Shape signature based on Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation
Luo, Wei; Su, Zengyu; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wei; Dai, Junfei; Gu, Xianfeng
2014-11-01
A shape signature based on surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation is introduced for the purpose of surface comparison. First, the surface is conformally mapped onto plane by Ricci flow, which induces a measure on the planar domain. Second, the unique optimal mass transport map is computed that transports the new measure to the canonical measure on the plane. The map is obtained by a convex optimization process. This optimal transport map encodes all the information of the Riemannian metric on the surface. The shape signature consists of the optimal transport map, together with the mean curvature, which can fully recover the original surface. The discrete theories of surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation are explained thoroughly. The algorithms are given in detail. The signature is tested on human facial surfaces with different expressions accquired by structured light 3-D scanner based on phase-shifting method. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sumijanto; Sriyono
2016-01-01
Carbon monoxide is a species that is difficult to be separated from the reactor coolant helium because it has a relatively small molecular size. So it needs a process of conversion from carbon monoxide to carbondioxide. The rate of conversion of carbon monoxide in the purification system is influenced by several parameters including concentration, temperature and mass flow rate. In this research, optimization of the mass flow rate in coolant purification of RGTT200K for carbon monoxide conversion process was done. Optimization is carried out by using software Super Pro Designer. The rate of reduction of reactant species, the growth rate between the species and the species products in the conversion reactions equilibrium were analyzed to derive the mass flow rate optimization of purification for carbon monoxide conversion process. The purpose of this study is to find the mass flow rate of purification for the preparation of the basic design of the RGTT200K coolant helium purification system. The analysis showed that the helium mass flow rate of 0.6 kg/second resulted in an un optimal conversion process. The optimal conversion process was reached at a mass flow rate of 1.2 kg/second. A flow rate of 3.6 kg/second – 12 kg/second resulted in an ineffective process. For supporting the basic design of the RGTT200K helium purification system, the mass flow rate for carbon monoxide conversion process is suggested to be 1.2 kg/second. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lili Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.
Load flow optimization and optimal power flow
Das, J C
2017-01-01
This book discusses the major aspects of load flow, optimization, optimal load flow, and culminates in modern heuristic optimization techniques and evolutionary programming. In the deregulated environment, the economic provision of electrical power to consumers requires knowledge of maintaining a certain power quality and load flow. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications. The problems at the end of each chapter can be solved by hand calculations without having to use computer software. The appendices are devoted to calculations of line and cable constants, and solutions to the problems are included throughout the book.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Arup Singha; Palani Selvam, T.; Raman, Anand; Raja, V.; Chaudhury, Probal
2014-01-01
Over the years, various types of tritium-in-air monitors have been designed and developed based on different principles. Ionization chamber, proportional counter and scintillation detector systems are few among them. A plastic scintillator based, flow-cell type online tritium-in-air monitoring system was developed for online monitoring of tritium in air. The value of the scintillator mass inside the cell-volume, which maximizes the response of the detector system, should be obtained to get maximum efficiency. The present study is aimed to optimize the amount of mass of the plastic scintillator film for the flow-cell based tritium monitoring instrument so that maximum efficiency is achieved. The Monte Carlo based EGSnrc code system has been used for this purpose
McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.
1994-08-16
The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.
Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, Germán, E-mail: German.Perez@iter.org; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien
2014-10-15
Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented.
Optimized mass flow rate distribution analysis for cooling the ITER Blanket System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez, Germán; Mitteau, Raphaël; Furmanek, Andreas; Martin, Alex; Raffray, René; Merola, Mario; Sabourin, Flavien
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Optimized water distribution in ITER blanket modules is presented. • All key challenging constraints are included. • The methodology and the successful result are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents the rationale to the optimization of water distribution in ITER blanket modules, meeting both Blanket System requirements and interface compliance requirements. The key challenging constraints include to: be compatible with the overall water allocation (3140 kg/s for 440 wall mounted BMs); meet the critical heat flux margin of 1.4 in the plasma facing units; meet a maximum temperature increase of 70 °C at the outlet of each single BM; and ensure that water velocity is less than 7 m/s in all manifolds, and that the pressure drops of all BMs can be equilibrated. The methodology and the successful result are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea
2018-03-01
This paper considers distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources, and develops distributed feedback controllers that continuously drive the inverter output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Particularly, the controllers update the power setpoints based on voltage measurements as well as given (time-varying) OPF targets, and entail elementary operations implementable onto low-cost microcontrollers that accompany power-electronics interfaces of gateways and inverters. The design of the control framework is based on suitable linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations as well as Lagrangian regularization methods. Convergence and OPF-target tracking capabilities of the controllers are analytically established. Overall, the proposed method allows to bypass traditional hierarchical setups where feedback control and optimization operate at distinct time scales, and to enable real-time optimization of distribution systems.
Martha, Cornelius T; Hoogendoorn, Jan-Carel; Irth, Hubertus; Niessen, Wilfried M A
2011-05-15
Current development in catalyst discovery includes combinatorial synthesis methods for the rapid generation of compound libraries combined with high-throughput performance-screening methods to determine the associated activities. Of these novel methodologies, mass spectrometry (MS) based flow chemistry methods are especially attractive due to the ability to combine sensitive detection of the formed reaction product with identification of introduced catalyst complexes. Recently, such a mass spectrometry based continuous-flow reaction detection system was utilized to screen silver-adducted ferrocenyl bidentate catalyst complexes for activity in a multicomponent synthesis of a substituted 2-imidazoline. Here, we determine the merits of different ionization approaches by studying the combination of sensitive detection of product formation in the continuous-flow system with the ability to simultaneous characterize the introduced [ferrocenyl bidentate+Ag](+) catalyst complexes. To this end, we study the ionization characteristics of electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), no-discharge APCI, dual ESI/APCI, and dual APCI/no-discharge APCI. Finally, we investigated the application potential of the different ionization approaches by the investigation of ferrocenyl bidentate catalyst complex responses in different solvents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Texture mapping via optimal mass transport.
Dominitz, Ayelet; Tannenbaum, Allen
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel method for texture mapping of closed surfaces. Our method is based on the technique of optimal mass transport (also known as the "earth-mover's metric"). This is a classical problem that concerns determining the optimal way, in the sense of minimal transportation cost, of moving a pile of soil from one site to another. In our context, the resulting mapping is area preserving and minimizes angle distortion in the optimal mass sense. Indeed, we first begin with an angle-preserving mapping (which may greatly distort area) and then correct it using the mass transport procedure derived via a certain gradient flow. In order to obtain fast convergence to the optimal mapping, we incorporate a multiresolution scheme into our flow. We also use ideas from discrete exterior calculus in our computations.
Topology optimization of turbulent flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Cetin B.; Dilgen, Sumer B.; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The aim of this work is to present a fast and viable approach for taking into account turbulence in topology optimization of complex fluid flow systems, without resorting to any simplifying assumptions in the derivation of discrete adjoints. Topology optimization is an iterative gradient...
Numerical optimization using flow equations
Punk, Matthias
2014-12-01
We develop a method for multidimensional optimization using flow equations. This method is based on homotopy continuation in combination with a maximum entropy approach. Extrema of the optimizing functional correspond to fixed points of the flow equation. While ideas based on Bayesian inference such as the maximum entropy method always depend on a prior probability, the additional step in our approach is to perform a continuous update of the prior during the homotopy flow. The prior probability thus enters the flow equation only as an initial condition. We demonstrate the applicability of this optimization method for two paradigmatic problems in theoretical condensed matter physics: numerical analytic continuation from imaginary to real frequencies and finding (variational) ground states of frustrated (quantum) Ising models with random or long-range antiferromagnetic interactions.
Topology optimization of flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg, Allan Roulund
2007-01-01
This thesis investigates how to apply topology optimization using the material distribution technique to steady-state viscous incompressible flow problems. The target design applications are fluid devices that are optimized with respect to minimizing the energy loss, characteristic properties...... transport in 2D Stokes flow. Using Stokes flow limits the range of applications; nonetheless, the thesis gives a proof-of-concept for the application of the method within fluid dynamic problems and it remains of interest for the design of microfluidic devices. Furthermore, the thesis contributes...... at the Technical University of Denmark. Large topology optimization problems with 2D and 3D Stokes flow modeling are solved with direct and iterative strategies employing the parallelized Sun Performance Library and the OpenMP parallelization technique, respectively....
Krenn, Julia; Zangerl, Christian; Mergili, Martin
2017-04-01
r.randomwalk is a GIS-based, multi-functional, conceptual open source model application for forward and backward analyses of the propagation of mass flows. It relies on a set of empirically derived, uncertain input parameters. In contrast to many other tools, r.randomwalk accepts input parameter ranges (or, in case of two or more parameters, spaces) in order to directly account for these uncertainties. Parameter spaces represent a possibility to withdraw from discrete input values which in most cases are likely to be off target. r.randomwalk automatically performs multiple calculations with various parameter combinations in a given parameter space, resulting in the impact indicator index (III) which denotes the fraction of parameter value combinations predicting an impact on a given pixel. Still, there is a need to constrain the parameter space used for a certain process type or magnitude prior to performing forward calculations. This can be done by optimizing the parameter space in terms of bringing the model results in line with well-documented past events. As most existing parameter optimization algorithms are designed for discrete values rather than for ranges or spaces, the necessity for a new and innovative technique arises. The present study aims at developing such a technique and at applying it to derive guiding parameter spaces for the forward calculation of rock avalanches through back-calculation of multiple events. In order to automatize the work flow we have designed r.ranger, an optimization and sensitivity analysis tool for parameter spaces which can be directly coupled to r.randomwalk. With r.ranger we apply a nested approach where the total value range of each parameter is divided into various levels of subranges. All possible combinations of subranges of all parameters are tested for the performance of the associated pattern of III. Performance indicators are the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) and the factor of conservativeness (FoC). This
Evaluation of Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow Sensors
Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.
2012-01-01
Refrigerant mass flow rate is an important measurement for monitoring equipment performance and enabling fault detection and diagnostics. However, a traditional mass flow meter is expensive to purchase and install. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements and can potentially be implemented at low cost. This study evaluates three VRMFs for estimating refrigerant mass flow rate. The first model uses a compressor ma...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D.
2007-01-01
Roč. 267, 1-3 (2007), s. 117-124 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : microwave plasma ion source * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * SIFT-MS * breath analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2007
Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press ...
Security constrained optimal power flow by modern optimization tools
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The main objective of an optimal power flow (OPF) functions is to optimize .... It is characterized as propagation of plants and this happens by gametes union. ... ss and different variables, for example, wind, nearby fertilization can have a critic.
Coriolis mass flow rate meters for low flows
Mehendale, A.
2008-01-01
The accurate and quick measurement of small mass flow rates (~10 mg/s) of fluids is considered an “enabling technology��? in semiconductor, fine-chemical, and food & drugs industries. Flowmeters based on the Coriolis effect offer the most direct sensing of the mass flow rate, and for this reason do
Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wangensteen, Ivar; Gjelsvik, Anders
1998-01-01
This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs
Optimizing the W resonance in dijet mass
Abercrombie, Daniel
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to optimize the resolution of the W boson resonance in the dijet mass spectrum. Different cone sizes as well as different grooming algorithms used in jet reconstruction were compared. The main figure of merit for this study was the width of the W mass peak. The current results show that the smallest cone size in the study, $\\Delta R = 0.4$, gives the best mass resolution. The trimming and filtering grooming algorithms compete for the best mass resolution, while pruning appears to be an overly aggressive grooming algorithm.
Topology optimization of Channel flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Haber, R. B.
2005-01-01
function which measures either some local aspect of the velocity field or a global quantity, such as the rate of energy dissipation. We use the finite element method to model the flow, and we solve the optimization problem with a gradient-based math-programming algorithm that is driven by analytical......This paper describes a topology design method for simple two-dimensional flow problems. We consider steady, incompressible laminar viscous flows at low to moderate Reynolds numbers. This makes the flow problem non-linear and hence a non-trivial extension of the work of [Borrvall&Petersson 2002......]. Further, the inclusion of inertia effects significantly alters the physics, enabling solutions of new classes of optimization problems, such as velocity--driven switches, that are not addressed by the earlier method. Specifically, we determine optimal layouts of channel flows that extremize a cost...
Optimization Of A Mass Spectrometry Process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes, Jose; Alegria, F. Correa; Redondo, Luis; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Rocha, Jorge
2011-01-01
In this paper we present and discuss a system developed in order to optimize the mass spectrometry process of an ion implanter. The system uses a PC to control and display the mass spectrum. The operator interacts with the I/O board, that interfaces with the computer and the ion implanter by a LabVIEW code. Experimental results are shown and the capabilities of the system are discussed.
Mass and overall optimization of radiator design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilo G. N.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The models of finned radiator are formed by computing aided engineering systems. The relations between sizes of construction elements and boundaries of operability domain are obtained for radiators of minimal mass, minimal volume and minimal overall parameters. Iteration algorithm is used. The non-linear characteristics of weight functions and allowable input heat resistances of radiator are applied in the algorithm. Mass and overall parameters of standard and optimal radiator are defined by different strategies.
Mass transfer in counter current flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doichinova, Maria D.; Popova, Petya G.; Boyadjiev, Christo B. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2011-07-01
A theoretical analysis of gas-liquid counter-current flow in laminar boundary layers with flat phase boundary based on similarity variables method has been done. The obtained numerical results for the energy dissipation, mass transfer rate and their ratio are compared with analogous results for concurrent flows. A diffusion type of model is proposed for modeling of the mass transfer with chemical reaction in the column apparatuses in the cases of circulation zones. The presence of rising and descending flows (the change of the velocity direction) leads to using three coordinate systems. An iterative algorithm for the concentration distribution calculation is proposed. The influence of the zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column is investigated. Key words: efficiency, mass transfer, velocity distribution, column apparatuses, circulation zones.
Airfoil Shape Optimization in Transonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, Z.
2004-01-01
A computationally efficient and adaptable design tool is constructed by coupling a flow analysis code based on Euler equations, with the well established numerical optimization algorithms. Optimization technique involving two analysis methods of Simplex and Rosenbrock have been used. The optimization study involves the minimization of wave drag for two different airfoils with geometric constraints on the airfoil maximum thickness or the cross sectional area along with aerodynamic constraint on lift coefficient. The method is applied to these airfoils transonic flow design points, and the results are compared with the original values. This study shows that the conventional low speed airfoils can be optimized to become supercritical for transonic flight speeds, while existing supercritical airfoils can still be improved further at particular design condition. (author)
Traffic Flow Optimization Using a Quantum Annealer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Neukart
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum processing units (QPUs produced by D-Wave Systems, have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology’s usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks. In this paper, we present a real-world application that uses quantum technologies. Specifically, we show how to map certain parts of a real-world traffic flow optimization problem to be suitable for quantum annealing. We show that time-critical optimization tasks, such as continuous redistribution of position data for cars in dense road networks, are suitable candidates for quantum computing. Due to the limited size and connectivity of current-generation D-Wave QPUs, we use a hybrid quantum and classical approach to solve the traffic flow problem.
SU-8 micro Coriolis mass flow sensor
Monge, Rosa; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Fernandez, Luis J.
2017-01-01
Abstract This work presents the modelling, design, fabrication and test of the first micro Coriolis mass flow sensor fully fabricated in SU-8 by photolithography processes. The sensor consists of a channel with rectangular cross-section with inner opening of 100 μm × 100 μm and is actuated at
Optimal partial mass transportation and obstacle Monge-Kantorovich equation
Igbida, Noureddine; Nguyen, Van Thanh
2018-05-01
Optimal partial mass transport, which is a variant of the optimal transport problem, consists in transporting effectively a prescribed amount of mass from a source to a target. The problem was first studied by Caffarelli and McCann (2010) [6] and Figalli (2010) [12] with a particular attention to the quadratic cost. Our aim here is to study the optimal partial mass transport problem with Finsler distance costs including the Monge cost given by the Euclidian distance. Our approach is different and our results do not follow from previous works. Among our results, we introduce a PDE of Monge-Kantorovich type with a double obstacle to characterize active submeasures, Kantorovich potential and optimal flow for the optimal partial transport problem. This new PDE enables us to study the uniqueness and monotonicity results for the active submeasures. Another interesting issue of our approach is its convenience for numerical analysis and computations that we develop in a separate paper [14] (Igbida and Nguyen, 2018).
Optimal Power Flow Control by Rotary Power Flow Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KAZEMI, A.
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new power flow model for rotary power flow controller (RPFC. RPFC injects a series voltage into the transmission line and provides series compensation and phase shifting simultaneously. Therefore, it is able to control the transmission line impedance and the active power flow through it. An RPFC is composed mainly of two rotary phase shifting transformers (RPST and two conventional (series and shunt transformers. Structurally, an RPST consists of two windings (stator and rotor windings. The rotor windings of the two RPSTs are connected in parallel and their stator windings are in series. The injected voltage is proportional to the vector sum of the stator voltages and so its amplitude and angle are affected by the rotor position of the two RPSTs. This paper, describes the steady state operation and single-phase equivalent circuit of the RPFC. Also in this paper, a new power flow model, based on power injection model of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers, suitable for the power flow analysis is introduced. Proposed model is used to solve optimal power flow (OPF problem in IEEE standard test systems incorporating RPFC and the optimal settings and location of the RPFC is determined.
Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator
Ritrivi, Charles
2013-01-01
The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.
Cash flow optimization in industrial enterprise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myznikova T.N.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Optimization of cash flows of the industrial company provides economic entity necessity and sufficiency of financial resources for sustainable activities. Cash optimization techniques are grouped into two blocks: theoretical - is mainly foreign methods and applied techniques that are mostly used by Russian authors. Models described in the literature are not allowed for the particular industry in the formation of cash. The mathematical models described in the literature do not allow to take into account industry characteristics in the formation of funds. The proposed methodology by authors allows to predict cash amounts based on business company. The balance of cash flows is provided by the budgeting system. The company’s the released money can send funds for investment purposes. Effectiveness of confirmed by practical testing methodology on the existing machine-building enterprise.
Optimization of operating regime of mass-diffusion cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuzhinov, V.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Nikolaev, B.I.; Sulaberidze, G.A.
1975-01-01
This work deals with questions of the optimization of mass diffusion elements (columns or pumps) in cascades. Since the establishment and operation of real diffusion plants involves substantial outlays of material resources and energy, cascade optimization should be conducted in accordance with the criterion of the possibility of realizing further economies on the method and diffusion process. One of these indicators is the cost of the end product. Formulas are given for calculating the basic expenditures required for the production of an isotope in a cascade, and an analytical formula is obtained for assessing the cost of an enriched isotope mixture. Calculations are made of the influence of the steam flow rate on the cost of 99% 13 CH 4 and its constitutents, taking into account capital and power outlay on the construction and operation of the installation. It is demonstrated that as the result of a discrepancy between optimum power and capital outlays, the steam flow rate corresponding to the minimum cost is less than that corresponding to the maximum fractionating capacity of the column. In each specific case, optimization parameters should be selected having regard to the special features of the fractionating method and the fractionating apparatus. The results may be used in calculations of mass-diffusion fractionating installations, and also in comparisons of the effectiveness of the various methods used in the separation of these and other isotopes. (author)
Optical flow optimization using parallel genetic algorithm
Zavala-Romero, Olmo; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Meyer Base, Uwe
2011-06-01
A new approach to optimize the parameters of a gradient-based optical flow model using a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed. The main characteristics of the optical flow algorithm are its bio-inspiration and robustness against contrast, static patterns and noise, besides working consistently with several optical illusions where other algorithms fail. This model depends on many parameters which conform the number of channels, the orientations required, the length and shape of the kernel functions used in the convolution stage, among many more. The GA is used to find a set of parameters which improve the accuracy of the optical flow on inputs where the ground-truth data is available. This set of parameters helps to understand which of them are better suited for each type of inputs and can be used to estimate the parameters of the optical flow algorithm when used with videos that share similar characteristics. The proposed implementation takes into account the embarrassingly parallel nature of the GA and uses the OpenMP Application Programming Interface (API) to speedup the process of estimating an optimal set of parameters. The information obtained in this work can be used to dynamically reconfigure systems, with potential applications in robotics, medical imaging and tracking.
Topology Optimization of Active Transport Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe
2017-01-01
Fluid flows with particle transport are common in many industrial processes and components. The design of components for addition or removal of particles as well as mixing or stratification is of great importance in the specific processes. This work presents a methodology to apply topology....... The paper present the design and optimization of a particle separator and the important interpolation for modeling both solids, fluids and particles with a monolithic problem formulation. The interplay with the physics behind the model are discussed and the influence of parameters are demonstrated....
Optimal Design of a Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a more complete description of the design process of the Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG, a gyro expected to provide breakthrough performance for flat structures. The operation of the CSQMG is based on four lumped masses in a circumferential symmetric distribution, oscillating in anti-phase motion, and providing differential signal extraction. With its 4-fold symmetrical axes pattern, the CSQMG achieves a similar operation mode to Hemispherical Resonant Gyroscopes (HRGs. Compared to the conventional flat design, four Y-shaped coupling beams are used in this new pattern in order to adjust mode distribution and enhance the synchronization mechanism of operation modes. For the purpose of obtaining the optimal design of the CSQMG, a kind of applicative optimization flow is developed with a comprehensive derivation of the operation mode coordination, the pseudo mode inhibition, and the lumped mass twisting motion elimination. The experimental characterization of the CSQMG was performed at room temperature, and the center operation frequency is 6.8 kHz after tuning. Experiments show an Allan variance stability 0.12°/h (@100 s and a white noise level about 0.72°/h/√Hz, which means that the CSQMG possesses great potential to achieve navigation grade performance.
Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi
2011-09-01
In order to monitor the condition of patients with implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS), it is important to measure pump flow rate continuously and noninvasively. However, it is difficult to measure the pump flow rate, especially in an implantable axial flow blood pump, because the power consumption has neither linearity nor uniqueness with regard to the pump flow rate. In this study, a miniaturized mass-flow meter for discharged patients with an implantable axial blood pump was developed on the basis of computational analysis, and was evaluated in in-vitro tests. The mass-flow meter makes use of centrifugal force produced by the mass-flow rate around a curved cannula. An optimized design was investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. On the basis of the computational analysis, a miniaturized mass-flow meter made of titanium alloy was developed. A strain gauge was adopted as a sensor element. The first strain gauge, attached to the curved area, measured both static pressure and centrifugal force. The second strain gauge, attached to the straight area, measured static pressure. By subtracting the output of the second strain gauge from the output of the first strain gauge, the mass-flow rate was determined. In in-vitro tests using a model circulation loop, the mass-flow meter was compared with a conventional flow meter. Measurement error was less than ±0.5 L/min and average time delay was 0.14 s. We confirmed that the miniaturized mass-flow meter could accurately measure the mass-flow rate continuously and noninvasively.
Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.
Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric
2014-03-01
Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers.
Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric
2014-01-01
Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. (paper)
Optimization and evaluation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation of silver nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Löschner, Katrin; Navratilova, Jana; Legros, Samuel
2013-01-01
flow rate and spacer height were shown to have a significant influence on the recoveries and retention times of the nanoparticles. Focus time and focus flow rate were optimized with regard to minimum elution of AgNPs in the void volume. The developed method was successfully tested for injected masses...... especially the NP size distribution a number of parameters influencing the separation need to be optimized. This paper describes the development of a separation method for polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aqueous suspension. Carrier liquid composition, membrane material, cross...... obtained by the three detection methods were explained based on the physical origin of the signal. Two different approaches for conversion of retention times of AgNPs to their corresponding sizes and size distributions were tested and compared, namely size calibration with polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs...
Brocade: Optimal flow placement in SDN networks
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Today' network poses several challanges to network providers. These challanges fall in to a variety of areas ranging from determining efficient utilization of network bandwidth to finding out which user applications consume majority of network resources. Also, how to protect a given network from volumetric and botnet attacks. Optimal placement of flows deal with identifying network issues and addressing them in a real-time. The overall solution helps in building new services where a network is more secure and more efficient. Benefits derived as a result are increased network efficiency due to better capacity and resource planning, better security with real-time threat mitigation, and improved user experience as a result of increased service velocity.
Wheeling rates evaluation using optimal power flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muchayi, M.; El-Hawary, M. E.
1998-01-01
Wheeling is the transmission of electrical power and reactive power from a seller to a buyer through a transmission network owned by a third party. The wheeling rates are then the prices charged by the third party for the use of its network. This paper proposes and evaluates a strategy for pricing wheeling power using a pricing algorithm that in addition to the fuel cost for generation incorporates the optimal allocation of the transmission system operating cost, based on time-of-use pricing. The algorithm is implemented for the IEEE standard 14 and 30 bus system which involves solving a modified optimal power flow problem iteratively. The base of the proposed algorithm is the hourly spot price. The analysis spans a total time period of 24 hours. Unlike other algorithms that use DC models, the proposed model captures wheeling rates of both real and reactive power. Based on the evaluation, it was concluded that the model has the potential for wide application in calculating wheeling rates in a deregulated competitive power transmission environment. 9 refs., 3 tabs
A novel concept of measuring mass flow rates using flow induced ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Measurement of mass flow rate is important for automatic control of the mass flow rate in .... mass flow rate. The details are as follows. ... Assuming a symmetry plane passing through the thickness of the plate, at the symmetry plane δu∗n,B = 0.
Optimal urban networks via mass transportation
Buttazzo, Giuseppe; Stepanov, Eugene; Solimini, Sergio
2009-01-01
Recently much attention has been devoted to the optimization of transportation networks in a given geographic area. One assumes the distributions of population and of services/workplaces (i.e. the network's sources and sinks) are known, as well as the costs of movement with/without the network, and the cost of constructing/maintaining it. Both the long-term optimization and the short-term, "who goes where" optimization are considered. These models can also be adapted for the optimization of other types of networks, such as telecommunications, pipeline or drainage networks. In the monograph we study the most general problem settings, namely, when neither the shape nor even the topology of the network to be constructed is known a priori.
Calibration measurements using the ORNL fissile mass flow monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March-Leuba, J.; Uckan, T.; Sumner, J.; Mattingly, J.; Mihalczo, J.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a demonstration of fissile-mass-flow measurements using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This Flow Monitor is part of a Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) that will be installed in at least two Russian Federation (R.F.) blending facilities. The key objectives of the demonstration of the ORNL Flow Monitor are two: (a) demonstrate that the ORNL Flow Monitor equipment is capable of reliably monitoring the mass flow rate of 235 UF 6 gas, and (b) provide a demonstration of ORNL Flow Monitor system in operation with UF 6 flow for a visiting R.F. delegation. These two objectives have been met by the PGDP demonstration, as presented in this paper
Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters
van de Ridder, Bert
2015-01-01
A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A
Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor driven by external piezo ceramic
Zeng, Yaxiang; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2017-01-01
We have realized a micro Coriolis mass flow meter driven with an external piezo ceramic. The piezoelec tric ceramic is glued on top of sensor chip with a inertial weight on top of the piezo ceramic. Its ability to measure mass flow is characterized by a laser Doppler vibrometer. Our measurement with
Design Optimization of Internal Flow Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens Ingemann
The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies.......The power of computational fluid dynamics is boosted through the use of automated design optimization methodologies. The thesis considers both derivative-based search optimization and the use of response surface methodologies....
MEMS-based Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor
Haneveld, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Mehendale, A.; Zwikker, R.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, Meint J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.
2008-01-01
We have realized a micromachined micro Coriolis flow sensor consisting of a silicon nitride resonant tube of 40 μm diameter and 1.2 μm wall thickness. First measurements with both gas and liquid flows have demonstrated an unprecedented mass flow resolution in the order of 10 mg/hr at a full scale
Optimization and evaluation of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation of silver nanoparticles.
Loeschner, Katrin; Navratilova, Jana; Legros, Samuel; Wagner, Stephan; Grombe, Ringo; Snell, James; von der Kammer, Frank; Larsen, Erik H
2013-01-11
Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)) in combination with on-line optical detection and mass spectrometry is one of the most promising methods for separation and quantification of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex matrices including food. However, to obtain meaningful results regarding especially the NP size distribution a number of parameters influencing the separation need to be optimized. This paper describes the development of a separation method for polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aqueous suspension. Carrier liquid composition, membrane material, cross flow rate and spacer height were shown to have a significant influence on the recoveries and retention times of the nanoparticles. Focus time and focus flow rate were optimized with regard to minimum elution of AgNPs in the void volume. The developed method was successfully tested for injected masses of AgNPs from 0.2 to 5.0 μg. The on-line combination of AF(4) with detection methods including ICP-MS, light absorbance and light scattering was helpful because each detector provided different types of information about the eluting NP fraction. Differences in the time-resolved appearance of the signals obtained by the three detection methods were explained based on the physical origin of the signal. Two different approaches for conversion of retention times of AgNPs to their corresponding sizes and size distributions were tested and compared, namely size calibration with polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) and calculations of size based on AF(4) theory. Fraction collection followed by transmission electron microscopy was performed to confirm the obtained size distributions and to obtain further information regarding the AgNP shape. Characteristics of the absorbance spectra were used to confirm the presence of non-spherical AgNP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dose-mass inverse optimization for minimally moving thoracic lesions
Mihaylov, I. B.; Moros, E. G.
2015-05-01
In the past decade, several different radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation and optimization schemes have been proposed as viable approaches, aiming for dose escalation or an increase of healthy tissue sparing. In particular, it has been argued that dose-mass plan evaluation and treatment plan optimization might be viable alternatives to the standard of care, which is realized through dose-volume evaluation and optimization. The purpose of this investigation is to apply dose-mass optimization to a cohort of lung cancer patients and compare the achievable healthy tissue sparing to that one achievable through dose-volume optimization. Fourteen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient plans were studied retrospectively. The range of tumor motion was less than 0.5 cm and motion management in the treatment planning process was not considered. For each case, dose-volume (DV)-based and dose-mass (DM)-based optimization was performed. Nine-field step-and-shoot IMRT was used, with all of the optimization parameters kept the same between DV and DM optimizations. Commonly used dosimetric indices (DIs) such as dose to 1% the spinal cord volume, dose to 50% of the esophageal volume, and doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung volumes were used for cross-comparison. Similarly, mass-based indices (MIs), such as doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung masses, 1% of spinal cord mass, and 33% of heart mass, were also tallied. Statistical equivalence tests were performed to quantify the findings for the entire patient cohort. Both DV and DM plans for each case were normalized such that 95% of the planning target volume received the prescribed dose. DM optimization resulted in more organs at risk (OAR) sparing than DV optimization. The average sparing of cord, heart, and esophagus was 23, 4, and 6%, respectively. For the majority of the DIs, DM optimization resulted in lower lung doses. On average, the doses to 20 and 30% of healthy lung were lower by approximately 3 and 4%, whereas lung
Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove
Hartshom, Fletcher
2012-01-01
Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.
Protocol optimization for in vitro mass propagation of two sugarcane ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SAM
2014-03-19
Mar 19, 2014 ... The present study was initiated to optimize in vitro protocol for mass propagation of two commercial sugarcane clones (Co 449 and Co .... mass propagation of sugarcane genotypes grown in. Ethiopia, and due to this the .... transferred cultures showed multiple shooting with an average of 9.10 ± 0.10 shoots ...
Assessment for hydrodynamic masses of HANARO flow tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Doo Kie; Woo, Jong Sug; Park, Jin Ho
2000-06-01
The effect of hydrodynamic masses is investigated in dynamic characteristics and seismic response analyses of the submerged HANARO hexagonal flow tubes. Consistent hydrodynamic masses of the surrounding water are evaluated by the prepared program using the finite element method, in which arbitrary cross-sections of submerged structures and boundary conditions of the surrounding fluid can be considered. Also lumped hydrodynamic masses are calculated using simple formula applied to hexagonal flow tubes in the infinite fluid. Modal analyses and seismic response spectrum analyses were performed using hydrodynamic masses obtained by the finite element method and the simple formula. The results of modal analysis were verified by comparing the results measured from modal tests. And the displacement results of the seismic response spectrum analysis were assessed by comparing the consistent and the lumped hydrodynamic masses obtained by various methods. Finally practical criteria based on parametric studies are proposed as the lumped hydrodynamic masses for HANARO flow tubes.
Assessment for hydrodynamic masses of HANARO flow tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Doo Kie; Woo, Jong Sug; Park, Jin Ho
2000-06-01
The effect of hydrodynamic masses is investigated in dynamic characteristics and seismic response analyses of the submerged HANARO hexagonal flow tubes. Consistent hydrodynamic masses of the surrounding water are evaluated by the prepared program using the finite element method, in which arbitrary cross-sections of submerged structures and boundary conditions of the surrounding fluid can be considered. Also lumped hydrodynamic masses are calculated using simple formula applied to hexagonal flow tubes in the infinite fluid. Modal analyses and seismic response spectrum analyses were performed using hydrodynamic masses obtained by the finite element method and the simple formula. The results of modal analysis were verified by comparing the results measured from modal tests. And the displacement results of the seismic response spectrum analysis were assessed by comparing the consistent and the lumped hydrodynamic masses obtained by various methods. Finally practical criteria based on parametric studies are proposed as the lumped hydrodynamic masses for HANARO flow tubes
Flow area optimization in point to area or area to point flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghodoossi, Lotfollah; Egrican, Niluefer
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in flow systems connecting one point to a finite size area. The flow direction may be either from the point to the area or the area to the point. The formulation of the problem remains the same if the flow direction is reversed. Two models are used in optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem: cost minimization and revenue maximization. The cost minimization model enables one to predict the shape of the optimized flow areas, but the geometric sizes of the flow areas are not predictable. That is, as an example, if the area of flow is a rectangle with a fixed area size, optimization of the point to area or area to point flow problem by using the cost minimization model will only predict the height/length ratio of the rectangle not the height and length itself. By using the revenue maximization model in optimization of the flow problems, all optimized geometric aspects of the interested flow areas will be derived as well. The aim of this paper is to optimize the point to area or area to point flow problems in various elemental flow area shapes and various structures of the flow system (various combinations of elemental flow areas) by using the revenue maximization model. The elemental flow area shapes used in this paper are either rectangular or triangular. The forms of the flow area structure, made up of an assembly of optimized elemental flow areas to obtain bigger flow areas, are rectangle-in-rectangle, rectangle-in-triangle, triangle-in-triangle and triangle-in-rectangle. The global maximum revenue, revenue collected per unit flow area and the shape and sizes of each flow area structure have been derived in optimized conditions. The results for each flow area structure have been compared with the results of the other structures to determine the structure that provides better performance. The conclusion is that the rectangle-in-triangle flow area structure
Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi; Abe, Yutaka; Kimura, Ko-ji
1995-01-01
In the present paper, characteristics of low mass velocity two-phase flow was analyzed based on a concept that pressure energy of two-phase flow is converted into acceleration work, gravitational work and frictional work, and the pressure energy consumption rate should be minimum at the stable two-phase flow condition. Experimental data for vertical upward air-water two-phase flow at atmospheric pressure was used to verify this concept and the turbulent model used in this method is optimized with the data. (author)
Integral Optimization of Systematic Parameters of Flip-Flow Screens
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
翟宏新
2004-01-01
The synthetic index Ks for evaluating flip-flow screens is proposed and systematically optimized in view of the whole system. A series of optimized values of relevant parameters are found and then compared with those of the current industrial specifications. The results show that the optimized value Ks approaches the one of those famous flip-flow screens in the world. Some new findings on geometric and kinematics parameters are useful for improving the flip-flow screens with a low Ks value, which is helpful in developing clean coal technology.
3D Topology optimization of Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Dammann, Bernd
of energy efficient devices for 2D Stokes flow. Creeping flow problems are described by the Stokes equations which model very viscous fluids at macro scales or ordinary fluids at very small scales. The latter gives the motivation for topology optimization problems based on the Stokes equations being a model......The present talk is concerned with the application of topology optimization to creeping flow problems in 3D. This research is driven by the fact that topology optimization has proven very successful as a tool in academic and industrial design problems. Success stories are reported from such diverse...
A decoupled power flow algorithm using particle swarm optimization technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acharjee, P.; Goswami, S.K.
2009-01-01
A robust, nondivergent power flow method has been developed using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. The decoupling properties between the power system quantities have been exploited in developing the power flow algorithm. The speed of the power flow algorithm has been improved using a simple perturbation technique. The basic power flow algorithm and the improvement scheme have been designed to retain the simplicity of the evolutionary approach. The power flow is rugged, can determine the critical loading conditions and also can handle the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices efficiently. Test results on standard test systems show that the proposed method can find the solution when the standard power flows fail.
Continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wills, J.S.C.; Han, B.X.; Von Reden, K.F.; Schneider, R.J.; Roberts, M.L.
2006-01-01
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a widely used technique for radiocarbon dating of archaeological or environmental samples that are very small or very old (up to 50,000 years before present). Because of the method's extreme sensitivity, AMS can also serve as an environmental tracer and supplements conventional nuclear counting techniques for monitoring 14 C emissions from operating nuclear power plants and waste repositories. The utility of present AMS systems is limited by the complex sample preparation process required. Carbon from combusted artefacts must be incorporated into a solid metallic target from which a negative ion beam is produced and accelerated to MeV energies by an accelerator for subsequent analysis. This paper will describe a novel technique being developed by the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) Laboratory at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the production of negative carbon ion beams directly from a continuously flowing sample gas stream, eliminating the requirement for a solid target. A key component of the new technique is a microwave-driven, gaseous-feed ion source originally developed at Chalk River Laboratories for the very different requirements of a high current proton linear accelerator. A version of this ion source is now being adapted to serve as an injector for a dedicated AMS accelerator facility at NOSAMS. The paper begins with a review of the fundamentals of radiocarbon dating. Experiments carried out at NOSAMS with a prototype of the microwave ion source are described, including measurements of sample utilization efficiency and sample 'memory' effect. A new version of the microwave ion source, optimized for AMS, is also described. The report concludes with some predictions of new research opportunities that will become accessible to the technique of continuous-flow AMS. (author)
Continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry for radiocarbon analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wills, J.S.C.; Han, B.X.; Von Reden, K.F.; Schneider, R.J.; Roberts, M.L.
2006-05-01
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a widely used technique for radiocarbon dating of archaeological or environmental samples that are very small or very old (up to 50,000 years before present). Because of the method's extreme sensitivity, AMS can also serve as an environmental tracer and supplements conventional nuclear counting techniques for monitoring 14 C emissions from operating nuclear power plants and waste repositories. The utility of present AMS systems is limited by the complex sample preparation process required. Carbon from combusted artefacts must be incorporated into a solid metallic target from which a negative ion beam is produced and accelerated to MeV energies by an accelerator for subsequent analysis. This paper will describe a novel technique being developed by the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (NOSAMS) Laboratory at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for the production of negative carbon ion beams directly from a continuously flowing sample gas stream, eliminating the requirement for a solid target. A key component of the new technique is a microwave-driven, gaseous-feed ion source originally developed at Chalk River Laboratories for the very different requirements of a high current proton linear accelerator. A version of this ion source is now being adapted to serve as an injector for a dedicated AMS accelerator facility at NOSAMS. The paper begins with a review of the fundamentals of radiocarbon dating. Experiments carried out at NOSAMS with a prototype of the microwave ion source are described, including measurements of sample utilization efficiency and sample 'memory' effect. A new version of the microwave ion source, optimized for AMS, is also described. The report concludes with some predictions of new research opportunities that will become accessible to the technique of continuous-flow AMS. (author)
Gas mass transfer for stratified flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.
1995-01-01
We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh t = (2/√π)Sc 1/2 , where Sh t is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature
Bayesian inference in mass flow simulations - from back calculation to prediction
Kofler, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Hellweger, Valentin; Huber, Andreas; Mergili, Martin; Pudasaini, Shiva; Fellin, Wolfgang; Oberguggenberger, Michael
2017-04-01
Mass flow simulations are an integral part of hazard assessment. Determining the hazard potential requires a multidisciplinary approach, including different scientific fields such as geomorphology, meteorology, physics, civil engineering and mathematics. An important task in snow avalanche simulation is to predict process intensities (runout, flow velocity and depth, ...). The application of probabilistic methods allows one to develop a comprehensive simulation concept, ranging from back to forward calculation and finally to prediction of mass flow events. In this context optimized parameter sets for the used simulation model or intensities of the modeled mass flow process (e.g. runout distances) are represented by probability distributions. Existing deterministic flow models, in particular with respect to snow avalanche dynamics, contain several parameters (e.g. friction). Some of these parameters are more conceptual than physical and their direct measurement in the field is hardly possible. Hence, parameters have to be optimized by matching simulation results to field observations. This inverse problem can be solved by a Bayesian approach (Markov chain Monte Carlo). The optimization process yields parameter distributions, that can be utilized for probabilistic reconstruction and prediction of avalanche events. Arising challenges include the limited amount of observations, correlations appearing in model parameters or observed avalanche characteristics (e.g. velocity and runout) and the accurate handling of ensemble simulations, always taking into account the related uncertainties. Here we present an operational Bayesian simulation framework with r.avaflow, the open source GIS simulation model for granular avalanches and debris flows.
Mass transfer in horizontal flow channels with thermal gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bendrich, G.; Shemilt, L.W.
1997-01-01
Mass transfer to a wall of a horizontal rectangular channel reactor was investigated by the limiting current technique for Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 32000. Overall mass transfer coefficients at various mass transfer surface angles were obtained while the reactor was operated under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Dimensionless correlations were developed for isothermal flows from 25 to 55 o C and for non-isothermal flows with applied temperature differences up to 30 o C. In the laminar flow range natural convection dominated, but under turbulent conditions combined natural and forced convection prevailed. Mass transfer was approximately doubled under optimum selection of channel surface rotation, temperature gradient and flow rate. (author)
Optimal power flow by particle swarm optimization with an aging ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) with an aging leader and challengers (ALC-PSO) is applied for the solution of OPF problem of power system. This study is implemented on modified IEEE 30-bus test power system with different objectives that reflect minimization of either fuel cost or active power loss or sum ...
An entropy flow optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.
1984-01-01
This chapter proposes a new method of analyzing thermodynamic cycles based on a continuous distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle. The method gives the optimum distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle by specifying the mass flow to be expanded at each temperature. The result is used to select a cycle configuration with discrete expansions and to initialize the independent variables for final optimization. Topics considered include the continuous precooling model, the results for ideal gas, the results for real gas, and the application to the design of a saturated vapor compression (SVC) cycle. The optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles starts with the minimization of the generated entropy in a cycle model with continuous precooling. The pressure ratio, the pressure level and the distribution of the heat exchange are selected based on the results of the continuous precooling analysis. It is concluded that the technique incorporates the non-ideal behavior of helium in the procedure and allows the trade-off between heat exchange area and losses to be determined
Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...
Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) prototype acceptance test summary.
2015-05-01
This report summarizes the results of System Acceptance Testing for the implementation of the Intelligent Network : Flow Optimization (INFLO) Prototype bundle within the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) portion of the Connected : Vehicle Program. ...
Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.
Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard
2015-01-01
The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.
Parametric amplification in a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor
Groenesteijn, Jarno; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.
2014-01-01
We report on the application of parametric amplification to a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. We demonstrate that this mechanism allows for reduction of the system's power dissipation while retaining sensitivity to flow. By reducing this power dissipation, less heat will be transferred to the fluid
A solution to the optimal power flow using multi-verse optimizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bachir Bentouati
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, the most common problem of the modern power system named optimal power flow (OPF is optimized using the novel meta-heuristic optimization Multi-verse Optimizer(MVO algorithm. In order to solve the optimal power flow problem, the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus systems are used. MVO is applied to solve the proposed problem. The problems considered in the OPF problem are fuel cost reduction, voltage profile improvement, voltage stability enhancement. The obtained results are compared with recently published meta-heuristics. Simulation results clearly reveal the effectiveness and the rapidity of the proposed algorithm for solving the OPF problem.
Adaptive optimization for active queue management supporting TCP flows
Baldi, S.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Pitsillides, Andreas; Lestas, Marios; Ioannou, Petros A.; Wan, Y.; Chiu, George; Johnson, Katie; Abramovitch, Danny
2016-01-01
An adaptive decentralized strategy for active queue management of TCP flows over communication networks is presented. The proposed strategy solves locally, at each link, an optimal control problem, minimizing a cost composed of residual capacity and buffer queue size. The solution of the optimal
Modeling Vertical Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency
2011-03-24
be forced to flow in a 90 serpentine manner back and forth as it moves upward through the wetland (think waiting in line at Disneyland ). This...Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR
Topology optimization considering design-dependent Stokes flow loads
Picelli, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; van Keulen, A.; Li, Qing; Steven, Grant P.; Zhang, Zhongpu
2015-01-01
This article presents an evolutionary topology optimization method for mean compliance minimization of structures under design-dependent viscous fluid flow loads. The structural domain is governed by the elasticity equation and the fluid by the incompressible Stokes flow equations. When the
Port and EGR Mass Flow Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Elbert
1998-01-01
The note documents briefly work done on what is thought to be a new method of measurement of the pulsating flow in the intake port ot and SI engine and in the EGR returen line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, Civ. Ing. Christian Jepsen, the......, the author (IAU) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU and ET, DTU....
Fiber optic liquid mass flow sensor and method
Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Gregory, Don Allen (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Pedersen, Kevin W. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method and apparatus are provided for sensing the mass flow rate of a fluid flowing through a pipe. A light beam containing plural individual wavelengths is projected from one side of the pipe across the width of the pipe so as to pass through the fluid under test. Fiber optic couplers located at least two positions on the opposite side of the pipe are used to detect the light beam. A determination is then made of the relative strengths of the light beam for each wavelength at the at least two positions and based at least in part on these relative strengths, the mass flow rate of the fluid is determined.
An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping
Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen
2013-01-01
Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128
Hydrothermal optimal power flow using continuation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raoofat, M.; Seifi, H.
2001-01-01
The problem of optimal economic operation of hydrothermal electric power systems is solved using powerful continuation method. While in conventional approach, fixed generation voltages are used to avoid convergence problems, in the algorithm, they are treated as variables so that better solutions can be obtained. The algorithm is tested for a typical 5-bus and 17-bus New Zealand networks. Its capabilities and promising results are assessed
Optimal-mass-transfer-based estimation of glymphatic transport in living brain
Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen
2015-03-01
It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs . It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly through a network of dedicated vessels, but rather through para-vascular channels and brain parenchyma in a slower time-domain, and thus conventional fMRI or other blood-flow sensitive MRI sequences do not provide much useful information about the desired flow patterns. We have accordingly analyzed a series of MRI images, taken at different times, of the brain of a live rat, which was injected with a paramagnetic tracer into the CSF via the lumbar intrathecal space of the spine. Our goal is twofold: (a) find glymphatic (tracer) flow directions in the live rodent brain; and (b) provide a model of a (healthy) brain that will allow the prediction of tracer concentrations given initial conditions. We model the liquid flow through the brain by the diffusion equation. We then use the Optimal Mass Transfer (OMT) approach to derive the glymphatic flow vector field, and estimate the diffusion tensors by analyzing the (changes in the) flow. Simulations show that the resulting model successfully reproduces the dominant features of the experimental data. Keywords: inverse problem, optimal mass transport, diffusion equation, cerebrospinal fluid flow in brain, optical flow, liquid flow modeling, Monge Kantorovich problem, diffusion tensor estimation
Optimal Power Flow by Interior Point and Non Interior Point Modern Optimization Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Połomski
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The idea of optimal power flow (OPF is to determine the optimal settings for control variables while respecting various constraints, and in general it is related to power system operational and planning optimization problems. A vast number of optimization methods have been applied to solve the OPF problem, but their performance is highly dependent on the size of a power system being optimized. The development of the OPF recently has tracked significant progress both in numerical optimization techniques and computer techniques application. In recent years, application of interior point methods to solve OPF problem has been paid great attention. This is due to the fact that IP methods are among the fastest algorithms, well suited to solve large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. This paper presents the primal-dual interior point method based optimal power flow algorithm and new variant of the non interior point method algorithm with application to optimal power flow problem. Described algorithms were implemented in custom software. The experiments show the usefulness of computational software and implemented algorithms for solving the optimal power flow problem, including the system model sizes comparable to the size of the National Power System.
Methodology for interpretation of fissile mass flow measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March-Leuba, J.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.
1997-01-01
This paper describes a non-intrusive measurement technique to monitor the mass flow rate of fissile material in gaseous or liquid streams. This fissile mass flow monitoring system determines the fissile mass flow rate by relying on two independent measurements: (1) a time delay along a given length of pipe, which is inversely proportional to the fissile material flow velocity, and (2) an amplitude measurement, which is proportional to the fissile concentration (e.g., grams of 235 U per length of pipe). The development of this flow monitor was first funded by DOE/NE in September 95, and initial experimental demonstration by ORNL was described in the 37th INMM meeting held in July 1996. This methodology was chosen by DOE/NE for implementation in November 1996; it has been implemented in hardware/software and is ready for installation. This paper describes the methodology used to interpret the data measured by the fissile mass flow monitoring system and the models used to simulate the transport of fission fragments from the source location to the detectors
Virtual mass effects in two-phase flow. Topical report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.Y.; Drew, D.A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.
1978-03-01
The effect of virtual mass on phase separation during the acceleration of a two-phase mixture was studied. Virtual mass can be regarded as an induced inertia on the dispersed phase which is accelerating relative to the continuous phase, and it was found that the virtual mass acceleration is objective, implying an invariance with respect to reference frame. An objective form of the virtual acceleration was derived and required parameters were determined for limiting cases. Analyses determined that experiments on single bubble nozzle/diffuser flow cannot readily discriminate between various virtual mass acceleration models
Fujito, Yuka; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Bamba, Takeshi
2017-07-28
Supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) has great potential in high-throughput and the simultaneous analysis of a wide variety of compounds, and it has been widely used in recent years. The use of MS for detection provides the advantages of high sensitivity and high selectivity. However, the sensitivity of MS detection depends on the chromatographic conditions and MS parameters. Thus, optimization of MS parameters corresponding to the SFC condition is mandatory for maximizing performance when connecting SFC to MS. The aim of this study was to reveal a way to decide the optimum composition of the mobile phase and the flow rate of the make-up solvent for MS detection in a wide range of compounds. Additionally, we also showed the basic concept for determination of the optimum values of the MS parameters focusing on the MS detection sensitivity in SFC/MS analysis. To verify the versatility of these findings, a total of 441 pesticides with a wide polarity range (logP ow from -4.21 to 7.70) and pKa (acidic, neutral and basic). In this study, a new SFC-MS interface was used, which can transfer the entire volume of eluate into the MS by directly coupling the SFC with the MS. This enabled us to compare the sensitivity or optimum MS parameters for MS detection between LC/MS and SFC/MS for the same sample volume introduced into the MS. As a result, it was found that the optimum values of some MS parameters were completely different from those of LC/MS, and that SFC/MS-specific optimization of the analytical conditions is required. Lastly, we evaluated the sensitivity of SFC/MS using fully optimized analytical conditions. As a result, we confirmed that SFC/MS showed much higher sensitivity than LC/MS when the analytical conditions were fully optimized for SFC/MS; and the high sensitivity also increase the number of the compounds that can be detected with good repeatability in real sample analysis. This result indicates that SFC/MS has potential for
Investigation of the specific mass flow rate distribution in pipes supplied with a pulsating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olczyk, Aleksander
2009-01-01
A pulsating flow is typical of inlet and exhaust pipes of internal combustion engines and piston compressors. Unsteady flow phenomena are especially important in the case of turbocharged engines, because dynamic effects occurring in the exhaust pipe can affect turbine operation conditions and performance. One of the basic parameters describing the unsteady flow is a transient mass flow rate related to the instantaneous flow velocity, which is usually measured by means of hot-wire anemometers. For the flowing gas, it is more appropriate to analyze the specific mass flow rate φ m = ρv, which takes into account also variations in the gas density. In order to minimize the volume occupied by measuring devices in the control section, special double-wire sensors for the specific mass flow rate (CTA) and temperature (CCT) measurement were applied. The article describes procedures of their calibration and measurement. Different forms of calibration curves are analyzed as well in order to match the approximation function to calibration points. Special attention is paid to dynamic phenomena related to the resonance occurring in a pipe for characteristic frequencies depending on the pipe length. One of these phenomena is a reverse flow, which makes it difficult to interpret properly the recorded CTA signal. Procedures of signal correction are described in detail. To verify the measurements, a flow field investigation was carried out by displacing probes radially and determining the profiles of the specific mass flow rate under the conditions of a steady and pulsating flow. The presence and general features of a reverse flow, which was identified experimentally, were confirmed by 1-D unsteady flow calculations.
Investigation of the specific mass flow rate distribution in pipes supplied with a pulsating flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olczyk, Aleksander [Institute of Turbomachinery, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219/223, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: aolczyk@p.lodz.pl
2009-08-15
A pulsating flow is typical of inlet and exhaust pipes of internal combustion engines and piston compressors. Unsteady flow phenomena are especially important in the case of turbocharged engines, because dynamic effects occurring in the exhaust pipe can affect turbine operation conditions and performance. One of the basic parameters describing the unsteady flow is a transient mass flow rate related to the instantaneous flow velocity, which is usually measured by means of hot-wire anemometers. For the flowing gas, it is more appropriate to analyze the specific mass flow rate {phi}{sub m} = {rho}v, which takes into account also variations in the gas density. In order to minimize the volume occupied by measuring devices in the control section, special double-wire sensors for the specific mass flow rate (CTA) and temperature (CCT) measurement were applied. The article describes procedures of their calibration and measurement. Different forms of calibration curves are analyzed as well in order to match the approximation function to calibration points. Special attention is paid to dynamic phenomena related to the resonance occurring in a pipe for characteristic frequencies depending on the pipe length. One of these phenomena is a reverse flow, which makes it difficult to interpret properly the recorded CTA signal. Procedures of signal correction are described in detail. To verify the measurements, a flow field investigation was carried out by displacing probes radially and determining the profiles of the specific mass flow rate under the conditions of a steady and pulsating flow. The presence and general features of a reverse flow, which was identified experimentally, were confirmed by 1-D unsteady flow calculations.
Dynamic ADMM for Real-time Optimal Power Flow: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2018-02-23
This paper considers distribution networks featuring distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops a dynamic optimization method to maximize given operational objectives in real time while adhering to relevant network constraints. The design of the dynamic algorithm is based on suitable linearizations of the AC power flow equations, and it leverages the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). The steps of the ADMM, however, are suitably modified to accommodate appropriate measurements from the distribution network and the DERs. With the aid of these measurements, the resultant algorithm can enforce given operational constraints in spite of inaccuracies in the representation of the AC power flows, and it avoids ubiquitous metering to gather the state of non-controllable resources. Optimality and convergence of the propose algorithm are established in terms of tracking of the solution of a convex surrogate of the AC optimal power flow problem.
Device for measurement of gas mass flow. Einrichtung zur Gasmassenstrommessung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sass, W
1989-09-28
The invention is concerned with a device for the measurement of gas mass flow, particularly measuring air mass flow for vehicles with internal combustion engines, with a measurement bridge, in one branch of which a gas flow resistance, particularly a hot film sensor, with gas flowing round it, is connected in series with a measurement resistance and in another branch of which a compensation resistance measuring the gas temperature is connected in series with a fixed resistor, where the bridge differential voltage is measured in the zero branch of the measuring bridge and a control parameter is produced from this, in order to control a transistor valve situated in the bridge supply path of a DC voltage source via its control electrode until the bridge is balanced, and where the voltage at the measurement resistance after the bridge is balanced is used as a measure of the gas mass flow. In order to obtain exact results of measurement in spite of relatively high interference noise from the cables, it is proposed that an increased supply DC voltage appreciably decreasing the occurring interference noise from the cables should be produced from a small DC voltage and that the output of the DC/DC voltage converter should be connected to the control electrode of the transistor valve, so that the control parameter for the control electrode is derived from the raised DC supply voltage through reducers depending on the gas flow.
Heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics in swirling flows (review)
Leont'ev, A. I.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Popov, I. A.
2017-02-01
Research results of Russian and foreign scientists of heat and mass transfer in whirling flows, swirling effect, superficial vortex generators, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics at micro- and nanoscales, burning at swirl of the flow, and technologies and apparatuses with the use of whirling currents for industry and power generation were presented and discussed at the "Heat and Mass Transfer in Whirling Currents" 5th International Conference. The choice of rational forms of the equipment flow parts when using whirling and swirling flows to increase efficiency of the heat-power equipment and of flow regimes and burning on the basis of deep study of the flow and heat transfer local parameters was set as the main research prospect. In this regard, there is noticeable progress in research methods of whirling and swirling flows. The number of computational treatments of swirling flows' local parameters has been increased. Development and advancement of the up to date computing models and national productivity software are very important for this process. All experimental works are carried out with up to date research methods of the local thermoshydraulic parameters, which enable one to reveal physical mechanisms of processes: PIV and LIV visualization techniques, high-speed and infrared photography, high speed registration of parameters of high-speed processes, etc. There is a problem of improvement of researchers' professional skills in the field of fluid mechanics to set adequately mathematics and physics problems of aerohydrodynamics for whirling and swirling flows and numerical and pilot investigations. It has been pointed out that issues of improvement of the cooling system and thermal protection effectiveness of heat-power and heat-transfer equipment units are still actual. It can be solved successfully using whirling and swirling flows as simple low power consumption exposing on the flow method and heat transfer augmentation.
Optimal power flow based on glow worm-swarm optimization for three-phase islanded microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quang, Ninh Nguyen; Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa
2014-01-01
This paper presents an application of the Glowworm Swarm Optimization method (GSO) to solve the optimal power flow problem in three-phase islanded microgrids equipped with power electronics dc-ac inverter interfaced distributed generation units. In this system, the power injected by the distribut...
Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan
2008-01-01
This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....
Thermodynamic optimization of geometry in engineering flow systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bejan, A.; Jones, J.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
2000-07-01
This review draws attention to an emerging body of work that relies on global thermodynamic optimization in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or entropy generation minimization) brings the design as closely as permissible to the theoretical limit. The design is destined to remain imperfect because of constraints (finite sizes, times, and costs). Improvements are registered by spreading the imperfection (e.g., flow resistances) through the system. Resistances compete against each other and must be optimized together. Optimal spreading means spatial distribution, geometric form, topology, and geography. System architecture springs out of constrained global optimization. The principle is illustrated by simple examples: the optimization of dimensions, spacings, and the distribution (allocation) of heat transfer surface to the two heat exchangers of a power plant. Similar opportunities for deducing flow architecture exist in more complex systems for power and refrigeration. Examples show that the complete structure of heat exchangers for environmental control systems of aircraft can be derived based on this principle. (authors)
Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects
Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego
1987-01-01
A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.
Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow
Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-02-01
Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.
Modelling of convective heat and mass transfer in rotating flows
Shevchuk, Igor V
2016-01-01
This monograph presents results of the analytical and numerical modeling of convective heat and mass transfer in different rotating flows caused by (i) system rotation, (ii) swirl flows due to swirl generators, and (iii) surface curvature in turns and bends. Volume forces (i.e. centrifugal and Coriolis forces), which influence the flow pattern, emerge in all of these rotating flows. The main part of this work deals with rotating flows caused by system rotation, which includes several rotating-disk configurations and straight pipes rotating about a parallel axis. Swirl flows are studied in some of the configurations mentioned above. Curvilinear flows are investigated in different geometries of two-pass ribbed and smooth channels with 180° bends. The author demonstrates that the complex phenomena of fluid flow and convective heat transfer in rotating flows can be successfully simulated using not only the universal CFD methodology, but in certain cases by means of the integral methods, self-similar and analyt...
Mass flow and evolution of UW Canis Majoris
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, Y.; Rahe, J.
1979-01-01
The far-UV spectrum of the eclipsing binary UW CMa (07f + 0-B) has earlier been utilized to derive a mass-loss rate of about 10 -6 to 10 -5 solar mass per year. The mass flow seems to be basically in the form of a stellar wing emanating from the 07f primary component, with radiation pressure as the controlling factor. The main characteristics that make UW CMa a possible progenitor of a Wolf-Rayet system are discussed. (Auth.)
Geometric optimization of cross-flow heat exchanger based on dynamic controllability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alotaibi Sorour
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The operation of heat exchangers and other thermal equipments in the face of variable loads is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates, where the controlled variable is usually one of the output temperatures. The aim of this work is to optimize the geometry of a tube with internal flow of water and an external cross-flow of air, based on its controllability characteristics. Controllability is a useful concept both from theoretical and practical perspective since it tells us if a particular output can be controlled by a particular input. This concept can also provide us with information about the easiest operating condition to control a particular output. A transient model of a tube in cross-flow is developed, where an implicit formulation is used for transient numerical solutions. The aspect ratio of the tube is optimized, subject to volume constraints, based on the optimum operation in terms of controllability. The reported optimized aspect ratio, water mass flow rate and controllability are studied for deferent external properties of the tube.
Multi-objective optimal power flow with FACTS devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, M.
2011-01-01
This paper presents multi-objective differential evolution to optimize cost of generation, emission and active power transmission loss of flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) device-equipped power systems. In the proposed approach, optimal power flow problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. FACTS devices considered include thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) and thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS). The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the modified IEEE 30-bus and 57-bus test systems. The results obtained from the proposed approach have been compared with those obtained from nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, strength pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 and pareto differential evolution.
Effects of Pulsating Flow on Mass Flow Balance and Surge Margin in Parallel Turbocharged Engines
Thomasson, Andreas; Eriksson, Lars
2015-01-01
The paper extends a mean value model of a parallel turbocharged internal combustion engine with a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The result is a 0D engine model that includes the pulsating flow from the intake and exhaust valves. The model captures variations in turbo speed and pressure, and therefore variations in the compressor operating point, during an engine cycle. The model is used to study the effect of the pulsating flow on mass flow balance and surge margin in parallel turbocha...
Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor with integrated resistive pressure sensors
Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2017-01-01
We report on novel resistive pressure sensors, integrated on-chip at the inlet- and outlet-channels of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. The pressure sensors can be used to measure the pressure drop over the Coriolis sensor which can be used to compensate pressure-dependent behaviour that might
Resistive pressure sensors integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor
Alveringh, Dennis; Schut, Thomas; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2017-01-01
We report on a novel resistive pressure sensor that is completely integrated with a Coriolis mass flow sensor on one chip, without the need for extra fabrication steps or different materials. Two pressure sensors are placed in-line with the Coriolis sensor without requiring any changes to the fluid
Optical measurement of a micro coriolis mass flow sensor
Kristiansen, L.; Mehendale, A.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Zwikker, J.M.; Klein, M.E.
2009-01-01
Haneveld [1,2] demonstrated a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor, operating in the measurement range of 0 to 1 g/hr achieving a resolution in the order of 10 mg/hr using a laser vibrometer. Equipped with an integrated capacitive [3] readout the measurement uncertainty amounted to 2% of the full scale
Calibration of nozzle for air mass flow measurement
Uher, Jan; Kanta, Lukáš
2017-09-01
The effort to make calibration measurement of mass flow through a nozzle was not satisfying. Traversing across the pipe radius with Pitot probe was done. The presence of overshoot behind the bend in the pipe was found. The overshoot led to an asymmetric velocity profile.
Mass transfer from smooth alabaster surfaces in turbulent flows
Opdyke, Bradley N.; Gust, Giselher; Ledwell, James R.
1987-11-01
The mass transfer velocity for alabaster plates in smooth-wall turbulent flow is found to vary with the friction velocity according to an analytic solution of the advective diffusion equation. Deployment of alabaster plates on the sea floor can perhaps be used to estimate the viscous stress, and transfer velocities for other species.
Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack
Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong
2017-12-01
A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.
Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen Chuang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pressure. A higher back pressure results in an earlier location of the shock wave. The pressure ratio of 0.72 is the first threshold to get the separator work normally. The second threshold is 0.95, in which case the whole flow is subsonic and cannot reach the choked state. The shock position moves upstream with the real gas model compared to the ideal gas law in the cyclonic separation section.
Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji
2002-06-01
This paper is concerned with the design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner blade geometry. In order to obtain a better design plan with good performance, a new comprehensive performance optimization procedure has been presented by combining a multi-variable multi-objective constrained optimization model with a Q3D inverse computation and a performance prediction procedure. With careful analysis of the inverse design of axial hydraulic turbine runner, the total hydraulic loss and the cavitation coefficient are taken as optimization objectives and a comprehensive objective function is defined using the weight factors. Parameters of a newly proposed blade bound circulation distribution function and parameters describing positions of blade leading and training edges in the meridional flow passage are taken as optimization variables.The optimization procedure has been applied to the design optimization of a Kaplan runner with specific speed of 440 kW. Numerical results show that the performance of designed runner is successfully improved through optimization computation. The optimization model is found to be validated and it has the feature of good convergence. With the multi-objective optimization model, it is possible to control the performance of designed runner by adjusting the value of weight factors defining the comprehensive objective function. Copyright
Dense Array Optimization of Cross-Flow Turbines
Scherl, Isabel; Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian
2017-11-01
Cross-flow turbines, where the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the freestream flow, can be used to convert the kinetic energy in wind or water currents to electrical power. By taking advantage of mean and time-resolved wake structures, the optimal density of an array of cross-flow turbines has the potential for higher power output per unit area of land or sea-floor than an equivalent array of axial-flow turbines. In addition, dense arrays in tidal or river channels may be able to further elevate efficiency by exploiting flow confinement and surface proximity. In this work, a two-turbine array is optimized experimentally in a recirculating water channel. The spacing between turbines, as well as individual and coordinated turbine control strategies are optimized. Array efficiency is found to exceed the maximum efficiency for a sparse array (i.e., no interaction between turbines) for stream-wise rotor spacing of less than two diameters. Results are discussed in the context of wake measurements made behind a single rotor.
Energy and ancillary service dispatch through dynamic optimal power flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, A.L.; Costa, A. Simoes
2007-01-01
This paper presents an approach based on dynamic optimal power flow (DOPF) to clear both energy and spinning reserve day-ahead markets. A competitive environment is assumed, where agents can offer active power for both demand supply and ancillary services. The DOPF jointly determines the optimal solutions for both energy dispatch and reserve allocation. A non-linear representation for the electrical network is employed, which is able to take transmission losses and power flow limits into account. An attractive feature of the proposed approach is that the final optimal solution will automatically meet physical constraints such as generating limits and ramp rate restrictions. In addition, the proposed framework allows the definition of multiple zones in the network for each time interval, in order to ensure a more adequate distribution of reserves throughout the power system. (author)
Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler
2016-12-01
The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.
Semiempirical method of determining flow coefficients for pitot rake mass flow rate measurements
Trefny, C. J.
1985-01-01
Flow coefficients applicable to area-weighted pitot rake mass flow rate measurements are presented for fully developed, turbulent flow in an annulus. A turbulent velocity profile is generated semiempirically for a given annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio and integrated numerically to determine the ideal mass flow rate. The calculated velocities at each probe location are then summed, and the flow rate as indicated by the rake is obtained. The flow coefficient to be used with the particular rake geometry is subsequently obtained by dividing the ideal flow rate by the rake-indicated flow rate. Flow coefficients ranged from 0.903 for one probe placed at a radius dividing two equal areas to 0.984 for a 10-probe area-weighted rake. Flow coefficients were not a strong function of annulus hub-to-tip radius ratio for rakes with three or more probes. The semiempirical method used to generate the turbulent velocity profiles is described in detail.
Optimizing EDELWEISS detectors for low-mass WIMP searches
Arnaud, Q.; Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Billard, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; de Jésus, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Foerster, N.; Gascon, J.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Maisonobe, R.; Marnieros, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Poda, D.; Queguiner, E.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Scorza, S.; Siebenborn, B.; Vagneron, L.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; EDELWEISS Collaboration
2018-01-01
The physics potential of EDELWEISS detectors for the search of low-mass weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is studied. Using a data-driven background model, projected exclusion limits are computed using frequentist and multivariate analysis approaches, namely, profile likelihood and boosted decision tree. Both current and achievable experimental performances are considered. The optimal strategy for detector optimization depends critically on whether the emphasis is put on WIMP masses below or above ˜5 GeV /c2 . The projected sensitivity for the next phase of the EDELWEISS-III experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) for low-mass WIMP search is presented. By 2018 an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of σSI=7 ×10-42 cm2 is expected for a WIMP mass in the range 2 - 5 GeV /c2 . The requirements for a future hundred-kilogram-scale experiment designed to reach the bounds imposed by the coherent scattering of solar neutrinos are also described. By improving the ionization resolution down to 50 eVe e , we show that such an experiment installed in an even lower background environment (e.g., at SNOLAB) together with an exposure of 1 000 kg .yr , should allow us to observe about 80 B 8 neutrino events after discrimination.
Abadeh, Aryan; Lew, Roger R
2013-11-01
Movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of Neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. The vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in N. crassa. Profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal Hagen-Poiseuille model of flow at low Reynolds number. Instead, the profiles were flat, consistent with a model of partial plug flow due to the high concentration of organelles in the flowing cytosol. The intra-hyphal pressure gradients were manipulated by localized external osmotic treatments to demonstrate the dependence of velocity (and direction) on pressure gradients within the hyphae. The data support the concept that mass transport, driven by pressure gradients, dominates intra-hyphal transport. The transport occurs by partial plug flow due to the organelles in the cytosol.
Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified
Hardware implementation of the ORNL fissile mass flow monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McEvers, J.; Sumner, J.; Jones, R.; Ferrell, R.; Martin, C.; Uckan, T.; March-Leuba, J.
1998-01-01
This paper provides an overall description of the implementation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor, which is part of a Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor is designed to measure the mass flow of fissile material through a gaseous or liquid process stream. It consists of a source-modulator assembly, a detector assembly, and a cabinet that houses all control, data acquisition, and supporting electronics equipment. The development of this flow monitor was first funded by DOE/NE in September 95, and an initial demonstration by ORNL was described in previous INMM meetings. This methodology was chosen by DOE/NE for implementation in November 1996, and the hardware/software development is complete. Successful BDMS installation and operation of the complete BDMS has been demonstrated in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is operated by Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc. for the US Enrichment Corporation and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Equipment for two BDMS units has been shipped to the Russian Federation
Optimal design of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, J.C.
1987-01-01
A new generation of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, to be operated at ultralow temperatures, is under development by several research groups. This paper presents a theory for the optimal design of the new antennas. First, a general sensitivity limit is derived, which may be applied to any linear instrument for which the design figure of merit is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). By replacing the amplifier by its noise resistance and considering the energy dissipated in the noise resistance when a signal is applied, it is possible to show that the optimally filtered SNR is less than or equal to E/sub r//(kT/sub n/), the energy dissipated in the noise resistance divided by Boltzmann's constant times the amplifier noise temperature. This sensitivity limit will be achieved if the instrument is lossless, in which case the energy dissipated in the noise resistance is equal to the energy deposited in the system by the signal. For resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, if the amplifier is identified as the mechanical amplifier (transducer and electronic amplifier together), then the lossless limit is accessible in practice. A useful point of view is that optimal antenna designs are those that are most loss tolerant: those that achieve the limiting SNR with the lowest possible mechanical Q values. The techniques of network synthesis may be used to design mechanical networks for matching the main antenna mass to the mechanical amplifier that are optimal in this sense. A class of loss-tolerant networks has been synthesized; their properties are summarized in a set of design charts that give the Q requirements and bandwidth as a function of the number of modes, the temperature, and the amplifier noise resistance and noise temperature
Thermodynamic framework for discrete optimal control in multiphase flow systems
Sieniutycz, Stanislaw
1999-08-01
Bellman's method of dynamic programming is used to synthesize diverse optimization approaches to active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multiphase flow systems. Thermal machines, optimally controlled unit operations, nonlinear heat conduction, spontaneous relaxation processes, and self-propagating wave fronts are all shown to satisfy a discrete Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a corresponding discrete optimization algorithm of Pontryagin's type, with the maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. The extremal structures are always canonical. A common unifying criterion is set for all considered systems, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy. It is shown that constraints can modify the entropy functionals in a different way for each group of the processes considered; thus the resulting structures of these functionals may differ significantly. Practical conclusions are formulated regarding the energy savings and energy policy in optimally controlled systems.
Systematic study of source mask optimization and verification flows
Ben, Yu; Latypov, Azat; Chua, Gek Soon; Zou, Yi
2012-06-01
Source mask optimization (SMO) emerged as powerful resolution enhancement technique (RET) for advanced technology nodes. However, there is a plethora of flow and verification metrics in the field, confounding the end user of the technique. Systemic study of different flows and the possible unification thereof is missing. This contribution is intended to reveal the pros and cons of different SMO approaches and verification metrics, understand the commonality and difference, and provide a generic guideline for RET selection via SMO. The paper discusses 3 different type of variations commonly arise in SMO, namely pattern preparation & selection, availability of relevant OPC recipe for freeform source and finally the metrics used in source verification. Several pattern selection algorithms are compared and advantages of systematic pattern selection algorithms are discussed. In the absence of a full resist model for SMO, alternative SMO flow without full resist model is reviewed. Preferred verification flow with quality metrics of DOF and MEEF is examined.
Efficient relaxations for joint chance constrained AC optimal power flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Kyri; Toomey, Bridget
2017-07-01
Evolving power systems with increasing levels of stochasticity call for a need to solve optimal power flow problems with large quantities of random variables. Weather forecasts, electricity prices, and shifting load patterns introduce higher levels of uncertainty and can yield optimization problems that are difficult to solve in an efficient manner. Solution methods for single chance constraints in optimal power flow problems have been considered in the literature, ensuring single constraints are satisfied with a prescribed probability; however, joint chance constraints, ensuring multiple constraints are simultaneously satisfied, have predominantly been solved via scenario-based approaches or by utilizing Boole's inequality as an upper bound. In this paper, joint chance constraints are used to solve an AC optimal power flow problem while preventing overvoltages in distribution grids under high penetrations of photovoltaic systems. A tighter version of Boole's inequality is derived and used to provide a new upper bound on the joint chance constraint, and simulation results are shown demonstrating the benefit of the proposed upper bound. The new framework allows for a less conservative and more computationally efficient solution to considering joint chance constraints, specifically regarding preventing overvoltages.
Optimized open-flow mixing: insights from microbubble streaming
Rallabandi, Bhargav; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Lin; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2015-11-01
Microbubble streaming has been developed into a robust and powerful flow actuation technique in microfluidics. Here, we study it as a paradigmatic system for microfluidic mixing under a continuous throughput of fluid (open-flow mixing), providing a systematic optimization of the device parameters in this practically important situation. Focusing on two-dimensional advective stirring (neglecting diffusion), we show through numerical simulation and analytical theory that mixing in steady streaming vortices becomes ineffective beyond a characteristic time scale, necessitating the introduction of unsteadiness. By duty cycling the streaming, such unsteadiness is introduced in a controlled fashion, leading to exponential refinement of the advection structures. The rate of refinement is then optimized for particular parameters of the time modulation, i.e. a particular combination of times for which the streaming is turned ``on'' and ``off''. The optimized protocol can be understood theoretically using the properties of the streaming vortices and the throughput Poiseuille flow. We can thus infer simple design principles for practical open flow micromixing applications, consistent with experiments. Current Address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University.
Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints
Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.
2017-12-01
Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.
Optimal Filtering in Mass Transport Modeling From Satellite Gravimetry Data
Ditmar, P.; Hashemi Farahani, H.; Klees, R.
2011-12-01
Monitoring natural mass transport in the Earth's system, which has marked a new era in Earth observation, is largely based on the data collected by the GRACE satellite mission. Unfortunately, this mission is not free from certain limitations, two of which are especially critical. Firstly, its sensitivity is strongly anisotropic: it senses the north-south component of the mass re-distribution gradient much better than the east-west component. Secondly, it suffers from a trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution: a high (e.g., daily) temporal resolution is only possible if the spatial resolution is sacrificed. To make things even worse, the GRACE satellites enter occasionally a phase when their orbit is characterized by a short repeat period, which makes it impossible to reach a high spatial resolution at all. A way to mitigate limitations of GRACE measurements is to design optimal data processing procedures, so that all available information is fully exploited when modeling mass transport. This implies, in particular, that an unconstrained model directly derived from satellite gravimetry data needs to be optimally filtered. In principle, this can be realized with a Wiener filter, which is built on the basis of covariance matrices of noise and signal. In practice, however, a compilation of both matrices (and, therefore, of the filter itself) is not a trivial task. To build the covariance matrix of noise in a mass transport model, it is necessary to start from a realistic model of noise in the level-1B data. Furthermore, a routine satellite gravimetry data processing includes, in particular, the subtraction of nuisance signals (for instance, associated with atmosphere and ocean), for which appropriate background models are used. Such models are not error-free, which has to be taken into account when the noise covariance matrix is constructed. In addition, both signal and noise covariance matrices depend on the type of mass transport processes under
Innovative model-based flow rate optimization for vanadium redox flow batteries
König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.
2016-11-01
In this paper, an innovative approach is presented to optimize the flow rate of a 6-kW vanadium redox flow battery with realistic stack dimensions. Efficiency is derived using a multi-physics battery model and a newly proposed instantaneous efficiency determination technique. An optimization algorithm is applied to identify optimal flow rates for operation points defined by state-of-charge (SoC) and current. The proposed method is evaluated against the conventional approach of applying Faraday's first law of electrolysis, scaled to the so-called flow factor. To make a fair comparison, the flow factor is also optimized by simulating cycles with different charging/discharging currents. It is shown through the obtained results that the efficiency is increased by up to 1.2% points; in addition, discharge capacity is also increased by up to 1.0 kWh or 5.4%. Detailed loss analysis is carried out for the cycles with maximum and minimum charging/discharging currents. It is shown that the proposed method minimizes the sum of losses caused by concentration over-potential, pumping and diffusion. Furthermore, for the deployed Nafion 115 membrane, it is observed that diffusion losses increase with stack SoC. Therefore, to decrease stack SoC and lower diffusion losses, a higher flow rate during charging than during discharging is reasonable.
Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.
2001-01-01
Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method
Optimization of micropillar sequences for fluid flow sculpting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoecklein, Daniel; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Wu, Chueh-Yu; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino [Department of Bioengineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2016-01-15
Inertial fluid flow deformation around pillars in a microchannel is a new method for controlling fluid flow. Sequences of pillars have been shown to produce a rich phase space with a wide variety of flow transformations. Previous work has successfully demonstrated manual design of pillar sequences to achieve desired transformations of the flow cross section, with experimental validation. However, such a method is not ideal for seeking out complex sculpted shapes as the search space quickly becomes too large for efficient manual discovery. We explore fast, automated optimization methods to solve this problem. We formulate the inertial flow physics in microchannels with different micropillar configurations as a set of state transition matrix operations. These state transition matrices are constructed from experimentally validated streamtraces for a fixed channel length per pillar. This facilitates modeling the effect of a sequence of micropillars as nested matrix-matrix products, which have very efficient numerical implementations. With this new forward model, arbitrary micropillar sequences can be rapidly simulated with various inlet configurations, allowing optimization routines quick access to a large search space. We integrate this framework with the genetic algorithm and showcase its applicability by designing micropillar sequences for various useful transformations. We computationally discover micropillar sequences for complex transformations that are substantially shorter than manually designed sequences. We also determine sequences for novel transformations that were difficult to manually design. Finally, we experimentally validate these computational designs by fabricating devices and comparing predictions with the results from confocal microscopy.
Flow characteristics and optimal design for RDT sparger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kwang Chu; Park, Man Heung; Park, Kyoung Suk; Lee, Jong Won
1999-01-01
A numerical analysis for RDT sparger of PWR is carried out. Computation is performed to investigate the flow characteristics as the change of design factor. As the result of this study, RDT sparger's flow resistance coefficient is K = 3.53 at the present design condition if engineering margin is considered with 20 percent, and flow ratio into branch pipe is Q s /Q i 0.41. Velocity distribution at exit is not uniform because of separation in branch pipe. In the change of inlet flow rate and second area ratio of branch pipe for main pipe, Flow resistance coefficient is increased as Q s /Q i decreasing, but in the change of branch angle and outlet nozzle diameter of main pipe, flow resistance coefficient is decreased as Q s /Q i decreasing. As the change rate of Q s /Q i is the larger, the change rate of flow resistance coefficient is the larger. The change rate of pressure loss is the largest change as section area ratio changing. The optimal design condition of sparger is estimated as the outlet nozzle diameter ratio of main pipe is D e /D i = 0.333, the second area ratio is A s /A i = 0.2 and the branch angle is α = 55 o . (author)
Topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Sigmund, Ole; Bendsøe, Martin P.
fluid mechanics. In future practice a muTAS could be used by doctors, engineers etc. as a hand held device with short reaction time that provides on-site analysis of a flowing substance such as blood, polluted water or similar. Borrvall and Petersson [2] paved the road for using the topology...... particular at micro scales since they are easily manufacturable and maintenance free. Here we consider topology optimization of 3D Stokes flow problems which is a reasonable fluid model to use at small scales. The presentation elaborates on effects caused by 3D fluid modelling on the design. Numerical...
Analysis of Ketones by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Smith, D.; Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik
2003-01-01
Roč. 17, - (2003), s. 2655-2660 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0827; GA ČR GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube * ketones Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.789, year: 2003
Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Remco Wiegerink
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.
Compact mass flow meter based on a micro coriolis flow sensor
Sparreboom, Wouter; van de Geest, Jan; Katerberg, Marcel; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2013-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1
Compact mass flow meter based on a micro Coriolis flow sensor
Sparreboom, Wouter; Katerberg, M.R.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 2 g/h (for water at a pressure drop of 2 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 ºC is below 1 mg/h/ºC. The meter is robust,
Optimization of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Hydrogen generation
Wrang, Daniel
2016-01-01
We consider the modelling and optimal control of energy storage systems, in this study a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery. Such a battery can be introduced in the electrical grid to be charged when demand is low and discharged when demand is high, increasing the overall efficiency of the network while reducing costs and emission of greenhouse gases. The model of the battery proposed in this study is less complex than the majority of models on batteries and energy storage systems found in literatur...
A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks
Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea
2018-01-01
We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...
Optimal Results and Numerical Simulations for Flow Shop Scheduling Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Ren
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the m-machine flow shop problem with two objectives: makespan with release dates and total quadratic completion time, respectively. For Fm|rj|Cmax, we prove the asymptotic optimality for any dense scheduling when the problem scale is large enough. For Fm‖ΣCj2, improvement strategy with local search is presented to promote the performance of the classical SPT heuristic. At the end of the paper, simulations show the effectiveness of the improvement strategy.
Mass Flow Data Comparison for Comprehensive Fuel Cycle Options
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Wigeland, R.A.; Dixon, B.W.; Gehin, J.C.; Todosow, M.
2015-01-01
One of the key objectives stated in the United States Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy R and D road-map is the development of sustainable nuclear fuel cycles that improve natural resource utilisation and provide adequate capability and capacity to manage wastes produced by the fuel cycle. In order to inform this objective, an evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options has been conducted. As part of that effort, the entire fuel cycle options space was represented by 40 Evaluation Groups (EGs), and mass flow information for each of the EGs was provided by using an Analysis Example (AE). In this paper, the mass flow data of the 40 AEs are compared to inform on trends in the natural resource utilisation and nuclear waste generation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium support, the natural uranium required is high and the natural resource utilisation is generally lower than 2% regardless of the fuel cycle strategy (i.e., once-through, limited recycle, or continuous recycle). However, the utilisation could be improved by avoiding enriched uranium fuel support. The natural resource utilisation increases to more than 80% by recycling the nuclear fuel continuously without enriched uranium support. The combined mass of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW), i.e., SNF+HLW mass, is lower by using a continuous recycle option compared to a once-through fuel cycle option, because SNF mass is converted to mass of recycled products and only fission products and other process losses need to be disposed. The combined disposed mass of depleted uranium (DU), recovered uranium (RU) and thorium (RTh), i.e. DU+RU+RTh mass, has a similar trend to the uranium utilisation. For the AEs that need enriched uranium fuel, the DU and RU are the major fraction by mass of the DU+RU+RTh, which are two orders of magnitude higher in mass compared to those for the AEs that do not need enriched uranium fuel. (authors)
Optimization of plasma flow parameters of the magnetoplasma compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dojcinovic, I P; Kuraica, M M; Obradovc, B M; Cvetanovic, N; Puric, J
2007-01-01
Optimization of the working conditions of the magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) has been performed through analysing discharge and compression plasma flow parameters in hydrogen, nitrogen and argon at different pressures. Energy conversion rate, volt-ampere curve exponent and plasma flow velocities have been studied to optimize the efficiency of energy transfer from the supply source to the plasma. It has been found that the most effective energy transfer from the supply to the plasma is in hydrogen as a working gas at 1000 Pa pressure. It was found that the accelerating regime exists for hydrogen up to 3000 Pa pressures, in nitrogen up to 2000 Pa and in argon up to 1000 Pa pressure. At higher pressures MPC in all the gases works in the decelerating regime. At pressures lower than 200 Pa, high cathode erosion is observed. MPC plasma flow parameter optimization is very important because this plasma accelerating system may be of special interest for solid surface modification and other technology applications
Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helen V. Hsieh
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.
Optimal scheduling for distribution network with redox flow battery storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosseina, Majid; Bathaee, Seyed Mohammad Taghi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel method for optimal scheduling of storages in radial network is presented. • Peak shaving and load leveling are the main objectives. • Vanadium redox flow battery is considered as the energy storage unit. • Real data is used for simulation. - Abstract: There are many advantages to utilize storages in electric power system. Peak shaving, load leveling, load frequency control, integration of renewable, energy trading and spinning reserve are the most important of them. Batteries, especially redox flow batteries, are one of the appropriate storages for utilization in distribution network. This paper presents a novel, heuristic and practical method for optimal scheduling in distribution network with flow battery storage. This heuristic method is more suitable for scheduling and operation of distribution networks which require installation of storages. Peak shaving and load leveling is considered as the main objective in this paper. Several indices are presented in this paper for determine the place of storages and also scheduling for optimal use of energy in them. Simulations of this paper are based on real information of distribution network substation that located in Semnan, Iran.
Density based topology optimization of turbulent flow heat transfer systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dilgen, Sümer Bartug; Dilgen, Cetin Batur; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective and the con...... in the optimization process, while also demonstrating extension of the methodology to include coupling of heat transfer with turbulent flows.......The focus of this article is on topology optimization of heat sinks with turbulent forced convection. The goal is to demonstrate the extendibility, and the scalability of a previously developed fluid solver to coupled multi-physics and large 3D problems. The gradients of the objective...
Aerodynamic shape optimization of Airfoils in 2-D incompressible flow
Rangasamy, Srinivethan; Upadhyay, Harshal; Somasekaran, Sandeep; Raghunath, Sreekanth
2010-11-01
An optimization framework was developed for maximizing the region of 2-D airfoil immersed in laminar flow with enhanced aerodynamic performance. It uses genetic algorithm over a population of 125, across 1000 generations, to optimize the airfoil. On a stand-alone computer, a run takes about an hour to obtain a converged solution. The airfoil geometry was generated using two Bezier curves; one to represent the thickness and the other the camber of the airfoil. The airfoil profile was generated by adding and subtracting the thickness curve from the camber curve. The coefficient of lift and drag was computed using potential velocity distribution obtained from panel code, and boundary layer transition prediction code was used to predict the location of onset of transition. The objective function of a particular design is evaluated as the weighted-average of aerodynamic characteristics at various angles of attacks. Optimization was carried out for several objective functions and the airfoil designs obtained were analyzed.
A Hybrid Harmony Search Algorithm Approach for Optimal Power Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mimoun YOUNES
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Optimal Power Flow (OPF is one of the main functions of Power system operation. It determines the optimal settings of generating units, bus voltage, transformer tap and shunt elements in Power System with the objective of minimizing total production costs or losses while the system is operating within its security limits. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel methodology (BCGAs-HSA that solves OPF including both active and reactive power dispatch It is based on combining the binary-coded genetic algorithm (BCGAs and the harmony search algorithm (HSA to determine the optimal global solution. This method was tested on the modified IEEE 30 bus test system. The results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained with BCGAs or HSA separately. The results show that the BCGAs-HSA approach can converge to the optimum solution with accuracy compared to those reported recently in the literature.
Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.
1979-01-01
Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT
Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)
2009-06-15
The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
2014-12-01
The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...
The State Fiscal Policy: Determinants and Optimization of Financial Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sitash Tetiana D.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The article outlines the determinants of the state fiscal policy at the present stage of global transformations. Using the principles of financial science it is determined that regulation of financial flows within the fiscal sphere, namely centralization and redistribution of the GDP, which results in the regulation of the financial capacity of economic agents, is of importance. It is emphasized that the urgent measure for improving the tax model is re-considering the provision of fiscal incentives, which are used to stimulate the accumulation of capital, investment activity, innovation, increase of the competitiveness of national products, expansion of exports, increase of the level of the population employment. The necessity of applying the instruments of fiscal regulation of financial flows, which should take place on the basis of institutional economics emphasizing the analysis of institutional changes, the evolution of institutions and their impact on the behavior of participants of economic relations. At the same time it is determined that the maximum effect of fiscal regulation of financial flows is ensured when application of fiscal instruments is aimed not only at achieving the target values of parameters of financial flows but at overcoming institutional deformations as well. It is determined that the optimal movement of financial flows enables creating favorable conditions for development and maintenance of financial balance in the society and achievement of the necessary level of competitiveness of the national economy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haffner, D.R.
1976-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: PACTOLUS is a code for computing nuclear power costs using the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows are generated from input unit costs, time schedules and burnup data. CLOTHO calculates and communicates to PACTOLUS mass flow data to match a specified load factor history. 2 - Method of solution: Plant lifetime power costs are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 40 annual time periods into which all costs and mass flows are accumulated, 20 isotopic mass flows charged into and discharged from the reactor model
Gas-liquid mass transfer and flow phenomena in the Peirce-Smith converter: a water model study
Zhao, Xing; Zhao, Hong-liang; Zhang, Li-feng; Yang, Li-qiang
2018-01-01
A water model with a geometric similarity ratio of 1:5 was developed to investigate the gas-liquid mass transfer and flow characteristics in a Peirce-Smith converter. A gas mixture of CO2 and Ar was injected into a NaOH solution bath. The flow field, volumetric mass transfer coefficient per unit volume ( Ak/V; where A is the contact area between phases, V is the volume, and k is the mass transfer coefficient), and gas utilization ratio ( η) were then measured at different gas flow rates and blow angles. The results showed that the flow field could be divided into five regions, i.e., injection, strong loop, weak loop, splashing, and dead zone. Whereas the Ak/V of the bath increased and then decreased with increasing gas flow rate, and η steadily increased. When the converter was rotated clockwise, both Ak/V and η increased. However, the flow condition deteriorated when the gas flow rate and blow angle were drastically increased. Therefore, these parameters must be controlled to optimal conditions. In the proposed model, the optimal gas flow rate and blow angle were 7.5 m3·h-1 and 10°, respectively.
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)
2009-02-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong
2009-01-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow
Rashad, Ramy
To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition
Particle Swarm Optimization with Various Inertia Weight Variants for Optimal Power Flow Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prabha Umapathy
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient method to solve the optimal power flow problem in power systems using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The objective of the proposed method is to find the steady-state operating point which minimizes the fuel cost, while maintaining an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator power, line flow, and voltage. Three different inertia weights, a constant inertia weight (CIW, a time-varying inertia weight (TVIW, and global-local best inertia weight (GLbestIW, are considered with the particle swarm optimization algorithm to analyze the impact of inertia weight on the performance of PSO algorithm. The PSO algorithm is simulated for each of the method individually. It is observed that the PSO algorithm with the proposed inertia weight yields better results, both in terms of optimal solution and faster convergence. The proposed method has been tested on the standard IEEE 30 bus test system to prove its efficacy. The algorithm is computationally faster, in terms of the number of load flows executed, and provides better results than other heuristic techniques.
Multiscale modeling of fluid flow and mass transport
Masuoka, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Bijeljic, B.; Lin, Q.; Blunt, M. J.
2017-12-01
In recent years, there are some reports on a simulation of fluid flow in pore spaces of rocks using Navier-Stokes equations. These studies mostly adopt a X-ray CT to create 3-D numerical grids of the pores in micro-scale. However, results may be of low accuracy when the rock has a large pore size distribution, because pores, whose size is smaller than resolution of the X-ray CT may be neglected. We recently found out by tracer tests in a laboratory using a brine saturated Ryukyu limestone and inject fresh water that a decrease of chloride concentration took longer time. This phenomenon can be explained due to weak connectivity of the porous networks. Therefore, it is important to simulate entire pore spaces even those of very small sizes in which diffusion is dominant. We have developed a new methodology for multi-level modeling for pore scale fluid flow in porous media. The approach is to combine pore-scale analysis with Darcy-flow analysis using two types of X-ray CT images in different resolutions. Results of the numerical simulations showed a close match with the experimental results. The proposed methodology is an enhancement for analyzing mass transport and flow phenomena in rocks with complicated pore structure.
Heat and mass transfer in porous cavity: Assisting flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
In this paper, investigation of heat and mass transfer in a porous cavity is carried out. The governing partial differential equations are non-dimensionalised and solved using finite element method. The left vertical surface of the cavity is maintained at constant temperature and concentration which are higher than the ambient temperature and concentration applied at right vertical surface. The top and bottom walls of the cavity are adiabatic. Heat transfer is assumed to take place by natural convection and radiation. The investigation is carried out for assisting flow when buoyancy and gravity force act in same direction.
Open boundary condition, Wilson flow and the scalar glueball mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Harindranath, A.; Maiti, Jyotirmoy
2014-01-01
A major problem with periodic boundary condition on the gauge fields used in current lattice gauge theory simulations is the trapping of topological charge in a particular sector as the continuum limit is approached. To overcome this problem open boundary condition in the temporal direction has been proposed recently. One may ask whether open boundary condition can reproduce the observables calculated with periodic boundary condition. In this work we find that the extracted lowest glueball mass using open and periodic boundary conditions at the same lattice volume and lattice spacing agree for the range of lattice scales explored in the range 3 GeV≤(1/a)≤5 GeV. The problem of trapping is overcome to a large extent with open boundary and we are able to extract the glueball mass at even larger lattice scale ≈ 5.7 GeV. To smoothen the gauge fields we have used recently proposed Wilson flow which, compared to HYP smearing, exhibits better systematics in the extraction of glueball mass. The extracted glueball mass shows remarkable insensitivity to the lattice spacings in the range explored in this work, 3 GeV≤(1/a)≤5.7 GeV.
Optimal Water-Power Flow Problem: Formulation and Distributed Optimal Solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Admed S. [University of Minnesota; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D. [University of Minnesota; Taylor, Josh A. [University of Toronto
2018-01-12
This paper formalizes an optimal water-power flow (OWPF) problem to optimize the use of controllable assets across power and water systems while accounting for the couplings between the two infrastructures. Tanks and pumps are optimally managed to satisfy water demand while improving power grid operations; {for the power network, an AC optimal power flow formulation is augmented to accommodate the controllability of water pumps.} Unfortunately, the physics governing the operation of the two infrastructures and coupling constraints lead to a nonconvex (and, in fact, NP-hard) problem; however, after reformulating OWPF as a nonconvex, quadratically-constrained quadratic problem, a feasible point pursuit-successive convex approximation approach is used to identify feasible and optimal solutions. In addition, a distributed solver based on the alternating direction method of multipliers enables water and power operators to pursue individual objectives while respecting the couplings between the two networks. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated for the case of a distribution feeder coupled with a municipal water distribution network.
A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Approach for Optimal Power Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sydulu Maheswarapu
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper puts forward a reformed hybrid genetic algorithm (GA based approach to the optimal power flow. In the approach followed here, continuous variables are designed using real-coded GA and discrete variables are processed as binary strings. The outcomes are compared with many other methods like simple genetic algorithm (GA, adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA, differential evolution (DE, particle swarm optimization (PSO and music based harmony search (MBHS on a IEEE30 bus test bed, with a total load of 283.4 MW. Its found that the proposed algorithm is found to offer lowest fuel cost. The proposed method is found to be computationally faster, robust, superior and promising form its convergence characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Castillo, Richard; White, Benjamin; Rojo, Javier
2012-01-01
Compressible flow based image registration operates under the assumption that the mass of the imaged material is conserved from one image to the next. Depending on how the mass conservation assumption is modeled, the performance of existing compressible flow methods is limited by factors such as image quality, noise, large magnitude voxel displacements, and computational requirements. The Least Median of Squares Filtered Compressible Flow (LFC) method introduced here is based on a localized, nonlinear least squares, compressible flow model that describes the displacement of a single voxel that lends itself to a simple grid search (block matching) optimization strategy. Spatially inaccurate grid search point matches, corresponding to erroneous local minimizers of the nonlinear compressible flow model, are removed by a novel filtering approach based on least median of squares fitting and the forward search outlier detection method. The spatial accuracy of the method is measured using ten thoracic CT image sets and large samples of expert determined landmarks (available at www.dir-lab.com). The LFC method produces an average error within the intra-observer error on eight of the ten cases, indicating that the method is capable of achieving a high spatial accuracy for thoracic CT registration. (paper)
Flow shop scheduling algorithm to optimize warehouse activities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Centobelli
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Successful flow-shop scheduling outlines a more rapid and efficient process of order fulfilment in warehouse activities. Indeed the way and the speed of order processing and, in particular, the operations concerning materials handling between the upper stocking area and a lower forward picking one must be optimized. The two activities, drops and pickings, have considerable impact on important performance parameters for Supply Chain wholesaler companies. In this paper, a new flow shop scheduling algorithm is formulated in order to process a greater number of orders by replacing the FIFO logic for the drops activities of a wholesaler company on a daily basis. The System Dynamics modelling and simulation have been used to simulate the actual scenario and the output solutions. Finally, a t-Student test validates the modelled algorithm, granting that it can be used for all wholesalers based on drop and picking activities.
Using linear programming to analyze and optimize stochastic flow lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helber, Stefan; Schimmelpfeng, Katja; Stolletz, Raik
2011-01-01
This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete time...... programming and hence allows us to solve buffer allocation problems. We show under which conditions our method works well by comparing its results to exact values for two-machine models and approximate simulation results for longer lines....
Optimal selection of epitopes for TXP-immunoaffinity mass spectrometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joos Thomas
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry (MS based protein profiling has become one of the key technologies in biomedical research and biomarker discovery. One bottleneck in MS-based protein analysis is sample preparation and an efficient fractionation step to reduce the complexity of the biological samples, which are too complex to be analyzed directly with MS. Sample preparation strategies that reduce the complexity of tryptic digests by using immunoaffinity based methods have shown to lead to a substantial increase in throughput and sensitivity in the proteomic mass spectrometry approach. The limitation of using such immunoaffinity-based approaches is the availability of the appropriate peptide specific capture antibodies. Recent developments in these approaches, where subsets of peptides with short identical terminal sequences can be enriched using antibodies directed against short terminal epitopes, promise a significant gain in efficiency. Results We show that the minimal set of terminal epitopes for the coverage of a target protein list can be found by the formulation as a set cover problem, preceded by a filtering pipeline for the exclusion of peptides and target epitopes with undesirable properties. Conclusions For small datasets (a few hundred proteins it is possible to solve the problem to optimality with moderate computational effort using commercial or free solvers. Larger datasets, like full proteomes require the use of heuristics.
Optimal selection of epitopes for TXP-immunoaffinity mass spectrometry.
Planatscher, Hannes; Supper, Jochen; Poetz, Oliver; Stoll, Dieter; Joos, Thomas; Templin, Markus F; Zell, Andreas
2010-06-25
Mass spectrometry (MS) based protein profiling has become one of the key technologies in biomedical research and biomarker discovery. One bottleneck in MS-based protein analysis is sample preparation and an efficient fractionation step to reduce the complexity of the biological samples, which are too complex to be analyzed directly with MS. Sample preparation strategies that reduce the complexity of tryptic digests by using immunoaffinity based methods have shown to lead to a substantial increase in throughput and sensitivity in the proteomic mass spectrometry approach. The limitation of using such immunoaffinity-based approaches is the availability of the appropriate peptide specific capture antibodies. Recent developments in these approaches, where subsets of peptides with short identical terminal sequences can be enriched using antibodies directed against short terminal epitopes, promise a significant gain in efficiency. We show that the minimal set of terminal epitopes for the coverage of a target protein list can be found by the formulation as a set cover problem, preceded by a filtering pipeline for the exclusion of peptides and target epitopes with undesirable properties. For small datasets (a few hundred proteins) it is possible to solve the problem to optimality with moderate computational effort using commercial or free solvers. Larger datasets, like full proteomes require the use of heuristics.
Optimizing parameter of particle damping based on Leidenfrost effect of particle flows
Lei, Xiaofei; Wu, Chengjun; Chen, Peng
2018-05-01
Particle damping (PD) has strongly nonlinearity. With sufficiently vigorous vibration conditions, it always plays excellent damping performance and the particles which are filled into cavity are on Leidenfrost state considered in particle flow theory. For investigating the interesting phenomenon, the damping effect of PD on this state is discussed by the developed numerical model which is established based on principle of gas and solid. Furtherly, the numerical model is reformed and applied to study the relationship of Leidenfrost velocity with characteristic parameters of PD such as particle density, diameter, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio. The results indicate that particle density and mass packing ratio can drastically improve the damping performance as opposed as particle diameter and diameter-length ratio, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio can low the excited intensity for Leidenfrost state. For discussing the application of the phenomenon in engineering, bound optimization by quadratic approximation (BOBYQA) method is employed to optimize mass packing ratio of PD for minimize maximum amplitude (MMA) and minimize total vibration level (MTVL). It is noted that the particle damping can drastically reduce the vibrating amplitude for MMA as Leidenfrost velocity equal to the vibrating velocity relative to maximum vibration amplitude. For MTVL, larger mass packing ratio is best option because particles at relatively wide frequency range is adjacent to Leidenfrost state.
Poscharny, K.; Fabry, D.C.; Heddrich, S.; Sugiono, E.; Liauw, M.A.; Rueping, Magnus
2018-01-01
A methodology for the synthesis of oxetanes from benzophenone and furan derivatives is presented. UV-light irradiation in batch and flow systems allowed the [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to proceed and a broad range of oxetanes could be synthesized in manual and automated fashion. The identification of high-yielding reaction parameters was achieved through a new self-optimizing photoreactor system.
Poscharny, K.
2018-04-07
A methodology for the synthesis of oxetanes from benzophenone and furan derivatives is presented. UV-light irradiation in batch and flow systems allowed the [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction to proceed and a broad range of oxetanes could be synthesized in manual and automated fashion. The identification of high-yielding reaction parameters was achieved through a new self-optimizing photoreactor system.
Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait
Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.
2017-04-01
The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the
Physics design of fissile mass-flow monitoring system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, J.K.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Uckan, T.
1997-01-01
The system measures the flow rate and uranium-235 content in liquid or gas streams; it does not penetrate the process piping. A moderated fission neutron source is used to periodicially introduce a burst of thermal neutrons into the fluid stream to induce fission; delayed gamma emissions from the resulting fission fragments are detected by high-efficiency scintillators downstream of the neutron source. The fluid flow rate is measure from the time between initiation of the thermal neutron burst and detection of the fission product gamma emissions, and the U-235 content is inferred from the intensity of the gamma burst detected. Design of the fissile mass flow monitor requires satisfaction of several competing constraints. Efficient operation of the monitor requires that source-induced fission rate and detection efficiency be maximized while the source-induced background rate is simultaneoulsy minimized. Near optical nuclear design of the system was achieved using numerous Monte Carlo calculations and measurements. This paper addresses calculational aspects of the physics design for the system applied to UF 6 gas
Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases
Hylton, James O.; Remenyik, Carl J.
1994-01-01
A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.
Investigation of technology for monitoring UF6 mass flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooley, J.N.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.
1987-06-01
The applicability of gas flow meters, in-line enrichment monitors, and instruments for measuring uranium or UF 6 concentrations in process streams as a means for verifying declared plant throughput have been investigated. The study was performed to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency in the development of an effective international safeguards approach for aerodynamic uranium enrichment plants. Because the process gas in an aerodynamic enrichment facility is a mixture of UF 6 and H 2 , a mass flow measurement in conjunction with a measurement of the uranium (or UF 6 ) concentration in the process gas is required to quantify the amount of uranium being fed into, and withdrawn from, the cascades for nuclear materials accountability verification. In-line enrichment monitors developed for the US gas centrifuge enrichment plant are found to be applicable only to pure UF 6 streams. Of the five gas flow meters evaluated, the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter are judged the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low-velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high-velocity gas, large diameter piping. Of the six procedures evaluated for measurement of uranium or UF 6 concentration in a mixed process stream, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Parametric Study and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester from Flow Induced Vibration
Ashok, P.; Jawahar Chandra, C.; Neeraj, P.; Santhosh, B.
2018-02-01
Self-powered systems have become the need of the hour and several devices and techniques were proposed in favour of this crisis. Among the various sources, vibrations, being the most practical scenario, is chosen in the present study to investigate for the possibility of harvesting energy. Various methods were devised to trap the energy generated by vibrating bodies, which would otherwise be wasted. One such concept is termed as flow-induced vibration which involves the flow of a fluid across a bluff body that oscillates due to a phenomenon known as vortex shedding. These oscillations can be converted into electrical energy by the use of piezoelectric patches. A two degree of freedom system containing a cylinder as the primary mass and a cantilever beam as the secondary mass attached with a piezoelectric circuit, was considered to model the problem. Three wake oscillator models were studied in order to determine the one which can generate results with high accuracy. It was found that Facchinetti model produced better results than the other two and hence a parametric study was performed to determine the favourable range of the controllable variables of the system. A fitness function was formulated and optimization of the selected parameters was done using genetic algorithm. The parametric optimization led to a considerable improvement in the harvested voltage from the system owing to the high displacement of secondary mass.
Robust optimization-based DC optimal power flow for managing wind generation uncertainty
Boonchuay, Chanwit; Tomsovic, Kevin; Li, Fangxing; Ongsakul, Weerakorn
2012-11-01
Integrating wind generation into the wider grid causes a number of challenges to traditional power system operation. Given the relatively large wind forecast errors, congestion management tools based on optimal power flow (OPF) need to be improved. In this paper, a robust optimization (RO)-based DCOPF is proposed to determine the optimal generation dispatch and locational marginal prices (LMPs) for a day-ahead competitive electricity market considering the risk of dispatch cost variation. The basic concept is to use the dispatch to hedge against the possibility of reduced or increased wind generation. The proposed RO-based DCOPF is compared with a stochastic non-linear programming (SNP) approach on a modified PJM 5-bus system. Primary test results show that the proposed DCOPF model can provide lower dispatch cost than the SNP approach.
Mass transport enhancement in redox flow batteries with corrugated fluidic networks
Lisboa, Kleber Marques; Marschewski, Julian; Ebejer, Neil; Ruch, Patrick; Cotta, Renato Machado; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos
2017-08-01
We propose a facile, novel concept of mass transfer enhancement in flow batteries based on electrolyte guidance in rationally designed corrugated channel systems. The proposed fluidic networks employ periodic throttling of the flow to optimally deflect the electrolytes into the porous electrode, targeting enhancement of the electrolyte-electrode interaction. Theoretical analysis is conducted with channels in the form of trapezoidal waves, confirming and detailing the mass transport enhancement mechanism. In dilute concentration experiments with an alkaline quinone redox chemistry, a scaling of the limiting current with Re0.74 is identified, which compares favourably against the Re0.33 scaling typical of diffusion-limited laminar processes. Experimental IR-corrected polarization curves are presented for high concentration conditions, and a significant performance improvement is observed with the narrowing of the nozzles. The adverse effects of periodic throttling on the pumping power are compared with the benefits in terms of power density, and an improvement of up to 102% in net power density is obtained in comparison with the flow-by case employing straight parallel channels. The proposed novel concept of corrugated fluidic networks comes with facile fabrication and contributes to the improvement of the transport characteristics and overall performance of redox flow battery systems.
Flow and mass transfer downstream of an orifice under flow accelerated corrosion conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Wael H.; Bello, Mufatiu M.; El Nakla, Meamer; Al Sarkhi, Abdelsalam
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Mass transfer downstream of orifices was numerically and experimentally investigated. ► The surface wear pattern is measured and used to validate the present numerical results. ► The maximum mass transfer coefficient found to occur at approximately 2–3 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. ► The FAC wear rates were correlated with the turbulence kinetic energy and wall mass transfer in terms of Sherwood number. ► The current study offered very useful information for FAC engineers for better preparation of nuclear plant inspection scope. - Abstract: Local flow parameters play an important role in characterizing flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) downstream of sudden area change in power plant piping systems. Accurate prediction of the highest FAC wear rate locations enables the mitigation of sudden and catastrophic failures, and the improvement of the plant capacity factor. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the local flow and mass transfer parameters on flow accelerated corrosion downstream of an orifice. In the present study, orifice to pipe diameter ratios of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.74 were investigated numerically by solving the continuity and momentum equations at Reynolds number of Re = 20,000. Laboratory experiments, using test sections made of hydrocal (CaSO 4 ·½H 2 O) were carried out in order to determine the surface wear pattern and validate the present numerical results. The numerical results were compared to the plants data as well as to the present experiments. The maximum mass transfer coefficient found to occur at approximately 2–3 pipe diameters downstream of the orifice. This location was also found to correspond to the location of elevated turbulent kinetic energy generated within the flow separation vortices downstream of the orifice. The FAC wear rates were correlated with the turbulence kinetic energy and wall mass transfer in terms of Sherwood number. The current study found to offer very
Characterization of the fracturation of rock masses for determining flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derlich, S.
1984-02-01
Flow in a rock mass is the consequence of the permeability of the rock, which can be roughly separated into matrix permeability and fissure permeability. In crystalline rocks fissure permeability is dominant, especially where the rocks are extensively fractured. It is thus essential, by means of studies either at the surface or underground, to characterize the volume fracturation in the mass considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology for analysing fracturation at a site by the studies performed on the granite mass of Auriat in the French Massif Central. A number of geology laboratories have participated in this study and a broad spectrum of observations has been made which can be used for determining the various stages of a study with a view to selection of a site, the advantages and limitations of each method or study plan and additional methods which need to be used for gaining as complete a picture as possible of the fracturation. A brief examination of the results obtained at Auriat enables the relative advantages of using these various methods at a particular site to be compared
Generalized Couette Poiseuille flow with boundary mass transfer
Marques, F.; Sanchez, J.; Weidman, P. D.
1998-11-01
A generalized similarity formulation extending the work of Terrill (1967) for Couette Poiseuille flow in the annulus between concentric cylinders of infinite extent is given. Boundary conditions compatible with the formulation allow a study of the effects of inner and outer cylinder transpiration, rotation, translation, stretching and twisting, in addition to that of an externally imposed constant axial pressure gradient. The problem is governed by [eta], the ratio of inner to outer radii, a Poiseuille number, and nine Reynolds numbers. Single-cylinder and planar problems can be recovered in the limits [eta][rightward arrow]0 and [eta][rightward arrow]1, respectively. Two coupled primary nonlinear equations govern the meridional motion generated by uniform mass flux through the porous walls and the azimuthal motion generated by torsional movement of the cylinders; subsidiary equations linearly slaved to the primary flow govern the effects of cylinder translation, cylinder rotation, and an external pressure gradient. Steady solutions of the primary equations for uniform source/sink flow of strength F through the inner cylinder are reported for 0[less-than-or-eq, slant][eta][less-than-or-eq, slant]1. Asymptotic results corroborating the numerical solutions are found in different limiting cases. For F0 is more complex in that unique solutions are found at low Reynolds numbers, a region of triple solutions exists at moderate Reynolds numbers, and a two-cell solution prevails at large Reynolds numbers. The subsidiary linear equations are solved at [eta]=0.5 to exhibit the effects of cylinder translation, rotation, and an axial pressure gradient on the source/sink flows.
Cui, Jian; Zhao, Xue-Hong; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Dai, Li
2014-01-01
Flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry was a widely used method in the industries of health, environmental, geological and metallurgical fields for the merit of high sensitivity, wide measurement range and fast analytical speed. However, optimization of this method was too difficult as there exist so many parameters affecting the sensitivity and broadening. Generally, the optimal conditions were sought through several experiments. The present paper proposed a mathematical model between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients using the law of conservation of mass according to the characteristics of hydride chemical reaction and the composition of the system, which was proved to be accurate as comparing the theoretical simulation and experimental results through the test of arsanilic acid standard solution. Finally, this paper has put a relation map between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients, and summarized that GLS volume, carrier solution flow rate and sample loop volume were the most factors affecting sensitivity and broadening coefficients. Optimizing these three factors with this relation map, the relative sensitivity was advanced by 2.9 times and relative broadening was reduced by 0.76 times. This model can provide a theoretical guidance for the optimization of the experimental conditions.
Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.
2016-01-01
The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...
Evaluation of air flow rates through spargers for optimization of KNGR IRWST and SDVS design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, J. S.; Rha, I. S.; Jang, Y. S.; Koh, H. J.; Park, J. N.; Lee, S. W.
1999-01-01
In KNGR in the event of POSRVs actuation water, air and steam discharged from the RCS impose the dynamic loads on IRWST walls and submerged structures. The largest load is air clearing load. The main factors having an effect on the air clearing load are steam mass flux, the pressure and air volume in the POSRV discharge line. It is practically difficult to make the amount of air mass and its flow rates discharged through each sparger evenly distributed because several spargers are branched from one horizontal header. For an optimization of KNGR IRWST and SDVS design to minimize the T/H loads, the pressure in the discharge pipe and the air mass flow rates through spargers are evaluated using RELAP5/MOD3 code with changing the POSRV opening time and line and sparger arrangement. It is shown that as the opening time is the longer, the pressure in the discharge line is decreased and difference of the amount of air mass between spargers is reduced. And sparger headers with three spargers show better performance rather than those with six ones
Pinsker estimators for local helioseismology: inversion of travel times for mass-conserving flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fournier, Damien; Holzke, Martin; Hohage, Thorsten; Gizon, Laurent
2016-01-01
A major goal of helioseismology is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the three velocity components of convective flows in the solar interior from sets of wave travel-time measurements. For small amplitude flows, the forward problem is described in good approximation by a large system of convolution equations. The input observations are highly noisy random vectors with a known dense covariance matrix. This leads to a large statistical linear inverse problem. Whereas for deterministic linear inverse problems several computationally efficient minimax optimal regularization methods exist, only one minimax-optimal linear estimator exists for statistical linear inverse problems: the Pinsker estimator. However, it is often computationally inefficient because it requires a singular value decomposition of the forward operator or it is not applicable because of an unknown noise covariance matrix, so it is rarely used for real-world problems. These limitations do not apply in helioseismology. We present a simplified proof of the optimality properties of the Pinsker estimator and show that it yields significantly better reconstructions than traditional inversion methods used in helioseismology, i.e. regularized least squares (Tikhonov regularization) and SOLA (approximate inverse) methods. Moreover, we discuss the incorporation of the mass conservation constraint in the Pinsker scheme using staggered grids. With this improvement we can reconstruct not only horizontal, but also vertical velocity components that are much smaller in amplitude. (paper)
Numerical study on increasing mass flow ratio by energy deposition of high frequency pulsed laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Diankai; Hong Yanji; Li Qian
2013-01-01
The mass flow ratio (MFR) of air breathing ramjet inlet would be decreased, when the Mach number is lower than the designed value. High frequency pulsed laser energy was deposited upstream of the cowl lip to reflect the stream so as to increase the MFR. When the Mach number of the flow was 5.0, and the static pressure and temperature of the flow were 2 551.6 Pa and 116.7 K, respectively, two-dimensional non-stationary compressible RANS equations were solved with upwind format to study the mechanisms of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition. The laser deposition frequency was 100 kHz and the average power was 500 W. The crossing point of the first forebody oblique shock and extension line of cowl lip was selected as the expected point. Then the deposition position was optimized by searching near the expected point. The results indicate that with the optimization of laser energy deposition position, the MFR would be increased from 63% to 97%. The potential value of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition was proved. The method for selection of the energy deposition position was also presented. (authors)
Improving Emergency Department flow through optimized bed utilization.
Chartier, Lucas Brien; Simoes, Licinia; Kuipers, Meredith; McGovern, Barb
2016-01-01
Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients. We engaged key stakeholders to identify barriers and potential strategies to achieve optimal flow of patients into the ED. We first identified multiple flow-interrupting challenges, including operational bottlenecks and cultural issues. We then generated change ideas to address two main underlying causes of ED congestion: unnecessary patient utilization of ED beds and communication breakdown causing bed turnaround delays. We subsequently performed seven tests of change through sequential plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles. The most significant gains were made by improving communication strategies: small gains were achieved through the optimization of in-house digital information management systems, while significant improvements were achieved through the implementation of a low-tech direct contact mechanism (a two-way radio or walkie-talkie). In the post-intervention phase, time-to-bed for the 90th percentile of high-acuity patients decreased from 120 minutes to 66 minutes, with special cause variation showing a significant shift in the weekly measurements.
A modified teaching–learning based optimization for multi-objective optimal power flow problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza; Niknam, Taher
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A new modified teaching–learning based algorithm is proposed. • A self-adaptive wavelet mutation strategy is used to enhance the performance. • To avoid reaching a large repository size, a fuzzy clustering technique is used. • An efficiently smart population selection is utilized. • Simulations show the superiority of this algorithm compared with other ones. - Abstract: In this paper, a modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is analyzed to solve the multi-objective optimal power flow problem considering the total fuel cost and total emission of the units. The modified phase of the optimization algorithm utilizes a self-adapting wavelet mutation strategy. Moreover, a fuzzy clustering technique is proposed to avoid extremely large repository size besides a smart population selection for the next iteration. These techniques make the algorithm searching a larger space to find the optimal solutions while speed of the convergence remains good. The IEEE 30-Bus and 57-Bus systems are used to illustrate performance of the proposed algorithm and results are compared with those in literatures. It is verified that the proposed approach has better performance over other techniques
Optimal power flow for distribution networks with distributed generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radosavljević Jordan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA based approach for the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF in distribution networks with distributed generation (DG units, including fuel cells, micro turbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. The OPF is formulated as a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. Due to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties, a probabilisticalgorithm is introduced in the OPF analysis. The Weibull and normal distributions are employed to model the input random variables, namely the wind speed, solar irradiance and load power. The 2m+1 point estimate method and the Gram Charlier expansion theory are used to obtain the statistical moments and the probability density functions (PDFs of the OPF results. The proposed approach is examined and tested on a modified IEEE 34 node test feeder with integrated five different DG units. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve both deterministic and probabilistic OPF problems for different forms of the multi-objective function. As such, it can serve as a useful decision-making supporting tool for distribution network operators. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046
Optimal power flow application issues in the Pool paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, G.; Bompard, E.
2004-01-01
This paper focuses on the application of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) to competitive markets. Since the OPF is a central decision-making tool its application to the more decentralized decision-making in the competitive electricity markets requires considerable care. There are some intrinsic challenges associated with the effective OPF application in the competitive environment due to the inherent characteristics of the OPF formulation. Two such characteristics are the flatness of the optimum surface and the consequent continuum associated with the optimum. In addition to these OPF structural characteristics, the level of authority vested in the central decision-making entity has major ramifications. These factors have wide ranging economic impacts, whose implications are very pronounced due to the fact that, unlike in the old vertically integrated utility environment, various market players are affected differently. The effects include price volatility, financial health of various players and the integrity of the market itself. We apply appropriate metrics to evaluate market efficiency and how the various players fare. We study the impacts of OPF applications in the Pool paradigm, with both supply and demand side explicitly modeled, and provide extensive numerical results on systems based on IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus networks. The results show the variability of nodal prices and the skew possible in different 'optimal' allocations among competing suppliers. Such variability in the results may lead to serious disputes among the players and the central decision-making authority. Directions for future research are discussed. (author)
Towards Optimal Event Detection and Localization in Acyclic Flow Networks
Agumbe Suresh, Mahima
2012-01-03
Acyclic flow networks, present in many infrastructures of national importance (e.g., oil & gas and water distribution systems), have been attracting immense research interest. Existing solutions for detecting and locating attacks against these infrastructures, have been proven costly and imprecise, especially when dealing with large scale distribution systems. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, we investigate how mobile sensor networks can be used for optimal event detection and localization in acyclic flow networks. Sensor nodes move along the edges of the network and detect events (i.e., attacks) and proximity to beacon nodes with known placement in the network. We formulate the problem of minimizing the cost of monitoring infrastructure (i.e., minimizing the number of sensor and beacon nodes deployed), while ensuring a degree of sensing coverage in a zone of interest and a required accuracy in locating events. We propose algorithms for solving these problems and demonstrate their effectiveness with results obtained from a high fidelity simulator.
Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Q H; Lang, V T; Choi, S B
2015-01-01
In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. (technical note)
Mass flow rate correlation for two-phase flow of R218 through a capillary tube
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vinš, Václav; Vacek, V.
2009-01-01
Roč. 29, 14-15 (2009), s. 2816-2823 ISSN 1359-4311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : artificial neural network * capillary tube * mass flow rate correlation * R218 Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.922, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_cdi=5687&_pubType=J&_acct=C000034318&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=640952&md5=fc314a471a010545ee185394a6c8f5f7&jchunk=29#29
Lenčo, Juraj; Vajrychová, Marie; Pimková, Kristýna; Prokšová, Magdaléna; Benková, Markéta; Klimentová, Jana; Tambor, Vojtěch; Soukup, Ondřej
2018-04-17
Due to its sensitivity and productivity, bottom-up proteomics based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become the core approach in the field. The de facto standard LC-MS platform for proteomics operates at sub-μL/min flow rates, and nanospray is required for efficiently introducing peptides into a mass spectrometer. Although this is almost a "dogma", this view is being reconsidered in light of developments in highly efficient chromatographic columns, and especially with the introduction of exceptionally sensitive MS instruments. Although conventional-flow LC-MS platforms have recently penetrated targeted proteomics successfully, their possibilities in discovery-oriented proteomics have not yet been thoroughly explored. Our objective was to determine what are the extra costs and what optimization and adjustments to a conventional-flow LC-MS system must be undertaken to identify a comparable number of proteins as can be identified on a nanoLC-MS system. We demonstrate that the amount of a complex tryptic digest needed for comparable proteome coverage can be roughly 5-fold greater, providing the column dimensions are properly chosen, extra-column peak dispersion is minimized, column temperature and flow rate are set to levels appropriate for peptide separation, and the composition of mobile phases is fine-tuned. Indeed, we identified 2 835 proteins from 2 μg of HeLa cells tryptic digest separated during a 60 min gradient at 68 μL/min on a 1.0 mm × 250 mm column held at 55 °C and using an aqua-acetonitrile mobile phases containing 0.1% formic acid, 0.4% acetic acid, and 3% dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results document that conventional-flow LC-MS is an attractive alternative for bottom-up exploratory proteomics.
Design and construction of a novel Coriolis mass flow rate meter
Mehendale, A.; Zwikker, Rini; Jouwsma, Wybren
2009-01-01
The Coriolis principle for measuring flow rates has great advantages compared to other flow measurement principles, the most important being that mass flow is measured directly. Up to now the measurement of low flow rates posed a great challenge. In a joint research project, the University of Twente
Mass Optimization of Battery/Supercapacitors Hybrid Systems Based on a Linear Programming Approach
Fleury, Benoit; Labbe, Julien
2014-08-01
The objective of this paper is to show that, on a specific launcher-type mission profile, a 40% gain of mass is expected using a battery/supercapacitors active hybridization instead of a single battery solution. This result is based on the use of a linear programming optimization approach to perform the mass optimization of the hybrid power supply solution.
Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen
2017-05-15
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4min over ∼3h in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Li, Jiuyi; Busscher, Henk J.; Norde, Willem; Sjollema, Jelmer
2011-01-01
In order to investigate bacterium-substratum interactions, understanding of bacterial mass transport is necessary. Comparisons of experimentally observed initial deposition rates with mass transport rates in parallel-plate-flow-chambers (PPFC) predicted by convective-diffusion yielded deposition
Optimizing Endoscope Reprocessing Resources Via Process Flow Queuing Analysis.
Seelen, Mark T; Friend, Tynan H; Levine, Wilton C
2018-05-04
The Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is merging its older endoscope processing facilities into a single new facility that will enable high-level disinfection of endoscopes for both the ORs and Endoscopy Suite, leveraging economies of scale for improved patient care and optimal use of resources. Finalized resource planning was necessary for the merging of facilities to optimize staffing and make final equipment selections to support the nearly 33,000 annual endoscopy cases. To accomplish this, we employed operations management methodologies, analyzing the physical process flow of scopes throughout the existing Endoscopy Suite and ORs and mapping the future state capacity of the new reprocessing facility. Further, our analysis required the incorporation of historical case and reprocessing volumes in a multi-server queuing model to identify any potential wait times as a result of the new reprocessing cycle. We also performed sensitivity analysis to understand the impact of future case volume growth. We found that our future-state reprocessing facility, given planned capital expenditures for automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) and pre-processing sinks, could easily accommodate current scope volume well within the necessary pre-cleaning-to-sink reprocessing time limit recommended by manufacturers. Further, in its current planned state, our model suggested that the future endoscope reprocessing suite at MGH could support an increase in volume of at least 90% over the next several years. Our work suggests that with simple mathematical analysis of historic case data, significant changes to a complex perioperative environment can be made with ease while keeping patient safety as the top priority.
Model-based design and optimization of vanadium redox flow batteries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, Sebastian
2017-07-19
This work targets on increasing the efficiency of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) using a model-based approach. First, a detailed instruction for setting up a VRFB model on a system level is given. Modelling of open-circuit-voltage, ohmic overpotential, concentration overpotential, Vanadium crossover, shunt currents as well as pump power demand is presented. All sub-models are illustrated using numerical examples. Using experimental data from three battery manufacturers, the voltage model validated. The identified deviations reveal deficiencies in the literature model. By correctly deriving the mass transfer coefficients and adapting the effective electrode area, these deficiencies are eliminated. The validated battery model is then deployed in an extensive design study. By varying the electrode area between 1000 and 4000 cm{sup 2} and varying the design of the electrolyte supply channel, twenty-four different cell designs are created using finite element analysis. These designs are subsequently simulated in 40-cell stacks deployed in systems with a single stack and systems with a three-stack string. Using the simulation results, the impact of different design parameters on different loss mechanisms is investigated. While operating the VRFB, the electrolyte flow rate is the most important operational parameter. A novel, model-based optimization strategy is presented and compared to established flow rate control strategies. Further, a voltage controller is introduced which delays the violation of cell voltage limits by controlling the flow rate as long as the pump capacity is not fully exploited.
Model-based design and optimization of vanadium redox flow batteries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenig, Sebastian
2017-01-01
This work targets on increasing the efficiency of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) using a model-based approach. First, a detailed instruction for setting up a VRFB model on a system level is given. Modelling of open-circuit-voltage, ohmic overpotential, concentration overpotential, Vanadium crossover, shunt currents as well as pump power demand is presented. All sub-models are illustrated using numerical examples. Using experimental data from three battery manufacturers, the voltage model validated. The identified deviations reveal deficiencies in the literature model. By correctly deriving the mass transfer coefficients and adapting the effective electrode area, these deficiencies are eliminated. The validated battery model is then deployed in an extensive design study. By varying the electrode area between 1000 and 4000 cm 2 and varying the design of the electrolyte supply channel, twenty-four different cell designs are created using finite element analysis. These designs are subsequently simulated in 40-cell stacks deployed in systems with a single stack and systems with a three-stack string. Using the simulation results, the impact of different design parameters on different loss mechanisms is investigated. While operating the VRFB, the electrolyte flow rate is the most important operational parameter. A novel, model-based optimization strategy is presented and compared to established flow rate control strategies. Further, a voltage controller is introduced which delays the violation of cell voltage limits by controlling the flow rate as long as the pump capacity is not fully exploited.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. M. Timofeev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The turbulent-flow throttles are used in pneumatic systems and gas-supply ones to restrict or measure gas mass flow. It is customary to install the throttles in joints of pipelines (in teejoints and cross tees or in joints of pipelines with pneumatic automation devices Presently, in designing the pneumatic systems and gas-supply ones a gas mass flow through a throttle is calculated by a known equation derived from the Saint-Venant-Vantсel formula for the adiabatic flow of ideal gas through a nozzle from an unrestrictedly high capacity tank. Neglect of gas velocity at the throttle inlet is one of the assumptions taken in the development of the above equation. As may be seen in practice, in actual systems the diameters of the throttle and the pipe wherein it is mounted can be commensurable. Neglect of the inlet velocity therewith can result in an error when determining the required throttle diameter in design calculation and a flow rate in checking calculation, as well as when measuring a flow rate in the course of the test. The theoretical study has revealed that the flow velocity at the throttle inlet is responsible for two parameter values: the outlet flow velocity and the critical pressure ratio, which in turn determine the gas mass flow value. To calculate the gas mass flow, the dependencies are given in the paper, which allow taking into account the flow rate at the throttle inlet. The analysis of obtained dependencies has revealed that the degree of influence of inlet flow rate upon the mass flow is defined by two parameters: pressure ratio at the throttle and open area ratio of the throttle and the pipe wherein it is mounted. An analytical investigation has been pursued to evaluate the extent to which the gas mass flow through the throttle is affected by the inlet flow rate. The findings of the investigation and the indications for using the present dependencies are given in this paper. By and large the investigation allowed the
Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, D.
2007-03-27
This work deals with selected aspects of mass transport phenomena in PEFCs and DMFCs. Emphasis is placed on the implications originating from the occurrence of two-phase flow within these devices. Optimality of supply, distribution, and removal of the fuel, the oxidant, and the reaction products is of utmost importance for the stability, efficiency, and durability of the devices. Being a prerequisite for high current densities while maintaining sufficient voltage, mass transport optimization contributes to the development of cost effective as well as compact designs and hence competitive fuel cells. [German] Die Visualisierung und Quantifizierung von Fluessigwasseransammlungen in Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen konnte mittels Neutronenradiographie erreicht werden. Dank dieser neuartigen diagnostischen Methode konnte erstmals die Fluessigwasseransammlung in den poroesen Gasdiffusionsschichten direkt nachgewiesen und quantifiziert werden. Die Kombination von Neutronenradiographie mit ortsaufgeloesten Stromdichtemessungen bzw. lokaler Impedanzspektroskopie erlaubte die Korrelation des inhomogenen Fluessigwasseranfalls mit dem lokalen elektrochemischen Leistungsverhalten. Systematische Untersuchungen an Polymerelektrolyt- und Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellen verdeutlichen sowohl den Einfluss von Betriebsbedingungen als auch die Auswirkung von Materialeigenschaften auf die Ausbildung zweiphasiger Stroemungen.
Nitrogen regulation of transpiration controls mass-flow acquisition of nutrients.
Matimati, Ignatious; Verboom, G Anthony; Cramer, Michael D
2014-01-01
Transpiration may enhance mass-flow of nutrients to roots, especially in low-nutrient soils or where the root system is not extensively developed. Previous work suggested that nitrogen (N) may regulate mass-flow of nutrients. Experiments were conducted to determine whether N regulates water fluxes, and whether this regulation has a functional role in controlling the mass-flow of nutrients to roots. Phaseolus vulgaris were grown in troughs designed to create an N availability gradient by restricting roots from intercepting a slow-release N source, which was placed at one of six distances behind a 25 μm mesh from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (termed 'mass-flow' treatment). Control plants had the N source supplied directly to their root zone so that N was available through interception, mass-flow, and diffusion (termed 'interception' treatment). 'Mass-flow' plants closest to the N source exhibited 2.9-fold higher transpiration (E), 2.6-fold higher stomatal conductance (gs), 1.2-fold higher intercellular [CO2] (Ci), and 3.4-fold lower water use efficiency than 'interception' plants, despite comparable values of photosynthetic rate (A). E, gs, and Ci first increased and then decreased with increasing distance from the N source to values even lower than those of 'interception' plants. 'Mass-flow' plants accumulated phosphorus and potassium, and had maximum concentrations at 10mm from the N source. Overall, N availability regulated transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients from substrate zones that were inaccessible to roots. Thus when water is available, mass-flow may partially substitute for root density in providing access to nutrients without incurring the costs of root extension, although the efficacy of mass-flow also depends on soil nutrient retention and hydraulic properties.
Topology optimization of unsteady flow problems using the lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Sebastian Arlund; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2016-01-01
This article demonstrates and discusses topology optimization for unsteady incompressible fluid flows. The fluid flows are simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method, and a partial bounceback model is implemented to model the transition between fluid and solid phases in the optimization problems...
Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics
Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.
2008-01-01
Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.
Quantification of the transient mass flow rate in a simplex swirl injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khil, Taeock; Kim, Sunghyuk; Cho, Seongho; Yoon, Youngbin
2009-01-01
When a heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations are generated in a combustor by irregular and local combustions, these fluctuations affect the mass flow rate of the propellants injected through the injectors. In addition, variations of the mass flow rate caused by these fluctuations bring about irregular combustion, which is associated with combustion instability, so it is very important to identify a mass variation through the pressure fluctuation on the injector and to investigate its transfer function. Therefore, quantification of the variation of the mass flow rate generated in a simplex swirl injector via the injection pressure fluctuation was the subject of an initial study. To acquire the transient mass flow rate in the orifice with time, the axial velocity of flows and the liquid film thickness in the orifice were measured. The axial velocity was acquired through a theoretical approach after measuring the pressure in the orifice. In an effort to understand the flow area in the orifice, the liquid film thickness was measured by an electric conductance method. In the results, the mass flow rate calculated from the axial velocity and the liquid film thickness measured by the electric conductance method in the orifice was in good agreement with the mass flow rate acquired by the direct measuring method in a small error range within 1% in the steady state and within 4% for the average mass flow rate in a pulsated state. Also, the amplitude (gain) of the mass flow rate acquired by the proposed direct measuring method was confirmed using the PLLIF technique in the low pressure fluctuation frequency ranges with an error under 6%. This study shows that our proposed method can be used to measure the mass flow rate not only in the steady state but also in the unsteady state (or the pulsated state). Moreover, this method shows very high accuracy based on the experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S.C.; Lee, K.J.
1993-01-01
The Galerkin finite element method is used to solve the problem of one-dimensional, vertical flow of water and mass transport of conservative-nonconservative solutes in unsaturated porous media. Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing equation, although they are equivalent in continuous forms, can result in remarkably different solutions in an unsaturated flow problem. Solutions given by a simple Galerkin method based on the h-based Richards equation yield a large mass balance error and an underestimation of the infiltration depth. With the employment of the ROMV (restoration of main variable) concept in the discretization step, the mass conservative numerical solution algorithm for water flow has been derived. The resulting computational schemes for water flow and mass transport are applied to sandy soil. The ROMV method shows good mass conservation in water flow analysis, whereas it seems to have a minor effect on mass transport. However, it may relax the time-step size restriction and so ensure an improved calculation output. (author)
Effect of Retarding Force on Mass Flow Rates of Fluid at Different ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... mathematical model and software visualization to view the effect of retarding forces on the mass flow rate in term of visualization. C-sharp (C#) is the chosen program and this enable compares and us to determine the mass flow rates patterns in relation to retarding force in form of graphical tables at different temperature.
Orifice Mass Flow Calculation in NASA's W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility
Bozak, Richard F.
2018-01-01
Updates to the orifice mass flow calculation for the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center are provided to include the effect of humidity and incorporate ISO 5167. A methodology for including the effect of humidity into the inlet orifice mass flow calculation is provided. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19.5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about +/- 75% mass flow except for a few cases. A comparison of the calculations with an inlet static pressure mass flow correlation and a fan exit mass flow integration using test data from a 2017 turbofan rotor test in W-8 show good agreement between the inlet static pressure mass flow correlation, ISO 5167, and ASME Fluid Meters. While W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate violates the pipe diameter limit defined by each of the standards, the ISO 5167 is chosen to be the primary orifice mass flow calculation to use in the W-8 facility.
The fabrication of plastic cages for suspension in mass air flow racks.
Nielsen, F H; Bailey, B
1979-08-01
A cage for suspension in mass air flow racks was constructed of plastic and used to house rats. Little or no difficulty was encountered with the mass air flow rack-suspended cage system during the 4 years it was used for the study of trace elements.
Modelling of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor for sensitivity improvement
Groenesteijn, Jarno; van de Ridder, Bert; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Wiegerink, Remco J.
2014-01-01
We have developed a multi-axis flexible body model with which we can investigate the behavior of (micro) Coriolis mass flow sensors with arbitrary channel geometry. The model has been verified by measurements on five different designs of micro Coriolis mass flow sensors. The model predicts the Eigen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joris Meurs
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper aimed to develop a standalone application for optimizing flow rates in liquid chromatography (LC, gas chromatography (GC and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC. To do so, Van Deemter’s equation, Knox’ equation and Golay’s equation were implemented in a MATLAB script and subsequently a graphical user interface (GUI was created. The application will show the optimal flow rate or linear velocity and the corresponding plate height for the set input parameters. Furthermore, a plot will be shown in which the plate height is plotted against the linear flow velocity. Hence, this application will give optimized flow rates for any set conditions with minimal effort.
CCC, Heat Flow and Mass Flow in Liquid Saturated Porous Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mangold, D.C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.
1982-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: The numerical model CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation) solves the heat and mass flow equations for a fully, liquid-saturated, anisotropic porous medium and computes one-dimensional (vertical) consolidation of the simulated systems. The model has been applied to problems in the fields of geothermal reservoir engineering, aquifer thermal energy storage, well testing, radioactive waste isolation, and in situ coal combustion. The code has been validated against analytic solutions for fluid and heat flow, and against a field experiment for underground storage of hot water. 2 - Method of solution: The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated porous medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are sol- ved by an iterative solution technique. The vertical deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum of 12 materials. It is assumed that: (a) Darcy's law adequately describes fluid movement through fractured and porous media. (b) The rock and fluid are in thermal equilibrium at any given time. (c) Energy changes due to the fluid compressibility, acceleration and viscous dissipation are neglected. (d) One-dimensional consolidation theory adequately describes the vertical deformation of the medium
Solution of optimal power flow using evolutionary-based algorithms
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It aims to estimate the optimal settings of real generator output power, bus voltage, ...... Lansey, K. E., 2003, Optimization of water distribution network design using ... Pandit, M., 2016, Economic load dispatch of wind-solar-thermal system using ...
Guidelines on CV networking information flow optimization for Texas.
2017-03-01
Recognizing the fundamental role of information flow in future transportation applications, the research team investigated the quality and security of information flow in the connected vehicle (CV) environment. The research team identified key challe...
Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.
2013-01-01
a predictable shape, which is a function of ice temperature, ice rheology, and surface mass-exchange rate. In addition, the time for surface-shape adjustment is shorter than the characteristic time for significant deformation or displacement of internal layers within a flowing ice mass; as a result, surface......On Earth and on Mars, ice masses experience changes in precipitation, temperature, and radiation. In a new climate state, flowing ice masses will adjust in length and in thickness, and this response toward a new steady state has a characteristic timescale. However, a flowing ice mass has...... topography is more diagnostic of flow than are internal-layer shapes. Because the shape of Gemina Lingula, North Polar Layered Deposits indicates that it flowed at some time in the past, we use its current topography to infer characteristics of those past ice conditions, or past climate conditions, in which...
A new method for the measurement of two-phase mass flow rate using average bi-directional flow tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, B. J.; Uh, D. J.; Kang, K. H.; Song, C. H.; Paek, W. P.
2004-01-01
Average bi-directional flow tube was suggested to apply in the air/steam-water flow condition. Its working principle is similar with Pitot tube, however, it makes it possible to eliminate the cooling system which is normally needed to prevent from flashing in the pressure impulse line of pitot tube when it is used in the depressurization condition. The suggested flow tube was tested in the air-water vertical test section which has 80mm inner diameter and 10m length. The flow tube was installed at 120 of L/D from inlet of test section. In the test, the pressure drop across the average bi-directional flow tube, system pressure and average void fraction were measured on the measuring plane. In the test, fluid temperature and injected mass flow rates of air and water phases were also measured by a RTD and two coriolis flow meters, respectively. To calculate the phasic mass flow rates : from the measured differential pressure and void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation was used. In the test a new correlation of momentum exchange factor was suggested. The test result shows that the suggested instrumentation using the measured void fraction and Chexal drift-flux correlation can predict the mass flow rates within 10% error of measured data
Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials
Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo
2011-07-01
We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.
Mass flow rate measurements in two-phase mixtrues with stagnation probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.
1979-01-01
Applications of stagnation probes to the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows are discussed. Descriptions of several stagnation devices, which have been evaluated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are presented along with modeling techniques and two-phase flow data
[The role of patient flow and surge capacity for in-hospital response in mass casualty events].
Sefrin, Peter; Kuhnigk, Herbert
2008-03-01
Mass casualty events make demands on emergency services and disaster control. However, optimized in- hospital response defines the quality of definitive care. Therefore, German federal law governs the role of hospitals in mass casualty incidents. In hospital casualty surge is depending on resources that have to be expanded with a practicable alarm plan. Thus, in-hospital mass casualty management planning is recommended to be organized by specialized persons. To minimise inhospital patient overflow casualty surge principles have to be implemented in both, pre-hospital and in-hospital disaster planning. World soccer championship 2006 facilitated the initiation of surge and damage control principles in in-hospital disaster planning strategies for German hospitals. The presented concept of strict control of in-hospital patient flow using surge principles minimises the risk of in-hospital breakdown and increases definitive hospital treatment capacity in mass casualty incidents.
Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig
2016-01-01
Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include...... the width of the channels in the gas distributor and the area in front of the parallel channels. The flow of the optimized design is found to have a flow uniformity index value of 0.978. The effects of deviations from the assumptions used in the modelling (isothermal and non-reacting flow) are evaluated...... and it is found that a temperature gradient along the parallel channels does not affect the flow uniformity, whereas a temperature difference between the channels does. The impact of the flow distribution on the maximum obtainable conversion during operation is also investigated and the obtainable overall...
Optimal orientation in flows : Providing a benchmark for animal movement strategies
McLaren, James D.; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem
2014-01-01
Animal movements in air and water can be strongly affected by experienced flow. While various flow-orientation strategies have been proposed and observed, their performance in variable flow conditions remains unclear. We apply control theory to establish a benchmark for time-minimizing (optimal)
Mass flows and angular momentum density for px + ipy paired fermions in a harmonic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, Michael; Anduaga, Inaki
2008-01-01
We present a simple two-dimensional model of a p x + ip y superfluid in which the mass flow that gives rise to the intrinsic angular momentum is easily calculated by numerical diagonalization of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes operator. We find that, at zero temperature and for constant director l, the mass flow closely follows the Ishikawa-Mermin-Muzikar formula j mass =1/2 curl/(ρhl/2)
Design optimization of jacket structures for mass production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sandal, Kasper
This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind. A struct......This thesis presents models and applications for structural optimization of jacket structures for offshore wind turbines. The motivation is that automatic design procedures can be used to obtain more cost efficient designs, and thus reduce the levelized cost of energy from offshore wind....... A structural finite element model is developed specifically for the analysis and optimization of jacket structures. The model uses Timoshenko beam elements, and assumes thin walled tubular beams and a linear elastic structural response. The finite element model is implemented in a Matlab package called JADOP...... (Jacket Design Optimization), and the static and dynamic structural response is verified with the commercial finite element software Abaqus. A parametric mesh of the offshore wind turbine structure makes it relatively easy to represent various structures from the literature, as well as exploring...
Ultrasonic detection of solid phase mass flow ratio of pneumatic conveying fly ash
Duan, Guang Bin; Pan, Hong Li; Wang, Yong; Liu, Zong Ming
2014-04-01
In this paper, ultrasonic attenuation detection and weight balance are adopted to evaluate the solid mass ratio in this paper. Fly ash is transported on the up extraction fluidization pneumatic conveying workbench. In the ultrasonic test. McClements model and Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law model were applied to formulate the ultrasonic attenuation properties of gas-solid flow, which can give the solid mass ratio. While in the method of weigh balance, the averaged mass addition per second can reveal the solids mass flow ratio. By contrast these two solid phase mass ratio detection methods, we can know, the relative error is less.
Engineering analysis of mass flow rate for turbine system control and design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Yong H.; Suh, Kune Y.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. → A test device is built to study the steam flow characteristics in the control valve. → Mass flow based methodology eases the programming and experimental procedures. → The methodology helps express the characteristics of each device of a turbine system. → The results can commercially be used for design and operation of the turbine system. - Abstract: The mass flow rate is determined in the steam turbine system by the area formed between the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. For precise control the steam mass flow rate should be known given the stem lift. However, since the thermal hydraulic characteristics of steam coming from the generator or boiler are changed going through each device, it is hard to accurately predict the steam mass flow rate. Thus, to precisely determine the steam mass flow rate, a methodology and theory are developed in designing the turbine system manufactured for the nuclear and fossil power plants. From the steam generator or boiler to the first bunch of turbine blades, the steam passes by a stop valve, a control valve and the first nozzle, each of which is connected with piping. The corresponding steam mass flow rate can ultimately be computed if the thermal and hydraulic conditions are defined at the stop valve, control valve and pipes. The steam properties at the inlet of each device are changed at its outlet due to geometry. The Compressed Adiabatic Massflow Analysis (CAMA) computer code is written to predict the steam mass flow rate through valves. The Valve Engineered Layout Operation (VELO) test device is built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve with the CAMA input data. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected as reference. CAMA is expected to be commercially utilized to accurately design and operate the turbine system for fossil as well as nuclear power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.
1999-01-01
when the nebulizer gas flow rate was optimized for each solute. The influences of sample uptake rate, nebulizer flow rate and rf power were examined in multivariate experiments. The nebulizer gas flow rate and rf power were found to be interdependent, but the sample pump flow rate was independent......, ethanol, propanol, butanol, glycerol, acetonitrile and acetic acid) were examined for their sensitivity enhancement effect. Enhancement factors up to six were obtained and were dependent on the nebulizer gas flow and rf power. There was no important difference in the enhancement effects of these solutes...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laajalehto, Tatu; Kuosa, Maunu; Mäkilä, Tapio; Lampinen, Markku; Lahdelma, Risto
2014-01-01
losses, pumping energy, and surplus energy from the heat recovery system) are reduced from 4.4% to 3.1%. - Highlights: •Energy-efficiency of a novel DH ring network and mass flow control is examined. •Optimal supply and return water temperatures of a case study are found. •Heat losses, pumping, and surplus energy from the heat recovery are included. •Average energy losses are reduced compared to the traditional network design
Halpern, Pinchas; Goldberg, Scott A; Keng, Jimmy G; Koenig, Kristi L
2012-04-01
The Emergency Department (ED) is the triage, stabilization and disposition unit of the hospital during a mass-casualty incident (MCI). With most EDs already functioning at or over capacity, efficient management of an MCI requires optimization of all ED components. While the operational aspects of MCI management have been well described, the architectural/structural principles have not. Further, there are limited reports of the testing of ED design components in actual MCI events. The objective of this study is to outline the important infrastructural design components for optimization of ED response to an MCI, as developed, implemented, and repeatedly tested in one urban medical center. In the authors' experience, the most important aspects of ED design for MCI have included external infrastructure and promoting rapid lockdown of the facility for security purposes; an ambulance bay permitting efficient vehicle flow and casualty discharge; strategic placement of the triage location; patient tracking techniques; planning adequate surge capacity for both patients and staff; sufficient command, control, communications, computers, and information; well-positioned and functional decontamination facilities; adequate, well-located and easily distributed medical supplies; and appropriately built and functioning essential services. Designing the ED to cope well with a large casualty surge during a disaster is not easy, and it may not be feasible for all EDs to implement all the necessary components. However, many of the components of an appropriate infrastructural design add minimal cost to the normal expenditures of building an ED. This study highlights the role of design and infrastructure in MCI preparedness in order to assist planners in improving their ED capabilities. Structural optimization calls for a paradigm shift in the concept of structural and operational ED design, but may be necessary in order to maximize surge capacity, department resilience, and patient and
Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Baker, Anna C.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hopple, Jessica A.
2017-06-26
Quantitative estimates of base flow are necessary to address questions concerning the vulnerability and response of the Nation’s water supply to natural and human-induced change in environmental conditions. An objective of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project is to determine how hydrologic systems are affected by watershed characteristics, including land use, land cover, water use, climate, and natural characteristics (geology, soil type, and topography). An important component of any hydrologic system is base flow, generally described as the part of streamflow that is sustained between precipitation events, fed to stream channels by delayed (usually subsurface) pathways, and more specifically as the volumetric discharge of water, estimated at a measurement site or gage at the watershed scale, which represents groundwater that discharges directly or indirectly to stream reaches and is then routed to the measurement point.Hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter was applied to 225 sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The recursive digital filter was chosen for the following reasons: it is based in part on the assumption that groundwater acts as a linear reservoir, and so has a physical basis; it has only two adjustable parameters (alpha, obtained directly from recession analysis, and beta, the maximum value of the base-flow index that can be modeled by the filter), which can be determined objectively and with the same physical basis of groundwater reservoir linearity, or that can be optimized by applying a chemical-mass-balance constraint. Base-flow estimates from the recursive digital filter were compared with those from five other hydrograph-separation methods with respect to two metrics: the long-term average fraction of streamflow that is base flow, or base-flow index, and the fraction of days where streamflow is entirely base flow. There was generally good correlation between the methods, with some biased
Determination of Optimal Flow Paths for Safety Injection According to Accident Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop; Kim, Changhwoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
In case severe accidents happen, major safety parameters of nuclear reactors are rapidly changed. Therefore, operators are unable to respond appropriately. This situation causes the human error of operators that led to serious accidents at Chernobyl. In this study, we aimed to develop an algorithm that can be used to select the optimal flow path for cold shutdown in serious accidents, and to recover an NPP quickly and efficiently from the severe accidents. In order to select the optimal flow path, we applied a Dijkstra algorithm. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to find the path of minimum total length between two given nodes and needs a weight (or length) matrix. In this study, the weight between nodes was calculated from frictional and minor losses inside pipes. That is, the optimal flow path is found so that the pressure drop between a starting node (water source) and a destination node (position that cooling water is injected) is minimized. In case a severe accident has happened, if we inject cooling water through the optimized flow path, then the nuclear reactor will be safely and effectively returned into the cold shutdown state. In this study, we have analyzed the optimal flow paths for safety injection as a preliminary study for developing an accident recovery system. After analyzing the optimal flow path using the Dijkstra algorithm, and the optimal flow paths were selected by calculating the head loss according to path conditions.
Optimization of orthotropic distributed-mode loudspeaker using attached masses and multi-exciters.
Lu, Guochao; Shen, Yong; Liu, Ziyun
2012-02-01
Based on the orthotropic model of the plate, the method to optimize the sound response of the distributed-mode loudspeaker (DML) using the attached masses and the multi-exciters has been investigated. The attached masses method will rebuild the modes distribution of the plate, based on which multi-exciter method will smooth the sound response. The results indicate that the method can be used to optimize the sound response of the DML. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America
Optimizing the identification of citrullinated peptides by mass spectrometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennike, Tue; Lauridsen, Kasper B.; Olesen, Michael Kruse
2013-01-01
Citrullinated proteins have been associated with several diseases and citrullination can most likely function as a target for novel diagnostic agents and unravel disease etiologies. The correct identification of citrullinated proteins is therefore of most importance. Mass spectrometry (MS) driven...... of trypsin, digestion was performed on synthetic peptide sets containing either arginine or citrulline. The peptide sequences originated from disease-associated in vivo citrullinated proteins; some reported as being C-terminal tryptic citrullinated peptides. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity was verified...
Optimization of a conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy gas flow He/CH4 proportional counter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanzel, D.; Griesbach, P.; Meisel, W.; Guetlich, P.
1992-01-01
A new detector for CEMS has been built and optimized with respect to the statistical quality of spectra obtained. The optimization has been performed by measuring Moessbauer and pulse height spectra at in- and off-resonance. Single channel analyzer settings were calculated by a new optimization routine. A comparison of different detector designs has been performed using the statistical utility rate of spectra obtained from a stainless steel foil. A procedure for determining optimal operating parameters for ICEMS gas flow proposed. (orig.)
Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Jiayin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Center for Future High Energy Physics; Li, Ying-Ying [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Physics
2017-10-15
It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process (e{sup +}e{sup -}→ν anti νh) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z (e{sup +}e{sup -}→hZ, Z→ν anti ν). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, m{sup p}{sub recoil}, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can better separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events than the original recoil mass variable m{sub recoil}. Consequently, the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies.
Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass
Gu, Jiayin; Li, Ying-Ying
2018-02-01
It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}{{h}}) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{hZ}},{{Z}}\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, {m}{{recoil}}p, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events better than the original recoil mass variable m recoil. Consequently, the {m}{{recoil}}p variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the {m}{{recoil}}p variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies. JG is Supported by an International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program between the Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers of China (ONACPR) and DESY. YYL is Supported by Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPFS) and the Collaborative Research Fund (CRF) (HUKST4/CRF/13G)
Optimizing model. 1. Insemination, replacement, seasonal production and cash flow.
Delorenzo, M.A.; Spreen, T.H.; Bryan, G.R.; Beede, D.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
1992-01-01
Dynamic programming to solve the Markov decision process problem of optimal insemination and replacement decisions was adapted to address large dairy herd management decision problems in the US. Expected net present values of cow states (151,200) were used to determine the optimal policy. States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, Mahendra; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Parida, Smrutiranjan
2015-01-01
The flow of fluid in pipes cause corrosion wherein the inner surface of pipe becomes progressively thinner and susceptible to failure. This form of corrosion dependent on flow dynamics is called Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and has been observed in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) is related to extent of wall thinning and it changes from its value in a straight pipe (with same fluid parameters) for flow in orifices, bends, junctions etc. due to gross disturbance of the velocity profile. This paper presents two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for an orifice configuration in a straight pipe. Turbulent model K- ω with shear stress transport and transition flow was the model used for simulation studies. The mass transfer boundary layer (MTBL) thickness δ mtbl is related to the Schmidt number (Sc) and hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ h , as δ mtbl ~ δh/(Sc 1/3 ). MTBL is significantly smaller than δ h and hence boundary layer meshing was carried out deep into δ mtbl . Uniform velocity profile was applied at the inlet. Post orifice fluid shows large recirculating flows on the upper and lower wall. At various locations after orifice, mass transfer coefficient is calculated and compared with the value in straight pipe with fully developed turbulent flow. The MTC due to the orifice increases and it is correlated with enhanced FAC in region after orifice. (author)
Optimization of Orifice Geometry for Cross-Flow Mixing in a Cylindrical Duct
Kroll, J. T.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1996-01-01
Mixing of gaseous jets in a cross-flow has significant applications in engineering, one example of which is the dilution zone of a gas turbine combustor. Despite years of study, the design of the jet injection in combustors is largely based on practical experience. The emergence of NO(x) regulations for stationary gas turbines and the anticipation of aero-engine regulations requires an improved understanding of jet mixing as new combustor concepts are introduced. For example, the success of the staged combustor to reduce the emission of NO(x) is almost entirely dependent upon the rapid and complete dilution of the rich zone products within the mixing section. It is these mixing challenges to which the present study is directed. A series of experiments was undertaken to delineate the optimal mixer orifice geometry. A cross-flow to core-flow momentum-flux ratio of 40 and a mass flow ratio of 2.5 were selected as representative of a conventional design. An experimental test matrix was designed around three variables: the number of orifices, the orifice length-to- width ratio, and the orifice angle. A regression analysis was performed on the data to arrive at an interpolating equation that predicted the mixing performance of orifice geometry combinations within the range of the test matrix parameters. Results indicate that the best mixing orifice geometry tested involves eight orifices with a long-to-short side aspect ratio of 3.5 at a twenty-three degree inclination from the center-line of the mixing section.
Optimal Passive Dynamics for Physical Interaction: Catching a Mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Kemper
2013-05-01
Full Text Available For manipulation tasks in uncertain environments, intentionally designed series impedance in mechanical systems can provide significant benefits that cannot be achieved in software. Traditionally, the design of actuated systems revolves around sizing torques, speeds, and control strategies without considering the system’s passive dynamics. However, the passive dynamics of the mechanical system, including inertia, stiffness, and damping along with other parameters such as torque and stroke limits often impose performance limitations that cannot be overcome with software control. In this paper, we develop relationships between an actuator’s passive dynamics and the resulting performance for the purpose of better understanding how to tune the passive dynamics for catching an unexpected object. We use a mathematically optimal controller subject to force limitations to stop the incoming object without breaking contact and bouncing. The use of an optimal controller is important so that our results directly reflect the physical system’s performance. We analytically calculate the maximum velocity that can be caught by a realistic actuator with limitations such as force and stroke limits. The results show that in order to maximize the velocity of an object that can be caught without exceeding the actuator’s torque and stroke limits, a soft spring along with a strong damper will be desired.
Mutual information optimization for mass spectra data alignment.
Zoppis, Italo; Gianazza, Erica; Borsani, Massimiliano; Chinello, Clizia; Mainini, Veronica; Galbusera, Carmen; Ferrarese, Carlo; Galimberti, Gloria; Sorbi, Sandro; Borroni, Barbara; Magni, Fulvio; Antoniotti, Marco; Mauri, Giancarlo
2012-01-01
"Signal" alignments play critical roles in many clinical setting. This is the case of mass spectrometry data, an important component of many types of proteomic analysis. A central problem occurs when one needs to integrate (mass spectrometry) data produced by different sources, e.g., different equipment and/or laboratories. In these cases some form of "data integration'" or "data fusion'" may be necessary in order to discard some source specific aspects and improve the ability to perform a classification task such as inferring the "disease classes'" of patients. The need for new high performance data alignments methods is therefore particularly important in these contexts. In this paper we propose an approach based both on an information theory perspective, generally used in a feature construction problem, and on the application of a mathematical programming task (i.e. the weighted bipartite matching problem). We present the results of a competitive analysis of our method against other approaches. The analysis was conducted on data from plasma/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of "control" and Alzheimer patients collected from three different hospitals. The results point to a significant performance advantage of our method with respect to the competing ones tested.
Multi-point optimization of recirculation flow type casing treatment in centrifugal compressors
Tun, Min Thaw; Sakaguchi, Daisaku
2016-06-01
High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. A recirculation flow type casing treatment is effective for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on a suction pipe and a shroud casing wall are connected by means of an annular passage and stable recirculation flow is formed at small flow rates from the downstream groove toward the upstream groove through the annular bypass. The shape of baseline recirculation flow type casing is modified and optimized by using a multi-point optimization code with a metamodel assisted evolutionary algorithm embedding a commercial CFD code CFX from ANSYS. The numerical optimization results give the optimized design of casing with improving adiabatic efficiency in wide operating flow rate range. Sensitivity analysis of design parameters as a function of efficiency has been performed. It is found that the optimized casing design provides optimized recirculation flow rate, in which an increment of entropy rise is minimized at grooves and passages of the rotating impeller.
Mass-transfer characterization in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor with convergent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colli, A.N.; Bisang, J.M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A convergent laminar flow enhances and becomes more uniform the mass-transfer rate. • The mass-transfer rate is increased under convergent turbulent flow conditions. • The mass-transfer rate under convergent laminar flow can be theoretically predicted. • A convergent duct improves the reactor behaviour and the concept is easily applicable. -- Abstract: A continuous reduction in the cross-section area is analysed as a means of improving mass-transfer in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor. Experimental local mass-transfer coefficients along the electrode length are reported for different values of the convergent ratio and Reynolds numbers, using the reduction of ferricyanide as a test reaction. The Reynolds numbers evaluated at the reactor inlet range from 85 to 4600 with interelectrode gaps of 2 and 4 mm. The convergent flow improves the mean mass-transfer coefficient by 10–60% and mass-transfer distribution under laminar flow conditions becomes more uniform. The experimental data under laminar flow conditions are compared with theoretical calculations obtained by a computational fluid dynamics software and also with an analytical simplified model. A suitable agreement is observed between both theoretical treatments and with the experimental results. The pressure drop across the reactor is reported and compared with theoretical predictions
Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varmora, P., E-mail: pvamora@ipr.res.in; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.
Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varmora, P.; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.
Optimization of search algorithms for a mass spectra library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domokos, L.; Henneberg, D.; Weimann, B.
1983-01-01
The SISCOM mass spectra library search is mainly an interpretative system producing a ''hit list'' of similar spectra based on six comparison factors. This paper deals with extension of the system; the aim is exact identification (retrieval) of those reference spectra in the SISCOM hit list that correspond to the unknown compounds or components of the mixture. Thus, instead of a similarity measure, a decision (retrieval) function is needed to establish the identity of reference and unknown compounds by comparison of their spectra. To facilitate estimation of the weightings of the different variables in the retrieval function, pattern recognition algorithms were applied. Numerous statistical evaluations of three different library collections were made to check the quality of data bases and to derive appropriate variables for the retrieval function. (Auth.)
Integrated pressure sensing using capacitive Coriolis mass flow sensors
Alveringh, Dennis; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2017-01-01
The cross-sectional shape of microchannels is, dependent on the fabrication method, never perfectly circular. Consequently, the channels deform with the pressure, which is a non-ideal effect in flow sensors, but may be used for pressure sensing. Multiple suspended channels with different lengths
Mass transfer effects in feeder flow-accelerated corrosion wall thinning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietralik, J.
2008-01-01
Flow conditions play a dominant role in Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) under certain conditions, e.g., in CANDU feeders. While chemistry and materials set the overall potential for FAC, flow conditions determine the local distribution of wall thinning. Recent plant data of feeders and laboratory tests confirms that there is a close relationship between local flow conditions, expressed by mass transfer coefficient, and FAC rate in CANDU feeder bends. The knowledge of local effects can be useful for minimizing the number of inspected components, predicting the location of the highest FAC rate for a given piping component, and determining what components or feeders should be replaced. A similar evaluation applies also to FAC in heat transfer equipment such as heat exchangers and steam generators. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between FAC rate and local mass transfer parameters. For FAC where the flow is dominant, the FAC rate is proportional to mass flux of ferrous ions. The mass flux is the product of the mass transfer coefficient and the concentration difference, or degree of saturation. The mass transfer coefficient describes the intensity of the transport of corrosion products (ferrous ions) from the oxide-water interface into the bulk water. Therefore, this parameter can be used for predicting the local distribution of FAC rate in the mass-transfer controlled FAC. The degree of saturation reduces the mass flux, thus reducing the FAC rate. This effect can be significant in long piping, e.g., in outlet feeders. The paper presents plant and laboratory evidence for the relationship between local mass transfer conditions and the FAC rate. It shows correlations for mass transfer coefficient in components that are highly susceptible to FAC and most important flow parameters that affect mass transfer coefficient. The role of surface roughness, wall shear stress, and local turbulence is also discussed. (author)
Heat and mass transfer intensification and shape optimization a multi-scale approach
2013-01-01
Is the heat and mass transfer intensification defined as a new paradigm of process engineering, or is it just a common and old idea, renamed and given the current taste? Where might intensification occur? How to achieve intensification? How the shape optimization of thermal and fluidic devices leads to intensified heat and mass transfers? To answer these questions, Heat & Mass Transfer Intensification and Shape Optimization: A Multi-scale Approach clarifies the definition of the intensification by highlighting the potential role of the multi-scale structures, the specific interfacial area, the distribution of driving force, the modes of energy supply and the temporal aspects of processes. A reflection on the methods of process intensification or heat and mass transfer enhancement in multi-scale structures is provided, including porous media, heat exchangers, fluid distributors, mixers and reactors. A multi-scale approach to achieve intensification and shape optimization is developed and clearly expla...
2012-06-01
The purpose of this project is to develop for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO), which is one collection (or bundle) of high-priority transformative applications identified by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) Mob...
2012-11-01
The purpose of this project is to develop for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO), which is one collection (or bundle) of high-priority transformative applications identified by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) Mob...
2015-06-01
This Technical Report on Prototype Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) Dynamic Speed Harmonization and : Queue Warning is the final report for the project. It describes the prototyping, acceptance testing and small-scale : demonstration of ...
Methods of the enterprise cash flows optimization in the context of sustainable development
O. Bardyn
2015-01-01
This paper deals with nature and analysis of current approaches to optimization of cash flows of the enterprise. Ways and management directions in order to achieve sustainable development by enterprise have been justified
Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enver Yalcin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.
Fiber Optic Mass Flow Gauge for Liquid Cryogenic Fuel Facilities Monitoring and Control, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a fiber optic mass flow gauge that will aid in managing liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel storage and transport. The increasing...
FEFLOW finite element modeling of flow, mass and heat transport in porous and fractured media
Diersch, Hans-Jörg G
2013-01-01
Placing advanced theoretical and numerical methods in the hands of modeling practitioners and scientists, this book explores the FEFLOW system for solving flow, mass and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media. Offers applications and exercises.
Effect of Reynolds number on flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow
Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Ikarashi, Yuya; Yamagata, Takayuki; Taguchi, Syoichi
2016-11-01
The flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow was studied experimentally by using the mass transfer measurement by plaster dissolution method, the surface flow visualization by oil film method and stereo PIV measurement. The experiments are carried out in a water tunnel of a circular pipe of 56mm in diameter with a working fluid of water. The Reynolds number was varied from 30000 to 200000. The experimental result indicated the change of the mass transfer coefficient distribution in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds number. This phenomenon is further examined by the surface flow visualization and measurement of secondary flow pattern in the elbow, and the results showed the suggested change of the secondary flow pattern in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds numbers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.
2015-07-01
This paper considers a collection of networked nonlinear dynamical systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek optimal operating points corresponding to the solution of pertinent network-wide optimization problems. Particular emphasis is placed on the solution of semidefinite programs (SDPs). The design of the feedback controller is grounded on a dual e-subgradient approach, with the dual iterates utilized to dynamically update the dynamical-system reference signals. Global convergence is guaranteed for diminishing stepsize rules, even when the reference inputs are updated at a faster rate than the dynamical-system settling time. The application of the proposed framework to the control of power-electronic inverters in AC distribution systems is discussed. The objective is to bridge the time-scale separation between real-time inverter control and network-wide optimization. Optimization objectives assume the form of SDP relaxations of prototypical AC optimal power flow problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchekara, H.R.E.H.; Abido, M.A.; Chaib, A.E.; Mehasni, R.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Optimal power flow. • Reducing electrical energy loss. • Saving electrical energy. • Optimal operation. - Abstract: A new efficient optimization method, called the League Championship Algorithm (LCA) is proposed in this paper for solving the optimal power flow problem. This method is inspired by the competition of sport teams in an artificial sport league for several weeks and over a number of seasons. The proposed method has been applied to the Algerian power system network for different objectives. Furthermore, in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed LCA method the obtained results using this method have been compared to those obtained using other methods reported in the literature. The obtained results and the comparison with other techniques indicate that the league championship algorithm provides effective and high-quality solution when solving the optimal power flow problem
Optimal power flow for technically feasible Energy Management systems in Islanded Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; T. T. Quynh, T.; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa
2016-01-01
This paper presents a combined optimal energy and power flow management for islanded microgrids. The highest control level in this case will provide a feasible and optimized operating point around the economic optimum. In order to account for both unbalanced and balanced loads, the optimal power...... flow is carried out using a Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. The control level is organized into two different sub-levels, the highest of which accounts for minimum cost operation and the lowest one solving the optimal power flow and devising the set points of inverter interfaced generation units...... and rotating machines with a minimum power loss. A test has been carried out for 6 bus islanded microgrids to show the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed technique....
Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F
2015-01-01
Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...
Reactor mass flow data base prepared for the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Primm III, R.T.C.
1981-02-01
This report presents charge and discharge mass flow data for reactors judged to have received sufficient technical development to enable them to be demonstrated or commercially available by the year 2000. Brief descriptions of the reactors and fuel cycles evaluated are presented. A discussion of the neutronics methods used to produce the mass flow data is provided. Detailed charge and discharge fuel isotopics are presented. U 3 O 8 , separative work, and fissile material requirements are computed and provided for each fuel cycle
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case.
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y.
2015-01-01
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case
Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 6. Mass flow devices for coal handling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
The mass of coal entering the boiler per unit time is an essential parameter for determinig the total rate of heat input. The mass flow rate of coal on a conveyor belt is generally determined as a product of the instantaneous mass of material on a short section of the belt and the belt velocity. Belt loading could be measured by conventional transducers incorporating mechanical or electromechanical weighers or by gamma-ray attenuation gauge. This report reviews the state of the art in mass flow devices for coal handling. The various methods are compared and commented upon. Special design issues are discussed relative to incorporating a mass flow measuring device in a Continuous On-Line Nuclear Analysis of Coal (CONAC) system
Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 6. Mass flow devices for coal handling. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gozani, T.; Elias, E.; Bevan, R.
1980-04-01
The mass of coal entering the boiler per unit time is an essential parameter for determining the total rate of heat input. The mass flow rate of coal on a conveyor belt is generally determined as a product of the instantaneous mass of material on a short section of the belt and the belt velocity. Belt loading could be measured by conventional transducers incorporating mechanical or electromechanical weighers or by gamma-ray attenuation gauge. This report reviews the state of the art in mass flow devices for coal handling. The various methods are compared and commented upon. Special design issues are discussed relative to incorporating a mass flow measuring device in a Continuous On-Line Nuclear Analysis of Coal (CONAC) system
Design and Optimization of Annular Flow Electromagnetic Measurement System for Drilling Engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Ge
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Using the downhole annular flow measurement system to get real-time information of downhole annular flow is the core and foundation of downhole microflux control drilling technology. The research work of electromagnetic flowmeter in recent years creates a challenge to the design of downhole annular flow measurement. This paper proposes a design and optimization of annular flow electromagnetic measurement system for drilling engineering based on the finite element method. Firstly, the annular flow measuring and optimization principle are described. Secondly, a simulation model of an annular flow electromagnetic measurement system with two pairs of coil is built based on the fundamental equation of electromagnetic flowmeter by COMSOL. Thirdly, simulations of the structure of excitation system of the measurement system are carried out, and simulations of the size of the electrode’s radius are also carried out based on the optimized structure, and then all the simulation results are analyzed to evaluate the optimization effect based on the evaluation indexes. The simulation results show that optimized shapes of the excitation system and electrode size can yield a better performance in the annular flow measurement.
Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval
2013-01-01
Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...
Mass transfer between gas and particles in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor
Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1992-01-01
Gas-solids mass transfer was studied for counter-current flow of gas and millimetre-sized solid particles over an inert packing at dilute phase or trickle flow conditions. Experimental data were obtained from the adsorption of water vapour on 640 and 2200 ¿m diameter molecular sieve spheres at
Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Oscillatory Flow of Jeffery ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The objective of this paper is to study Dufour, Soret and thermal conductivity on unsteady heat and mass transfer of magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory flow of Jeffery fluid through a porous medium in a channel. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using semi-implicit ...
Effect of Local Junction Losses in the Optimization of T-shaped Flow Channels
Kosaraju, Srinivas
2015-11-01
T-shaped channels are extensively used in flow distribution applications such as irrigation, chemical dispersion, gas pipelines and space heating and cooling. The geometry of T-shaped channels can be optimized to reduce the overall pressure drop in stem and branch sections. Results of such optimizations are in the form of geometric parameters such as the length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. The traditional approach of this optimization accounts for the pressure drop across the stem and branch sections, however, ignores the pressure drop in the T-junction. In this paper, we conduct geometry optimization while including the effect of local junction losses in laminar flows. From the results, we are able to identify a non-dimensional parameter that can be used to predict the optimal geometric configurations. This parameter can also be used to identify the conditions in which the local junction losses can be ignored during the optimization.
CFD-Driven Valve Shape Optimization for Performance Improvement of a Micro Cross-Flow Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endashaw Tesfaye Woldemariam
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Turbines are critical parts in hydropower facilities, and the cross-flow turbine is one of the widely applied turbine designs in small- and micro-hydro facilities. Cross-flow turbines are relatively simple, flexible and less expensive, compared to other conventional hydro-turbines. However, the power generation efficiency of cross-flow turbines is not yet well optimized compared to conventional hydro-turbines. In this article, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-driven design optimization approach is applied to one of the critical parts of the turbine, the valve. The valve controls the fluid flow, as well as determines the velocity and pressure magnitudes of the fluid jet leaving the nozzle region in the turbine. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS function is employed to generate construction points for the valve profile curve. Control points from the function that are highly sensitive to the output power are selected as optimization parameters, leading to the generation of construction points. Metamodel-assisted and metaheuristic optimization tools are used in the optimization. Optimized turbine designs from both optimization methods outperformed the original design with regard to performance of the turbine. Moreover, the metamodel-assisted optimization approach reduced the computational cost, compared to its counterpart.
Price-based optimal control of power flow in electrical energy transmission networks
Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Bemporad, A.; Bicchi, A.; Buttazzo, G.
2007-01-01
This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion control in electrical energy transmission networks via nodal prices. We develop an explicit controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui
2016-01-01
A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.
Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.
2017-03-01
Optimum flow in micro channel for sensing purpose is challenging. In this study, The optimizations of the fluid sample flows are made through the design and characterization of the novel microfluidics' architectures to achieve the optimal flow rate in the micro channels. The biocompatibility of the Polydimetylsiloxane (Sylgard 184 silicon elastomer) polymer used to fabricate the device offers avenue for the device to be implemented as the universal fluidic delivery system for bio-molecules sensing in various bio-medical applications. The study uses the following methodological approaches, designing a novel microfluidics' architectures by integrating the devices on a single 4 inches silicon substrate, fabricating the designed microfluidic devices using low-cost solution soft lithography technique, characterizing and validating the flow throughput of urine samples in the micro channels by generating pressure gradients through the devices' inlets. The characterization on the urine samples flow in the micro channels have witnessed the constant flow throughout the devices.
Robust optimal control of material flows in demand-driven supply networks
Laumanns, M.; Lefeber, A.A.J.
2006-01-01
We develop a model based on stochastic discrete-time controlleddynamical systems in order to derive optimal policies for controllingthe material flow in supply networks. Each node in the network isdescribed as a transducer such that the dynamics of the material andinformation flows within the entire
Multi-objective optimization approach for air traffic flow management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadil Rabie
2017-01-01
The decision-making stage was then performed with the aid of data clustering techniques to reduce the sizeof the Pareto-optimal set and obtain a smaller representation of the multi-objective design space, there by making it easier for the decision-maker to find satisfactory and meaningful trade-offs, and to select a preferred final design solution.
Optimal ranking regime analysis of TreeFlow dendrohydrological reconstructions
The Optimal Ranking Regime (ORR) method was used to identify 6-100 year time windows containing significant ranking sequences in 55 western U.S. streamflow reconstructions, and reconstructions of the level of the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay salinity during 1500-2007. The method’s ability t...
Optimization of Gas Flow Network using the Traveling Salesman ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The overall goal of this paper is to develop a general formulation for an optimal infrastructure layout design of gas pipeline distribution networks using algorithm developed from the application of two industrial engineering concepts: the traveling salesman problem (TSP) and the nearest neighbor (NN). The focus is on the ...
Smooth Information Flow in Temperature Climate Network Reflects Mass Transport
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlinka, Jaroslav; Jajcay, Nikola; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan
2017-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 035811. ISSN 1054-1500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068; GA MŠk LH14001 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : directed network * causal network * Granger causality * climate network * information flow * temperature network Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016
UF6 fissile mass flow simulation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mattingly, J.K.; Uckan, T.; McEvers, J.A.
1997-01-01
Basis for measuring fissile mass flow in slurries, liquid, and gaseous streams is activation of a fissile stream by neutrons and then detection of delayed radiation from resulting fission products. This paper describes recent simulation measurements with the first prototype of the system for fissile mass flow measurements with HEU UF 6 gas for use in blenddown facilities. Theory was only 15% higher than actual measured; thus calibration factor would be 0.85. This simulation of HEU gas flow confirms well the understanding of the physical phenomena associated with this measurement system
Blowdown mass flow measurements during the Power Burst Facility LOC-11C test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broughton, J.M.; MacDonald, P.E.
1979-01-01
An interpretation and evaluation of the two-phase coolant mass flow measurements obtained during Test LOC-11C performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. Although a density gradient existed within the pipe between 1 and 6 s, the homogeneous flow model used to calculate the coolant mass flow from the measured mixture density, momentum flux, and volumetric flow was found to be generally satisfactory. A cross-sectional average density was determined by fitting a linear density gradient through the upper and lower chordal densities obtained from a three-beam gamma densitometer and then combining the result with the middle beam density. The integrated measured coolant mass flow was subsequently found to be within 5% if the initial mass inventory of the PBF loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) system. The posttest calculations using the RELAP4/MOD6 computer code to determine coolant mass flow for Test LOC-11C also agreed well with the measured data
Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-06-01
Darcy-Forchheimer three dimensional flow of Carreau nanoliquid induced by a linearly stretchable surface with convective boundary condition has been analyzed. Buongiorno model has been employed to elaborate thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion effects. Zero nanoparticles mass flux and convective surface conditions are implemented at the boundary. The governing problems are nonlinear. Optimal homotopic procedure has been used to tackle the governing mathematical system. Graphical results clearly depict the outcome of temperature and concentration fields. Surface drag coefficients and local Nusselt number are also plotted and discussed.
Optimization of the ultrasonic processing in a melt flow
Tzanakis, I; Lebon, GSB; Eskin, DG; Pericleous, K
2016-01-01
Ultrasonic cavitation treatment of melt significantly improves the downstream properties and quality of conventional and advanced metallic materials. However, the transfer of this technology to treating large melt volumes has been hindered by a lack of fundamental knowledge, allowing for the ultrasonic processing in the melt flow. In this study, we present the results of experimental validation of an advanced numerical model applied to the acoustic cavitation treatment of liquid aluminum duri...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thao M. Nguyen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.
Optimal design and uncertainty quantification in blood flow simulations for congenital heart disease
Marsden, Alison
2009-11-01
Recent work has demonstrated substantial progress in capabilities for patient-specific cardiovascular flow simulations. Recent advances include increasingly complex geometries, physiological flow conditions, and fluid structure interaction. However inputs to these simulations, including medical image data, catheter-derived pressures and material properties, can have significant uncertainties associated with them. For simulations to predict clinically useful and reliable output information, it is necessary to quantify the effects of input uncertainties on outputs of interest. In addition, blood flow simulation tools can now be efficiently coupled to shape optimization algorithms for surgery design applications, and these tools should incorporate uncertainty information. We present a unified framework to systematically and efficient account for uncertainties in simulations using adaptive stochastic collocation. In addition, we present a framework for derivative-free optimization of cardiovascular geometries, and layer these tools to perform optimization under uncertainty. These methods are demonstrated using simulations and surgery optimization to improve hemodynamics in pediatric cardiology applications.
A Scheme to Optimize Flow Routing and Polling Switch Selection of Software Defined Networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan Chen
Full Text Available This paper aims at minimizing the communication cost for collecting flow information in Software Defined Networks (SDN. Since flow-based information collecting method requires too much communication cost, and switch-based method proposed recently cannot benefit from controlling flow routing, jointly optimize flow routing and polling switch selection is proposed to reduce the communication cost. To this end, joint optimization problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP model firstly. Since the ILP model is intractable in large size network, we also design an optimal algorithm for the multi-rooted tree topology and an efficient heuristic algorithm for general topology. According to extensive simulations, it is found that our method can save up to 55.76% communication cost compared with the state-of-the-art switch-based scheme.
A Scheme to Optimize Flow Routing and Polling Switch Selection of Software Defined Networks.
Chen, Huan; Li, Lemin; Ren, Jing; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Yangming; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Shizhong
2015-01-01
This paper aims at minimizing the communication cost for collecting flow information in Software Defined Networks (SDN). Since flow-based information collecting method requires too much communication cost, and switch-based method proposed recently cannot benefit from controlling flow routing, jointly optimize flow routing and polling switch selection is proposed to reduce the communication cost. To this end, joint optimization problem is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model firstly. Since the ILP model is intractable in large size network, we also design an optimal algorithm for the multi-rooted tree topology and an efficient heuristic algorithm for general topology. According to extensive simulations, it is found that our method can save up to 55.76% communication cost compared with the state-of-the-art switch-based scheme.
UF6 Density and Mass Flow Measurements for Enrichment Plants using Acoustic Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Good, Morris S.; Smith, Leon E.; Warren, Glen A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Moran, Traci L.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Longoni, Gianluca
2017-09-01
A key enabling capability for enrichment plant safeguards being considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is high-accuracy, noninvasive, unattended measurement of UF6 gas density and mass flow rate. Acoustic techniques are currently used to noninvasively monitor gas flow in industrial applications; however, the operating pressures at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are roughly two orders magnitude below the capabilities of commercial instrumentation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is refining acoustic techniques for estimating density and mass flow rate of UF6 gas in scenarios typical of GCEPs, with the goal of achieving 1% measurement accuracy. Proof-of-concept laboratory measurements using a surrogate gas for UF6 have demonstrated signatures sensitive to gas density at low operating pressures such as 10–50 Torr, which were observed over the background acoustic interference. Current efforts involve developing a test bed for conducting acoustic measurements on flowing SF6 gas at representative flow rates and pressures to ascertain the viability of conducting gas flow measurements under these conditions. Density and flow measurements will be conducted to support the evaluation. If successful, the approach could enable an unattended, noninvasive approach to measure mass flow in unit header pipes of GCEPs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Bing; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
In thermal radiation, taking heat flow as an extensive quantity and defining the potential as temperature T or the blackbody emissive power U will lead to two different definitions of radiation entransy flow and the corresponding principles for thermal radiation optimization. The two definitions of radiation entransy flow and the corresponding optimization principles are compared in this paper. When the total heat flow is given, the optimization objectives of the extremum entransy dissipation principles (EEDPs) developed based on potentials T and U correspond to the minimum equivalent temperature difference and the minimum equivalent blackbody emissive power difference respectively. The physical meaning of the definition based on potential U is clearer than that based on potential T, but the latter one can be used for the coupled heat transfer optimization problem while the former one cannot. The extremum entropy generation principle (EEGP) for thermal radiation is also derived, which includes the minimum entropy generation principle for thermal radiation. When the radiation heat flow is prescribed, the EEGP reveals that the minimum entropy generation leads to the minimum equivalent thermodynamic potential difference, which is not the expected objective in heat transfer. Therefore, the minimum entropy generation is not always appropriate for thermal radiation optimization. Finally, three thermal radiation optimization examples are discussed, and the results show that the difference in optimization objective between the EEDPs and the EEGP leads to the difference between the optimization results. The EEDP based on potential T is more useful in practical application since its optimization objective is usually consistent with the expected one. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
CFD Simulation and Optimization of Very Low Head Axial Flow Turbine Runner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yohannis Mitiku Tobo
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this work is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling, simulation and optimization of very low head axial flow turbine runner to be used to drive a centrifugal pump of turbine-driven pump. The ultimate goal of the optimization is to produce a power of 1kW at head less than 1m from flowing river to drive centrifugal pump using mechanical coupling (speed multiplier gear directly. Flow rate, blade numbers, turbine rotational speed, inlet angle are parameters used in CFD modeling, simulation and design optimization of the turbine runner. The computed results show that power developed by a turbine runner increases with increasing flow rate. Pressure inside the turbine runner increases with flow rate but, runner efficiency increases for some flow rate and almost constant thereafter. Efficiency and power developed by a runner drops quickly if turbine speed increases due to higher pressure losses and conversion of pressure energy to kinetic energy inside the runner. Increasing blade number increases power developed but, efficiency does not increase always. Efficiency increases for some blade number and drops down due to the fact that change in direction of the relative flow vector at the runner exit, which decreases the net rotational momentum and increases the axial flow velocity.
Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kerui Weng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.
Designing a portfolio management programme to optimize cash-flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fassom, D.
1996-01-01
The design and implementation of any portfolio management programme must, by definition, be tailored to the drivers and particular objectives of the company owning the assets. This paper will concentrate on one of the most important driving forces, namely managing cash-flow. Five key steps are required to achieve an effective portfolio management programme: 1. establish targets/goals; 2. describe and value the assets in your company's portfolio; 3. identify and catalogue potential 'customers'; 4. construct appropriate deal structures and other strategies to achieve your targets; 5. work hard and do deals. (author)
A fast method for optimal reactive power flow solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadasivam, G; Khan, M A [Anna Univ., Madras (IN). Coll. of Engineering
1990-01-01
A fast successive linear programming (SLP) method for minimizing transmission losses and improving the voltage profile is proposed. The method uses the same compactly stored, factorized constant matrices in all the LP steps, both for power flow solution and for constructing the LP model. The inherent oscillatory convergence of SLP methods is overcome by proper selection of initial step sizes and their gradual reduction. Detailed studies on three systems, including a 109-bus system, reveal the fast and reliable convergence property of the method. (author).
Heat, mass and force flows in supersonic shockwave interaction
Dixon, John Michael
There is no cost effective way to deliver a payload to space and, with rising fuel prices, currently the price to travel commercially is also becoming more prohibitive to the public. During supersonic flight, compressive shock waves form around the craft which could be harnessed to deliver an additional lift on the craft. Using a series of hanging plates below a lifting wing design, the total lift generated can be increased above conventional values, while still maintaining a similar lift-to-drag ratio. Here, we study some of the flows involved in supersonic shockwave interaction. This analysis uses ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics package as the modeler. Our findings conclude an increase of up to 30% lift on the modeled craft while maintaining the lift-to-drag profile of the unmodified lifting wing. The increase in lift when utilizing the shockwave interaction could increase transport weight and reduce fuel cost for space and commercial flight, as well as mitigating negative effects associated with supersonic travel.
Optimization of the data taking strategy for a high precision τ mass measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.K.; Mo, X.H.; Yuan, C.Z.; Liu, J.P.
2007-01-01
To achieve a high precision τ mass (m τ ) measurement at the forthcoming high luminosity experiment, Monte Carlo simulation and sampling technique are adopted to simulate various data taking cases from which the optimal scheme is determined. The study indicates that when m τ is the sole parameter to be fit, the optimal energy for data taking is located near the τ + τ - production threshold in the vicinity of the largest derivative of the cross-section to energy; one point in the optimal position with luminosity around 63pb -1 is sufficient for getting a statistical precision of 0.1MeV/c 2 or better
An Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Method with Improved Power System Stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe
2010-01-01
This paper proposes an optimal power flow (OPF) method taking into account small signal stability as additional constraints. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted to realize the OPF process. The method is programmed in MATLAB and implemented to a nine-bus test power system which...... has large-scale wind power integration. The results show the ability of the proposed method to find optimal (or near-optimal) operating points in different cases. Based on these results, the analysis of the impacts of wind power integration on the system small signal stability has been conducted....
Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima
Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.
2010-01-01
The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788
Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.
Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E
2010-08-01
The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring approximately 10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30-40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca(2+)-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca(2+) influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca(2+) ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brockmann, E.; John, H.; Reimann, J.
1983-01-01
Drag bodies have already been used for sometime for the measurement of mass flow rates in blowdown experiments. Former research concerning the drag body behaviour in non-homogeneous two-phase flows frequently dealt with special effects by means of theoretical models only. For pipe flows most investigations were conducted for ratios of drag plate area to pipe cross section smaller 0.02. The present paper gives the results of experiments with drag bodies in a horizontal, non-homogeneous two-phase pipe flow with slip, which were carried through under the sponsorship of the German Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). Special interest was layed on the behaviour of the drag coefficient in stationary flows and at various cross sectional ratios. Both design and response of various drag bodies, which were developed at the Battelle-Institut, were tested in stationary and instationary two-phase flows. The influences of density and velocity profiles as well as the drag body position were studied. The results demonstrate, that the drag body is capable of measuring mass flow rates in connection with a gamma densitometer also in non-homogeneous two-phase flows. Satisfying results could be obtained, using simply the drag coefficient which was determined from single-phase flow calibrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamel, W.R.
1984-01-01
This invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining fluid mass flow rate and density. In one aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through a straight cantilevered tube in which transient oscillation has been induced, thus generating Coriolis damping forces on the tube. The decay rate and frequency of the resulting damped oscillation are measured, and the fluid mass flow rate and density are determined therefrom. In another aspect of the invention, the fluid is passed through the cantilevered tube while an electrically powered device imparts steady-state harmonic excitation to the tube. This generates Coriolis tube-damping forces which are dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. Means are provided to respond to incipient flow-induced changes in the amplitude of vibration by changing the power input to the excitation device as required to sustain the original amplitude of vibration. The fluid mass flow rate and density are determined from the required change in power input. The invention provides stable, rapid, and accurate measurements. It does not require bending of the fluid flow
Low NOx combustion and SCR flow field optimization in a low volatile coal fired boiler.
Liu, Xing; Tan, Houzhang; Wang, Yibin; Yang, Fuxin; Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven
2018-08-15
Low NO x burner redesign and deep air staging have been carried out to optimize the poor ignition and reduce the NO x emissions in a low volatile coal fired 330 MW e boiler. Residual swirling flow in the tangentially-fired furnace caused flue gas velocity deviations at furnace exit, leading to flow field unevenness in the SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system and poor denitrification efficiency. Numerical simulations on the velocity field in the SCR system were carried out to determine the optimal flow deflector arrangement to improve flow field uniformity of SCR system. Full-scale experiment was performed to investigate the effect of low NO x combustion and SCR flow field optimization. Compared with the results before the optimization, the NO x emissions at furnace exit decreased from 550 to 650 mg/Nm³ to 330-430 mg/Nm³. The sample standard deviation of the NO x emissions at the outlet section of SCR decreased from 34.8 mg/Nm³ to 7.8 mg/Nm³. The consumption of liquid ammonia reduced from 150 to 200 kg/h to 100-150 kg/h after optimization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Axiomatic Design of a Framework for the Comprehensive Optimization of Patient Flows in Hospitals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele Arcidiacono
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Lean Management and Six Sigma are nowadays applied not only to the manufacturing industry but also to service industry and public administration. The manifold variables affecting the Health Care system minimize the effect of a narrow Lean intervention. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss a comprehensive, system-based approach to achieve a factual holistic optimization of patient flows. This paper debates the efficacy of Lean principles applied to the optimization of patient flows and related activities, structures, and resources, developing a theoretical framework based on the principles of the Axiomatic Design. The demand for patient-oriented and efficient health services leads to use these methodologies to improve hospital processes. In the framework, patients with similar characteristics are clustered in families to achieve homogeneous flows through the value stream. An optimization checklist is outlined as the result of the mapping between Functional Requirements and Design Parameters, with the right sequence of the steps to optimize the patient flow according to the principles of Axiomatic Design. The Axiomatic Design-based top-down implementation of Health Care evidence, according to Lean principles, results in a holistic optimization of hospital patient flows, by reducing the complexity of the system.
Axiomatic Design of a Framework for the Comprehensive Optimization of Patient Flows in Hospitals
Arcidiacono, Gabriele; Matt, Dominik T.; Rauch, Erwin
2017-01-01
Lean Management and Six Sigma are nowadays applied not only to the manufacturing industry but also to service industry and public administration. The manifold variables affecting the Health Care system minimize the effect of a narrow Lean intervention. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss a comprehensive, system-based approach to achieve a factual holistic optimization of patient flows. This paper debates the efficacy of Lean principles applied to the optimization of patient flows and related activities, structures, and resources, developing a theoretical framework based on the principles of the Axiomatic Design. The demand for patient-oriented and efficient health services leads to use these methodologies to improve hospital processes. In the framework, patients with similar characteristics are clustered in families to achieve homogeneous flows through the value stream. An optimization checklist is outlined as the result of the mapping between Functional Requirements and Design Parameters, with the right sequence of the steps to optimize the patient flow according to the principles of Axiomatic Design. The Axiomatic Design-based top-down implementation of Health Care evidence, according to Lean principles, results in a holistic optimization of hospital patient flows, by reducing the complexity of the system. © 2017 Gabriele Arcidiacono et al.
Framework for optimal power flow incorporating dynamic system security
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Kady, M.A.; Owayedh, M.S.
2006-01-01
This paper introduces a novel framework and methodologies which are capable of tackling the complex issue of power system economy versus security in a practical and effective manner. At heart of achieving such a challenging and far-reaching objective is the incorporation of the Dyanamic Security Assessment (DSA) into production optimization techniques using the Transient Energy Function (TEF) method. In addition, and in parallel with the already well established concept of the system security, two new concepts pertaining to power system performance will be introduced in this paper, namely the concept of system dynamic susceptibility, which measures the level of systems weakness to a particular contingency and the concept of system consequent restorability, which measures the extent of contingency severity in terms of the required subsequent system restoration work should a particular contingency occur. (author)
Peralta, Richard C.; Forghani, Ali; Fayad, Hala
2014-04-01
Many real water resources optimization problems involve conflicting objectives for which the main goal is to find a set of optimal solutions on, or near to the Pareto front. E-constraint and weighting multiobjective optimization techniques have shortcomings, especially as the number of objectives increases. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms (MGA) have been previously proposed to overcome these difficulties. Here, an MGA derives a set of optimal solutions for multiobjective multiuser conjunctive use of reservoir, stream, and (un)confined groundwater resources. The proposed methodology is applied to a hydraulically and economically nonlinear system in which all significant flows, including stream-aquifer-reservoir-diversion-return flow interactions, are simulated and optimized simultaneously for multiple periods. Neural networks represent constrained state variables. The addressed objectives that can be optimized simultaneously in the coupled simulation-optimization model are: (1) maximizing water provided from sources, (2) maximizing hydropower production, and (3) minimizing operation costs of transporting water from sources to destinations. Results show the efficiency of multiobjective genetic algorithms for generating Pareto optimal sets for complex nonlinear multiobjective optimization problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Celia, Michael A.; Binning, Philip John
1992-01-01
that the algorithm produces solutions that are essentially mass conservative and oscillation free, even in the presence of steep infiltrating fronts. When the algorithm is applied to the case of air and water flow in unsaturated soils, numerical results confirm the conditions under which Richards's equation is valid....... Numerical results also demonstrate the potential importance of air phase advection when considering contaminant transport in unsaturated soils. Comparison to several other numerical algorithms shows that the modified Picard approach offers robust, mass conservative solutions to the general equations...
The optimization of some of the conditions for analysis by spark-source mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearton, D.C.P.; Sobiecki, A.
1980-01-01
The need for improved precision in spark-source mass spectrometry is highlighted. Several parameters, such as photoplate-development technique, instrumental stability and focus, and sparking conditions, were optimized. Measurements made under these optimum conditions attained precisions of more than 12 per cent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, Yasushi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Koshizuka, Seiichi
2009-01-01
In order to predict and mitigate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in PWR and BWR secondary systems, computer program packages for evaluating FAC have been developed by coupling one through three dimensional (1-3D) computational flow dynamics (CFD) models and corrosion models. To evaluate corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path, flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume were obtained with 1D computational flow dynamics (CFD) codes. Precise flow turbulence and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface were calculated with 3D CFD codes to determine wall thinning rates. One of the engineering options is application of k-ε calculation as a 3D CFD code, which has limitation of detail evaluation of flow distribution at very surface of large scale piping. A combination of k-ε calculation and wall function was proposed to evaluate precise distribution of mass transfer coefficients with reasonable CPU volume and computing time and, at the same time, reasonable accuracy. (author)
The respective roles of bulk friction and slip velocity during a granular mass flow
Staron, Lydie
2016-04-01
Catastrophic granular mass flows form an important natural hazard. Mitigation has motivated numerous studies on the properties of natural granular flows, and in particular, their ability to travel long distances away from the release point. The mobility of granular flows is commonly characterised through the definition of rheological properties and effective friction. Yet, it is widely accepted that the description in term of effective friction may include various lubrication effects, softening at the base of the flow and large slip velocities being a most likely one. In this case, flow bulk properties may obliterate the flow boundary conditions. In this contribution, we investigate how disentangling bulk properties from boundary conditions may improve our understanding of the flow. Using discrete simulations, we induce increasing slip velocities in different flow configurations. We show that increased mobility may be achieved without changing bulk properties. The results are interpreted in terms of a Robin-Navier slip condition and implemented in a continuum Navier-Stokes solver. We quantify the respective role of rheological bulk properties and boundary conditions in the general behaviour of a transient mass flow. We show that omitting the description of boundary conditions leads to misinterpretation of the flow properties. The outcome is discussed in terms of models reliability. References P.-Y. Lagrée et al, The granular column collapse as a continuum: validity of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes model with the mu(I) rheology, J. Fluid Mech. 686, 378-408 (2011) L. Staron and E. Lajeunesse, Understanding how the volume affects the mobility of dry debris flows, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L12402 (2009) L. Staron, Mobility of long-runout rock flows: a discrete numerical investigation, Geophys. J. Int. 172, 455-463 (2008)
Hydromagnetic nonlinear thermally radiative nanoliquid flow with Newtonian heat and mass conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ijaz Khan
Full Text Available This paper communicates the analysis of MHD three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanoliquid over a stretchable surface. Flow due to a bidirectional surface is considered. Heat and mass transfer subject to volume fraction of nanoparticles, heat generation and nonlinear solar radiation are examined. Newtonian heat and mass transportation conditions are employed at surface. Concept of boundary layer is utilized to developed the mathematical problem. The boundary value problem is dictated by ten physical parameters: Deborah number, Hartman number, ratio of stretching rates, thermophoretic parameter, Brownian motion parameter, Prandtl number, temperature ratio parameter, conjugate heat and mass parameters and Lewis number. Convergent solutions are obtained using homotopic procedure. Convergence zone for obtained results is explicitly identified. The obtained solutions are interpreted physically. Keywords: Hydromagnetic flow, Viscoelastic nanofluid, Thermophoretic and Brownian moment, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Heat generation
Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Pagliaro, Stefano; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Bonaiuto, Marino
2016-01-01
Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person's identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants' gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow.
Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Pagliaro, Stefano; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Bonaiuto, Marino
2016-01-01
Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person’s identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants’ gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow. PMID:26924995
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.
2009-01-01
An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Trdlicka
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This work proposes a distributed algorithm for energy optimal routing in a wireless sensor network. The routing problem is described as a mathematical problem by the minimum-cost multi-commodity network flow problem. Due to the separability of the problem, we use the duality theorem to derive the distributed algorithm. The algorithm computes the energy optimal routing in the network without any central node or knowledge of the whole network structure. Each node only needs to know the flow which is supposed to send or receive and the costs and capacities of the neighboring links. An evaluation of the presented algorithm on benchmarks for the energy optimal data flow routing in sensor networks with up to 100 nodes is presented.
Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels
Kosaraju, Srinivas
2017-11-01
The layout of T- and V-shaped flow channel networks on a surface can be optimized for minimum pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, an effort has been made to study the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same input parameters and heat generation constraints. Comparisons are made with similar results published in literature.
Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Natural Gas and Electrical Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing; Ai, Xiaomeng
2018-01-01
. Simulation on the test case illustrates the success of the modelling and the beneficial roles of the power-to-gas are analyzed. The proposed model can be used in the decision support for both planning and operation of the coordinated natural gas and electrical power systems.......This work focuses on the optimal operation of the integrated gas and electrical power system with bi-directional energy conversion. Considering the different response times of the gas and power systems, the transient gas flow and steady- state power flow are combined to formulate the dynamic...... optimal energy flow in the integrated gas and power systems. With proper assumptions and simplifications, the problem is transformed into a single stage linear programming. And only a single stage linear programming is needed to obtain the optimal operation strategy for both gas and power systems...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lian Zhigang; Gu Xingsheng; Jiao Bin
2008-01-01
It is well known that the flow-shop scheduling problem (FSSP) is a branch of production scheduling and is NP-hard. Now, many different approaches have been applied for permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan, but current algorithms even for moderate size problems cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. Some literatures searching PSO for continuous optimization problems are reported, but papers searching PSO for discrete scheduling problems are few. In this paper, according to the discrete characteristic of FSSP, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) algorithm is presented and successfully applied to permutation flow-shop scheduling to minimize makespan. Computation experiments of seven representative instances (Taillard) based on practical data were made, and comparing the NPSO with standard GA, we obtain that the NPSO is clearly more efficacious than standard GA for FSSP to minimize makespan
The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space
Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri
2015-01-01
When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336
The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.
Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri
2015-10-01
When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.
The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Szekely
2015-10-01
Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.
Generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory forces for viscous flows
Limacher, Eric; Morton, Chris; Wood, David
2018-01-01
The concept of added mass arises from potential flow analysis and is associated with the acceleration of a body in an inviscid irrotational fluid. When shed vorticity is modeled as vortex singularities embedded in this irrotational flow, the associated force can be superimposed onto the added-mass force due to the linearity of the governing Laplace equation. This decomposition of force into added-mass and circulatory components remains common in modern aerodynamic models, but its applicability to viscous separated flows remains unclear. The present work addresses this knowledge gap by presenting a generalized derivation of the added-mass and circulatory force decomposition which is valid for a body of arbitrary shape in an unbounded, incompressible fluid domain, in both two and three dimensions, undergoing arbitrary motions amid continuous distributions of vorticity. From the general expression, the classical added-mass force is rederived for well-known canonical cases and is seen to be additive to the circulatory force for any flow. The formulation is shown to be equivalent to existing theoretical work under the specific conditions and assumptions of previous studies. It is also validated using a numerical simulation of a pitching plate in a steady freestream flow, conducted by Wang and Eldredge [Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 27, 577 (2013), 10.1007/s00162-012-0279-5]. In response to persistent confusion in the literature, a discussion of the most appropriate physical interpretation of added mass is included, informed by inspection of the derived equations. The added-mass force is seen to account for the dynamic effect of near-body vorticity and is not (as is commonly claimed) associated with the acceleration of near-body fluid which "must" somehow move with the body. Various other consequences of the derivation are discussed, including a concept which has been labeled the conservation of image-vorticity impulse.
Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun
2016-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...
Zhou, Bao-Rong; Liu, Si-Liang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Yi, Ying-Qi; Lin, Xiao-Ming
2017-05-01
To mitigate the impact on the distribution networks caused by the stochastic characteristic and high penetration of photovoltaic, a multi-objective optimal power flow model is proposed in this paper. The regulation capability of capacitor, inverter of photovoltaic and energy storage system embedded in active distribution network are considered to minimize the expected value of active power the T loss and probability of voltage violation in this model. Firstly, a probabilistic power flow based on cumulant method is introduced to calculate the value of the objectives. Secondly, NSGA-II algorithm is adopted for optimization to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the best compromise solution can be achieved through fuzzy membership degree method. By the multi-objective optimization calculation of IEEE34-node distribution network, the results show that the model can effectively improve the voltage security and economy of the distribution network on different levels of photovoltaic penetration.
A Sufficient Condition on Convex Relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a sufficient condition for the convex relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in radial distribution networks as a second order cone program (SOCP) to be exact. The condition requires that the allowed reverse power flow is only reactive or active, or none. Under the proposed...... solution of the SOCP can be converted to an optimal solution of the original AC OPF. The efficacy of the convex relaxation to solve the AC OPF is demonstrated by case studies of an optimal multi-period planning problem of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution networks....... sufficient condition, the feasible sub-injection region (power injections of nodes excluding the root node) of the AC OPF is convex. The exactness of the convex relaxation under the proposed condition is proved through constructing a group of monotonic series with limits, which ensures that the optimal...
Huang, Darong; Bai, Xing-Rong
Based on wavelet transform and neural network theory, a traffic-flow prediction model, which was used in optimal control of Intelligent Traffic system, is constructed. First of all, we have extracted the scale coefficient and wavelet coefficient from the online measured raw data of traffic flow via wavelet transform; Secondly, an Artificial Neural Network model of Traffic-flow Prediction was constructed and trained using the coefficient sequences as inputs and raw data as outputs; Simultaneous, we have designed the running principium of the optimal control system of traffic-flow Forecasting model, the network topological structure and the data transmitted model; Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effectively and exactly. The theoretical results indicated that the wavelet neural network prediction model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.
Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.
2016-09-01
The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip boundary condition can be applied. The measured viscous slip coefficients of binary gas mixtures exhibit a concave function of the molar ratio of the mixture, showing a similar profile with numerical results. However, from the detailed comparison between the measured and numerical values with the complete and incomplete accommodation at a surface, it is inappropriate to estimate the viscous slip coefficient for the mixture numerically by employing separately measured tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for each component. The time variation of the molar ratio in the downstream chamber was measured by sampling the gas from the chamber using the quadrupole mass spectrometer. In our measurements, it is indicated that the volume flow rate of argon is larger than that of helium because of the difference in the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient.
The nuclear flow and the mass number dependence of the balance point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebille, F.; de la Mota, V.; Remaud, B.; Schuck, P.
1990-01-01
The nuclear flow is studied theoretically with the Landau Vlasov equation in the E/A = 50 to 150 MeV energy domain using the finite range Gogny force. For comparison also other equations of states based on velocity independent mean fields are used. In this paper the mass number dependence of the balance point is investigated. A sensitivity of the flow on the equation of state as a function of mass and energies around and above the balance point can tentatively be advanced
Method of measuring the mass flow rate of a substance entering a cocurrent fluid stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochran, H.D. Jr.
1978-01-01
An improved method of monitoring the mass flow rate of a substance entering a coherent fluid stream is described. The method very basically consists of heating equal sections of the fluid stream above and below the point of entry of the substance to be monitored, and measuring and comparing the resulting change in temperature of the sections. Advantage is taken of the difference in thermal characteristics of the fluid and the substance to be measured to correlate temperature differences in the sections above and below the substance feed point for providing an indication of the mass flow rate of the substance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)
1976-11-01
Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.
One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnston, S.C.
1976-09-01
A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment
The effect of virtual mass on the prediction of critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.; Lahey, R.T.; Drew, D.A.
1983-01-01
By observing the results in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 we can see that virtual mass effects are important in predicting critical flow. However, as seen in Fig. 7a, in which all three flows are predicted to be critical (Δ=0), it is difficult to distinguish one set of conditions from the other by just considering the pressure profile. Clearly more detailed data, such as the throat void fraction, is needed for discrimination between these calculations. Moreover, since the calculated critical flows have been found to be sensitive to initial mass flux, and void fraction, careful measurements of those parameters are needed before accurate virtual mass parameters can be determined from these data. It can be concluded that the existing Moby Dick data is inadequate to allow one to deduce accurate values of the virtual mass parameters C/sub VM/ and λ. Nevertheless, more careful experiments of this type are uniquely suited for the determination of these important parameters. It appears that the use of a nine equation model, such as that discussed herein, coupled with more detailed accurate critical flow data is an effective means of determining the parameters in interfacial momentum transfer models, such as virtual mass effects, which are only important during strong spatial accelerations. Indeed, there are few other methods available which can be used for such determinations
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.
Optimizing the combustion and cold flow properties of biogasoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasza, Tamas; Hollo, Andras [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary); Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing
2013-06-01
Normal paraffin containing mixtures produced from different natural triglycerides (conventional and improved vegetable oils, used cooking oils and fats, etc.) have high cetane number (9S-105 units), but their freezing points are high (between +15 and +32 C). This property needs to be improved. For this the most suitable process is the isomerization, because among paraffins with the same carbon number, the branched paraffins have a lower freezing point by 20-40 C, relative to normal paraffins. At the same time there is a cetane number decrease of 15-40 units. During the isomerization of these mixtures choosing the favorable process parameters the cold flow demands (< 5 C; < -20 C; < -32 C, etc.) can be fulfilled with high biogasoil product yield and with even high cetane number. The aim of the experimental work was the investigation of the effects of operational parameters (T = 280-380 C; P = 20-80 bar; LHSV = 0.25-4.0 h{sup -1}; apparent contact time: between 1/3 and 4.0 h (at LHSV = 3.0 h{sup -1}); H{sub 2}/feedstock = 400 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}) on the isomerization of paraffin mixtures produced by the catalytic conversion of triglycerides. Biogasoils obtained over a 0.5% Pt/SAP0-11 catalyst had a CFPP values of +5 C; -20 C and -32 C, while the cetane number was 87, 70 and 65, the product yield was 98%, 92% and 86%, respectively. Accordingly they are suitable for bio-component of premium quality diesel fuel. Using biogasoils for the improvement of cetane number and for the reductions in density could provide some economic savings and some flexibility to refineries. (orig.)
Discrete bat algorithm for optimal problem of permutation flow shop scheduling.
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem.
Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling
Luo, Qifang; Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Ma, Mingzhi; Li, Liangliang
2014-01-01
A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. PMID:25243220
Numerical analysis and optimization of 3D magnetohydrodynamic flows in rectangular U-bend
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Qingyun, E-mail: hqingyun@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn
2016-11-01
Highlights: • MHD flows in rectangular U bends have been investigated under specific magnetic field. • U bends analyzed with different aspect ratio, distance of U bends and the wall conductance ratio. • Pressure optimization of rectangular U bends at corner region. • Studying different inclination of magnetic field cases according to original MHD flows. - Abstract: Liquid metal flow in rectangular bends is a common phenomenon of fusion liquid metal blanket operation, in which the velocity distributions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop are considered as critical issues. Previous studies mainly aimed at specific fixed geometry for bend flows in LM blanket. The present investigation focuses on numerical analysis of MHD flow in 3D rectangular bends at laminar conditions, which is aimed to reduce MHD pressure drop caused by electromagnetic coupling in conductive flow, especially in bend corner region. The used code has been developed by University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and validated by recommended benchmark cases such as Shercliff, ALEX experiments and KIT experiment cases, etc. In order to search the optimal duct bending, certain parameters such as different aspect ratio of the duct corner area cross-section, distance of import and export from the elbow and wall conductance ratio have been considered to investigate the pressure drop of MHD flow. Moreover, the effects of different magnetic field direction relative to flow distribution between bends have also been analyzed.
Numerical analysis and optimization of 3D magnetohydrodynamic flows in rectangular U-bend
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Qingyun; Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli
2016-01-01
Highlights: • MHD flows in rectangular U bends have been investigated under specific magnetic field. • U bends analyzed with different aspect ratio, distance of U bends and the wall conductance ratio. • Pressure optimization of rectangular U bends at corner region. • Studying different inclination of magnetic field cases according to original MHD flows. - Abstract: Liquid metal flow in rectangular bends is a common phenomenon of fusion liquid metal blanket operation, in which the velocity distributions and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop are considered as critical issues. Previous studies mainly aimed at specific fixed geometry for bend flows in LM blanket. The present investigation focuses on numerical analysis of MHD flow in 3D rectangular bends at laminar conditions, which is aimed to reduce MHD pressure drop caused by electromagnetic coupling in conductive flow, especially in bend corner region. The used code has been developed by University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and validated by recommended benchmark cases such as Shercliff, ALEX experiments and KIT experiment cases, etc. In order to search the optimal duct bending, certain parameters such as different aspect ratio of the duct corner area cross-section, distance of import and export from the elbow and wall conductance ratio have been considered to investigate the pressure drop of MHD flow. Moreover, the effects of different magnetic field direction relative to flow distribution between bends have also been analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Yang
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.
CFD-based shape optimization of steam turbine blade cascade in transonic two phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noori Rahim Abadi, S.M.A.; Ahmadpour, A.; Abadi, S.M.N.R.; Meyer, J.P.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • CFD-based shape optimization of a nozzle and a turbine blade regarding nucleating steam flow is performed. • Nucleation rate and droplet radius are the best suited objective functions for the optimization process. • Maximum 34% reduction in entropy generation rate is reported for turbine cascade. • A maximum 10% reduction in Baumann factor and a maximum 2.1% increase in efficiency is achieved for a turbine cascade. - Abstract: In this study CFD-based shape optimization of a 3D nozzle and a 2D turbine blade cascade is undertaken in the presence of non-equilibrium condensation within the considered flow channels. A two-fluid formulation is used for the simulation of unsteady, turbulent, supersonic and compressible flow of wet steam accounting for relevant phase interaction between nucleated liquid droplets and continuous vapor phase. An in-house CFD code is developed to solve the governing equations of the two phase flow and was validated against available experimental data. Optimization is carried out in respect to various objective functions. It is shown that nucleation rate and maximum droplet radius are the best suited target functions for reducing thermodynamic and aerodynamic losses caused by the spontaneous nucleation. The maximum increase of 2.1% in turbine blade efficiency is achieved through shape optimization process.
Investment cash flow sensitivity under managerial optimism: new evidence from NYSE panel data firms
Mohamed, Ezzeddine Ben; Fairchild, Richard; Bouri, Abdelfettah
2014-01-01
Investment cash flow sensitivity constitutes one important block of the corporate financial literature. While it is well documented in standard corporate finance, it is still young under behavioral corporate finance. In this paper, we test the investment cash flow sensitivity among panel data of American industrial firms during 1999-2010. Using Q-model of investment (Tobin, 1969), we construct and introduce a proxy of managerial optimism following Malmendier and Tate (2005a) to show the impac...
Design and optimization of mixed flow pump impeller blades by varying semi-cone angle
Dash, Nehal; Roy, Apurba Kumar; Kumar, Kaushik
2018-03-01
The mixed flow pump is a cross between the axial and radial flow pump. These pumps are used in a large number of applications in modern fields. For the designing of these mixed flow pump impeller blades, a lot number of design parameters are needed to be considered which makes this a tedious task for which fundamentals of turbo-machinery and fluid mechanics are always prerequisites. The semi-cone angle of mixed flow pump impeller blade has a specified range of variations generally between 45o to 60o. From the literature review done related to this topic researchers have considered only a particular semi-cone angle and all the calculations are based on this very same semi-cone angle. By varying this semi-cone angle in the specified range, it can be verified if that affects the designing of the impeller blades for a mixed flow pump. Although a lot of methods are available for designing of mixed flow pump impeller blades like inverse time marching method, the pseudo-stream function method, Fourier expansion singularity method, free vortex method, mean stream line theory method etc. still the optimized design of the mixed flow pump impeller blade has been a cumbersome work. As stated above since all the available research works suggest or propose the blade designs with constant semi-cone angle, here the authors have designed the impeller blades by varying the semi-cone angle in a particular range with regular intervals for a Mixed-Flow pump. Henceforth several relevant impeller blade designs are obtained and optimization is carried out to obtain the optimized design (blade with optimal geometry) of impeller blade.
Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re{sub r} = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in
Effects of Schmidt number on near-wall turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Chang Woo; Yang, Kyung Soo
2014-01-01
Large Eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow has been performed to investigate the characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in the near-wall region. We consider a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow with a constant wall concentration. The Reynolds number under consideration is Re r = 500 based on the friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the selected Schmidt numbers (Sc) are 0.71, 5, 10, 20 and 100. Dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the turbulent SGS stresses and turbulent mass fluxes were employed to close the governing equations. The current paper reports a comprehensive characterization of turbulent mass transfer in circular-pipe flow, focusing on its near-wall characteristics and Sc dependency. We start with mean fields by presenting mean velocity and concentration profiles, mean Sherwood numbers and mean mass transfer coefficients for the selected values of the parameters. After that, we present the characteristics of fluctuations including root-mean-square (rms) profiles of velocity, concentration, and mass transfer coefficient fluctuations. Turbulent mass fluxes and correlations between velocity and concentration fluctuations are also discussed. The near-wall behaviour of turbulent diffusivity and turbulent Schmidt number is shown, and other authors' correlations on their limiting behaviour towards the pipe wall are evaluated based on our LES results. The intermittent characteristics of turbulent mass transfer in pipe flow are depicted by probability density functions (pdf) of velocity and concentration fluctuations; joint pdfs between them are also presented. Instantaneous snapshots of velocity and concentration fluctuations are shown to supplement our discussion on the turbulence statistics. Finally, we report the results of octant analysis and budget calculation of concentration variance to clarify Sc-dependency of the correlation between near-wall turbulence structures and concentration fluctuation in the
Airfoil optimization for unsteady flows with application to high-lift noise reduction
Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer
The use of steady-state aerodynamic optimization methods in the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) community is fairly well established. In particular, the use of adjoint methods has proven to be very beneficial because their cost is independent of the number of design variables. The application of numerical optimization to airframe-generated noise, however, has not received as much attention, but with the significant quieting of modern engines, airframe noise now competes with engine noise. Optimal control techniques for unsteady flows are needed in order to be able to reduce airframe-generated noise. In this thesis, a general framework is formulated to calculate the gradient of a cost function in a nonlinear unsteady flow environment via the discrete adjoint method. The unsteady optimization algorithm developed in this work utilizes a Newton-Krylov approach since the gradient-based optimizer uses the quasi-Newton method BFGS, Newton's method is applied to the nonlinear flow problem, GMRES is used to solve the resulting linear problem inexactly, and last but not least the linear adjoint problem is solved using Bi-CGSTAB. The flow is governed by the unsteady two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a one-equation turbulence model, which are discretized using structured grids and a finite difference approach. The effectiveness of the unsteady optimization algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to several problems of interest including shocktubes, pulses in converging-diverging nozzles, rotating cylinders, transonic buffeting, and an unsteady trailing-edge flow. In order to address radiated far-field noise, an acoustic wave propagation program based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) formulation is implemented and validated. The general framework is then used to derive the adjoint equations for a novel hybrid URANS/FW-H optimization algorithm in order to be able to optimize the shape of airfoils based on their calculated far
Effect of Orifice Nozzle Design and Input Power on Two-Phase Flow and Mass Transfer Characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Hei Cheon [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
It is necessary to investigate the input power as well as the mass transfer characteristics of the aeration process in order to improve the energy efficiency of an aerobic water treatment. The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of orifice nozzle design and input power on the flow and mass transfer characteristics of a vertical two-phase flow. The mass ratio, input power, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were calculated using the measured data. It was found that as the input power increases the volumetric mass transfer coefficient increases, while the mass ratio and mass transfer efficiency decrease. The mass ratio, volumetric mass transfer coefficient, and mass transfer efficiency were higher for the orifice configuration with a smaller orifice nozzle area ratio. An empirical correlation was proposed to estimate the effect of mass ratio, input power, and Froude number on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient.
Swarm intelligence based on modified PSO algorithm for the optimization of axial-flow pump impeller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miao, Fuqing; Kim, Chol Min; Ahn, Seok Young; Park, Hong Seok
2015-01-01
This paper presents a multi-objective optimization of the impeller shape of an axial-flow pump based on the Modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm. At first, an impeller shape was designed and used as a reference in the optimization process then NPSHr and η of the axial flow pump were numerically investigated by using the commercial software ANSYS with the design variables concerning hub angle β_h, chord angle β_c, cascade solidity of chord σ_c and maximum thickness of blade H. By using the Group method of data handling (GMDH) type neural networks in commercial software DTREG, the corresponding polynomial representation for NPSHr and η with respect to the design variables were obtained. A benchmark test was employed to evaluate the performance of the MPSO algorithm in comparison with other particle swarm algorithms. Later the MPSO approach was used for Pareto based optimization. Finally, the MPSO optimization result and CFD simulation result were compared in a re-evaluation process. By using swarm intelligence based on the modified PSO algorithm, better performance pump with higher efficiency and lower NPSHr could be obtained. This novel algorithm was successfully applied for the optimization of axial-flow pump impeller shape design
Swarm intelligence based on modified PSO algorithm for the optimization of axial-flow pump impeller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, Fuqing; Kim, Chol Min; Ahn, Seok Young [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong Seok [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
This paper presents a multi-objective optimization of the impeller shape of an axial-flow pump based on the Modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm. At first, an impeller shape was designed and used as a reference in the optimization process then NPSHr and η of the axial flow pump were numerically investigated by using the commercial software ANSYS with the design variables concerning hub angle β{sub h}, chord angle β{sub c}, cascade solidity of chord σ{sub c} and maximum thickness of blade H. By using the Group method of data handling (GMDH) type neural networks in commercial software DTREG, the corresponding polynomial representation for NPSHr and η with respect to the design variables were obtained. A benchmark test was employed to evaluate the performance of the MPSO algorithm in comparison with other particle swarm algorithms. Later the MPSO approach was used for Pareto based optimization. Finally, the MPSO optimization result and CFD simulation result were compared in a re-evaluation process. By using swarm intelligence based on the modified PSO algorithm, better performance pump with higher efficiency and lower NPSHr could be obtained. This novel algorithm was successfully applied for the optimization of axial-flow pump impeller shape design.
A simple mass-conserved level set method for simulation of multiphase flows
Yuan, H.-Z.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Shu, S.
2018-04-01
In this paper, a modified level set method is proposed for simulation of multiphase flows with large density ratio and high Reynolds number. The present method simply introduces a source or sink term into the level set equation to compensate the mass loss or offset the mass increase. The source or sink term is derived analytically by applying the mass conservation principle with the level set equation and the continuity equation of flow field. Since only a source term is introduced, the application of the present method is as simple as the original level set method, but it can guarantee the overall mass conservation. To validate the present method, the vortex flow problem is first considered. The simulation results are compared with those from the original level set method, which demonstrates that the modified level set method has the capability of accurately capturing the interface and keeping the mass conservation. Then, the proposed method is further validated by simulating the Laplace law, the merging of two bubbles, a bubble rising with high density ratio, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability with high Reynolds number. Numerical results show that the mass is a well-conserved by the present method.
Flow and Mass Transfer Performance in Short Pin-Fin Channels with Different Fin Shapes
Goldstein, R. J.; Chen, S. B.
1998-01-01
The mass transfer (analogous to heat transfer) and pressure loss characteristics of staggered short pin-fin arrays are investigated experimentally in the range of Reynolds number 3000 to 18,000 based on fin diameter and mean approach-flow velocity. Three different shapes of fins with aspect ratio of 2 are examined: one uniform-diameter circular fin (UDCF) and two stepped-diameter circular fins (SDCF1 and SDCF2). Flow visualization using oil-lampblack reveals complex flow characteristics assoc...
Effects of mass transfer on MHD flow of casson fluid with chemical reaction and suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Shehzad
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Effect of mass transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a Casson fluid over a porous stretching sheet is addressed in the presence of a chemical reaction. A series solution for the resulting nonlinear flow is computed. The skin friction coefficient and local Sherwood number are analyzed through numerical values for various parameters of interest. The velocity and concentration fields are illustrated for several pertinent flow parameters. We observed that the Casson parameter and Hartman number have similar effects on the velocity in a qualitative sense. We further analyzed that the concentration profile decreases rapidly in comparison to the fluid velocity when we increased the values of the suction parameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heba Ahmed Hassan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper applies a relatively new optimization method, the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF of two-terminal High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC electrical power system. The OPF problem of pure AC power systems considers the minimization of total costs under equality and inequality constraints. Hence, the OPF problem of integrated AC-DC power systems is extended to incorporate HVDC links, while taking into consideration the power transfer control characteristics using a GWO algorithm. This algorithm is inspired by the hunting behavior and social leadership of grey wolves in nature. The proposed algorithm is applied to two different case-studies: the modified 5-bus and WSCC 9-bus test systems. The validity of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing the obtained results with those reported in literature using other optimization techniques. Analysis of the obtained results show that the proposed GWO algorithm is able to achieve shorter CPU time, as well as minimized total cost when compared with already existing optimization techniques. This conclusion proves the efficiency of the GWO algorithm.
Kahveci, E. E.; Taymaz, I.
2018-03-01
In this study it was experimentally investigated the effect of mass flow rates of reactant gases which is one of the most important operational parameters of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell on power density. The channel type is serpentine and single PEM fuel cell has an active area of 25 cm2. Design-Expert 8.0 (trial version) was used with four variables to investigate the effect of variables on the response using. Cell temperature, hydrogen mass flow rate, oxygen mass flow rate and humidification temperature were selected as independent variables. In addition, the power density was used as response to determine the combined effects of these variables. It was kept constant cell and humidification temperatures while changing mass flow rates of reactant gases. From the results an increase occurred in power density with increasing the hydrogen flow rates. But oxygen flow rate does not have a significant effect on power density within determined mass flow rates.
Time resolved mass flow measurements for a fast gas delivery system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruden, E.L.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Scott, M.C.; Graham, J.D.; Coffey, S.K.
1992-01-01
A technique is demonstrated whereby the delivered mass and flow rate vs. time of a short rise time gas delivery system may be accurately determined. The gas mass M which flows past a point in a gas delivery system by an arbitrary time t may be accurately measured if that point is sealed off within a time interval short compared to the mass flow time scale. If the ejected mass is allowed to equilibrate in a known volume after being cut off from its source, a conventional static pressure measurement before and after injection, and application of the ideal gas law suffices. Assuming reproducibility, a time history M(t) may be generated, allowing the flow rate vs. time dM(t)/dt to be determined. Mass flow measurements are presented for a fast delivery system in which the flow of argon through a 3.2 mm I.D., 0.76 mm thick copper tube is cut off by imploding (θ pinching) the tube using a single turn tungsten magnetic field coil. Pinch discharge parameters are 44 μf, 20 kV, 47 nH, 3.5 mΩ, 584 kA, and 8.63 ps current period. Optical measurements of the tube's internal area vs. time indicate that the tube is sealed 2 ps from the time the tube is still 90% open (7 μs from the start of pinch current). The pinch delay is varied from 500--1,500 ps from the valve trigger (0--1,000 ps from the start of gas flow). The mass injected into the test volume is ∼ 100 μg during this interval. The leak rate of the sealed tube results in a mass increase of only ∼ 0.1 μg by the time the pressure gauge stabilizes (6 s). Results are correlated with piezoelectric probe measurements of the gas flow and 2-D axisymmetric numerical simulations of the θ pinch process. Simulations of a θ pinch suitable for characterizing an annular supersonic nozzle typical of those used in gas puff z pinches are discussed
Computer programs for the numerical modelling of water flow in rock masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Croney, P.; Richards, L.R.
1985-08-01
Water flow in rock joints provides a very important possible route for the migration of radio-nuclides from radio-active waste within a repository back to the biosphere. Two computer programs DAPHNE and FPM have been developed to model two dimensional fluid flow in jointed rock masses. They have been developed to run on microcomputer systems suitable for field locations. The fluid flows in a number of jointed rock systems have been examined and certain controlling functions identified. A methodology has been developed for assessing the anisotropic permeability of jointed rock. A number of examples of unconfined flow into surface and underground openings have been analysed and ground water lowering, pore water pressures and flow quantities predicted. (author)
Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Pardo, Y.
2013-12-01
Fractured media are very heterogeneous systems where occur complex physical and chemical processes to model. One of the possible approaches to conceptualize this type of massifs is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN). Donado et al., modeled flow and transport in a granitic batholith based on this approach and found good fitting with hydraulic and tracer tests, but the computational cost was excessive due to a gigantic amount of elements to model. We present in this work a methodology based on percolation theory for reducing the number of elements and in consequence, to reduce the bandwidth of the conductance matrix and the execution time of each network. DFN poses as an excellent representation of all the set of fractures of the media, but not all the fractures of the media are part of the conductive network. Percolation theory is used to identify which nodes or fractures are not conductive, based on the occupation probability or percolation threshold. In a fractured system, connectivity determines the flow pattern in the fractured rock mass. This volume of fluid is driven through connection paths formed by the fractures, when the permeability of the rock is negligible compared to the fractures. In a population of distributed fractures, each of this that has no intersection with any connected fracture do not contribute to generate a flow field. This algorithm also permits us to erase these elements however they are water conducting and hence, refine even more the backbone of the network. We used 100 different generations of DFN that were optimized in this study using percolation theory. In each of the networks calibrate hydrodynamic parameters as hydraulic conductivity and specific storage coefficient, for each of the five families of fractures, yielding a total of 10 parameters to estimate, at each generation. Since the effects of the distribution of fault orientation changes the value of the percolation threshold, but not the universal laws of classical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Do, Chuong; Hussey, Dennis; Wells, Daniel M.; Epperson, Kenny
2016-01-01
Optimization numerical method was implemented to determine several mass transfer coefficients in a crud-induced power shift risk assessment code. The approach was to utilize a multilevel strategy that targets different model parameters that first changes the major order variables, mass transfer inputs, then calibrates the minor order variables, crud source terms, according to available plant data. In this manner, the mass transfer inputs are effectively simplified as 'dependent' on the crud source terms. Two optimization studies were performed using DAKOTA, a design and analysis toolkit, with the difference between the runs, being the number of model runs using BOA, allowed for adjusting the crud source terms, therefore, reducing the uncertainty with calibration. The result of the first case showed that the current best estimated values for the mass transfer coefficients, which were derived from first principle analysis, can be considered an optimized set. When the run limit of BOA was increased for the second case, an improvement in the prediction was obtained with the results deviating slightly from the best estimated values. (author)
Optimization of a flow injection analysis system for multiple solvent extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossi, T.M.; Shelly, D.C.; Warner, I.M.
1982-01-01
The performance of a multistage flow injection analysis solvent extraction system has been optimized. The effect of solvent segmentation devices, extraction coils, and phase separators on performance characteristics is discussed. Theoretical consideration is given to the effects and determination of dispersion and the extraction dynamics within both glass and Teflon extraction coils. The optimized system has a sample recovery similar to an identical manual procedure and a 1.5% relative standard deviation between injections. Sample throughput time is under 5 min. These characteristics represent significant improvements over the performance of the same system before optimization. 6 figures, 2 tables
Liang, Zhuoyuan; Ren, Lijie; Wang, Ting; Hu, Huoyou; Li, Weiping; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Dehong; Lie, Yi
2016-12-01
The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) decreases when the administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is delayed. Derived from Toyota Production System, lean production aims to create top-quality products with high-efficiency procedures, a concept that easily applies to emergency medicine. In this study, we aimed to determine whether applying lean principles to flow optimization could hasten the initiation of thrombolysis. A multidisciplinary team (Stroke Team) was organized to implement an ongoing, continuous loop of lean production that contained the following steps: decomposition, recognition, intervention, reengineering and assessment. The door-to-needle time (DNT) and the percentage of patients with DNT ≤ 60 min before and after the adoption of lean principles were used to evaluate the efficiency of our flow optimization. Thirteen patients with AIS in the pre-lean period and 43 patients with AIS in the lean period (23 in lean period I and 20 patients in lean period II) were consecutively enrolled in our study. After flow optimization, we reduced DNT from 90 to 47 min (p < 0.001 ¤ ). In addition, the percentage of patients treated ≤60 min after hospital arrival increased from 38.46 to 75.0 % (p = 0.015 ¤ ). Adjusted analysis of covariance confirmed a significant influence of optimization on delay of tPA administration (p < 0.001). The patients were more likely to have a good prognosis (mRS ≤ 2 at 90 days) after the flow optimization (30.77-75.00 %, p = 0.012 ¤ ). Our study may offer an effective approach for optimizing the thrombolytic flow in the management of AIS.
Ideal stability of cylindrical plasma in the presence of mass flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondeson, A.; Iacono, R.
1988-11-01
The ideal stability of cylindrical plasma with mass flows is investigated using the guiding centre plasma (GCP) model of Grad. For rotating plasmas, the kinetic treatment of the parallel motion in GCP gives significantly different results than fluid models, where the pressures are obtained from equations of state. In particular, GCP removes the resonance with slow magnetoacoustic waves and the loss of stability that results in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for near-soni flows. Because of the strong kinetic damping of the sound waves in an isothermal plasma, the slow waves have little influence on plasma stability in GCP at low β. In the large aspect ratio, low-β tokamak ordering, Alfvenic flows are needed to change the ideal GCP stability significantly. At lowest order in the inverse aspect ratio, flow can be favorable or unfavorable for stability of local modes depending on the profiles, but external kinks are always destilized by flow if the velocity vanishes at the edge. For high-β, reversed field pinch equilibria, numerical computations show that flow can be stabilizing for local modes, but external modes are destabilized by flow. It is shown that in three dimensions, the MHD equilibrium problem becomes hyperbolic for arbitrarily small flows across the magnetic field, whereas in GCP the equilibrium remains elliptic for sub-Alfvenic flows. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab, 32 refs
Modelling of the processes of heat and mass transfer in adiabatic steam and drop flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrizhievskij, A.A.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Trifonov, A.G.
1983-01-01
The mathematical models for investigating the local and integral characteristics of heat and mass transfer processes during simultaneous motion of adiabatic steam and drop flow and a flux of impurity particles are given. The mathematical model is constrUcted on the basis of one-dimensional stationary eqUations of conservation of mass, thermal energy and momentum of liquid and vapor phases. Dispersion composition of condensed moisture is described by the Nukiyama-Tanasava distribution function formed taking into account the Veber number critical value. Equations of motion and mass balance conservation for impurity particles are included into the mathematical model. These equations are considered as additional inactive phase
Mitroo, Dhruv; Sun, Yujian; Combest, Daniel P.; Kumar, Purushottam; Williams, Brent J.
2018-03-01
Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate). While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs) inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM) reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS) model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Mitroo
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate. While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Shunchun, E-mail: epscyao@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Laser Technology, Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Lu, Jidong, E-mail: jdlu@scut.edu.cn [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)
2015-08-01
The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment. - Highlights: • Tapered tube was designed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow as well as enriching the particles in laser focus spot. • The characteristics of laser-induced plasma of coal particle flow were investigated carefully. • An appropriate diameter of coal particle flow was proven to benefit for improving the performance of LIBS measurement.
Design optimization of flow channel and performance analysis for a new-type centrifugal blood pump
Ji, J. J.; Luo, X. W.; Y Wu, Q.
2013-12-01
In this paper, a new-type centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is suspended inside a pump chamber with hydraulic bearings, is presented. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the pump, an internal flow simulation is conducted to compare the effects of different geometrical parameters of pump flow passage. Based on the numerical results, the pumps can satisfy the operation parameters and be free of hemolysis. It is noted that for the pump with a column-type supporter at its inlet, the pump head and hydraulic efficiency decreases compared to the pump with a step-type support structure. The performance drop is caused by the disturbed flow upstream impeller inlet. Further, the unfavorable flow features such as reverse flow and low velocity in the pump may increases the possibility of thrombus. It is also confirmed that the casing shape can little influence pump performance. Those results are helpful for design optimization in blood pump development.
Shape interior modeling and mass property optimization using ray-reps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jun; Kramer, Lou; Westermann, Rüdiger
2016-01-01
, and prove this parametrization covers the optimal interior regarding static and rotational stability criteria. This compact formulation thoroughly reduces the number of design variables compared to the general volumetric element-wise formulation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our reduced formulation......We present a novel method for the modeling and optimization of the material distribution inside 3D shapes, such that their 3D printed replicas satisfy prescribed constraints regarding mass properties. In particular, we introduce an extension of ray-representation to shape interior modeling...
Vibration isolation by compliant sensor mounting applied to a coriolis mass-flow meter
van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes
2014-01-01
In this paper a vibration isolated design of the Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is proposed, by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors with the intention to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube
Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno [University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)
2015-06-15
Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R{sup 2}=0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k{sub L}a=4,652-1,9807 h{sup -1}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KLEM, M.J.
2000-01-01
The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KLEM, M.J.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference
Mass transfer coefficient of slug flow for organic solvent-aqueous system in a microreactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuek, Ana Jurinjak; Anic, Iva; Kurtanjek, Zelimir; Zelic, Bruno
2015-01-01
Application of microreactor systems could be the next break-through in the intensification of chemical and biochemical processes. The common flow regime for organic solvent-aqueous phase two-phase systems is a segmented flow. Internal circulations in segments cause high mass transfer and conversion. We analyzed slug flow in seven systems of organic solvents and aqueous phase. To analyze how slug lengths in tested systems depend on linear velocity and physical and chemical properties of used organic solvents, regression models were proposed. It was shown that models based on linearization of approximation by potentials give low correlation for slug length prediction; however, application of an essential nonlinear model of multiple layer perception (MLP) neural network gives high correlation with R 2 =0.9. General sensitivity analysis was applied for the MLP neural network model, which showed that 80% of variance in slug length for the both phases is accounted for the viscosity and density of the organic phases; 10% is accounted by surface tension of the organic phase, while molecular masses and flow rates each account for 5%. For defined geometry of microreactor, mass transfer has been determined by carrying out the neutralization experiment with NaOH where acetic acid diffuses from organic phase (hexane) into aqueous phase. Estimated mass transfer coefficients were in the range k L a=4,652-1,9807 h -1
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.
2014-01-01
Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1
Analysis of Petrol and Diesel Vapor Using Selective Ion Flow Tube/Mass Spectrometry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ping, CH.; Weijun, Z.; Yaman, CH.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.
2003-01-01
Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 548-551 ISSN 0253-3820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : selected ion flow tube/mass spectrometry * fuel vapor Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2003
Vibration Isolation by an Actively Compliantly Mounted Sensor Applied to a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter
van de Ridder, Bert; Hakvoort, Wouter; van Dijk, Johannes; Lötters, Joost Conrad; de Boer, Andries
2016-01-01
In this paper, a vibration isolated design of a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM) is proposed by introducing a compliant connection between the casing and the tube displacement sensors, with the objective to obtain a relative displacement measurement of the fluid conveying tube, dependent on the tube
On the features, successes and challenges of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.
2013-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 225-246 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28882S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * SIFT-MS * breath metabolies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2013
Modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haneveld, J; Lammerink, T S J; De Boer, M J; Sanders, R G P; Mehendale, A; Lötters, J C; Dijkstra, M; Wiegerink, R J
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the modeling, design and realization of micromachined Coriolis mass flow sensors. A lumped element model is used to analyze and predict the sensor performance. The model is used to design a sensor for a flow range of 0–1.2 g h −1 with a maximum pressure drop of 1 bar. The sensor was realized using semi-circular channels just beneath the surface of a silicon wafer. The channels have thin silicon nitride walls to minimize the channel mass with respect to the mass of the moving fluid. Special comb-shaped electrodes are integrated on the channels for capacitive readout of the extremely small Coriolis displacements. The comb-shaped electrode design eliminates the need for multiple metal layers and sacrificial layer etching methods. Furthermore, it prevents squeezed film damping due to a thin layer of air between the capacitor electrodes. As a result, the sensor operates at atmospheric pressure with a quality factor in the order of 40 and does not require vacuum packaging like other micro Coriolis flow sensors. Measurement results using water, ethanol, white gas and argon are presented, showing that the sensor measures true mass flow. The measurement error is currently in the order of 1% of the full scale of 1.2 g h −1
Effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.
1981-04-01
It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value problem. Among the suggestions to overcome these difficulties, one model for the virtual mass force terms were studied here, because the virtual mass represents real physical effects to accomplish the dissipation for numerical stability. It was found that the virtual mass has a profound effect upon the mathematical characteristic and numerical stability. Here a quantitative bound on the coefficient of the virtual mass terms was suggested for mathematical hyperbolicity and numerical stability. It was concluded that the finite difference scheme with the virtual mass model is restricted only by the convective stability conditions with the above suggested value
Effect of distributive mass of spring on power flow in engineering test
Sheng, Meiping; Wang, Ting; Wang, Minqing; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Xuan
2018-06-01
Mass of spring is always neglected in theoretical and simulative analysis, while it may be a significance in practical engineering. This paper is concerned with the distributive mass of a steel spring which is used as an isolator to simulate isolation performance of a water pipe in a heating system. Theoretical derivation of distributive mass effect of steel spring on vibration is presented, and multiple eigenfrequencies are obtained, which manifest that distributive mass results in extra modes and complex impedance properties. Furthermore, numerical simulation visually shows several anti-resonances of the steel spring corresponding to impedance and power flow curves. When anti-resonances emerge, the spring collects large energy which may cause damage and unexpected consequences in practical engineering and needs to be avoided. Finally, experimental tests are conducted and results show consistency with that of the simulation of the spring with distributive mass.
Kattel, Parameshwari; Kafle, Jeevan; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Mergili, Martin; Tuladhar, Bhadra Man; Pudasaini, Shiva P.
2017-04-01
In this work we analyze the dynamic interaction of two phase debris flows with pyramidal obstacles. To simulate the dynamic interaction of two-phase debris flow (a mixture of solid particles and viscous fluid) with obstacles of different dimensions and orientations, we employ the general two-phase mass flow model (Pudasaini, 2012). The model consists of highly non-linear partial differential equations representing the mass and momentum conservations for both solid and fluid. Besides buoyancy, the model includes some dominant physical aspects of the debris flows such as generalized drag, virtual mass and non-Newtonian viscous stress as induced by the gradient of solid-volume-fraction. Simulations are performed with high-resolution numerical schemes to capture essential dynamics, including the strongly re-directed flow with multiple stream lines, mass arrest and debris-vacuum generation when the rapidly cascading debris mass suddenly encounters the obstacle. The solid and fluid phases show fundamentally different interactions with obstacles, flow spreading and dispersions, run-out dynamics, and deposition morphology. A forward-facing pyramid deflects the mass wider, and a rearward-facing pyramid arrests a portion of solid-mass at its front. Our basic study reveals that appropriately installed obstacles, their dimensions and orientations have a significant influence on the flow dynamics, material redistribution and redirection. The precise knowledge of the change in dynamics is of great importance for the optimal and effective protection of designated areas along the mountain slopes and the runout zones. Further important results are, that specific installations lead to redirect either solid, or fluid, or both, in the desired amounts and directions. The present method of the complex interactions of real two-phase mass flows with the obstacles may help us to construct defense structures and to design advanced and physics-based engineering solutions for the prevention
System design and optimization study of axial flow turbine applied in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
between parameters of the turbine and flows, three different types of turbines with ... and the water are run through a multi-stage hydro-turbine for producing electricity. ... to optimize the runner blade shape of a tubular turbine. ..... Ranade V V, Perrard M, Le Sauze N, Xuereb C and Bertrand J 2001 Trailing vortices of Rushton ...
Optimal Power Flow for resistive DC Network : A Port-Hamiltonian approach
Benedito, Ernest; del Puerto-Flores, D.; Doria-Cerezo, A.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri
This paper studies the optimal power flow problem for resistive DC networks. The gradient method algorithm is written in a port-Hamiltonian form and the stability of the resulting dynamics is studied. Stability conditions are provided for general cyclic networks and a solution, when these conditions
Optimal Power Flow in three-phase islanded microgrids with inverter interfaced units
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Quang, Ninh Nguyen; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa
2015-01-01
In this paper, the solution of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem for three phase islanded microgrids is studied, the OPF being one of the core functions of the tertiary regulation level for an AC islanded microgrid with a hierarchical control architecture. The study also aims at evaluating the...
Preventive Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow Considering UPFC Control Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The successful application of the unified power flow controller (UPFC provides a new control method for the secure and economic operation of power system. In order to make the full use of UPFC and improve the economic efficiency and static security of a power system, a preventive security-constrained power flow optimization method considering UPFC control modes is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an iterative method considering UPFC control modes is deduced for power flow calculation. Taking into account the influence of different UPFC control modes on the distribution of power flow after N-1 contingency, the optimization model is then constructed by setting a minimal system operation cost and a maximum static security margin as the objective. Based on this model, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is utilized to optimize power system operating parameters and UPFC control modes simultaneously. Finally, a standard IEEE 30-bus system is utilized to demonstrate that the proposed method fully exploits the potential of static control of UPFC and significantly increases the economic efficiency and static security of the power system.
A quantitative flow visualization technique for on-site sport aerodynamics optimization
Sciacchitano, A.; Caridi, G.; Scarano, F.
2015-01-01
Aerodynamics plays a crucial role in many speed sports, where races are often won by fractions of a second. A thorough understanding of the flow field around an athlete is of paramount importance to optimize the athletes’ posture, garment roughness and equipment shape to achieve the minimum
Piecewise mass flows within a solar prominence observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope
Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Tam, Kuan Vai; Zhao, Mingyu; Zhang, Xuefei
2018-06-01
The material of solar prominences is often observed in a state of flowing. These mass flows (MF) are important and useful for us to understand the internal structure and dynamics of prominences. In this paper, we present a high resolution Hα observation of MFs within a quiescent solar prominence. From the observation, we find that the plasma primarily has a circular motion and a downward motion separately in the middle section and legs of the prominence, which creates a piecewise mass flow along the observed prominence. Moreover, the observation also shows a clear displacement of MF's velocity peaks in the middle section of the prominence. All of these provide us with a detailed record of MFs within a solar prominence and show a new approach to detecting the physical properties of prominence.
Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, H.H.
2012-02-23
Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.
Optimal Power Flow in Multiphase Radial Networks with Delta Connections: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Low, Steven H. [California Institute of Technology
2017-11-27
This paper focuses on multiphase radial distribution networks with mixed wye and delta connections, and proposes a semidefinite relaxation of the AC optimal power flow (OPF) problem. Two multiphase power-flow models are developed to facilitate the integration of delta-connected generation units/loads in the OPF problem. The first model extends traditional branch flow models - and it is referred to as extended branch flow model (EBFM). The second model leverages a linear relationship between per-phase power injections and delta connections, which holds under a balanced voltage approximation (BVA). Based on these models, pertinent OPF problems are formulated and relaxed to semidefinite programs (SDPs). Numerical studies on IEEE test feeders show that SDP relaxations can be solved efficiently by a generic optimization solver. Numerical evidences indicate that solving the resultant SDP under BVA is faster than under EBFM. Moreover, both SDP solutions are numerically exact with respect to voltages and branch flows. It is also shown that the SDP solution under BVA has a small optimality gap, while the BVA model is accurate in the sense that it reflects actual system voltages.
DECSERVIS-2: A tool for natural decay series mass flow simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azzam, Saad; Suksi, Juhani; Ammann, Michael
2009-01-01
After the publication of 'DECSERVIS: a tool for radioactive decay series visualisation' we have further developed our DECSERVIS software. With the new tool DECSERVIS-2 one can simulate radioactive decay chains in open systems, i.e. when the concentrations of nuclides change also due to mass flows. Decay chains can be simulated under continuous and successive nuclide mass flow events into and out from the system and in freely determined time intervals. Simulation output for the entire decay chain (nuclide activity, mass, number of nuclides, nuclide ratios) can be presented as a function of time with various graphical presentations such as solid curve and column diagrams or animation. In this paper we introduce DECSERVIS-2 and demonstrate its use with simulation examples. DECSERVIS-2 is easy to use and has been designed with an eye on the demands of teaching.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccaccini, L.V.
1986-07-01
To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de
Mass spectrometric studies of bimolecular reactions in a selected ion flow tube (SIFT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shul, R.J.; Upschulte, B.L.; Passarella, R.; Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W.
1985-01-01
The rate coefficients for a number of thermal energy charge transfer reactions have been obtained with a selected ion flow tube (SIFT). The reactions studied involve Ar + and Ar 2 + with a variety of neutral molecules including: O 2 , CS 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 , H 2 S, NH 3 , and SF 6 . Such reactions have been of long-standing interest in the field of gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry from both a practical and fundamental point of view. Consideration of charge transfer reactions as possible sources of chemical lasers and their role in ionospheric and interstellar chemistry account for much of the interest. Fundamentally, the mechanism involved in these reactions has yet to be definitively established. The consumption deposition of energy into internal modes and translational degrees of freedom in such reactions has also been a topic of considerable debate. The apparatus consists of five main components: an ion source, SIFT quadrupole, ion injector, flow tube, and a mass spectrometer detection system. Ions formed in a high pressure source leak into a SIFT quadrupole where they are mass selected. The primary ion of interest is then injected into the flow tube where reactions are studied. Once in the flow tube the ions are carried downstream by an inert buffer gas, either argon, nitrogen, or helium in the present study. Neutral reactant gas is added through a reactant gas inlet (RGI) at an appropriate location downstream in the flow tube, and allowed to react with the injected ions. Ions on the flow tube axis are sampled through a 1 mm orifice where they are mass analyzed by a second quadrupole mass spectrometer and detected with a channeltron electron multiplier
A mass-conserving multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of multiphase flows
Niu, Xiao-Dong; Li, You; Ma, Yi-Ren; Chen, Mu-Feng; Li, Xiang; Li, Qiao-Zhong
2018-01-01
In this study, a mass-conserving multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating the multiphase flows. The proposed model developed in the present study is to improve the model of Shao et al. ["Free-energy-based lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of multiphase flows with density contrast," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033309 (2014)] by introducing a mass correction term in the lattice Boltzmann model for the interface. The model of Shao et al. [(the improved Zheng-Shu-Chew (Z-S-C model)] correctly considers the effect of the local density variation in momentum equation and has an obvious improvement over the Zheng-Shu-Chew (Z-S-C) model ["A lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows with large density ratio," J. Comput. Phys. 218(1), 353-371 (2006)] in terms of solution accuracy. However, due to the physical diffusion and numerical dissipation, the total mass of each fluid phase cannot be conserved correctly. To solve this problem, a mass correction term, which is similar to the one proposed by Wang et al. ["A mass-conserved diffuse interface method and its application for incompressible multiphase flows with large density ratio," J. Comput. Phys. 290, 336-351 (2015)], is introduced into the lattice Boltzmann equation for the interface to compensate the mass losses or offset the mass increase. Meanwhile, to implement the wetting boundary condition and the contact angle, a geometric formulation and a local force are incorporated into the present mass-conserving LB model. The proposed model is validated by verifying the Laplace law, simulating both one and two aligned droplets splashing onto a liquid film, droplets standing on an ideal wall, droplets with different wettability splashing onto smooth wax, and bubbles rising under buoyancy. Numerical results show that the proposed model can correctly simulate multiphase flows. It was found that the mass is well-conserved in all cases considered by the model developed in the present study. The developed
Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi
2017-03-03
This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.
Simon, Moritz; Ulbrich, Michael
2013-01-01
Motivated by applications in subsurface CO2 sequestration, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. The objective is, e.g., to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, where the time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system and formulate the optimal control problem. For the discretization we use a variant of the BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method. The timestep-wise Lagrangian of the control problem is implemented as a functional in the PDE toolbox Sundance, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. The resulting MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT. Finally, we present some numerical results in a heterogeneous model reservoir.
Multi-condition optimization and experimental study of impeller blades in a mixed-flow pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Houlin Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available On the basis of design of experiment and numerical simulation, a reliable optimization method for blades of a mixed-flow pump is proposed with the maximum weighted average efficiency at multi-conditions as optimum objective. First, the performance of the model pump was measured and the test results were used to validate the simulation method. To improve the simulation accuracy, the check of the grid independence and the comparison of different turbulence models were done in detail. Then, the method of design of experiment for key geometrical parameters was used to obtain the optimization scheme. The maximum weighted average efficiency of pump at three operation conditions was chosen as optimum objective. The optimum solution was gotten and confirmed by the experiment. The results demonstrate that efficiency of the mixed-flow pump with optimized impeller increases by 3.9%, and the high-efficiency zone is increased from 0.021 to 0.040.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruyi Huang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new-type of antigravity mixing method, which was applied in the biogas production process, using organic wastewater fermentation. It was found that the digesters with two designs, a high-position, centralized pressure outlet and a high-position, dispersed pressure outlets, both lead to an increase in biogas production rates by 89% and 125%, respectively. The biogas production peak appeared 1 day and 7 days earlier, and the COD removal rates were raised by 27% and 42%, respectively. The results indicated that the optimized flow field had a significant impact. This work also explains the mechanism of flow field optimization using computational fluid dynamics (CFD software for the simulation of the flow field form in the hydraulic mixing.
Distribution-Agnostic Stochastic Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Grids: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Kyri; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Summers, Tyler
2016-09-01
This paper outlines a data-driven, distributionally robust approach to solve chance-constrained AC optimal power flow problems in distribution networks. Uncertain forecasts for loads and power generated by photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered, with the goal of minimizing PV curtailment while meeting power flow and voltage regulation constraints. A data- driven approach is utilized to develop a distributionally robust conservative convex approximation of the chance-constraints; particularly, the mean and covariance matrix of the forecast errors are updated online, and leveraged to enforce voltage regulation with predetermined probability via Chebyshev-based bounds. By combining an accurate linear approximation of the AC power flow equations with the distributionally robust chance constraint reformulation, the resulting optimization problem becomes convex and computationally tractable.
Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy
2011-12-01
Application of a sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determination of topiramate, piracetam, and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations has been investigated. The method is based on the reaction with ortho-phtalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol in a basic buffer and measurement of absorbance at 295 nm under flow conditions. Variables affecting the determination such as sample injection volume, pH, ionic strength, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagent and other FIA parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results using a quarter-fraction factorial design, for five factors at two levels. Also, the method has been optimized and fully validated in terms of linearity and range, limit of detection and quantitation, precision, selectivity and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.
Ramshaw, B J; Sebastian, S E; McDonald, R D; Day, James; Tan, B S; Zhu, Z; Betts, J B; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Harrison, N
2015-04-17
In the quest for superconductors with higher transition temperatures (T(c)), one emerging motif is that electronic interactions favorable for superconductivity can be enhanced by fluctuations of a broken-symmetry phase. Recent experiments have suggested the existence of the requisite broken-symmetry phase in the high-T(c) cuprates, but the impact of such a phase on the ground-state electronic interactions has remained unclear. We used magnetic fields exceeding 90 tesla to access the underlying metallic state of the cuprate YBa2Cu3O(6+δ) over a wide range of doping, and observed magnetic quantum oscillations that reveal a strong enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass toward optimal doping. This mass enhancement results from increasing electronic interactions approaching optimal doping, and suggests a quantum critical point at a hole doping of p(crit) ≈ 0.18. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Holtegaard Nielsen, Morten; Vang, Torben; Chresten Lund-Hansen, Lars
2017-12-01
Internal hydraulic control, which occurs when stratified water masses are forced through an abrupt constriction, plays an enormous role in nature on both large and regional scales with respect to dynamics, circulation, and water mass formation. Despite a growing literature on this subject surprisingly few direct observations have been made that conclusively show the existence of and the circumstances related to internal hydraulic control in nature. In this study we present observations from the Little Belt, Denmark, one of three narrow straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The observations (comprised primarily of along-strait, detailed transects of salinity and temperature; continuous observations of flow velocity, salinity, and temperature at a permanent station; and numerous vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence, and flow velocity in various locations) show that internal hydraulic control is a frequently occurring phenomenon in the Little Belt. The observations, which are limited to south-going flows of approximately two-layered water masses, show that internal hydraulic control may take either of two configurations, i.e. the lower or the upper layer being the active, accelerating one. This is connected to the depth of the pycnocline on the upstream side and the topography, which is both deepening and contracting toward the narrow part of the Little Belt. The existence of two possible flow configurations is known from theoretical and laboratory studies, but we believe that this has never been observed in nature and reported before. The water masses formed by the intense mixing, which is tightly connected with the presence of control, may be found far downstream of the point of control. The observations show that these particular water masses are associated with chlorophyll concentrations that are considerably higher than in adjacent water masses, showing that control has a considerable influence on the primary production and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sechilariu, Manuela; Wang, Bao Chao; Locment, Fabrice; Jouglet, Antoine
2014-01-01
Highlights: • DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control. • Power balancing following power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. • Optimization under constraints: storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing. • Experimental validation of DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. • DC microgrid able to perform peak shaving, to avoid undesired injection, and to make full use of locally energy. - Abstract: Urban areas have great potential for photovoltaic (PV) generation, however, direct PV power injection has limitations for high level PV penetration. It induces additional regulations in grid power balancing because of lacking abilities of responding to grid issues such as reducing grid peak consumption or avoiding undesired injections. The smart grid implementation, which is designed to meet these requirements, is facilitated by microgrids development. This paper presents a DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control which handles instantaneous power balancing following the power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. The optimization takes into account forecast of PV power production and load power demand, while satisfying constraints such as storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing and grid peak hour. Optimization, whose efficiency is related to the prediction accuracy, is carried out by mixed integer linear programming. Experimental results show that the proposed microgrid structure is able to control the power flow at near optimum cost and ensures self-correcting capability. It can respond to issues of performing peak shaving, avoiding undesired injection, and making full use of locally produced energy with respect to rigid element constraints
Power and mass optimization of the hybrid solar panel and thermoelectric generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The dynamics of the hybrid PV/TEG system operating in outer space is studied. • A generalized thermodynamic model of the hybrid PV/TEG system is given. • This model is then simplified to consider the outer space scenario. • The design of the hybrid PV/TEG system is optimized using the NSGA-II algorithm. • The optimized hybrid system is more efficient than its monolithic counterparts. - Abstract: The thermoelectric generator (TEG) has been widely considered as an electrical power source in many ground applications because of its clean and noiseless characteristics. Moreover, the hybrid photovoltaic cell and TEG (PV/TEG) system has also received wide attention due to its improved power conversion efficiency over its monolithic counterparts. This paper presents a study of the dynamics and the operation of the hybrid PV/TEG system in an outer space environment where a unified thermodynamic model of this system is presented. Moreover, the multi-objective NSGA-II genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize the design of the TEG both in terms of optimal output power and in terms of mass. Specifically, the design of the single stage and the two stage variant of the aforementioned TEG are considered. Simulation results indicate that the optimized PV/TEG system does indeed achieve better efficiencies than that of the monolithic counterparts. Furthermore, it is shown that the single stage TEG is more beneficial than the two stage TEG in terms of achieving optimal performance.
Optimal Return Service Charging Policy for a Fashion Mass Customization Program
Tsan-Ming Choi
2013-01-01
Mass customization (MC) service is a pertinent industrial practice in the fashion industry. To foster trust and enhance demand, some brands now allow dissatisfied customers to return the MC fashion product for a full refund minus a service charge. The service charge is a measure to avoid the abuse of the return right and to subsidize the operations cost (e.g., shipping) and loss from the return. Motivated by this observed industrial practice, this paper analytically examines the optimal retur...
Heat and mass transfer of a fuel droplet evaporating in oscillatory flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jangi, M.; Kobayashi, H.
2009-01-01
A numerical study of the heat and mass transfer from an evaporating fuel droplet in oscillatory flow was performed. The flow was assumed to be laminar and axisymmetric, and the droplet was assumed to maintain its spherical shape during its lifetime. Based on these assumptions, the conservation equations in a general curvilinear coordinate were solved numerically. The behaviors of droplet evaporation in the oscillatory flow were investigated by analyzing the effects of flow oscillation on the evaporation process of a n-heptane fuel droplet at high pressure. The response of the time history of the square of droplet diameter and space-averaged Nusselt numbers to the main flow oscillation were investigated in frequency band of 1-75 Hz with various oscillation amplitudes. Results showed that, depending on the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation, there are different modes of response of the evaporation process to the flow oscillation. One response mode is synchronous with the main flow oscillation, and thus the quasi-steady condition is attained. Another mode is asynchronous with the flow oscillation and is highly unsteady. As for the evaporation rate, however, in all conditions is more greatly enhanced in oscillatory flow than in quiescent air. To quantify the conditions of the transition from quasi-steady to unsteady, the response of the boundary layer around the droplet surface to the flow oscillation was investigated. The results led to including the oscillation Strouhal number as a criteria for the transition. The numerical results showed that at a low Strouhal number, a quasi-steady boundary layer is formed in response to the flow oscillation, whereas by increasing the oscillation Strouhal number, the phenomena become unsteady.
Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Brown, Tom; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)
2013-05-15
Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is first demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be robust and convergent. It is then applied to the European power system in order to find its cost-optimal development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050.
Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M X; Zhang, C H; Liu, Y; Zheng, S Y
2013-01-01
Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%
Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency
Guex, Guillaume
2016-05-01
In recent articles about graphs, different models proposed a formalism to find a type of path between two nodes, the source and the target, at crossroads between the shortest-path and the random-walk path. These models include a freely adjustable parameter, allowing to tune the behavior of the path toward randomized movements or direct routes. This article presents a natural generalization of these models, namely a model with multiple sources and targets. In this context, source nodes can be viewed as locations with a supply of a certain good (e.g. people, money, information) and target nodes as locations with a demand of the same good. An algorithm is constructed to display the flow of goods in the network between sources and targets. With again a freely adjustable parameter, this flow can be tuned to follow routes of minimum cost, thus displaying the flow in the context of the optimal transportation problem or, by contrast, a random flow, known to be similar to the electrical current flow if the random-walk is reversible. Moreover, a source-targetcoupling can be retrieved from this flow, offering an optimal assignment to the transportation problem. This algorithm is described in the first part of this article and then illustrated with case studies.
Lu, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying
2018-04-01
A particle tuned mass damper (PTMD) is a creative combination of a widely used tuned mass damper (TMD) and an efficient particle damper (PD) in the vibration control area. The performance of a one-storey steel frame attached with a PTMD is investigated through free vibration and shaking table tests. The influence of some key parameters (filling ratio of particles, auxiliary mass ratio, and particle density) on the vibration control effects is investigated, and it is shown that the attenuation level significantly depends on the filling ratio of particles. According to the experimental parametric study, some guidelines for optimization of the PTMD that mainly consider the filling ratio are proposed. Furthermore, an approximate analytical solution based on the concept of an equivalent single-particle damper is proposed, and it shows satisfied agreement between the simulation and experimental results. This simplified method is then used for the preliminary optimal design of a PTMD system, and a case study of a PTMD system attached to a five-storey steel structure following this optimization process is presented.
Hard and soft sub-time-optimal controllers for a mechanical system with uncertain mass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulczycki, P.; Wisniewski, Rafal; Kowalski, P.
2004-01-01
An essential limitation in using the classical optimal control has been its limited robustness to modeling inadequacies and perturbations. This paper presents conceptions of two practical control structures based on the time-optimal approach: hard and soft ones. The hard structure is defined...... by parameters selected in accordance with the rules of the statistical decision theory; however, the soft structure allows additionally to eliminate rapid changes in control values. The object is a basic mechanical system, with uncertain (also non-stationary) mass treated as a stochastic process....... The methodology proposed here is of a universal nature and may easily be applied with respect to other elements of uncertainty of time-optimal controlled mechanical systems....
Hard and soft Sub-Time-Optimal Controllers for a Mechanical System with Uncertain Mass
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulczycki, P.; Wisniewski, Rafal; Kowalski, P.
2005-01-01
An essential limitation in using the classical optimal control has been its limited robustness to modeling inadequacies and perturbations. This paper presents conceptions of two practical control structures based on the time-optimal approach: hard and soft ones. The hard structure is defined...... by parameters selected in accordance with the rules of the statistical decision theory; however, the soft structure allows additionally to eliminate rapid changes in control values. The object is a basic mechanical system, with uncertain (also non-stationary) mass treated as a stochastic process....... The methodology proposed here is of a universal nature and may easily be applied with respect to other elements of uncertainty of time-optimal controlled mechanical systems....
Study on flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks (Contact research)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimo, Michito; Kumamoto, Sou; Maekawa, Keisuke
2007-03-01
It is important for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal to evaluate groundwater flow and mass transport in deep underground accurately. Though it is considered that the mass transport in sedimentary rock occurs in pores between grains mainly, fractures of sedimentary rock can be main paths. The objective of this study is to establish a conceptual model for flow and mass transport in fractured soft sedimentary rock. In previous study, a series of laboratory hydraulic and tracer tests and numerical analyses were carried out using sedimentary rock specimens obtained from Koetoi and Wakkanai formation. Single natural fractured cores and rock block specimen were used for the tests and analyses. The results indicated that the matrix diffusion played an important role for mass transport in the fractured soft sedimentary rocks. In this study, the following two tasks were carried out: (1) laboratory hydraulic and tracer experiments of rock cores of Koetoi and Wakkanai formation obtained at HDB-9, HDB-10 and HDB-11 boreholes and a rock block specimen, Wakkanai formation, obtained at an outcrop in the Horonobe area, (2) a numerical study on the conceptual model of flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks. Non-sorbing tracer experiments using naturally fractured cores and rock block specimens were carried out. Pottasium iodide was used as a tracer. The obtained breakthrough curves were interpreted and fitted by using a numerical simulator, and mass transport parameters, such as longitudinal dispersivity, matrix diffusion coefficient, transport aperture, were obtained. Mass transport simulations using a fracture network model, a continuum model and a double porosity model were performed to study the applicability of continuum model and double porosity model for transport in fractured sedimentary rock. (author)
Architecture for improved mass transport and system performance in redox flow batteries
Houser, Jacob; Pezeshki, Alan; Clement, Jason T.; Aaron, Douglas; Mench, Matthew M.
2017-05-01
In this work, electrochemical performance and parasitic losses are combined in an overall system-level efficiency metric for a high performance, all-vanadium redox flow battery. It was found that pressure drop and parasitic pumping losses are relatively negligible for high performance cells, i.e., those capable of operating at a high current density while at a low flow rate. Through this finding, the Equal Path Length (EPL) flow field architecture was proposed and evaluated. This design has superior mass transport characteristics in comparison with the standard serpentine and interdigitated designs at the expense of increased pressure drop. An Aspect Ratio (AR) design is discussed and evaluated, which demonstrates decreased pressure drop compared to the EPL design, while maintaining similar electrochemical performance under most conditions. This AR design is capable of leading to improved system energy efficiency for flow batteries of all chemistries.
Optimizing transformations for automated, high throughput analysis of flow cytometry data.
Finak, Greg; Perez, Juan-Manuel; Weng, Andrew; Gottardo, Raphael
2010-11-04
In a high throughput setting, effective flow cytometry data analysis depends heavily on proper data preprocessing. While usual preprocessing steps of quality assessment, outlier removal, normalization, and gating have received considerable scrutiny from the community, the influence of data transformation on the output of high throughput analysis has been largely overlooked. Flow cytometry measurements can vary over several orders of magnitude, cell populations can have variances that depend on their mean fluorescence intensities, and may exhibit heavily-skewed distributions. Consequently, the choice of data transformation can influence the output of automated gating. An appropriate data transformation aids in data visualization and gating of cell populations across the range of data. Experience shows that the choice of transformation is data specific. Our goal here is to compare the performance of different transformations applied to flow cytometry data in the context of automated gating in a high throughput, fully automated setting. We examine the most common transformations used in flow cytometry, including the generalized hyperbolic arcsine, biexponential, linlog, and generalized Box-Cox, all within the BioConductor flowCore framework that is widely used in high throughput, automated flow cytometry data analysis. All of these transformations have adjustable parameters whose effects upon the data are non-intuitive for most users. By making some modelling assumptions about the transformed data, we develop maximum likelihood criteria to optimize parameter choice for these different transformations. We compare the performance of parameter-optimized and default-parameter (in flowCore) data transformations on real and simulated data by measuring the variation in the locations of cell populations across samples, discovered via automated gating in both the scatter and fluorescence channels. We find that parameter-optimized transformations improve visualization, reduce
Optimizing transformations for automated, high throughput analysis of flow cytometry data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weng Andrew
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In a high throughput setting, effective flow cytometry data analysis depends heavily on proper data preprocessing. While usual preprocessing steps of quality assessment, outlier removal, normalization, and gating have received considerable scrutiny from the community, the influence of data transformation on the output of high throughput analysis has been largely overlooked. Flow cytometry measurements can vary over several orders of magnitude, cell populations can have variances that depend on their mean fluorescence intensities, and may exhibit heavily-skewed distributions. Consequently, the choice of data transformation can influence the output of automated gating. An appropriate data transformation aids in data visualization and gating of cell populations across the range of data. Experience shows that the choice of transformation is data specific. Our goal here is to compare the performance of different transformations applied to flow cytometry data in the context of automated gating in a high throughput, fully automated setting. We examine the most common transformations used in flow cytometry, including the generalized hyperbolic arcsine, biexponential, linlog, and generalized Box-Cox, all within the BioConductor flowCore framework that is widely used in high throughput, automated flow cytometry data analysis. All of these transformations have adjustable parameters whose effects upon the data are non-intuitive for most users. By making some modelling assumptions about the transformed data, we develop maximum likelihood criteria to optimize parameter choice for these different transformations. Results We compare the performance of parameter-optimized and default-parameter (in flowCore data transformations on real and simulated data by measuring the variation in the locations of cell populations across samples, discovered via automated gating in both the scatter and fluorescence channels. We find that parameter-optimized
Source modulation-correlation measurement for fissile mass flow in gas or liquid fissile streams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Valentine, T.E.; Abston, R.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Mullens, J.A.
1996-01-01
The method of monitoring fissile mass flow on all three legs of a blending point, where the input is high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) and the product is PEU, can yield the fissile stream velocity and, with calibration, the [sup235]U content. The product of velocity and content integrated over the pipe gives the fissile mass flow in each leg. Also, the ratio of fissile contents in each pipe: HEU/LEU, HEU/PEU, and PEU/LEU, are obtained. By modulating the source on the input HEU pipe differently from that on the output pipe, the HEU gas can be tracked through the blend point. This method can be useful for monitoring flow velocity, fissile content, and fissile mass flow in HEU blenddown of UF[sub 6] if the pressures are high enough to contain some of the induced fission products. This method can also be used to monitor transfer of fissile liquids and other gases and liquids that emit radiation delayed from particle capture. These preliminary experiments with the Oak Ridge apparatus show that the method will work and the modeling is adequate
Optimization of a horizontal-flow biofilm reactor for the removal of methane at low temperatures.
Clifford, E; Kennelly, C; Walsh, R; Gerrity, S; Reilly, E O; Collins, G
2012-10-01
Three pilot-scale, horizontal-flow biofilm reactors (HFBRs 1-3) were used to treat methane (CH4)-contaminated air to assess the potential of this technology to manage emissions from agricultural activities, waste and wastewater treatment facilities, and landfills. The study was conducted over two phases (Phase 1, lasting 90 days and Phase 2, lasting 45 days). The reactors were operated at 10 degrees C (typical of ambient air and wastewater temperatures in northern Europe), and were simultaneously dosed with CH4-contaminated air and a synthetic wastewater (SWW). The influent loading rates to the reactors were 8.6 g CH4/m3/hr (4.3 g CH4/m2 TPSA/hr; where TPSA is top plan surface area). Despite the low operating temperatures, an overall average removal of 4.63 g CH4/m3/day was observed during Phase 2. The maximum removal efficiency (RE) for the trial was 88%. Potential (maximum) rates of methane oxidation were measured and indicated that biofilm samples taken from various regions in the HFBRs had mostly equal CH4 removal potential. In situ activity rates were dependent on which part of the reactor samples were obtained. The results indicate the potential of the HFBR, a simple and robust technology, to biologically treat CH4 emissions. The results of this study indicate that the HFBR technology could be effectively applied to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants and agricultural facilities at lower temperatures common to northern Europe. This could reduce the carbon footprint of waste treatment and agricultural livestock facilities. Activity tests indicate that methanotrophic communities can be supported at these temperatures. Furthermore, these data can lead to improved reactor design and optimization by allowing conditions to be engineered to allow for improved removal rates, particularly at lower temperatures. The technology is simple to construct and operate, and with some optimization of the liquid phase to improve mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ambarish Panda
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A new evolutionary hybrid algorithm (HA has been proposed in this work for environmental optimal power flow (EOPF problem. The EOPF problem has been formulated in a nonlinear constrained multi objective optimization framework. Considering the intermittency of available wind power a cost model of the wind and thermal generation system is developed. Suitably formed objective function considering the operational cost, cost of emission, real power loss and cost of installation of FACTS devices for maintaining a stable voltage in the system has been optimized with HA and compared with particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA to prove its effectiveness. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment taking IEEE30 bus as the test system.
Flow analysis and port optimization of geRotor pump using commercial CFD code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Byung Jo; Seong, Seung Hak; Yoon, Soon Hyun [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
2005-07-01
GeRotor pump is widely used in the automotive industry for fuel lift, injection, engine oil lubrication, and also in transmission systems. The CFD study of the pump, which is characterized by transient flow with moving rotor boundaries, has been performed to obtain the most optimum shape of the inlet/outlet port of the pump. Various shapes of the port have been tested to investigate how they affect flow rates and fluctuations. Based on the parametric study, an optimum shape has been determined for the maximum flow rate and minimum fluctuations. The result has been confirmed by experiments. For the optimization, Taguchi method has been adapted. The groove shape has been found to be the most important factor among the selected several parameters related to flow rate and fluctuations.
A parametric level-set approach for topology optimization of flow domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pingen, Georg; Waidmann, Matthias; Evgrafov, Anton
2010-01-01
of the design variables in the traditional approaches is seen as a possible cause for the slow convergence. Non-smooth material distributions are suspected to trigger premature onset of instationary flows which cannot be treated by steady-state flow models. In the present work, we study whether the convergence...... and the versatility of topology optimization methods for fluidic systems can be improved by employing a parametric level-set description. In general, level-set methods allow controlling the smoothness of boundaries, yield a non-local influence of design variables, and decouple the material description from the flow...... field discretization. The parametric level-set method used in this study utilizes a material distribution approach to represent flow boundaries, resulting in a non-trivial mapping between design variables and local material properties. Using a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzmann method, we study...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leyzgold D.Yu.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This article studies the problem of the transmission line conductor heating effect on the active power flows optimization in the local segment of industrial power supply. The purpose is to determine the optimal generation rating of the distributed power sources, in which the power flow values will correspond to the minimum active power losses in the power supply. The timeliness is the need to define the most appropriate rated power values of distributed sources which will be connected to current industrial power supply. Basing on the model of active power flow optimization, authors formulate the description of the nonlinear transportation problem considering the active power losses depending on the transmission line conductor heating. Authors proposed a new approach to the heating model parameters definition based on allowable current loads and nominal parameters of conductors as part of the optimization problem. Analysis of study results showed that, despite the relatively small active power losses reduction to the tune 0,45% due to accounting of the conductors heating effect for the present configuration of power supply, there are significant fluctuations in the required generation rating in nodes of the network to 9,32% within seasonal changes in the outer air temperature. This fact should be taken into account when selecting the optimum power of distributed generation systems, as exemplified by an arbitrary network configuration.
Application of Newton's optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S. (Electric Power Board of Serbia, Belgrade (YU)); Calovic, M.S. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (YU)); Ristanovic, P. (Institute Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (YU))
1990-11-01
This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It is characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed. A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy is also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This procedure is based on the sensitivity theory applied to the determination of zones for the secondary voltage/reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states.
Liquid hydrogen mass flow through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papell, S.S.; Nyland, T.W.; Saiyed, N.H.
1992-07-01
Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The data covered a range of inlet and outlet operating conditions. The mass flow rate range single phase or two phase was 0.015 to 0.98 lbm/hr. The manufacturer's equation was found to overpredict the single phase hydrogen data by 10 percent and the two phase data by as much as 27 percent. Two modifications of the equation resulted in a data correlation that predicts both the single and two phase flow across the visco jet. The first modification was of a theoretical nature, and the second strictly empirical. The former reduced the spread in the two phase data. It was a multiplication factor of 1-X applied to the manufacturer's equation. The parameter X is the flow quality downstream of the visco jet based on isenthalpic expansion across the device. The latter modification was a 10 percent correction term that correlated 90 percent of the single and two phase data to within +/- 10 percent scatter band. 3 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik
2008-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) air-water two-phase natural circulation flow in the thermohydraulic evaluation of reactor cooling mechanism by external self-induced flow - one-dimensional' (THERMES-1D) experiment has been verified and evaluated by using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Experimental results on the 1D natural circulation mass flow rate of water propelled by using an air injection have been evaluated in detail. The RELAP5 results have shown that an increase in the air injection rate to 50% of the total heat flux leads to an increase in the water circulation mass flow rate. However, an increase in the air injection rate from 50 to 100% does not affect the water circulation mass flow rate, because of the inlet area condition. As the height increases in the air injection part, the void fraction increases. However, the void fraction in the upper part of the air injector maintains a constant value. An increase in the air injection mass flow rate leads to an increase in the local void fraction, but it has no influence on the local pressure. An increase in the coolant inlet area leads to an increase in the water circulation mass flow rate. However, the water outlet area does not have an influence on the water circulation mass flow rate. As the coolant outlet moves to a lower position, the water circulation mass flow rate decreases. (author)
Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)
Heat and mass transfer for turbulent flow of chemically reacting gas in eccentric annular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besedina, T.V.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Udot, A.V.; Yakushev, A.P.
1988-01-01
Because of the possibility of using dissociating gases as coolants and working bodies of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to develop computational algorithms for calculating heat and mass transfer processes under conditions of nonequilibrium flow of chemically reacting gases not only in axisymmetric channels, but also in channels with a complex transverse cross section (including also in eccentric annular channels). An algorithm is proposed for calculating the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields under conditions of cooling of a cylindrical heat-releasing rod, placed off-center in a circular casing pipe, by a longitudinal flow of chemically reacting gas [N 2 O 4
Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)
Mass and energy flows between the Solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona
Hansteen, V. H.
2017-12-01
A number of increasingly sophisticated numerical simulations spanning the convection zone to corona have shed considerable insight into the role of the magnetic field in the structure and energetics of the Sun's outer atmosphere. This development is strengthened by the wealth of observational data now coming on-line from both ground based and space borne observatories. We discuss what numerical models can tell us about the mass and energy flows in the region of the upper chromosphere and lower corona, using a variety of tools, including the direct comparison with data and the use of passive tracer particles (so-called 'corks') inserted into the simulated flows.
Mass transfer during sulfuric acid concentration by evaporation into the air flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. K. Lukashov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article shows the results of the study of mass transfer under periodic concentration of sulfuric acid by evaporation inthe gas flow, neutral with respect to the components of acid.Used mathematical model for mass transferbases on the proposed simplified physical representations.This model has allowed to construct an algorithm for calculation the coefficient of mass transfer from the liquid phase into the gas flow. The algorithm uses the experimental data of change the amount of acid and concentration of the water taken from the laboratory tests. Time-based Nusselt diffusion criterion represent the results of the study at different modes of the evaporation process.It has been found that the character of the influence of temperature and initial acid concentration on Nusselt diffusion criterion depends on the variation range of the mass fraction of water in the acid.It is shown that these dependences are well approximated by an exponential function from the dimensionless parameters of the process. This allows usingthem for calculation the mass transfer coefficient into the gas phase in a batch process of concentrating in the range of investigated modes.
Buddala, Raviteja; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar
2017-11-01
Flexible flow shop (or a hybrid flow shop) scheduling problem is an extension of classical flow shop scheduling problem. In a simple flow shop configuration, a job having `g' operations is performed on `g' operation centres (stages) with each stage having only one machine. If any stage contains more than one machine for providing alternate processing facility, then the problem becomes a flexible flow shop problem (FFSP). FFSP which contains all the complexities involved in a simple flow shop and parallel machine scheduling problems is a well-known NP-hard (Non-deterministic polynomial time) problem. Owing to high computational complexity involved in solving these problems, it is not always possible to obtain an optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. To obtain near-optimal solutions in a reasonable computation time, a large variety of meta-heuristics have been proposed in the past. However, tuning algorithm-specific parameters for solving FFSP is rather tricky and time consuming. To address this limitation, teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) and JAYA algorithm are chosen for the study because these are not only recent meta-heuristics but they do not require tuning of algorithm-specific parameters. Although these algorithms seem to be elegant, they lose solution diversity after few iterations and get trapped at the local optima. To alleviate such drawback, a new local search procedure is proposed in this paper to improve the solution quality. Further, mutation strategy (inspired from genetic algorithm) is incorporated in the basic algorithm to maintain solution diversity in the population. Computational experiments have been conducted on standard benchmark problems to calculate makespan and computational time. It is found that the rate of convergence of TLBO is superior to JAYA. From the results, it is found that TLBO and JAYA outperform many algorithms reported in the literature and can be treated as efficient methods for solving the FFSP.
Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin
2017-11-01
Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.
Fluid flow distribution optimization for minimizing the peak temperature of a tubular solar receiver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Min; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai; Flamant, Gilles
2015-01-01
High temperature solar receiver is a core component of solar thermal power plants. However, non-uniform solar irradiation on the receiver walls and flow maldistribution of heat transfer fluid inside the tubes may cause the excessive peak temperature, consequently leading to the reduced lifetime. This paper presents an original CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-based evolutionary algorithm to determine the optimal fluid distribution in a tubular solar receiver for the minimization of its peak temperature. A pressurized-air solar receiver comprising of 45 parallel tubes subjected to a Gaussian-shape net heat flux absorbed by the receiver is used for study. Two optimality criteria are used for the algorithm: identical outlet fluid temperatures and identical temperatures on the centerline of the heated surface. The influences of different filling materials and thermal contact resistances on the optimal fluid distribution and on the peak temperature reduction are also evaluated and discussed. Results show that the fluid distribution optimization using the algorithm could minimize the peak temperature of the receiver under the optimality criterion of identical temperatures on the centerline. Different shapes of optimal fluid distribution are determined for various filling materials. Cheap material with low thermal conductivity can also meet the peak temperature threshold through optimizing the fluid distribution. - Highlights: • A 3D pressurized-air solar receiver based on the tube-in-matrix concept is studied. • An original evolutionary algorithm is developed for fluid distribution optimization. • A new optimality criterion is proposed for minimizing the receiver peak temperature. • Different optimal fluid distributions are determined for various filling materials. • Filling material with high thermal conductivity is more favorable in practical use.
Daily River Flow Forecasting with Hybrid Support Vector Machine – Particle Swarm Optimization
Zaini, N.; Malek, M. A.; Yusoff, M.; Mardi, N. H.; Norhisham, S.
2018-04-01
The application of artificial intelligence techniques for river flow forecasting can further improve the management of water resources and flood prevention. This study concerns the development of support vector machine (SVM) based model and its hybridization with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to forecast short term daily river flow at Upper Bertam Catchment located in Cameron Highland, Malaysia. Ten years duration of historical rainfall, antecedent river flow data and various meteorology parameters data from 2003 to 2012 are used in this study. Four SVM based models are proposed which are SVM1, SVM2, SVM-PSO1 and SVM-PSO2 to forecast 1 to 7 day ahead of river flow. SVM1 and SVM-PSO1 are the models with historical rainfall and antecedent river flow as its input, while SVM2 and SVM-PSO2 are the models with historical rainfall, antecedent river flow data and additional meteorological parameters as input. The performances of the proposed model are measured in term of RMSE and R2 . It is found that, SVM2 outperformed SVM1 and SVM-PSO2 outperformed SVM-PSO1 which meant the additional meteorology parameters used as input to the proposed models significantly affect the model performances. Hybrid models SVM-PSO1 and SVM-PSO2 yield higher performances as compared to SVM1 and SVM2. It is found that hybrid models are more effective in forecasting river flow at 1 to 7 day ahead at the study area.
Modeling and design of optimal flow perfusion bioreactors for tissue engineering applications.
Hidalgo-Bastida, L Araida; Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaramoorthy; Griffiths, Sarah; Cartmell, Sarah H; Naire, Shailesh
2012-04-01
Perfusion bioreactors have been used in different tissue engineering applications because of their consistent distribution of nutrients and flow-induced shear stress within the tissue-engineering scaffold. A widely used configuration uses a scaffold with a circular cross-section enclosed within a cylindrical chamber and inlet and outlet pipes which are connected to the chamber on either side through which media is continuously circulated. However, fluid-flow experiments and simulations have shown that the majority of the flow perfuses through the center. This pattern creates stagnant zones in the peripheral regions as well as in those of high flow rate near the inlet and outlet. This non-uniformity of flow and shear stress, owing to a circular design, results in limited cell proliferation and differentiation in these areas. The focus of this communication is to design an optimized perfusion system using computational fluid dynamics as a mathematical tool to overcome the time-consuming trial and error experimental method. We compared the flow within a circular and a rectangular bioreactor system. Flow simulations within the rectangular bioreactor are shown to overcome the limitations in the circular design. This communication challenges the circular cross-section bioreactor configuration paradigm and provides proof of the advantages of the new design over the existing one. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scaling of Myocardial Mass to Flow and Morphometry of Coronary Arteries
Choy, Jenny Susana; Kassab, Ghassan S.
2008-01-01
There is no doubt that scaling relations exist between myocardial mass and morphometry of coronary vasculature. The purpose of this study is to quantify several morphological (diameter, length, and volume) and functional (flow) parameters of the coronary arterial tree in relation to myocardial mass. Eight normal porcine hearts of 117-244 g (mean of 177.5±32.7) were used in this study. Various coronary sub-trees of the Left Anterior Descending (LAD), Right Coronary (RCA) and Left Circumflex (L...
Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V. [CMT - Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)
2010-01-15
Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maw, J R [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)
1970-05-01
When calculating the effects of an underground explosion it may be useful to be able to calculate the flow of the very hot gaseous products along pipes or tunnels. For example it might be possible to treat a fault in the surrounding rock as an idealised pipe forced open by the high pressure generated by the explosion. Another possibility might be the use of a specially constructed tunnel to channel the energy released in some preferred direction. In such cases the gas flow is complicated by several phenomena. The cross section of the pipe may vary with axial distance and also distend with time. Heat will be lost to the walls of the pipe which may be ablated leading to entrainment of wall material into the gas flow. In addition wall friction will tend to retard the flow. This paper describes a simple computer program, HAT, which was written to calculate such flows. The flow is assumed to be quasi-one-dimensional in that flow quantities such as pressure density and axial velocity do not vary across the pipe. However the radius of the pipe may vary both with axial distance and with time. Sources, or sinks of mass, momentum and energy are included in the governing equations which allow simulation of the phenomena described above. The governing equations are derived in Eulerian form and approximated using an extension of the finite difference scheme of Lax. A brief outline of the computational procedure is given. To demonstrate the capabilities and assess the accuracy of the program two simple problems are calculated using HAT (i) The motion of a shock along a converging pipe. (ii) The effect of mass addition through the walls on the motion of a shock along a uniform pipe. In both cases results obtained using HAT are compared with theoretical analyses of the motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gigault, Julien [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Hackley, Vincent A., E-mail: vince.hackley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States)
2013-02-06
Highlights: ► Isotopically modified and unmodified AgNPs characterization by A4F-DAD-MALS–DLS-ICP-MS. ► Size-resolved characterization and speciation in simple or complex media. ► Capacity to detect stable isotope enriched AgNPs in a standard estuarine sediment. ► New opportunities to monitor and study fate and transformations of AgNPs. -- Abstract: The principal objective of this work was to develop and demonstrate a new methodology for silver nanoparticle (AgNP) detection and characterization based on asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) coupled on-line to multiple detectors and using stable isotopes of Ag. This analytical approach opens the door to address many relevant scientific challenges concerning the transport and fate of nanomaterials in natural systems. We show that A4F must be optimized in order to effectively fractionate AgNPs and larger colloidal Ag particles. With the optimized method one can accurately determine the size, stability and optical properties of AgNPs and their agglomerates under variable conditions. In this investigation, we couple A4F to optical absorbance (UV–vis spectrometer) and scattering detectors (static and dynamic) and to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. With this combination of detection modes it is possible to determine the mass isotopic signature of AgNPs as a function of their size and optical properties, providing specificity necessary for tracing and differentiating labeled AgNPs from their naturally occurring or anthropogenic analogs. The methodology was then applied to standard estuarine sediment by doping the suspension with a known quantity of isotopically enriched {sup 109}AgNPs stabilized by natural organic matter (standard humic and fulvic acids). The mass signature of the isotopically enriched AgNPs was recorded as a function of the measured particle size. We observed that AgNPs interact with different particulate components of the sediment, and also self-associate to form
Impact of Thyristors Controlled Series Capacitor Devices and Optimal Power Flow on Power Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatiha LAKDJA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm, for solving the Optimal Power Flow problem with flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS. The type of FACTS devices is used: thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC. A method to determine the optimal location of thyristor controlled series compensators has been suggested. The proposed approaches have been implemented on an adapted IEEE 26 bus system. The simulation results are discussed to show the performance of the proposed algorithm and our FACTS programmer simulator technique, which are compared with TCSC and without TCSC.
Adjoint shape optimization for fluid-structure interaction of ducted flows
Heners, J. P.; Radtke, L.; Hinze, M.; Düster, A.
2018-03-01
Based on the coupled problem of time-dependent fluid-structure interaction, equations for an appropriate adjoint problem are derived by the consequent use of the formal Lagrange calculus. Solutions of both primal and adjoint equations are computed in a partitioned fashion and enable the formulation of a surface sensitivity. This sensitivity is used in the context of a steepest descent algorithm for the computation of the required gradient of an appropriate cost functional. The efficiency of the developed optimization approach is demonstrated by minimization of the pressure drop in a simple two-dimensional channel flow and in a three-dimensional ducted flow surrounded by a thin-walled structure.
Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm for Flow-shop Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro PALOMINOS
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to make a comparative study of the Marriage in Honeybees Op-timization (MBO metaheuristic for flow-shop scheduling problems. This paper is focused on the design possibilities of the mating flight space shared by queens and drones. The proposed algorithm uses a 2-dimensional torus as an explicit mating space instead of the simulated an-nealing one in the original MBO. After testing different alternatives with benchmark datasets, the results show that the modeled and implemented metaheuristic is effective to solve flow-shop type problems, providing a new approach to solve other NP-Hard problems.
Baranovskaya T. P.; Loyko V. I.; Makarevich O. A.; Bogoslavskiy S. N.
2014-01-01
The article suggests a mathematical model of optimization of the volume of material flows: the model for the ideal conditions; the model for the working conditions; generalized model of determining the optimal input parameters. These models optimize such parameters of inventory management in technology-integrated grain production systems, as the number of cycles supply, the volume of the source material and financial flows. The study was carried out on the example of the integrated system of ...
Kochmann, Sven; Matysik, Frank-Michael
2014-12-15
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an attractive method for extending capillary-size ion chromatography (cHPIC) to create a valuable technique for speciation analysis. For hyphenation, the aqueous effluent of cHPIC has to be transformed into a volatile mixture for MS while preserving analytical concentrations as well as peak shapes during transfer from cHPIC to MS. Finally, the approach should technically be flexible and easy-to-use. A combination of cHPIC and sheath-flow electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS offers to solve all these challenges. cHPIC/sheath-flow-ESI-TOFMS was used in this study for the speciation analysis of various arsenic model compounds. These model compounds were analyzed with different hyphenation setups and configurations of cHPIC/MS and their respective assets and drawbacks were examined and discussed. The parameters (flow rate and composition of sheath liquid) of sheath-flow ESI and their influence on the performance of the spray and the sensitivity of the detector were investigated and compared with those of sheathless ESI. Using an injection valve to couple cHPIC and MS was found to be the best method for hyphenation, since it constitutes a flexible and dead-volume-free approach. The investigation of sheath-flow ESI revealed that the flow rate of the sheath liquid has to resemble the flow rate of the IC effluent to ensure a stable spray and that a composition of 2-propanol/water/ammonia at 50:50:0.2 (v/v/v) suits most applications without unilaterally promoting the sensitivity for either organic or inorganic compounds. The optimized setup and conditions were successfully applied to the analysis of a mixture of important arsenic species and used to determine limits of detection of organic and inorganic arsenic species (3.7 µg L(-1) elemental arsenic). A method for cHPIC/sheath-flow-ESI-MS was developed. The method was shown to be a valuable tool for speciation and trace analysis. It features no dead volume, fast transfer from IC to MS, only minimal
Chen, Xin; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruimin; Zhang, Louxin
2012-01-01
The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has important implications in a variety of genetic studies on human diseases and biological functions. One valuable approach proposed for SNP discovery is based on base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. However, it is still very challenging to achieve the full potential of this SNP discovery approach. In this study, we formulate two new combinatorial optimization problems. While both problems are aimed at reconstructing the sample sequence that would attain the minimum number of SNPs, they search over different candidate sequence spaces. The first problem, denoted as SNP - MSP, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra have all their signals contained in the measured mass spectra. In contrast, the second problem, denoted as SNP - MSQ, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra instead contain all the signals of the measured mass spectra. We present an exact dynamic programming algorithm for solving the SNP - MSP problem and also show that the SNP - MSQ problem is NP-hard by a reduction from a restricted variation of the 3-partition problem. We believe that an efficient solution to either problem above could offer a seamless integration of information in four complementary base-specific cleavage reactions, thereby improving the capability of the underlying biotechnology for sensitive and accurate SNP discovery.
Infrared Tomography: Data Distribution System for Real-time Mass Flow Rate Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruzairi Abdul Rahim
2007-06-01
Full Text Available The system developed in this research has the objective of measuring mass flow rate in an online mode. If a single computer is used as data processing unit, a longer time is needed to produce a measurement result. In the research carried out by previous researcher shows about 11.2 seconds is needed to obtain one mass flow rate result in the offline mode (using offline data. This insufficient real-time result will cause problems in a feedback control process when applying the system on industrial plants. To increase the refreshing rate of the measurement result, an investigation on a data distribution system is performed to replace the existing data processing unit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheurer, K; Baier, U
2001-07-01
This study supplements a series of studies carried out under the 'Energy 2000' programme and its follow-up 'SwissEnergy' on the energy potential of biomass in Switzerland. This study compiles data from existing studies and statistics and presents them as detailed mass and energy flow diagrams. The findings of the study confirm that the most important biomass fluxes are generated by animal feed stuffs and manure and that these represent an important potential for use as a source of energy. The authors state that in the foodstuffs and wood/paper industries a high level of sustainability in resource usage has been attained and that the largest losses in mass and energy flows can be found in livestock breeding and human biomass consumption.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheurer, K.; Baier, U.
2001-07-01
This study supplements a series of studies carried out under the 'Energy 2000' programme and its follow-up 'SwissEnergy' on the energy potential of biomass in Switzerland. This study compiles data from existing studies and statistics and presents them as detailed mass and energy flow diagrams. The findings of the study confirm that the most important biomass fluxes are generated by animal feed stuffs and manure and that these represent an important potential for use as a source of energy. The authors state that in the foodstuffs and wood/paper industries a high level of sustainability in resource usage has been attained and that the largest losses in mass and energy flows can be found in livestock breeding and human biomass consumption.
Dindore, V. Y.; Versteeg, G. F.
2005-01-01
The cross-flow operation of hollow fiber membrane contactors offers many advantages and is preferred over the parallel-flow contactors for gas-liquid mass transfer operations. However, the analysis of such a cross-flow membrane gas-liquid contactor is complicated due to the change in concentrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ford, C L; Winroth, M; Alfredsson, P H
2016-01-01
An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method. (paper)
Tan, Maxine; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin
2014-08-01
Selecting optimal features from a large image feature pool remains a major challenge in developing computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of medical images. The objective of this study is to investigate a new approach to significantly improve efficacy of image feature selection and classifier optimization in developing a CAD scheme of mammographic masses. An image dataset including 1600 regions of interest (ROIs) in which 800 are positive (depicting malignant masses) and 800 are negative (depicting CAD-generated false positive regions) was used in this study. After segmentation of each suspicious lesion by a multilayer topographic region growth algorithm, 271 features were computed in different feature categories including shape, texture, contrast, isodensity, spiculation, local topological features, as well as the features related to the presence and location of fat and calcifications. Besides computing features from the original images, the authors also computed new texture features from the dilated lesion segments. In order to select optimal features from this initial feature pool and build a highly performing classifier, the authors examined and compared four feature selection methods to optimize an artificial neural network (ANN) based classifier, namely: (1) Phased Searching with NEAT in a Time-Scaled Framework, (2) A sequential floating forward selection (SFFS) method, (3) A genetic algorithm (GA), and (4) A sequential forward selection (SFS) method. Performances of the four approaches were assessed using a tenfold cross validation method. Among these four methods, SFFS has highest efficacy, which takes 3%-5% of computational time as compared to GA approach, and yields the highest performance level with the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.864 ± 0.034. The results also demonstrated that except using GA, including the new texture features computed from the dilated mass segments improved the AUC results of the ANNs optimized
RECOVERY ACT - Robust Optimization for Connectivity and Flows in Dynamic Complex Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balasundaram, Balabhaskar [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Butenko, Sergiy [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Boginski, Vladimir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Uryasev, Stan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2013-12-25
The goal of this project was to study robust connectivity and flow patterns of complex multi-scale systems modeled as networks. Networks provide effective ways to study global, system level properties, as well as local, multi-scale interactions at a component level. Numerous applications from power systems, telecommunication, transportation, biology, social science, and other areas have benefited from novel network-based models and their analysis. Modeling and optimization techniques that employ appropriate measures of risk for identifying robust clusters and resilient network designs in networks subject to uncertain failures were investigated in this collaborative multi-university project. In many practical situations one has to deal with uncertainties associated with possible failures of network components, thereby affecting the overall efficiency and performance of the system (e.g., every node/connection has a probability of partial or complete failure). Some extreme examples include power grid component failures, airline hub failures due to weather, or freeway closures due to emergencies. These are also situations in which people, materials, or other resources need to be managed efficiently. Important practical examples include rerouting flow through power grids, adjusting flight plans, and identifying routes for emergency services and supplies, in the event network elements fail unexpectedly. Solutions that are robust under uncertainty, in addition to being economically efficient, are needed. This project has led to the development of novel models and methodologies that can tackle the optimization problems arising in such situations. A number of new concepts, which have not been previously applied in this setting, were investigated in the framework of the project. The results can potentially help decision-makers to better control and identify robust or risk-averse decisions in such situations. Formulations and optimal solutions of the considered problems need
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aouss Gabash
2016-02-01
Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.
State of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.S.Y.; Tsang, C.F.; Sterbentz, R.A.
1983-01-01
The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses is reviewed and a comparative study is made of several models which have been developed in nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy, ground-water hydrology, petroleum engineering, and other geologic fields. The general review is followed by separate summaries of the main characteristics of the governing equations, numerical solutions, computer codes, validations, and applications for each model
On the dynamics of non-stationary binary stellar system with non-isotropic mass flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekov, A.A.; Bejsekov, A.N.; Aldibaeva, L.T.
2006-01-01
The motion of test body in the external gravitational field of the binary stellar systems with slowly variable some physical parameters of radiating components is considered on the base of restricted nonstationary photo-gravitational three and two bodies problem with non-isotropic mass flow. The family of polar and coplanar solutions are obtained. The solutions give the possibility of the dynamical and structure interpretation of binary young evolving stars and galaxies. (author)
The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.S.Y.; Sterbentz, R.A.; Tsang, C.F.
1982-01-01
The state of the art of numerical modeling of thermohydrologic flow in fractured rock masses is reviewed and a comparative study is made of several models which have been developed in nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy, ground water hydrology, petroleum engineering, and other geologic fields. The general review is followed by individual summaries of each model and the main characteristics of its governing equations, numerical solutions, computer codes, validations, and applications
Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow and Power Sensors for Variable-Speed Compressors
Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.
2012-01-01
The use of variable-speed compressors in heat pumps and air conditioners has increased in recent years in order to improve comfort and energy efficiency. At the same time, there is a trend towards embedding more sensors in this type of equipment to facilitate real-time energy monitoring and diagnostics. Although compressor mass flow rate and power consumption are useful indices for performance monitoring and diagnostics, they are expensive to measure. The virtual variable-speed compressor sen...
Sulaimon, Shodiya; Nasution, Henry; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Abdul-Rahman, Abdul-Halim; Darus, Amer N
2014-01-01
The capillary tube is an important control device used in small vapor compression refrigeration systems such as window air-conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers. This paper develops a non-dimensional correlation based on the test results of the adiabatic capillary tube for the mass flow rate through the tube using a hydrocarbon refrigerant mixture of 89.3% propane and 10.7% butane (HCM). The Taguchi method, a statistical experimental design approach, was employed. This approach e...
Electrochemical mass-flow control of hydrogen using a fullerene-based proton conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Ryuichiro
2002-01-01
A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was fabricated using proton conductive hydrogensulfated fullerenol (C 60 (OSO 3 H) n (OH) n ). Rate-controlled mass flow of hydrogen was performed by applying voltage to both electrodes of the MEA without humidification. The amount of the electrochemically transported hydrogen through the MEA increased as the applied current increased, obeying Faraday's law. Residual gas analysis of the transported hydrogen showed that the transported hydrogen contains trace amounts of water less than 1%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-09-01
Nineteen papers were presented at the workshop on modeling thermohydrologic flow in fractured masses. This workshop was a result of the interest currently being given to the isolation of nuclear wastes in geologic formations. Included in these proceedings are eighteen of the presentations, one abstract and summaries of the panel discussions. The papers are listed under the following categories: introduction; overviews; fracture modelings; repository studies; geothermal models; and recent developments. Eighteen of the papers have been abstracted and indexed
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
A trust region interior point algorithm for optimal power flow problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Min [Hefei University of Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Automation; Liu Shengsong [Jiangsu Electric Power Dispatching and Telecommunication Company (China). Dept. of Automation
2005-05-01
This paper presents a new algorithm that uses the trust region interior point method to solve nonlinear optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The OPF problem is solved by a primal/dual interior point method with multiple centrality corrections as a sequence of linearized trust region sub-problems. It is the trust region that controls the linear step size and ensures the validity of the linear model. The convergence of the algorithm is improved through the modification of the trust region sub-problem. Numerical results of standard IEEE systems and two realistic networks ranging in size from 14 to 662 buses are presented. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm is very effective to optimal power flow applications, and favors the successive linear programming (SLP) method. Comparison with the predictor/corrector primal/dual interior point (PCPDIP) method is also made to demonstrate the superiority of the multiple centrality corrections technique. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian C. Bryan
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The performance of the ThalesNano H-Cube®, a commercial packed bed flow hydrogenator, was evaluated in the context of small scale reaction screening and optimization. A model reaction, the reduction of styrene to ethylbenzene through a 10% Pd/C catalyst bed, was used to examine performance at various pressure settings, over sequential runs, and with commercial catalyst cartridges. In addition, the consistency of the hydrogen flow was indirectly measured by in-line UV spectroscopy. Finally, system contamination due to catalyst leaching, and the resolution of this issue, is described. The impact of these factors on the run-to-run reproducibility of the H-Cube® reactor for screening and reaction optimization is discussed.
Learning Based Approach for Optimal Clustering of Distributed Program's Call Flow Graph
Abofathi, Yousef; Zarei, Bager; Parsa, Saeed
Optimal clustering of call flow graph for reaching maximum concurrency in execution of distributable components is one of the NP-Complete problems. Learning automatas (LAs) are search tools which are used for solving many NP-Complete problems. In this paper a learning based algorithm is proposed to optimal clustering of call flow graph and appropriate distributing of programs in network level. The algorithm uses learning feature of LAs to search in state space. It has been shown that the speed of reaching to solution increases remarkably using LA in search process, and it also prevents algorithm from being trapped in local minimums. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed algorithm over others.
Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q
2013-01-01
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result
Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system
Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.
Iverson, Richard M.; LeVeque, Randall J.
2009-01-01
A recent workshop at the University of Washington focused on mathematical and computational aspects of modeling the dynamics of dense, gravity-driven mass movements such as rock avalanches and debris flows. About 30 participants came from seven countries and brought diverse backgrounds in geophysics; geology; physics; applied and computational mathematics; and civil, mechanical, and geotechnical engineering. The workshop was cosponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program, by the U.S. National Science Foundation through a Vertical Integration of Research and Education (VIGRE) in the Mathematical Sciences grant to the University of Washington, and by the Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences. It began with a day of lectures open to the academic community at large and concluded with 2 days of focused discussions and collaborative work among the participants.
Detector and front-end electronics of a fissile mass flow monitoring system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulus, M.J.; Uckan, T.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Mullens, J.A.; Castleberry, K.N.; McMillan, D.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1997-01-01
A detector and front-end electronics unit with secure data transmission has been designed and implemented for a fissile mass flow monitoring system for fissile mass flow of gases and liquids in a pipe. The unit consists of 4 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors, pulse-shaping and counting electronics, local temperature sensors, and on-board local area network nodes which locally acquire data and report to the master computer via a secure network link. The signal gain of the pulse-shaping circuitry and energy windows of the pulse-counting circuitry are periodicially self calibrated and self adjusted in situ using a characteristic line in the fissile material pulse height spectrum as a reference point to compensate for drift such as in the detector gain due to PM tube aging. The temperature- dependent signal amplitude variations due to the intrinsic temperature coefficients of the PM tube gain and BGO scintillation efficiency have been characterized and real-time gain corrections introduced. The detector and electronics design, measured intrinsic performance of the detectors and electronics, and the performance of the detector and electronics within the fissile mass flow monitoring system are described
Study on flow and mass transport through fractured sedimentary rocks (2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimo, Michito; Kumamoto, Sou; Karasaki, Kenzi; Sato, Hisashi; Sawada, Atsushi
2009-03-01
It is important for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal to understand hydro-geological conditions at the investigation area, and to evaluate groundwater flow and mass transport model and parameters, at each investigation phase. Traditionally, for Neogene sedimentary rock, the grain spacing of sediments has been considered as the dominant migration path. However, fractures of sedimentary rock could act as dominant paths, although they were soft sedimentary rocks. In this study, as part of developing groundwater flow and mass transport evaluation methodologies of such a fractured sedimentary rock' distributed area, we conducted two different scale of studies; 1) core rock sample scale and 2) several kilometer scale. For the core rock sample scale, some of laboratory hydraulic and tracer experiments have conducted using the rock cores with tailored parallel fracture, obtained at pilot borehole drilled in the vicinity of ventilation shaft. From the test results, hydraulic conductivity, diffusion coefficient, transport aperture, dispersion length and etc. was evaluated. Based on these test results, the influence of these parameters onto mass transport behavior of fractures sedimentary rocks was examined. For larger scale, such as several kilometer scale, the regional scale groundwater flow was examined using temperature data observed along the boreholes at Horonobe site. The results show that the low permeable zone between the boreholes might be estimated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Núñez, M A; Mendoza, R
2015-01-01
Several methods to estimate the velocity field of atmospheric flows, have been proposed to the date for applications such as emergency response systems, transport calculations and for budget studies of all kinds. These applications require a wind field that satisfies the conservation of mass but, in general, estimated wind fields do not satisfy exactly the continuity equation. An approach to reduce the effect of using a divergent wind field as input in the transport-diffusion equations, was proposed in the literature. In this work, a linear local analysis of a wind field, is used to show analytically that the perturbation of a large-scale nondivergent flow can yield a divergent flow with a substantially different structure. The effects of these structural changes in transport calculations are illustrated by means of analytic solutions of the transport equation
Heat-and-mass transfer during a laminar dissociating gas flow in eccentric annular channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besedina, T.V.; Udot, A.V.; Yakushev, A.P.
1987-01-01
An algorithm to calculate heat-and-mass transfer processes during dissociating gas laminar flow in an eccentric annular channels is considered. Analytical solutions of the heat transfer equations for a rod clodding and gap with boundary conditions of conjugation of temperatures and heat fluxes have been used to determine temperature field. This has made it possible to proceed from slution of the conjugate problem to solution of the equation of energy only for the coolant. The results of calculation of temperature distribution along the cladding for different values of its eccentricity and thermal conductivity coefficient both for the case of frozen flow and in the presence of chemical reactions in the flow are given. When calculating temperatures with conjugation boundary conditions temperature gradients in azimuthal direction are far less and heat transfer in concentration diffusion is carried out mainly in radial direction
Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uckan, Taner [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL; Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Nelson, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Radev, Radoslav [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
2007-12-01
This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow of UF{sub 6} gas streams by using {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The {sup 252}Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life ({approx} 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.
Molten Fuel Mass Assessment for Channel Flow Blockage Event in CANDU6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Yong Bae; Choi, Hoon; Park, Dong Hwan
2011-01-01
In CANDU6, a fuel channel flow blockage causes a sudden reduction of flow through the blocked channel. Depending on the severity of the blockage, the reduced flow through the channel can result in severe heat up of the fuel, hence possibly leading to pressure tube and calandria tube failure. If the calandria tube does not fail the fuel and sheath would continue to heat up, and ultimately melting could occur. Eventually, molten material runs down onto the pressure tube. Even a thin layer of molten material in contact with the pressure tube causes the pressure tube and calandreia tube to heat up rapidly. The thermal transient is so rapid that failure temperatures are reached quickly. After channel failure, the contents of the channel, consisting of superheated coolant, fission products and possibly overheated of molten fuel, are rapidly discharged into the moderator. Fuel discharged into the moderator is quenched and cooled. The rapid discharge of hot fuel and coolant into the calandria causes the moderator pressure and temperature to increase, which may cause damage to some in-core components. Thus, the assessment results of molten fuel mass are inputs to the in-core damage analysis. In this paper, the analysis methodology and results of molten fuel mass assessment for the channel flow blockage event are presented
Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, Taner; March-Leuba, Jose A.; Powell, Danny H.; Nelson, Dennis; Radev, Radoslav
2007-01-01
This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the 235 U fissile mass flow of UF 6 gas streams by using 252 Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF 6 gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The 252 Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life (∼ 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kritsuk, E.L.; Mishina, L.V.; Shegidevich, L.N.
1986-01-01
The hydrodynamically stabilized chemically nonequilibrium turbulent flow in a tube with the inert impermeable surface and constant specific heat flow on the wall is considered. The reversible homogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide dissociation 2NO 2 ↔ 2NO+O 2 takes place in the flow. Chemically equilibrium flow with homogeneous profile of temperature and concentration arrives into the channel inlet. After application of simplifying assumptions, the expressions for characteristics of heat and mass transfer have been written down, which are valid in the whole range of the flow parameter variation from frozen up to chemically equilibrium flow. An integral transformation method is suggested for a radial coordinate which allows a wall region to be extended, thereby essentially extending the step of integration. A solution in quadratures has been obtained for the heat and mass transfer problem in an inert fluid flow for the developed process section. The elimination method has been employed to solve the boundary-value second-kind problem for the function governing heat and mass transfer in a chemically nonequilibrium turbulent flow over the developed heat and mass transfer section. The results of calculations are presented
Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.
Optimized Structure of the Traffic Flow Forecasting Model With a Deep Learning Approach.
Yang, Hao-Fan; Dillon, Tharam S; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe
2017-10-01
Forecasting accuracy is an important issue for successful intelligent traffic management, especially in the domain of traffic efficiency and congestion reduction. The dawning of the big data era brings opportunities to greatly improve prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel model, stacked autoencoder Levenberg-Marquardt model, which is a type of deep architecture of neural network approach aiming to improve forecasting accuracy. The proposed model is designed using the Taguchi method to develop an optimized structure and to learn traffic flow features through layer-by-layer feature granulation with a greedy layerwise unsupervised learning algorithm. It is applied to real-world data collected from the M6 freeway in the U.K. and is compared with three existing traffic predictors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an optimized structure of the traffic flow forecasting model with a deep learning approach is presented. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed model with an optimized structure has superior performance in traffic flow forecasting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thang Diep Thanh
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In environmental uncertainties, the power flow problem in islanded microgrid (MG becomes complex and non-trivial. The optimal power flow (OPL problem is described in this paper by using the energy balance between the power generation and load demand. The paper also presents the hierarchical control structure which consists of primary, secondary, tertiary, and emergency controls. Clearly, optimal power flow (OPL which implements a distributed tertiary control in hierarchical control. MG consists of diesel engine generator (DEG, wind turbine generator (WTG, and photovoltaic (PV power. In the control system considered, operation planning is realized based on profiles such that the MG, load, wind and photovoltaic power must be forecasted in short-period, meanwhile the dispatch source (i.e., DEG needs to be scheduled. The aim of the control problem is to find the dispatch output power by minimizing the total cost of energy that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Experimental results are presented, showing the effectiveness of optimal control such that the generation allows demand profile.
Design Optimization of An Axial Flow Fan Blade Considering Airfoil Shape and Stacking Line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Ki Sang; Kim, Kwang Yong; Samad, Abdus [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
This work presents a numerical optimization procedure for a low-speed axial flow fan blade with polynomial response surface approximation model. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Turbulence (SST) model are discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids for flow analyses. The airfoil shape as well as stacking line is modified to enhance blade total efficiency, i.e., the objective function. The design variables of blade lean, maximum thickness and location of maximum thickness are selected, and a design of experiments technique produces design points where flow analyses are performed to obtain values of the objective function. A gradient-based search algorithm is used to find the optimal design in the design space from the constructed response surface model for the objective function. As a main result, the efficiency is increased effectively by the present optimization procedure. And, it is also shown that the modification of blade lean is more effective to improve the efficiency rather than modifying blade profile.
Assessment of Displacement Flow at Ketandan Creeks to Optimizing Land Use in Jember New City Housing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Entin Hidayah
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Displacement flow will caused a change in the flow characteristics such as flow depth, discharge, river slope and width of the river surface. If not carefully examined, it will cause the riverbed erosion, sedimentation and risk of flooding. This paper aims to assess the hydrology and hydraulics of the river flow changes in Ketandan creek in optimizing the use of land housing for Jember New City (JNC. Hydrology modelling studies conducted for the return period rainfall include a 2 year as normal discharge, and 100 year as flood condition. Simulation of flood designs used to assess changes in the flow regime in the channel and the risk of flooding with HEC-RAS program. The results of the study showed that for the flood design 3,1 m3/sec and 12,8 m3/sec will give the effect of critical water surface. In order to keep the flow of the river bed of critically needed as the drop-structure and spillway construction.
Label-assisted mass spectrometry for the acceleration of reaction discovery and optimization
Cabrera-Pardo, Jaime R.; Chai, David I.; Liu, Song; Mrksich, Milan; Kozmin, Sergey A.
2013-05-01
The identification of new reactions expands our knowledge of chemical reactivity and enables new synthetic applications. Accelerating the pace of this discovery process remains challenging. We describe a highly effective and simple platform for screening a large number of potential chemical reactions in order to discover and optimize previously unknown catalytic transformations, thereby revealing new chemical reactivity. Our strategy is based on labelling one of the reactants with a polyaromatic chemical tag, which selectively undergoes a photoionization/desorption process upon laser irradiation, without the assistance of an external matrix, and enables rapid mass spectrometric detection of any products originating from such labelled reactants in complex reaction mixtures without any chromatographic separation. This method was successfully used for high-throughput discovery and subsequent optimization of two previously unknown benzannulation reactions.
Where is The Dark Matter: The Flow-field From 2MASS
Crook, Aidan; Huchra, J.; Macri, L.; Masters, K.; Jarrett, T.
2009-01-01
We present a map of the flow-field constructed from groups of galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift Survey. Previous efforts have suffered because the underlying surveys either did not penetrate to low galactic latitudes or were not sensitive to elliptical galaxies, thereby missing a significant fraction of the mass. The 2MASS Redshift Survey provides a uniform all-sky magnitude-limited sample in the J, H and Ks bands, 97% complete to Ks10°, sensitive to both ellipticals and spirals. We demonstrate how utilizing the properties of galaxy groups leads to improved predictions of peculiar velocities in the nearby Universe, and use dynamical mass estimates to construct a reliable flow-field to 12,000 km/s. We demonstrate its effectiveness in providing distance estimates, and discuss the advantages of this model over earlier work. With independent knowledge of the peculiar velocity of the Local Group, we discuss the implications for the matter density parameter and bias. This work is supported by a Whiteman Fellowship and NSF grant AST-0406906.
Study on heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow in a fin bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong-Hwi [Air-Conditioner Research Laboratory, LG Electronics, Seoul 153-082 (Korea); Koyama, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Ken [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kwon, Jeong-Tae [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam 336-795 (Korea); Park, Byung-Duck [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongbuk 742-711 (Korea)
2010-11-15
This paper deals with the heat and mass transfer characteristics of humid air-flow under frosting conditions. A slit fin bundle was used for the simulation of fins of a heat exchanger. The effects of the cooling block temperature, air humidity and air velocity on the frosting characteristics were experimentally investigated. The frosted mass was affected considerably by the cooling block temperature and air humidity. However, the effect of air velocity on it was not so large. The pressure drop was affected remarkably by all experimental parameters in this study. Local heat flux distribution and frost thickness distribution on each fin were predicted from the measured fin temperatures and the mass and energy conservation equations on the frost surface and inside the frost layer. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam S.M. Khalil
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Targeted therapy using magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles has the potential to mitigate the negative side-effects associated with conventional medical treatment. Major technological challenges still need to be addressed in order to translate these particles into in vivo applications. For example, magnetic particles need to be navigated controllably in vessels against flowing streams of body fluid. This paper describes the motion control of paramagnetic microparticles in the flowing streams of fluidic channels with time-varying flow rates (maximum flow is 35 ml.hr−1. This control is designed using a magnetic-based proportional-derivative (PD control system to compensate for the time-varying flow inside the channels (with width and depth of 2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. First, we achieve point-to-point motion control against and along flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1. The average speeds of single microparticle (with average diameter of 100 μm against flow rates of 6 ml.hr−1 and 30 ml.hr−1 are calculated to be 45 μm.s−1 and 15 μm.s−1, respectively. Second, we implement PD control with disturbance estimation and compensation. This control decreases the steady-state error by 50%, 70%, 73%, and 78% at flow rates of 4 ml.hr−1, 6 ml.hr−1, 17 ml.hr−1, and 35 ml.hr−1, respectively. Finally, we consider the problem of finding the optimal path (minimal kinetic energy between two points using calculus of variation, against the mentioned flow rates. Not only do we find that an optimal path between two collinear points with the direction of maximum flow (middle of the fluidic channel decreases the rise time of the microparticles, but we also decrease the input current that is supplied to the electromagnetic coils by minimizing the kinetic energy of the microparticles, compared to a PD control with disturbance compensation.
Genetic search for an optimal power flow solution from a high density cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amarnath, R.V. [Hi-Tech College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India)
2008-07-01
This paper proposed a novel method to solve optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The method is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) search from a High Density Cluster (GAHDC). The algorithm of the proposed method includes 3 stages, notably (1) a suboptimal solution is obtained via a conventional analytical method, (2) a high density cluster, which consists of other suboptimal data points from the first stage, is formed using a density-based cluster algorithm, and (3) a genetic algorithm based search is carried out for the exact optimal solution from a low population sized, high density cluster. The final optimal solution thoroughly satisfies the well defined fitness function. A standard IEEE 30-bus test system was considered for the simulation study. Numerical results were presented and compared with the results of other approaches. It was concluded that although there is not much difference in numerical values, the proposed method has the advantage of minimal computational effort and reduced CPU time. As such, the method would be suitable for online applications such as the present Optimal Power Flow problem. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
A new quantum inspired chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm for optimal power flow problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Xiaohui; Wang, Pengtao; Yuan, Yanbin; Huang, Yuehua; Zhang, Xiaopan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Quantum theory is introduced to artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) to increase population diversity. • A chaotic local search operator is used to enhance local search ability of ABC. • Quantum inspired chaotic ABC method (QCABC) is proposed to solve optimal power flow. • The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed QCABC is verified by examples. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new artificial bee colony algorithm with quantum theory and the chaotic local search strategy (QCABC), and uses it to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) problem. Under the quantum computing theory, the QCABC algorithm encodes each individual with quantum bits to form a corresponding quantum bit string. By determining each quantum bits value, we can get the value of the individual. After the scout bee stage of the artificial bee colony algorithm, we begin the chaotic local search in the vicinity of the best individual found so far. Finally, the quantum rotation gate is used to process each quantum bit so that all individuals can update toward the direction of the best individual. The QCABC algorithm is carried out to deal with the OPF problem in the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus standard test systems. The results of the QCABC algorithm are compared with other algorithms (artificial bee colony algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm). The comparison shows that the QCABC algorithm can effectively solve the OPF problem and it can get the better optimal results than those of other algorithms
Uncertainty quantification-based robust aerodynamic optimization of laminar flow nacelle
Xiong, Neng; Tao, Yang; Liu, Zhiyong; Lin, Jun
2018-05-01
The aerodynamic performance of laminar flow nacelle is highly sensitive to uncertain working conditions, especially the surface roughness. An efficient robust aerodynamic optimization method on the basis of non-deterministic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation and Efficient Global Optimization (EGO)algorithm was employed. A non-intrusive polynomial chaos method is used in conjunction with an existing well-verified CFD module to quantify the uncertainty propagation in the flow field. This paper investigates the roughness modeling behavior with the γ-Ret shear stress transport model including modeling flow transition and surface roughness effects. The roughness effects are modeled to simulate sand grain roughness. A Class-Shape Transformation-based parametrical description of the nacelle contour as part of an automatic design evaluation process is presented. A Design-of-Experiments (DoE) was performed and surrogate model by Kriging method was built. The new design nacelle process demonstrates that significant improvements of both mean and variance of the efficiency are achieved and the proposed method can be applied to laminar flow nacelle design successfully.
Experimental and Numerical Design and Optimization of a Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahrami Salman
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new inexpensive counter-flow heat exchanger has been designed and optimized for a vapor-compression cooling system in this research. The main aim is to experimentally and numerically evaluate the effect of an internal heat exchanger (IHX adaptation in an automotive air conditioning system. In this new design of IHX, the high-pressure liquid passes through the central channel and the low-pressure vapor flows in several parallel channels in the opposite direction. The experimental set-up has been made up of original components of the air conditioning system of a medium sedan car, specially designed and built to analyze vehicle A/C equipment under real operating conditions. The results show that this compact IHX may achieve up to 10% of the evaporator capacity while low pressure drop will be imposed on this refrigeration cycle. Also, they confirm considerable decrease of compressor power consumption (CPC, which is intensified at higher evaporator air flow. A significant improvement of the coefficient of performance (COP is achieved with the IHX employment too. The influence of operating conditions has been also discussed in this paper. Finally, numerical analyses have been briefly presented, which bring more details of the flow behavior and heat transfer phenomena, and help to determine the optimal arrangement of channels.
Pilavaki, Evdokia; Demosthenous, Andreas
2017-11-20
Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evdokia Pilavaki
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.
Optimality with feedback control in relativistic dynamics of a mass point. Part 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaquiere, A.; Pauchard, M.; Tahri-Yousfi, N.; Wickers, D.
1984-01-01
This article is an account of part of a research task currently in progress; it deals with relativistic dynamics of a mass-point from the point of view of the theory of optimal feedback control. In the first part, the theoretical frame is presented with an application to the case of special Relativity. This application shows that the way followed in this article is a natural one for approaching Wave mechanics, and that it closely parallels the way along which Louis de Broglie introduced Wave mechanics [fr
Guo, Xin; Yao, Lishan; Huang, Qingshan
2015-08-01
Effects of superficial gas velocity and top clearance on gas holdup, liquid circulation velocity, mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient are investigated in a new airlift loop photobioreactor (PBR), and empirical models for its rational control and scale-up are proposed. In addition, the impact of top clearance on hydrodynamics, especially on the gas holdup in the internal airlift loop reactor, is clarified; a novel volume expansion technique is developed to determine the low gas holdup in the PBR. Moreover, a model strain of Chlorella vulgaris is cultivated in the PBR and the volumetric power is analyzed with a classic model, and then the aeration is optimized. It shows that the designed PBR, a cost-effective reactor, is promising for the mass cultivation of microalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Precise measurement of the top quark mass in dilepton decays using optimized neutrino weighting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Abazov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We measure the top quark mass in dilepton final states of tt¯ events in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96 TeV, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb−1 at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The analysis features a comprehensive optimization of the neutrino weighting method to minimize the statistical uncertainties. We also improve the calibration of jet energies using the calibration determined in tt¯→lepton+jets events, which reduces the otherwise limiting systematic uncertainty from the jet energy scale. The measured top quark mass is mt=173.32±1.36(stat±0.85(syst GeV.
Layout Optimization for the Repository within a discontinuous and saturated granitic rock mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Jong Won; Bae, Dae Seok
2005-12-01
The objective of the present study is a layout optimization of a single and double layer repositories within a repository site with special joint set arrangements. Single and double layer repository models, subjected to the variation of repository depth, cavern spacing, pitch, and layer spacing, are analyzed for the thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical interaction behavior during the period of 2000 years from waste emplacement. Material properties used for the granitic rock mass, rock joints, PWR spent fuel, disposal canister, compacted bentonite, backfill material, and groundwater are the data collected domestically, and foreign data are used for some of the data not available domestically. The repository model includes a saturated granitic rock mass with joints, PWR spent fuel in a disposal canister surrounded by compacted bentonite inside a deposition hole, and backfill material in the rest of the space within a repository cavern
Optimizing recoil-isomer tagging with the Argonne fragment mass analyzer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garnsworthy, A.B.; Lister, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Blank, B.B.; Cullen, I.J.; Gros, S.; Henderson, D.J.; Jones, G.A.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.R.; Thompson, N.J.; Williams, S.J.; Zhu, S.
2008-01-01
A new focal plane detector arrangement for the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) has been built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. This set-up is particularly sensitive for performing Recoil-Isomer Tagging on nuclei with isomeric states with lifetimes in the microsecond range. Recoiling nuclei from fusion-evaporation reactions at the target position are dispersed by their ratio of mass to charge (A/q) by the FMA and stopped in low pressure gas (air) at the focal plane. Subsequent gamma decays from isomeric states in the reaction products are observed using Ge detectors. A constant gas flow through the focal plane chamber efficiently removes longer-lived beta-decaying species from sight of the detectors. This set-up has been commissioned successfully with the microsecond isomer in 80 Rb, populated via the 52 Cr( 32 S, 3pn) reaction at 135 MeV
Optimizing Mass Spectrometry Analyses: A Tailored Review on the Utility of Design of Experiments.
Hecht, Elizabeth S; Oberg, Ann L; Muddiman, David C
2016-05-01
Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a tool that can analyze nearly all classes of molecules, with its scope rapidly expanding in the areas of post-translational modifications, MS instrumentation, and many others. Yet integration of novel analyte preparatory and purification methods with existing or novel mass spectrometers can introduce new challenges for MS sensitivity. The mechanisms that govern detection by MS are particularly complex and interdependent, including ionization efficiency, ion suppression, and transmission. Performance of both off-line and MS methods can be optimized separately or, when appropriate, simultaneously through statistical designs, broadly referred to as "design of experiments" (DOE). The following review provides a tutorial-like guide into the selection of DOE for MS experiments, the practices for modeling and optimization of response variables, and the available software tools that support DOE implementation in any laboratory. This review comes 3 years after the latest DOE review (Hibbert DB, 2012), which provided a comprehensive overview on the types of designs available and their statistical construction. Since that time, new classes of DOE, such as the definitive screening design, have emerged and new calls have been made for mass spectrometrists to adopt the practice. Rather than exhaustively cover all possible designs, we have highlighted the three most practical DOE classes available to mass spectrometrists. This review further differentiates itself by providing expert recommendations for experimental setup and defining DOE entirely in the context of three case-studies that highlight the utility of different designs to achieve different goals. A step-by-step tutorial is also provided.
Optimization of the isotopic analysis of UF6 by quadrupole mass spectrometry technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porto, Peterson
2006-01-01
In the present work a procedure for determination of the isotopic ratio 238 U/ 235 U in UF 6 samples was established using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ionization by electron impact and ion detection by Faraday cup or electron multiplier. For this, the following items were optimized in the spectrometer: the parameters in the ion source that provided the most intense peak, with good shape, for the corresponding mass of the most abundant isotope; the resolution that reduced the non linear effects and the number of analytic cycles that reduced the uncertainty in the results. The measurement process was characterized with respect to the effects of mass discrimination, linearity and memory effect. The mass discrimination showed to be linearly dependent of the sample pressure in the batch volume, for the pressure ranges from 0.15 to 0.30 mbar and from 0.30 to 0.40 mbar. The spectrometer was shown linear in the measurement of isotopic ratios between 0.005 and 0.045. The memory factor for the ion source and for the introduction system were, respectively, 1.000 ± 0.001 and 1.003 ± 0.003; the first one can be ignored, the second one can be eliminated by washing the batch volume with the new sample. A methodology for routine analysis of UF 6 samples and the determination of the uncertainties were set up in details as well. (author)
Optimal sample to tracer ratio for isotope dilution mass spectrometry: the polyisotopic case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laszlo, G.; Ridder, P. de; Goldman, A.; Cappis, J.; Bievre, P. de
1991-01-01
The Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) measurement technique provides a means for determining the unknown amount of various isotopes of an element in a sample solution of known mass. The sample solution is mixed with an auxiliary solution, or tracer, containing a known amount of the same element having the same isotopes but of different relative abundances or isotopic composition and the induced change in the isotopic composition measured by isotope mass spectrometry. The technique involves the measurement of the abundance ratio of each isotope to a (same) reference isotope in the sample solution, in the tracer solution and in the blend of the sample and tracer solution. These isotope ratio measurements, the known element amount in the tracer and the known mass of sample solution are used to calculate the unknown amount of one isotope in the sample solution. Subsequently the unknown amount of element is determined. The purpose of this paper is to examine the optimization of the ratio of the estimated unknown amount of element in the sample solution to the known amount of element in the tracer solution in order to minimize the relative uncertainty in the determination of the unknown amount of element
Optimization of the combination micro-high-performance liquid-chromatography/mass spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haider, K.
1997-03-01
The coupling of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is still growing in significance. In this thesis, a particle beam interface has been investigated for combining ion chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. To introduce the eluent directly (without membrane suppressor) into the spectrometer, only methods with low flow rates like microcolumn chromatography can be used. For the preparation of the columns, reversed-phase and silica-based anion exchange materials were packed into PEEK, steel and fused-silica capillaries with i.d. from 130 to 1000 μm using different methods. The performance of the particle beam interface (modified with a new miniaturized aerosol generator) and the mass spectrometric detection has been studied for a series of inorganic anions as well as aminopolycarboxylic acids and the metal-EDTA complexes. Detection limits between 10 and 100 ng injected could be achieved in the multiple ion detection mode of the mass spectrometer for the investigated solutes. A second type of interface, the direct liquid introduction (DLI) has been used to analyze the priority pollutant phenols. This interface is based on a modified GC-interface into the MS. Separation columns used so far include packed fused-silica capillaries with inner diameter of 75 μm and polystyrene-divinylbenzene (functionalized with tert. butyl groups) as stationary phase. Aspects of instrumentation and effects of chemical ionization in the direct liquid introduction mode are discussed. (author)
Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Krenn, Julia; Pudasaini, Shiva P.
2017-02-01
r.avaflow represents an innovative open-source computational tool for routing rapid mass flows, avalanches, or process chains from a defined release area down an arbitrary topography to a deposition area. In contrast to most existing computational tools, r.avaflow (i) employs a two-phase, interacting solid and fluid mixture model (Pudasaini, 2012); (ii) is suitable for modelling more or less complex process chains and interactions; (iii) explicitly considers both entrainment and stopping with deposition, i.e. the change of the basal topography; (iv) allows for the definition of multiple release masses, and/or hydrographs; and (v) serves with built-in functionalities for validation, parameter optimization, and sensitivity analysis. r.avaflow is freely available as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, employing the programming languages Python and C along with the statistical software R. We exemplify the functionalities of r.avaflow by means of two sets of computational experiments: (1) generic process chains consisting in bulk mass and hydrograph release into a reservoir with entrainment of the dam and impact downstream; (2) the prehistoric Acheron rock avalanche, New Zealand. The simulation results are generally plausible for (1) and, after the optimization of two key parameters, reasonably in line with the corresponding observations for (2). However, we identify some potential to enhance the analytic and numerical concepts. Further, thorough parameter studies will be necessary in order to make r.avaflow fit for reliable forward simulations of possible future mass flow events.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitrios I. Maditinos
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Purpose - The existence of optimism as a personal psychological characteristic of managers is a necessity in contemporary economy and decision making, although the phenomenon of over-optimism may lead to unfavourable outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the optimism bias and its impact on the firms' future performance. Especially regarding the recent years where Greece faces increased economic depression, high percentages of unemployment and lack of budgetary discipline, the goal is therefore, to find whether managerial optimism has an impact on corporate investment of Greek firms. Design/methodology/approach - The investment of firms with optimistic managers is more sensitive to cash flow than the investment of firms with managers who are not optimistic. To test the research question a number of fixed effect panel regressions of capital expenditures (capital expenditures divided by lagged assets is the dependent variable is run. In all regressions we analyse cash flow divided by lagged assets and lagged Tobin's Q as the independent variables, for firms whose managers are classified as optimistic and not optimistic. This classification is based on the optimism "dummy" variable, which is equal to 1 when members of the Executive Board and the Supervisory Board (ALL, only the Executive Board (EB, and only CEO are classified as optimistic. The concept of this study is tested for firms which are listed in the Athens Stock Exchange. A total of 243 firms are recorded, for the time period between 2007 and 2012, including firms from 11 different industries; basic materials, chemicals, consumer goods, consumer services, health care, industrials, financials, oil and gas, technology, telecommunications and utilities. Based on the literature and on related methodology aspects, financial firms are excluded. Findings - It was revealed that managerial optimism affects corporate investment in firms with high degree of closely held shares. Moreover
Helsper, Hans; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; Herrera Rivera, Zahira; Wagner, Stephan; Kammer, von der Frank; Tromp, Peter C.; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan
2016-01-01
Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO_{2} materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass
Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, M.E.M. van; Rivera, Z.E.H.; Wagner, S.; Kammer, F. von der; Tromp, P.C.; Hofmann, T.; Weigel, S.
2016-01-01
Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...