; Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Dan; Rayes, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    An efficient resource allocation is a fundamental requirement in high performance computing (HPC) systems. Many projects are dedicated to large-scale distributed computing systems that have designed and developed resource allocation mechanisms with a variety of architectures and services. In our study, through analysis, a comprehensive survey for describing resource allocation in various HPCs is reported. The aim of the work is to aggregate under a joint framework, the existing solutions for HPC to provide a thorough analysis and characteristics of the resource management and allocation strategies. Resource allocation mechanisms and strategies play a vital role towards the performance improvement of all the HPCs classifications. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion of widely used resource allocation strategies deployed in HPC environment is required, which is one of the motivations of this survey. Moreover, we have classified the HPC systems into three broad categories, namely: (a) cluster, (b) grid, and (c) cloud systems and define the characteristics of each class by extracting sets of common attributes. All of the aforementioned systems are cataloged into pure software and hybrid/hardware solutions. The system classification is used to identify approaches followed by the implementation of existing resource allocation strategies that are widely presented in the literature.

  16. Optimal processor allocation for sort-last compositing under BSP-tree ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, C. R.; Silva, Claudio T.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a parallel rendering model that exploits the fundamental distinction between rendering and compositing operations, by assigning processors from specialized pools for each of these operations. Our motivation is to support the parallelization of general scan-line rendering algorithms with minimal effort, basically by supporting a compositing back-end (i.e., a sort-last architecture) that is able to perform user-controlled image composition. Our computational model is based on organizing rendering as well as compositing processors on a BSP-tree, whose internal nodes we call the compositing tree. Many known rendering algorithms, such as volumetric ray casting and polygon rendering can be easily parallelized based on the structure of the BSP-tree. In such a framework, it is paramount to minimize the processing power devoted to compositing, by minimizing the number of processors allocated for composition as well as optimizing the individual compositing operations. In this paper, we address the problems related to the static allocation of processor resources to the compositing tree. In particular, we present an optimal algorithm to allocate compositing operations to compositing processors. We also present techniques to evaluate the compositing operations within each processor using minimum memory while promoting concurrency between computation and communication. We describe the implementation details and provide experimental evidence of the validity of our techniques in practice.

  17. Optimal Relay Assignment and Power Allocation for Cooperative Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xie; Jian-Nong Cao; Ji-Gang Wen

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative communication for wireless networks has gained a lot of recent interest due to its ability to mitigate fading with exploration of spatial diversity.In this paper,we study a joint optimization problem of jointly considering transmission mode selection,relay assignment and power allocation to maximize the capacity of the network through cooperative wireless communications.This problem is much more challenging than relay assignment considered in literature work which simply targets to maximize the transmission capacity for a single transmission pair.We formulate the problem as a variation of the maximum weight matching problem where the weight is a function over power values which must meet power constraints (VMWMC).Although VMWMC is a non-convex problem whose complexity increases exponentially with the number of relay nodes,we show that the duality gap of VMWMC is virtual zero.Based on this result,we propose a solution using Lagrange dual decomposition to reduce the computation complexity.We do simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution.The results show that our solution can achieve maximum network capacity with much less computation time compared with exhaustive search,and our solution outperforms existing sub-optimal solutions that can only achieve much lower network capacity.

  18. Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the Canadian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The world is currently confronting the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive measure, but the unique epidemiological features of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 introduce uncertainty as to the best strategy for prioritization of vaccine allocation. We sought to determine optimal prioritization of vaccine distribution among different age and risk groups within the Canadian population, to minimize influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a deterministic, age-structured compartmental model of influenza transmission, with key parameter values estimated from data collected during the initial phase of the epidemic in Ontario, Canada. We examined the effect of different vaccination strategies on attack rates, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. In all scenarios, prioritization of high-risk individuals (those with underlying chronic conditions and pregnant women, regardless of age, markedly decreased the frequency of severe outcomes. When individuals with underlying medical conditions were not prioritized and an age group-based approach was used, preferential vaccination of age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes following infection generally resulted in decreased mortality compared to targeting vaccine to age groups with higher transmission, at a cost of higher population-level attack rates. All simulations were sensitive to the timing of the epidemic peak in relation to vaccine availability, with vaccination having the greatest impact when it was implemented well in advance of the epidemic peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model simulations suggest that vaccine should be allocated to high-risk groups, regardless of age, followed by age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes. Vaccination may significantly reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality, but the benefits are

  19. Primary user localisation and uplink resource allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiple access cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2015-05-21

    In cognitive radio networks, secondary users (SUs) can share spectrum with primary users (PUs) under the condition that no interference is caused to the PUs. To evaluate the interference imposed to the PUs, the cognitive systems discussed in the literature usually assume that the channel state information (CSI) of the link from a secondary transmitter to a primary receiver (interference link) is known at the secondary transmitter. However, this assumption may often be impractical in cognitive radio systems, since the PUs need to be oblivious to the presence of the SUs. The authors first discuss PU localisation and then introduce an uplink resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based cognitive radio systems, where relative location information between primary and SUs is used instead of CSI of the interference link to estimate the interference. Numerical and simulation results show that it is indeed effective to use location information as a part of resource allocation and thus a near-optimal capacity is achieved. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2015.

  20. Application of resource allocation models to the problems of regional energy policy in large developing coutries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; Mubayi, V.

    1979-01-04

    The interregional allocation of, and competition for, natural resources for energy development is assuming increasing importance in many large developing countries, particularly in countries such as India that are in the more advanced stages of industrialization, and where state governments and regional agencies have significant planning powers. This paper explores the applicability of optimal resource allocation models designed primarily for already-developed economies, such as that of the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe, to the emerging problems of such developing countries. In particular, the potential application of electric-utility-siting models is discussed in the context of electric grid expansion in the State of Andhra Pradesh in Southern India. Specific topics addressed include the degree to which models can be effectively used in the rather different conditions and priorities of industrializing countries; the requirements for basic-model reformulations to account for unique factors of geography (climate, hyydrology, the extant conditions of the infrastructure within which any development must occur); and the ability to include and quantify environmental impacts of energy deveelopment as well as policy considerations relevant in the context of developing countries. The paper identifies desirable research directions, indicates data needs, and assesses those aspects of subnational energy-planning problems that should receive better emphasis in national and international energy-plannng efforts.

  1. The role of placental nutrient sensing in maternal-fetal resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The placenta mediates maternal-fetal exchange and has historically been regarded as a passive conduit for nutrients. However, emerging evidence suggests that the placenta actively responds to nutritional and metabolic signals from the mother and the fetus. We propose that the placenta integrates a multitude of maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient-sensing signaling pathways to match fetal demand with maternal supply by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and nutrient transport. This process, which we have called placental nutrient sensing, ensures optimal allocation of resources between the mother and the fetus to maximize the chances for propagation of parental genes without jeopardizing maternal health. We suggest that these mechanisms have evolved because of the evolutionary pressures of maternal undernutrition, which result in decreased placental growth and down-regulation of nutrient transporters, thereby limiting fetal growth to ensure maternal survival. These regulatory loops may also function in response to maternal overnutrition, leading to increased placental growth and nutrient transport in cases of maternal obesity or gestational diabetes. Thus, placental nutrient sensing modulates maternal-fetal resource allocation to increase the likelihood of reproductive success. This model implies that the placenta plays a critical role in mediating fetal programming and determining lifelong health.

  2. The Role of Placental Nutrient Sensing in Maternal-Fetal Resource Allocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The placenta mediates maternal-fetal exchange and has historically been regarded as a passive conduit for nutrients. However, emerging evidence suggests that the placenta actively responds to nutritional and metabolic signals from the mother and the fetus. We propose that the placenta integrates a multitude of maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient-sensing signaling pathways to match fetal demand with maternal supply by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and nutrient transport. This process, which we have called placental nutrient sensing, ensures optimal allocation of resources between the mother and the fetus to maximize the chances for propagation of parental genes without jeopardizing maternal health. We suggest that these mechanisms have evolved because of the evolutionary pressures of maternal undernutrition, which result in decreased placental growth and down-regulation of nutrient transporters, thereby limiting fetal growth to ensure maternal survival. These regulatory loops may also function in response to maternal overnutrition, leading to increased placental growth and nutrient transport in cases of maternal obesity or gestational diabetes. Thus, placental nutrient sensing modulates maternal-fetal resource allocation to increase the likelihood of reproductive success. This model implies that the placenta plays a critical role in mediating fetal programming and determining lifelong health. PMID:25122064

  3. Sum Rate Maximized Resource Allocation in Multiple DF Relays Aided OFDM Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    In relay-aided wireless transmission systems, one of the key issues is how to decide assisting relays and manage the energy resource at the source and each individual relay, to maximize a certain objective related to system performance. This paper addresses the sum rate maximized resource allocation (RA) problem in a point to point orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) transmission system assisted by multiple decode-and-forward (DF) relays, subject to the individual sum power constraints of the source and the relays. In particular, the transmission at each subcarrier can be in either the direct mode without any relay assisting, or the relay-aided mode with one or several relays assisting. We propose two RA algorithms which optimize the assignment of transmission mode and source power for every subcarrier, as well as the assisting relays and the power allocation to them for every {relay-aided} subcarrier. First, it is shown that the considered RA problem has zero Lagrangian duality gap when there is ...

  4. Space Network Control (SNC) Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In session 1 of the conference, Concepts for space network resource allocation was the main topic. In session 2, Space Network Control and user payload operations and control center human-computer interface, was the topic of discussion. The topic of session 3 was Resource allocation tools, technology, and algorithms. Some of the stated goals for the conference are as follows: to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches; to identify solutions applicable to the SN problem; to identify fruitful avenues of study in support of SNC development; and to capture knowledge in proceedings and make available to bidders on the SNC concept definition procurement.

  5. Bandwidth Resource Dynamic Allocation in Differentiated Services Model%Diffserv中带宽代理BB的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑜; 朱淼良

    2003-01-01

    To employ Differentiated Services, efficient and flexible resource allocation mechanism is needed. Static bandwidth resource allocation Is not suitable for the situations in which traffic varies greatly with times. If customers bought bandwidth according to their highest traffic demands, some resource will be wasted when traffic load is light. On the other hand, the static allocated bandwidth may not satisfy the growing traffic demands. So it is necessary to allocate bandwidth resource in dynamic way. We bring up a prototype of BB, discussing the necessary components to realize the dynamic bandwidth resource allocation and further more, our BB can provides advanced reservation for bandwidth resource. Simulation tests show our design is feasible.

  6. A QoE Aware Fairness Bi-level Resource Allocation Algorithm for Multiple Video Streaming in WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of smart devices such as mobile phones and tablets, the scenario of multiple video users watching video streaming simultaneously in one wireless local area network (WLAN becomes more and more popular. However, the quality of experience (QoE and the fairness among multiple users are seriously impacted by the limited bandwidth and shared resources of WLAN. In this paper, we propose a novel bi-level resource allocation algorithm. To maximize the total throughput of the network, the WLAN is firstly tuned to the optimal operation point. Then the wireless resource is carefully allocated at the first level, i.e., between AP and uplink background traffic users, and the second level, i.e., among downlink video users. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can guarantee the QoE and the fairness for all the video users, and there is little impact on the average throughput of the background traffic users.

  7. Market-Based Mechanisms for Efficient Allocation of NAS Resources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both FAA and NASA research has highlighted the need for efficient and equitable allocation of NAS resources and increased operational flexibility. In particular,...

  8. From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and healthcare decisionmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guindo, L.A.; Wagner, M.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rindress, D.; Til, J. van; Kind, P.; Goetghebeur, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Resource allocation is a challenging issue faced by health policy decisionmakers requiring careful consideration of many factors. Objectives of this study were to identify decision criteria and their frequency reported in the literature on healthcare decisionmaking. METHOD: An

  9. From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and healthcare decisionmaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guindo, L.A.; Wagner, M.; Baltussen, R.; Rindress, D.; Til, van J.A.; Kind, P.; Goetghebeur, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Resource allocation is a challenging issue faced by health policy decisionmakers requiring careful consideration of many factors. Objectives of this study were to identify decision criteria and their frequency reported in the literature on healthcare decisionmaking. Method An extensive

  10. Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Ali, B; Naeem, A; Ross, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies key political and technical issues involved in the development of an appropriate resource allocation and budgetary system for the public health sector, using experience gained in the Province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The resource allocation and budgetary system is a critical, yet often neglected, component of any decentralization policy. Current systems are often based on historical incrementalism that is neither efficient nor equitable. This article describes technical work carried out in Balochistan to develop a system of resource allocation and budgeting that is needs-based, in line with policies of decentralization, and implementable within existing technical constraints. However, the development of technical systems, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition for the implementation of a resource allocation and decentralized budgeting system. This is illustrated by analysing the constraints that have been encountered in the development of such a system in Balochistan.

  11. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level...

  12. Elderly Care and Intrafamily Resource Allocation when Children Migrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the intrafamily allocation of elderly care in the context of international migration where migrant children may be able to provide financial assistance to their parents but are unable to offer physical care. To investigate sibling interaction, I estimate best response functions for individual physical and financial…

  13. A Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Resource Allocation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    algorithm and presents some numerical results in [5]. Matlin [6] provides a review of the literature on weapon-target allocation problems. Several...weapon, multi-target assignment problem," Working Paper 26957, MITRE, Feb. 1986. [6] S. M. Matlin , "A review of the literature on the missile

  14. An Indirect Simulation-Optimization Model for Determining Optimal TMDL Allocation under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An indirect simulation-optimization model framework with enhanced computational efficiency and risk-based decision-making capability was developed to determine optimal total maximum daily load (TMDL allocation under uncertainty. To convert the traditional direct simulation-optimization model into our indirect equivalent model framework, we proposed a two-step strategy: (1 application of interval regression equations derived by a Bayesian recursive regression tree (BRRT v2 algorithm, which approximates the original hydrodynamic and water-quality simulation models and accurately quantifies the inherent nonlinear relationship between nutrient load reductions and the credible interval of algal biomass with a given confidence interval; and (2 incorporation of the calibrated interval regression equations into an uncertain optimization framework, which is further converted to our indirect equivalent framework by the enhanced-interval linear programming (EILP method and provides approximate-optimal solutions at various risk levels. The proposed strategy was applied to the Swift Creek Reservoir’s nutrient TMDL allocation (Chesterfield County, VA to identify the minimum nutrient load allocations required from eight sub-watersheds to ensure compliance with user-specified chlorophyll criteria. Our results indicated that the BRRT-EILP model could identify critical sub-watersheds faster than the traditional one and requires lower reduction of nutrient loadings compared to traditional stochastic simulation and trial-and-error (TAE approaches. This suggests that our proposed framework performs better in optimal TMDL development compared to the traditional simulation-optimization models and provides extreme and non-extreme tradeoff analysis under uncertainty for risk-based decision making.

  15. Resource Optimization Based on Demand in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Cloud Computing gives the opportunity to dynamically scale the computing resources for application. Cloud Computing consist of large number of resources, it is called resource pool. These resources are shared among the cloud consumer using virtualization technology. Virtualization technologies engaged in cloud environment is resource consolidation and management. Cloud consists of physical and virtual resources. Cloud performance is important for Cloud Provider perspective predicts the dynamic nature of users, user demands and application demand. The cloud consumer perspective, the job should be completed on time with minimum cost and limited resources. Finding optimum resource allocation is difficult in huge system like Cluster, Data Centre and Grid. In this study we present two types of resource allocation schemes such as Commitment Allocation (CA and Over Commitment Allocation (OCA in the physical and virtual level resource. These resource allocation schemes helps to identify the virtual resource utilization and physical resource availability.

  16. On System Engineering a Barter-Based Re-allocation of Space System Key Development Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmann, William J.

    NASA has had a decades-long problem with cost growth during the development of space science missions. Numerous agency-sponsored studies have produced average mission level development cost growths ranging from 23 to 77%. A new study of 26 historical NASA science instrument set developments using expert judgment to re-allocate key development resources has an average cost growth of 73.77%. Twice in history, during the Cassini and EOS-Terra science instrument developments, a barter-based mechanism has been used to re-allocate key development resources. The mean instrument set development cost growth was -1.55%. Performing a bivariate inference on the means of these two distributions, there is statistical evidence to support the claim that using a barter-based mechanism to re-allocate key instrument development resources will result in a lower expected cost growth than using the expert judgment approach. Agent-based discrete event simulation is the natural way to model a trade environment. A NetLogo agent-based barter-based simulation of science instrument development was created. The agent-based model was validated against the Cassini historical example, as the starting and ending instrument development conditions are available. The resulting validated agent-based barter-based science instrument resource re-allocation simulation was used to perform 300 instrument development simulations, using barter to re-allocate development resources. The mean cost growth was -3.365%. A bivariate inference on the means was performed to determine that additional significant statistical evidence exists to support a claim that using barter-based resource re-allocation will result in lower expected cost growth, with respect to the historical expert judgment approach. Barter-based key development resource re-allocation should work on science spacecraft development as well as it has worked on science instrument development. A new study of 28 historical NASA science spacecraft

  17. Location Optimization Using a Hierarchical Location-Allocation Model for Trauma Centers in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is considered a “modern civilized sickness”, and its occurrence substantially affects all of society, as well as individuals. The implementation of trauma emergency systems in cities with young, prosperous, and highly mobile populations is necessary and significant. A complete trauma emergency system includes both low-level trauma centers that offer basic emergency services and high-level trauma centers that offer comprehensive services. GIS and operational research methods were used to solve the location problem associated with these centers. This study analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of trauma demands and the candidate locations of trauma centers based on a spatial analysis and presented a hierarchical location-allocation model for low- and high-level trauma centers in Shenzhen. The response, coverage, treatment and cost capacities of the trauma center locations were considered, and an ant colony optimization was used to calculate the optimal solution. The objectives of this study were to optimize trauma center locations, improve the allocation of medical trauma resources and reduce the rate of deaths and disabilities due to trauma.

  18. Generalized location-based resource allocation for OFDMA cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2010-09-01

    Cognitive radio is one of the hot topics for emerging and future wireless communication. Cognitive users can share channels with primary users under the condition of non interference. In order to compute this interference, the cognitive system usually use the channel state information of the primary user which is often impractical to obtain. However, using location information, we can estimate this interference by pathloss computation. In this paper, we introduce a low-complexity resource allocation algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based cognitive radio systems, which uses relative location information between primary and secondary users to estimate the interference. This algorithm considers interference with multiple primary users having different thresholds. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by comparing it with an optimal exhaustive search method. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Joint pricing and resource allocation for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive users can share spectrum with primary users under constraints on the interference that results. We present a new pricing strategy for sharing the primary users\\' available subchannels with cognitive users by optimizing the secondary and primary users\\' utilities while meeting the primary users\\' interference constraints. The primary users aim to maximize their revenues by sharing their subchannels with secondary users while ensuring that they achieve a minimum target capacity. On the other hand, the secondary users aim to maximize their capacity under three different constraints: consumed power, a given budget for sharing subchannels, and tolerable interference caused to the primary users. We introduce a sequential procedure based on a distributed algorithm to determine the resource allocation, interference thresholds and prices that satisfy the requirements of both parties in the network. Simulations show that the users face a tradeoff between capacity, power, and price. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. On the Dual-Decomposition-Based Resource and Power Allocation with Sleeping Strategy for Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of radio and power resource management in long term evolution heterogeneous networks (LTE HetNets) is investigated. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the user quality of service determined by each target data rate. We study the model where one macrocell base station is placed in the cell center, and multiple small cell base stations and femtocell access points are distributed around it. The dual decomposition technique is adopted to jointly optimize the power and carrier allocation in the downlink direction in addition to the selection of turned off small cell base stations. Our numerical results investigate the performance of the proposed scheme versus different system parameters and show an important saving in terms of total power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    problem, we introduce a new optimization problem for a set of tasks with energy constraint and multiple security choices. We present a dynamic programming based approximation algorithm to minimize the security risk of the system while statistically guaranteeing energy consumption constraints for given......In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... energy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficient in both time and space dimensions, and achieves good solutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over other approaches....

  2. Resource Allocation Model for Modelling Abstract RTOS on Multiprocessor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Resource Allocation is an important problem in RTOS's, and has been an active area of research. Numerous approaches have been developed and many different techniques have been combined for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation in the context of...... of modelling an abstract RTOS on multiprocessor SoC platforms. We discuss the implementation details of a simplified basic priority inheritance protocol for our abstract system model in SystemC....

  3. Regenerative cooperative diversity networks with co-channel interference: Performance analysis and optimal energy allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said

    2013-02-01

    A study of the effects of co-channel interference on a multirelay system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is presented. Orthogonal relaying is considered, and all relays that correctly decode the message in the broadcasting phase participate in the adaptive relaying phase. First, the effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver is derived. Then, considering outage as the performance metric, we obtain exact closed-form expression for the outage probability. Simple and general asymptotic expressions for the outage probability, which explicitly show the coding and the diversity gains, are also derived and discussed. Furthermore, we present optimal energy-allocation schemes for minimizing outage under different resource constraints. Monte Carlo simulations are further provided to confirm the analytical results and illustrate the outage performance for different interference conditions and optimization schemes. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  4. Resource allocation for two source-destination pairs sharing a single relay with a buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we obtain the optimal resource allocation scheme in order to maximize the achievable rate region in a dual-hop system that consists of two independent source-destination pairs sharing a single half-duplex relay. The relay decodes the received information and possesses buffers to enable storing the information temporarily before forwarding it to the respective destination. We consider both non-orthogonal transmission with successive interference cancellation at the receivers and orthogonal transmission. Also, we consider Gaussian block-fading channels and we assume that the channel state information is known and that no delay constraints are required. We show that, with the aid of buffering at the relay, joint user-and-hop scheduling is optimal and can enhance the achievable rate significantly. This is due to the joint exploitation of multiuser diversity and multihop diversity in the system. We provide closed-form expressions to characterize the average achievable rates in a generic form as functions of the statistical model of the channels. Furthermore, we consider sub-optimal schemes that exploit the diversity in the system partially and we provide numerical results to compare the different schemes and demonstrate the gains of the optimal one. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the

  6. Multi-Objective Spatial Optimization: Sustainable Land Use Allocation at Sub-Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Azuara García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of territorial resources is a key factor in achieving sustainability. Spatial planning is an important tool that helps decision makers to achieve sustainability in the long term. This work proposes a multi-objective model for sustainable land use allocation known as MAUSS (Spanish acronym for “Modelo de Asignación de Uso Sostenible de Suelo” The model was applied to the Plains of San Juan, Puebla, Mexico, which is currently undergoing a rapid industrialization process. The main objective of the model is to generate land use allocations that lead to a territorial balance within regions in three main ways by maximizing income, minimizing negative environmental pressure on water and air through specific evaluations of water use and CO2 emissions, and minimizing food deficit. The non-sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is the evolutionary optimization algorithm of MAUSS. NSGA-II has been widely modified through a novel and efficient random initializing operator that enables spatial rationale from the initial solutions, a crossover operator designed to streamline the best genetic information transmission as well as diversity, and two geometric operators, geographic dispersion (GDO and the proportion (PO, which strengthen spatial rationality. MAUSS provided a more sustainable land use allocation compared to the current land use distribution in terms of higher income, 9% lower global negative pressure on the environment and 5.2% lower food deficit simultaneously.

  7. Evaluation of Water Resource Potential in Anhui Province Based on Allocation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyu; XU; Yanlin; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The nature of water resources can be divided into four categories:water for life,water for agriculture,water for industry,and water for ecology.On this basis,the regional right allocation model for water resources is built,and to make the model more operable,we calculate the weight of the key factors of model(four different types of water use:life,agriculture,industry,ecology),using analytic hierarchy process(AHP).Finally,based on the amount of available water resources in Anhui Province,we evaluate the water resource potential in Anhui Province according to the principle of rational allocation.

  8. Asymptotically optimal parallel resource assignment with interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Verloop; R. Núñez-Queija

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by scheduling in cellular wireless networks and resource allocation in computer systems, we study a service facility with two classes of users having heterogeneous service requirement distributions. The aggregate service capacity is assumed to be largest when both classes are served in par

  9. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  10. Risk Analysis for Resource Planning Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a systems engineering approach to resource planning by integrating mathematical modeling and constrained optimization, empirical simulation, and theoretical analysis techniques to generate an optimal task plan in the presence of uncertainties.

  11. A Simple Dual Decomposition Method for Resource Allocation in Telecommunication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnov Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a problem of optimal resource allocation in a wireless communication network divided into zones (clusters. The network manager aims to distribute some homogeneous resource (bandwidth among users of several zones in order to maximize the total network profit, which takes into account payments from users and implementation costs. As a result, we obtain a convex optimization problem involving capacity and balance constraints. By using the dual Lagrangian method with respect to the capacity constraint, we reduce the initial problem to a suitable one-dimensional problem, so that calculation of its cost function value leads to independent solution of zonal problems, treated as two-side auction models with one trader. We show that solution of each zonal problem can be found exactly by a simple arrangement type algorithm even in the case where the trader price is not fixed. Besides, we suggest ways to adjust the basic problem to the case of moving nodes. Some results of computational experiments confirm the applicability of the new method.

  12. Squeezing out the Cloud via Profit-Maximizing Resource Allocation Policies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucco, Michele; Dumas, Marlon

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of maximizing the average hourly profit earned by a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) provider who runs a software service on behalf of a customer using servers rented from an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider. The SaaS provider earns a fee per successful transaction and incurs costs proportional to the number of server-hours it uses. A number of resource allocation policies for this or similar problems have been proposed in previous work. However, to the best of our knowledge, these policies have not been comparatively evaluated in a cloud environment. This paper reports on an empirical evaluation of three policies using a replica of Wikipedia deployed on the Amazon EC2 cloud. Experimental results show that a policy based on a solution to an optimization problem derived from the SaaS provider's utility function outperforms well-known heuristics that have been proposed for similar problems. It is also shown that all three policies outperform a "reactive" allocation approach based on ...

  13. Low complexity resource allocation and scheduling algorithms for downlink SDMA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Kai; WANG Ying; ZHANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    The downlink zero-forcing beamforming strategy in the case of random packet arrivals is investigated. Under this setting, the relevant fairness criterion is the stabilization of all buffer queues which guarantees a bounded average delay for all users. It has been shown that allocating resources to maximize a queue-length-weighted sum of the rates is a stabilizing policy. However, the high complexity of user selection and the feasible rates determination for optimal scheme may prevent the real-time scheduling operation. Two low complexity algorithms are provided taking the channel state, queue state and orthogonality into account. In particular, the authors pick the first user with the largest product between channel gain and queuing length, and select the remaining users to construct candidate user set based on the greedy user selection method or channel orthogonal user selection method. Then, the power and rate allocation for the selected users are implemented based on the modified water-filling method. The complexity of the proposed algorithms is analyzed. The average delay and average throughput are studied in homogeneous scenarios and heterogeneous scenarios, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can take full advantage of the multi-user diversity gain and provide average delay (or throughput) and fairness improvement compared with channel-aware-only schemes.

  14. Agricultural Land Use Optimal Allocation System in Developing Area:Application to Yili Watershed, Xinjiang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Hongqi; NI Dongying; SONG Wei

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries,land productivity involves little market,where the agricultural land use is mainly determined by the food demands as well as the land suitability.The land use pattern will not ensure everywhere enough land for certain cropping if spatial allocation just according to land use suitability.To solve this problem,a subzone and a pre-allocation for each land use are added in spatial allocation module,and land use suitability and area optimization module are incorporated to constitute a whole agricultural land use optimal allocation (ALUOA) system.The system is developed on the platform.Net 2005 using ArcGIS Engine (version 9.2) and C# language,and is tested and validated in Yili watershed of Xinjiang Region on the newly reclaimed area.In the case study,with the help of soil data obtained from 69 points sampled in the fieldwork in 2008,main river data supplied by the Department of Water Resources of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China,and temperature data provided by Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences,land use suitability on eight common crops are evaluated one by one using linear weighted summation method in the land use suitability model.The linear programming (LP) model in area optimization model succeeds to give out land area target of each crop under three scenarios.At last,the land use targets are allotted in space both with a six subzone file and without a subzone file.The results show that the land use maps with a subzone not only ensure every part has enough land for every crop,but also gives a more fragmental land use pattern,with about 87.99% and 135.92% more patches than the one without,while at the expense of loss between 15.30% and 19.53% in the overall suitability at the same time.

  15. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  16. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Lu, Weidang; Ye, Liang; Li, Feng; Zou, Deyue

    2017-03-16

    The cognitive sensor (CS) can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU) when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN), respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models.

  17. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  18. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao [IIT; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Ren, Shangping [IIT, Chicago; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Noh, Seo Young [KISTI, Daejeon

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  19. Service Support Aware Resource Allocation Policy for Enterprise Cloud-based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Prasad Padhy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Services can save business time, resources, money and it’s the ultimate solution for solving challenges in the traditional software sales model. However, cloud computing must be advanced to focus on resource utilization and resource management. The use of cloud-based services allows consumers to allocate resources on-demand and to pay only for the resources they actually use. Considering a scenario in which cloud service providers stipulate on service support level i.e. Type of support (platinum, gold, silver and bronze with end-users and lease cloud services in a way that guarantees SLA fulfillment, minimize operational costs and maximize the profit. So in this case allocating resources dynamically in the form of virtual machines to end users directly depends on the parameter ‘type of support’ a cloud consumer subscribes. In this research paper we proposed resource allocation algorithms for cloud providers. Our proposed policy engine designed in such a way that it ensure user request type which takes into account that the provider has to fulfill the Service Support Level criteria while minimizing the resources outsourced from the cloud infrastructure using resource allocation algorithms.

  20. Resource Allocation for OFDMA-Based Cognitive Radio Networks with Application to H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coon JustinP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation schemes for orthogonal frequency division multiple access- (OFDMA- based cognitive radio (CR networks that impose minimum and maximum rate constraints are considered. To demonstrate the practical application of such systems, we consider the transmission of scalable video sequences. An integer programming (IP formulation of the problem is presented, which provides the optimal solution when solved using common discrete programming methods. Due to the computational complexity involved in such an approach and its unsuitability for dynamic cognitive radio environments, we propose to use the method of lift-and-project to obtain a stronger formulation for the resource allocation problem such that the integrality gap between the integer program and its linear relaxation is reduced. A simple branching operation is then performed that eliminates any noninteger values at the output of the linear program solvers. Simulation results demonstrate that this simple technique results in solutions very close to the optimum.

  1. Optimizing the Allocation of Material Flow in a Logistics System

    OpenAIRE

    Tanka Milkova

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of the optimum allocation of material flow in a logistics system, the author’s proposition being that the allocation and movement of the material flow in a logistics system can be rationalized, based on the use of special approaches and techniques. There is presented the economic formulation of the problem and is constructed the economic and mathematical model ensuring the movement of the material flow in a logistics system at minimum cost of its transporta...

  2. Control allocation and management of redundant control effectors based on bases sequenced optimal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For an advanced aircraft, the amount of its effectors is much more than that for a traditional one, the functions of effectors are more complex and the coupling between each other is more severe. Based on the current control allocation research, this paper puts forward the concept and framework of the control allocation and management system for aircrafts with redundancy con-trol effectors. A new optimal control allocation method, bases sequenced optimal (BSO) method, is then presented. By analyz-ing the physical meaning of the allocation process of BSO method, four types of management strategies are adopted by the system, which act on the control allocation process under different flight conditions, mission requirements and effectors work-ing conditions. Simulation results show that functions of the control allocation system are extended and the system adaptability to flight status, mission requirements and effector failure conditions is improved.

  3. Optimum Power and Rate Allocation for Coded V-BLAST: Average Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Kostina, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework for performance analysis and optimization of coded V-BLAST is developed. Average power and/or rate allocations to minimize the outage probability as well as their robustness and dual problems are investigated. Compact, closed-form expressions for the optimum allocations and corresponding system performance are given. The uniform power allocation is shown to be near optimum in the low outage regime in combination with the optimum rate allocation. The average rate allocation provides the largest performance improvement (extra diversity gain), and the average power allocation offers a modest SNR gain limited by the number of transmit antennas but does not increase the diversity gain. The dual problems are shown to have the same solutions as the primal ones. All these allocation strategies are shown to be robust. The reported results also apply to coded multiuser detection and channel equalization systems relying on successive interference cancelation.

  4. Optimal 4G OFDMA Dynamic Subcarrier and Power Auction-based Allocation towards H.264 Scalable Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors presented a price maximization scheme for optimal orthogonal frequency division for multiple access (OFDMA subcarrier allocation for wireless video unicast/multicast scenarios. They formulate a pricing based video utility function for H.264 based wireless scalable video streaming, thereby achieving a trade-off between price and QoS fairness. These parametric models for scalable video rate and quality characterization arederived from the standard JSVM reference codec for the SVC extension of the H.264/AVC, and hence are directly applicable in practical wireless scenarios. With the aid of these models, they proposed auction based framework for revenue maximization of the transmitted video streams in the unicast and multicast 4G scenario. A closedform expression is derived for the optimal scalable video quantization step-size subject to the constraints of theunicast/multicast users in 4G wireless systems. This yields the optimal OFDMA subcarrier allocation for multi-userscalable video multiplexing. The proposed scheme is cognizant of the user modulation and code rate, and is henceamenable to adaptive modulation and coding (AMC feature of 4G wireless networks. Further, they also consider aframework for optimal power allocation based on a novel revenue maximization scheme in OFDMA based wireless broadband 4G systems employing auction bidding models. This is formulated as a constrained convex optimization problem towards sum video utility maximization. We observe that as the demand for a video stream increases inbroadcast/multicast scenarios, higher power is allocated to the corresponding video stream leading to a gain in the overall revenue/utility. We simulate a standard WiMAX based 4G video transmission scenario to validate the performance of the proposed optimal 4G scalable video resource allocation schemes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed optimal band width and power allocation schemes result in a significant

  5. Adaptive radio resource allocation for multiple traffic OFDMA broadband wireless access system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan-hui; LUO Tao; YIN Chang-chuan; YUE Guang-xin

    2006-01-01

    In this article, an adaptive radio resource allocation algorithm applied to multiple traffic orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system is proposed, which distributes subcarriers and bits among users according to their different quality of service requirements and traffic type. By classifying and prioritizing the users based on their traffic characteristic and ensuring resource for higher priority users, the new scheme decreases tremendously the outage probability of the users requiting a real-time transmission without impact on the spectrum efficiency of system, as well as the outage probability of data users is not increased compared with the radio resource allocation methods published.

  6. Media access control and resource allocation for next generation passive optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Nirwan

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on various Passive optical networks (PONs)  types, including currently deployed Ethernet PON (EPON) and Gigabit PON (GPON) as well as next generation WDM PON and OFDM PON. Also this book examines the integrated optical and wireless access networks. Concentrating on two issues in these networks: media access control (MAC) and resource allocation. These two problems can greatly affect performances of PONs such as network resource utilization and QoS of end users. Finally this book will discuss various solutions to address the MAC and resource allocation issues in various PON networks.

  7. Optimal Capacity Allocation of Large-Scale Wind-PV-Battery Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehe Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal capacity allocation of large-scale wind-photovoltaic- (PV- battery units was proposed. First, an output power model was established according to meteorological conditions. Then, a wind-PV-battery unit was connected to the power grid as a power-generation unit with a rated capacity under a fixed coordinated operation strategy. Second, the utilization rate of renewable energy sources and maximum wind-PV complementation was considered and the objective function of full life cycle-net present cost (NPC was calculated through hybrid iteration/adaptive hybrid genetic algorithm (HIAGA. The optimal capacity ratio among wind generator, PV array, and battery device also was calculated simultaneously. A simulation was conducted based on the wind-PV-battery unit in Zhangbei, China. Results showed that a wind-PV-battery unit could effectively minimize the NPC of power-generation units under a stable grid-connected operation. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the wind-PV-battery unit demonstrated that the optimization result was closely related to potential wind-solar resources and government support. Regions with rich wind resources and a reasonable government energy policy could improve the economic efficiency of their power-generation units.

  8. Classroom Games: The Allocation of Renewable Resources under Different Property Rights and Regulation Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Kelly L.; Herrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes a renewable resource allocation game designed to stimulate student interest in and understanding of market failure associated with open-access types of resource use. Employs the game to discuss advantages and disadvantages of property rights and regulation schemes. States the game benefits noneconomics majors in natural resource…

  9. Children's Recognition of Fairness and Others' Welfare in a Resource Allocation Task: Age Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…

  10. What Do We Spend Tto Educate a Child? The Student Resource Allocation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruslow, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the features of a new student resource-allocation model that analyzes resources for individual students, groups, or categories of students and allows the integration of cost analysis into school-district and building-level planning and evaluation. States that use of the model will assist school-district administrators in making more…

  11. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  12. Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: the distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation.

  13. From efficacy to equity: Literature review of decision criteria for resource allocation and healthcare decisionmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guindo Lalla Aïda

    2012-07-01

    allocation of resources and optimized decisionmaking for coverage and use of healthcare interventions. This analysis provides a foundation to develop a questionnaire for an international survey of decisionmakers on criteria and their relative importance. The ultimate objective is to develop sound multicriteria approaches to enlighten healthcare decisionmaking and priority-setting.

  14. MULTI-AGENT BASED SIMULATION OF OPTIMAL URBAN LAND USE ALLOCATION IN THE MIDDLE REACHES OF THE YANGTZE RIVER, CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng,Y.; Huang, W.; Jin, W.; Li, S

    2016-01-01

    The optimization of land-use allocation is one of important approaches to achieve regional sustainable development. This study selects Chang-Zhu-Tan agglomeration as study area and proposed a new land use optimization allocation model. Using multi-agent based simulation model, the future urban land use optimization allocation was simulated in 2020 and 2030 under three different scenarios. This kind of quantitative information about urban land use optimization allocation and urban expansions i...

  15. Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day

  16. Nutrient Stress During Ontogeny Alters Patterns of Resource Allocation in two Species of Horned Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniel B; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories. Across many species of Onthophagus beetles, males produce extravagant horns that are used as weapons in male-male competition over mates. Previous studies have reported resource allocation trade-offs between horns and both proximally and distally developing structures. However, more recent studies have largely failed to recover these patterns, leading to the hypothesis that trade-offs may manifest only in certain species, populations, or environmental conditions. Here, we investigate (i) patterns of resource allocation into horns, eyes, and genitalia in Onthophagus gazella and O. taurus, and assess (ii) how these patterns of resource allocation are influenced by nutrient stress during larval development. We find that nutrient stress alters patterns of resource allocation within and among traits, but recover a trade-off only in the species that invests most heavily into horn production (O. taurus), and in individuals of that species that invested a disproportionately large or small amount of resources into horn growth. These results suggest that resource allocation trade-offs may not be as prevalent as previously described, and that their presence and magnitude may instead be highly context dependent.

  17. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  18. Resource Allocation for OFDMA Two-Hope Cooperative Cellular Networks: Considering QoS and Fairness Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bani Zaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Joint bit allocation, relay selection and subcarrier assignment are critical for achieving full benefits of OFDM-based cooperative relay networks. In this paper, first such a problem is studied in a dual hop OFDMA cooperative network consisting in multi source nodes, multiple decode-and-forward (DF relays and a single destination node. The aim is to minimize overall transmission power under the bit-error-rate (BER and data rate constraints. However, the optimal solution to the optimization problem is computationally complex to obtain and may be unfair. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, an iterative three-step resource allocation algorithm with low complexity is proposed. It performs the privileged user selection based on fairness criterion first, and then allocates subcarrier-relay with the given constraints. Finally, power and bit are assigned to the selected subcarriers based on the water-filling algorithm. In order to guarantee the fairness of users, several fairness criteria are also proposed to provide attractive trade-offs between network performance (i.e. overall transmission power, average network lifetime and average outage probability and fairness to all users. Numerical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm in two practical scenarios. Simulation results show that the proposed allocation algorithm achieves an efficient trade-off between network performance and fairness among users.

  19. A Heuristic Algorithm for U.S. Naval Mission Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Heuristic Algorithm for U.S. Naval Mission Allocation 6. AUTHOR(S) Derek T. Dwyer 5...release; distribution is unlimited. A HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR U.S. NAVAL MISSION RESOURCE ALLOCATION Derek T. Dwyer Lieutenant Commander

  20. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were

  1. Medical resource preparation and allocation for humanitarian assistance based on module organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Ruxue; Zhong, Shaobo; Qian, Yangming; Huang, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to associate the allocation of medical resources with the function of the modular organization and the possible needs for humanitarian assistance missions. The overseas humanitarian medical assistance mission, which was sent after a disaster on the hospital ship Peace Ark, part of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, was considered as study model. The cases used for clustering and matching sample formation were randomly selected from the existing information related to Peace Ark's mission. Categories of the reusable resources clustered by this research met the requirement of the actual consumption almost completely (more than 95%) and the categories of non-reusable resources met the requirement by more than 80%. In the mission's original resource preparing plan, more than 30% of the non-reusable resource categories remained unused during the mission. In the original resource preparing plan, some key non-reusable resources inventories were completely exhausted at the end of the mission, while 5% to 30% of non-reusable resources remained in the resource allocation plan generated by this research at the end of the mission. The medical resource allocation plan generated here can enhance the supporting level for the humanitarian assistance mission. This research could lay the foundation for an assistant decision-making system for humanitarian assistance mission.

  2. Effect of total resource allocation effect and economic growth:Chinese experience of 1978-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The analytical method of total resource reallocation effet is an evolution of the analytical method of the factors of economic growth.Since the marketization reform in China in 1978,market mechanism has played a more and moreimportant role in resource allocation,and Chinese economy has developed greatly,which is called"the Chinese Miracle".This paper arialVzes the economic growth in China from 1978 to 2004 with the analytical method of total resource reallocation effect.The result shows that the annual growth Fate of total resource reallocation effect was 0.2%,which was 5.1% of the comprehensive productivity and 0.21%of the grass output growth,i.e. the total resource allocation played a weak role in the economic growth in China.When analyzing it in Chenets's multinational model,we find that Chinese comprehensive productivity growth rate was bigher than that in all the income phases of the model,but the total resource allocation effect was obviously lower than that in all the income phases of the model.It indicates that the total resource allocation in China has a great potential,and that to accelerate marketization reform is one of the important issues for Chinese economic development.

  3. Computing Resource And Work Allocations Using Social Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lavin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If several distributed and disparate computer resources exist, many of whichhave been created for different and diverse reasons, and several large scale com-puting challenges also exist with similar diversity in their backgrounds, then oneproblem which arises in trying to assemble enough of these resources to addresssuch challenges is the need to align and accommodate the different motivationsand objectives which may lie behind the existence of both the resources andthe challenges. Software agents are offered as a mainstream technology formodelling the types of collaborations and relationships needed to do this. Asan initial step towards forming such relationships, agents need a mechanism toconsider social and economic backgrounds. This paper explores addressing so-cial and economic differences using a combination of textual descriptions knownas social profiles and search engine technology, both of which are integrated intoan agent technology.

  4. Optimal Rate Allocation Algorithm for Multiple Source Video Streaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢彦泓; 郭常杰; 钟玉琢; 孙立峰

    2004-01-01

    Video streaming is one of the most important applications used in the best-effort Internet.This paper presents a new scheme for multiple source video streaming in which the traditional fine granular scalable coding was rebuilt into a multiple sub-streams based transmission model.A peak signal to noise ratio based stream rate allocation algorithm was then developed based on the transmission model.In tests,the algorithm performance is about 1 dB higher than that of a uniform rate allocation algorithm.Therefore,this scheme can overcome bottlenecks along a single link and smooth jitter to achieve high quality and stable video.

  5. Resource Allocation and Cluster Formation for Imperfect NOMA in DL/UL Decoupled HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2017-04-15

    Being capable of serving multiple users with the same radio resource, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) can provide desirable performance enhancements in a fair and spectral efficient manner. In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation (RA) and cluster formation (CF) aspects of NOMA for downlink (DL) uplink (UL) decoupled (DUDe) heterogeneous networks (HetNets). A non-ideal NOMA scheme is considered with power disparity and sensitivity constraints (PDSCs), delay tolerance, and residual interference after cancellation. Taking the PDSCs into account, we analytically show that using the DL decoding order limits UL-NOMA performance by that of OMA, while employing an inverse order result in a performance gain that is mainly determined by the channel gain disparity of users. Thereafter, a generic CF method is proposed for any type of user graph, which iteratively forms clusters using Blossom algorithm. Finally, highly non-convex RA problem is converted into a convex form by employing geometric programming (GP) where power and bandwidth are optimized to maximize network sumrate and max-min fairness objectives.

  6. An Analysis for the Comprehensive Evaluation of Health Resources Allocation in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锦泉; 彭绩; 卢祖洵

    2004-01-01

    INCREASING HEALTH COSTS are a dilemmafaced by the health administration. In order to en-hance the productivity, we must invest in healthservices. Meanwhile, limited health resources shouldbe properly allocated to obtain maximal socioeco-nomic benefits at lowest input. Thus, it is especiallyimportant to comprehensively assess the allocationof health resources from the perspectives of theInput and Output. The comprehensive evaluation ofhealth resources is a topic of interest for multi-objective assessment, wh...

  7. Run-time mapping: dynamic resource allocation in embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter Timon David

    2016-01-01

    Many desired features of computing platforms, such as increased fault tolerance, variable quality of service, and improved energy efficiency, can be achieved by postponing resource management decisions from design-time to run-time. While multiprocessing has been widespread in embedded systems for q

  8. Run-time mapping: dynamic resource allocation in embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Braak, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    Many desired features of computing platforms, such as increased fault tolerance, variable quality of service, and improved energy efficiency, can be achieved by postponing resource management decisions from design-time to run-time. While multiprocessing has been widespread in embedded systems for

  9. Delegated Portfolio Management and Optimal Allocation of Portfolio Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Vangsgaard Christensen, Michael; Gamskjaer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether the application of the mean-variance framework on portfolio manager allocation offers any out-of-sample benefits compared to a naïve strategy of equal weighting. Based on an exclusive data-set of high-net-worth (HNW) investors, we utilize a wide variety...

  10. Electricity Portfolio Management: Optimal Peak / Off-Peak Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald); F. Schlichter (Felix)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractElectricity purchasers manage a portfolio of contracts in order to purchase the expected future electricity consumption profile of a company or a pool of clients. This paper proposes a mean-variance framework to address the concept of structuring the portfolio and focuses on how to alloc

  11. Regional allocation of investment as a hierarchical optimization problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Olsder, G.J.; Strijbos, R.C.W.

    1981-01-01

    A new formulation is given for the well-known problem of investment allocation between regions in the framework of a planning model. The case of a dual economy with a Cobb-Douglas production function is worked out in detail with an illustrative numerical example. The corresponding problem for an

  12. Efficient Radio Resource Allocation in a GSM and GPRS Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vannucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of various radio resource allocation strategies in a GSM/GPRS cellular network. The most efficient resource allocation is analysed as a function of the proportion of circuit switched voice and packet switched data load. The Grade of Service and average packet delay is investigated as a function of the load, packet size and call duration. Additionally, the feasibility of using voice over Internet Protocol as opposed to circuit switched voice is investigated as a means to increase subscriber capacity per base station. The work is motivated firstly by the complexity of having both circuit switched and packet switched connectivity on GSM/GPRS mobile cellular system and secondly that an exclusively packet based access on GSM/GPRS has the potential to increase the efficiency of resource utilisation by suitably varying the channel allocation to exploit the characteristics of voice and data traffic.

  13. An ethics framework for assisting clinician-managers in resource allocation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, E M; Lemieux-Charles, L; Wortley, J T

    1997-01-01

    In response to continued pressure on the Canadian healthcare system, hospitals are implementing structural changes to address issues of cost containment, utilization, and resource allocation. One strategy has been to decentralize managerial decision making to clinicians, creating "clinician-managers" (CMs). We surveyed 3,000 hospital-based CMs in Ontario, Canada (including physicians, nurses, and other health professionals), in order to understand the nature and frequency of the ethical issues they face as a consequence of their involvement in resource allocation decisions, and to identify mechanisms for dealing with these problems in their hospitals. Based on the survey results, we developed a Management Ethics Framework to assist CMs to reach an ethically justifiable resolution of these types of problems, both individually, and in the context of their membership in the healthcare team. The results, and particularly the discussion that follows, represent a confluence of philosophical, clinical, and organizational perspective on ethics and resource allocation by clinicians.

  14. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a Pareto optimal allocation in a discontinuous Gale economic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the concept of Pareto optimality in a simplified Gale economic model without assuming continuity of the utility functions. We apply some existing results on higher-order optimality conditions to get necessary and sufficient conditions for a locally Pareto optimal allocation.

  15. Sample-Path Optimization of Buffer Allocations in a Tandem Queue - Part I : Theoretical Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürkan, G.; Ozge, A.Y.

    1996-01-01

    This is the first of two papers dealing with the optimal bu er allocation problem in tandem manufacturing lines with unreliable machines.We address the theoretical issues that arise when using sample-path optimization, a simulation-based optimization method, to solve this problem.Sample-path optimiz

  16. Mission Resource Allocation in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem xvi THIS...to the well-known “ vehicle routing problem ” (VRP). The VRP entails designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve a...January 2007. Toth P., and Vigo, D. [2002]. The vehicle routing problem . Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Trott,

  17. Potential game theory applications in radio resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lã, Quang Duy; Soong, Boon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a thorough examination of potential game theory and its applications in radio resource management for wireless communications systems and networking. The book addresses two major research goals: how to identify a given game as a potential game, and how to design the utility functions and the potential functions with certain special properties in order to formulate a potential game. After proposing a unifying mathematical framework for the identification of potential games, the text surveys existing applications of this technique within wireless communications and networking problems found in OFDMA 3G/4G/WiFi networks, as well as next-generation systems such as cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum access networks. Professionals interested in understanding the theoretical aspect of this specialized field will find Potential Game Theory a valuable resource, as will advanced-level engineering students. It paves the way for extensive and rigorous research exploration on a topic whose capacity for...

  18. Human resource allocation management in multiple projects using sociometric techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros-Pérez, Pablo; González-Cruz, M. C.; Fernández-Diego, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a new application of key psychological concepts in the area of Sociometry for the selection of workers within organizations in which projects are developed. The project manager can use a new procedure to determine which individuals should be chosen from a given pool of resources and how to combine them into one or several simultaneous groups/projects in order to assure the highest possible overall work efficiency from the standpoint of social interaction. The optimizati...

  19. Distributed Uplink Resource Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks -- Part I: Equilibria and Algorithms for Power Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi; Wilson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Spectrum management has been identified as a crucial step towards enabling the technology of a cognitive radio network (CRN). Most of the current works dealing with spectrum management in the CRN focus on a single task of the problem, e.g., spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing or spectrum mobility. In this two-part paper, we argue that for certain network configurations, jointly performing several tasks of the spectrum management improves the spectrum efficiency. Specifically, our aim is to study the uplink resource management problem in a CRN where there exist multiple cognitive users (CUs) and access points (APs). The CUs, in order to maximize their uplink transmission rates, have to associate to a suitable AP (spectrum decision), and to share the channels used by this AP with other CUs (spectrum sharing). These tasks are clearly interdependent, and the problem of how they should be carried out efficiently and in a distributed manner is still open in the literature.

  20. Optimal bandwidth-aware VM allocation for Infrastructure-as-a-Service

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Debojyoti; Post, Ian; Shinde, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers need to offer richer services to be competitive while optimizing their resource usage to keep costs down. Richer service offerings include new resource request models involving bandwidth guarantees between virtual machines (VMs). Thus we consider the following problem: given a VM request graph (where nodes are VMs and edges represent virtual network connectivity between the VMs) and a real data center topology, find an allocation of VMs to servers that satisfies the bandwidth guarantees for every virtual network edge---which maps to a path in the physical network---and minimizes congestion of the network. Previous work has shown that for arbitrary networks and requests, finding the optimal embedding satisfying bandwidth requests is $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard. However, in most data center architectures, the routing protocols employed are based on a spanning tree of the physical network. In this paper, we prove that the problem remains $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard even when the phys...

  1. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed,and a fitness function is provided.Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm,the simulated annealing algorithm,the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm,respectively.The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation,and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability,which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  2. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  3. Family Resource Allocation after Firstborns Leave Home: Implications for Secondborns' Academic Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; Whiteman, Shawn D; Bernard, Julia M; McHale, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed secondborn adolescents' perceptions of changes in the allocation of family resources following their firstborn siblings' departure from home after high school, and whether perceived changes were related to changes over 1 year in secondborns' academic functioning. Participants were secondborn siblings (mean age = 16.58, SD = 0.91) from 115 families in which the older sibling had left the family home in the previous year. Allocation of resources was measured via coded qualitative interviews. Most (77%) secondborns reported increases in at least one type of family resource (i.e., parental companionship, attention, material goods), and many reported an increase in multiple types of resources in the year following their older sibling's departure. Consistent with resource dilution theory, perceptions of increases in fathers' companionship, fathers' attention, and mothers' companionship were related to improvements over time in secondborns' academic functioning. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  4. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Allocation Optimization of Distribution Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晶; 庞小红; 吴智铭

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced an integrated allocation model for distribution centers (DCs). The facility cost, inventory cost, transportation cost and service quality were considered in the model. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) was proposed to solve the problem. The improvement of IGA is based on the idea of adjusting crossover probability and mutation probability. The IGA is supplied by heuristic rules too. The simulation results show that the IGA is better than the standard GA(SGA) in search efficiency and equality.

  5. A Game Theoretic Sensor Resource Allocation Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Stubberud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor resource management system that employs fuzzy logic to provide the utility functions to a game theoretic approach is developed. The application looks at a virtual fence problem where several unattended ground sensors are placed in remote locations to act as virtual sentries. The goal of the approach is to maximize the battery life while tracking targets of interest. This research also considers the incorporation of uncertainty into the fuzzy membership functions. Both type-2 fuzzy logic and the use of conditional fuzzy membership function are employed. The type-2 fuzzy logic is employed in the case of acoustical sensor tracking accuracy degradation, while the condition-based membership functions are used to adapt to different conditions, such as environmental conditions and sensor performance degradation, over time. The resource management process uses fuzzy logic to determine which of the sensor systems on a sensor pod is used to provide initial classification of the target and which sensor or sensors are to be used in tracking and better classifying the target if it is determined to be of value to the mission. The three different approaches are compared to determine when the best times for the more complex approaches are warranted.

  6. A Fault Tolerant Resource Allocation Architecture for Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Vanathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to achieve high level of reliability and availability, the grid infrastructure should be fault tolerant. Since the failure of resources affects job execution fatally, fault tolerance service is essential to satisfy QoS requirement in grid computing with respect to mobile nodes. Approach: We propose a fault tolerant technique for improving reliability in mobile grid environment considering the node mobility. The Cluster head and monitoring agent was designed in such a way it addresses both resource and network failure and present recovery techniques for overcoming the faults. Results: The proposed model achieves a identifiable performance when compared to the previous model (HRAA. By simulation results, we analyze the node and link failures on parameters such as delivery ratio, throughput and delay against the rate of success. Conclusion: The proposed fault tolerant approach checks for availability of the nodes with least work load for transferring the executed job to cluster head providing an alternate path in case of failure thereby enhancing the reliability of the grid environment.

  7. Fair Resource Allocation to Health Research: Priority Topics for Bioethics Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-07-01

    This article draws attention to the limited amount of scholarship on what constitutes fairness and equity in resource allocation to health research by individual funders. It identifies three key decisions of ethical significance about resource allocation that research funders make regularly and calls for prioritizing scholarship on those topics - namely, how health resources should be fairly apportioned amongst public health and health care delivery versus health research, how health research resources should be fairly allocated between health problems experienced domestically versus other health problems typically experienced by disadvantaged populations outside the funder's country, and how domestic and non-domestic health research funding should be further apportioned to different areas, e.g. types of research and recipients. These three topics should be priorities for bioethics research because their outcomes have a substantial bearing on the achievement of health justice. The proposed agenda aims to move discussion on the ethics of health research funding beyond its current focus on the mismatch between worldwide basic and clinical research investment and the global burden of disease. Individual funders' decision-making on whether and to what extent to allocate resources to non-domestic health research, health systems research, research on the social determinants of health, capacity development, and recipients in certain countries should also be the focus of ethical scrutiny. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Empirical Study of the Allocation Efficiency of Rural Financial Resources in Hubei Province from the Perspective of Agricultural Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The incompatibility of China’s economy and finance has to some extent inhibited the development of rural economy. Taking Hubei Province for example,we measure the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources from the perspective of agricultural input and output,and use the modern rural financial development theory to set forth some policy recommendations on how to build a new rural financial resource allocation system. Studies have shown that the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is low in China,and improving the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is the key to perfecting rural financial environment while increasing financial support for agriculture.

  9. On optimal allocation in binary response trials; is adaptive design really necessary?

    CERN Document Server

    Azriel, David; Rinott, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of selecting the best of two treatments in clinical trials with binary response. The target is to find the design that maximizes the power of the relevant test. Many papers use a normal approximation to the power function and claim that \\textit{Neyman allocation} that assigns subjects to treatment groups according to the ratio of the responses' standard deviations, should be used. As the standard deviations are unknown, an adaptive design is often recommended. The asymptotic justification of this approach is arguable, since it uses the normal approximation in tails where the error in the approximation is larger than the estimated quantity. We consider two different approaches for optimality of designs that are related to Pitman and Bahadur definitions of relative efficiency of tests. We prove that the optimal allocation according to the Pitman criterion is the balanced allocation and that the optimal allocation according to the Bahadur approach depends on the unknown paramete...

  10. Optimal allocation of leaf-level nitrogen: Implications for covariation of Vcmax and Jmax and photosynthetic downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebbeman, J. A.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The maximum rate of carboxylation, Vcmax, and the maximum rate of electron transport, Jmax, describe leaf-level capacities of the photosynthetic system and are critical in determining the net fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the terrestrial biosphere. Although both Vcmax and Jmax exhibit high spatial and temporal variability, most descriptions of photosynthesis in terrestrial biosphere models assume constant values for Vcmax and Jmax at a reference temperature ignoring intraseasonal, interannual, and water stress-induced variations. Although general patterns of variation of Vcmax and Jmax have been correlated across groups of species, climates, and nitrogen concentrations, scant theoretical support has been provided to explain these variations. We present a new approach to determine Vcmax and Jmax based on the assumption that a limited amount of leaf nitrogen is allocated optimally among the various components of the photosynthetic system in such a way that expected carbon assimilation is maximized. The optimal allocation is constrained by available nitrogen and responds dynamically to the near-term environmental conditions of light and water supply and to their variability. The resulting optimal allocations of a finite supply of nitrogen replicate observed relationships in nature, including the ratio of Jmax/Vcmax, the relationship of leaf nitrogen to Vcmax, and the changes in nitrogen allocation under varying water availability and light environments. This optimal allocation approach provides a mechanism to describe the response of leaf-level photosynthetic capacity to varying environmental and resource supply conditions that can be incorporated into terrestrial biosphere models providing improved estimates of carbon and water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  11. Towards Resource Allocation Algorithm in Opportunistic Relaying Cooperative UWB Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel communication system named “OR cooperative UWB” is proposed by bringing OR (Opportunistic Relaying to UWB system. Particularly, the exact and closed-form symbol error rate (SER expression is derived firstly in this paper. In order to maximize the capacity considering fairness between users, a definition of equivalent mean channel gain is given, and a joint resource allocation algorithm is also proposed which includes three steps: sub-band allocation algorithm, relaying allocation algorithm and power allocation algorithm. Employing the conception of “relative requirement degree”, the algorithm shows a distributed solution targeting relay partner selecting and increasing capacity while satisfying the users’ QoS (Quality of Service requirement. Simulations results validate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Optimal control of renewable economic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelani, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two main problems are studied: economic optimization, and determination of the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population which follows a Bertalanffy-type growth law. Conditions are derived on the economic parameters that make maximization of economic rent biologically superior to maximization of sustainable yield. A general equation is derived for the optimal equilibrium biomass size when maximization of present value is the control objective. Also, it is shown that under perfectly elastic demand for the resource, a critical price level exists beyond which economic optimization has to be sacrificed in order to enhance conservation of the resource. An equation is derived whose solution represents the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population stock. In certain circumstances, analytic forms are obtained for the optimal age of harvest. Some properties of the optimal age of harvest are also investigated.

  13. Evidence to inform resource allocation for tuberculosis control in Myanmar: a systematic review based on the SYSRA framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Schwanke Khilji, Sara U; Saw, Saw; Coker, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Myanmar represents an extreme example of the difficulties in optimally allocating resources for maximum public health benefit, on the basis of limited information. At the recent Myanmar Health Forum 'Investing in Health' much of the discussion revolved around what to invest in, how health systems could be strengthened, and what research and capacity building areas the international donor community should prioritise for support. Funding for infectious disease control, particularly HIV and tuberculosis, is being channelled to the country at an unprecedented rate, but very little research has been conducted in recent years, and existing information has not yet been synthesised. This paper presents findings of the first systematic literature review on tuberculosis control and the health system in Myanmar, with the aim of informing the development of optimal research priorities and strategies. Medline and grey literature were searched for relevant papers. Inclusion criteria and analyses were structured to capture data on the Myanmar health system, healthcare delivery, financing, tuberculosis control indicators and information systems. A total of 77 papers were included in the analysis. The results indicate that there has been a large increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles published on tuberculosis in Myanmar over the past decade, although the absolute number of studies remains small. We identified several areas in which evidence to inform policy and resource allocation decisions is lacking, including research focused on rural and/or vulnerable populations, analyses of risk factors for TB and drug resistance that can inform prevention strategies and economic analyses for optimising resource allocation. The gaps in research to inform policy identified through this study may be relevant to other low resource settings with extremely limited research capacity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  14. An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.

  15. Existing Opportunities to Adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzma Fabiola Nava

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S. and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental needs. Based on an overview of the RGB Basin context and the water allocation framework, as well as a discussion on stakeholders’ ability to achieve solutions, this paper explores three key questions: (1 Does the current binational water allocation framework meet current and future human and environmental needs? (2 How can the U.S.-Mexico water allocation framework be adapted to balance social and environmental water demands so it can support and preserve the RGB Basin ecosystem? (3 What are the main opportunities to be explored for expanding the U.S.-Mexico water resources allocation framework? The U.S.-Mexico water resources framework is subject to broad interpretation and may be adapted to the circumstances taking the fullest advantage of its flexibility. Policy recommendations highlight the existing flexibility of the binational framework, the potential to move forward with an ad hoc institutional arrangement, and the creation of political will to achieve change through stakeholders recommendations.

  16. A Fairness Relation Based on the Asymmetric Choquet Integral and Its Application in Network Resource Allocation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoi Honda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent problem of network resource allocation is studied where pairs of users could be in a favourable situation, given that the allocation scheme is refined by some add-on technology. The general question here is whether the additional effort can be effective with regard to the user’s experience of fairness. The computational approach proposed in this paper to handle this question is based on the framework of relational optimization. For representing different weightings for different pairs of users, the use of a fuzzy measure appears to be reasonable. The generalized Choquet integrals are discussed from the viewpoint of representing fairness and it is concluded that the asymmetric Choquet integral is the most suitable approach. A binary relation using the asymmetric Choquet integral is proposed. In case of a supermodular fuzzy measure, this is a transitive and cycle-free relation. The price of fairness with regard to a wireless channel allocation problem taking channel interference into account is experimentally studied and it can be seen that the asymmetric on relation actually selects allocations that perform on average between maxmin fairness and proportional fairness, and being more close to maxmin fairness as long as channel interference is not high.

  17. Multi-Objective Resource Allocation Scheme for D2D Multicast with QoS Guarantees in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D multicast communication can greatly improve the spectrum utilization in a content delivery scenario. However, the co-channel interference and power consumption brought by D2D bring new challenges. All the D2D multicast groups expect to achieve a higher system capacity with less extra energy cost. In this paper, we investigate the uplink resource allocation issue when D2D multicast groups share the resources with other cellular uses (CUs, while guaranteeing a certain level of quality of service (QoS to CUs and D2D users. Firstly we address a flexible tradeoff framework in which the system power consumption and the system capacity (i.e., the number of admitted D2D links are assigned with different weight factors so that these two objectives are jointly considered. Then we propose an efficient resource optimization scheme, which comprises sub-channel allocation and signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio (SINR assignment. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, and demonstrate the advantages in dealing with the proposed multi-objective optimization problem.

  18. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  19. ADAPTIVE MULTI-TENANCY POLICY FOR ENHANCING SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT THROUGH RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MasnidaHussin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of infinite computing resources that available on demand and fast enough to adapt with load surges makes Cloud computing favourable service infrastructure in IT market. Core feature in Cloud service infrastructures is Service Level Agreement (SLA that led seamless service at high quality of service to client. One of the challenges in Cloud is providing heterogeneous computing services for the clients. With the increasing number of clients/tenants in the Cloud, unsatisfied agreement is becoming a critical factor. In this paper, we present an adaptive resource allocation policy which attempts to improve accountable in Cloud SLA while aiming for enhancing system performance. Specifically, our allocation incorporates dynamic matching SLA rules to deal with diverse processing requirements from tenants.Explicitly, it reduces processing overheadswhile achieving better service agreement. Simulation experiments proved the efficacy of our allocation policy in order to satisfy the tenants; and helps improve reliable computing

  20. Modelling of resource allocation to health care authorities in Stockholm county

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Paula; Varde, E; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    before. We also show the effect of using more current data sources by replacing existing census variables with data from annually updated registers. Since the aim is to use the resource allocation models for prospective budgeting we test and evaluate the predictive power of the models one to two years......Since the Stockholm County Council introduced a system of purchasers and providers there has been a quest for population-based resource allocation models to allocate monies to purchasers of health care. In contrast to models used in Britain, Swedish models have been based on individual level data....... This paper presents recent developments in the model used in Stockholm for all care except primary care, testing new statistical methods for compression and clustering of the matrices used and the effect of introducing diagnostic information in addition to the demographic and socio-economic information used...