WorldWideScience

Sample records for optimal energy management

  1. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Longbo; Walrand, Jean; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the...

  2. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

  3. Methods for Distributed Optimal Energy Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert

    The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast to convent......The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast...... to conventional centralised optimal energy flow management systems, here-in, focus is set on how optimal energy management can be achieved in a decentralised distributed architecture such as a multi-agent system. Distributed optimisation methods are introduced, targeting optimisation of energy flow in virtual...... micro-grids by prevention of meteorologic power flows into high voltage grids. A method, based on mathematical optimisation and a consensus algorithm is introduced and evaluated to coordinate charge/discharge scheduling for batteries between a number of buildings in order to improve self...

  4. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  5. Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    1 To appear in International Journal of Control as a regular paper Topology Optimization for Energy Management in Underwater Sensor Networks⋆ Devesh... topology that maximizes the probability of successful search (of a target) over a surveillance region. In a two-stage optimization, a genetic algorithm (GA...Adaptation to energy variations across the network is shown to be manifested as a change in the optimal network topology by using sensing and

  6. Optimized Energy Management for Mixed Uplink Traffic in LTE UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Mirchandani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Battery life is a major issue for any mobile equipment, and reducing energy consumption via energy management in 3G LTE user equipment (UE will be essential for the delivery of a variety of services. Discontinuous transmission (DTX and reception (DRX have been designed to facilitate power management, but they can provide energy savings only via proper tuning. Relevant work in the literature mainly pertains only to discontinuous reception mode (DRX for downlink data. However, today’s increasingly powerful UEs can generate and upload significant amount of data. This paper proposes an energy management framework applicable to both discontinuous transmission (DTX and DRX power saving modes. In particular, in DTX mode it can reduce UE energy consumption for uplink intensive applications like telemedicine or social networking. The proposed novel energy management framework is based on jointly using a-priori analytical evaluation of a M/G/1/K finite uplink queue system for mixed traffic with an optimized DTX/DRX algorithm. DTX mode is modeled by an expression, through which the impact of quality of service (QoS parameters on the UE’s mean energy consumption for uplink transfer is determined. The model extracts and operates on the values computed for the M/G/1/K queue. Finally, a dynamic energy management algorithm for DRX/DTX modes is proposed for energy consumption optimization based on an integrated Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA. Analytical evaluation has shown that using our algorithm to tune DTX can achieve 49-73% energy saving over not using DTX.

  7. Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pietrosanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs.

  8. Multiple Objective Optimizations for Energy Management System under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Xing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, micro-grid gains more and more concerns, because it is flexible and environmentally friendly. Optimization of the distributed generators operation in micro-grid is a complicated and challenging task, a multi objective optimal model was designed to cut off the operation cost, improve the economic benefits and reduce the emission. However, the randomness of the renewable energy generation and load demand makes the decision process much more complicated. Chance constrained programming (CCP was employed to deal with these uncertainties. Besides, the satisfaction degree of the decision was taken into consideration to coordinate the conflicts among different targets. Through the weighted satisfaction degree and coordinate degree, the multi-objective programming can be transformed into single-objective programming. To gain the solution of the optimization problem, genetic algorithm was utilized to search for the optimal strategy. To verify the validity of the proposed model, an energy management system of micro-grid with five types distributed generators was taken as the case study. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Optimal Management and Design of Energy Systems under Atmospheric Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitescu, M.; Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V.

    2010-12-01

    optimal management and design of energy systems, such as the power grid or building systems, under atmospheric conditions uncertainty. The framework is defined in terms of a mathematical paradigm called stochastic programming: minimization of the expected value of the decision-makers objective function subject to physical and operational constraints, such as low blackout porbability, that are enforced on each scenario. We report results on testing the framework on the optimal management of power grid systems under high wind penetration scenarios, a problem whose time horizon is in the order of days. We discuss the computational effort of scenario generation which involves running WRF at high spatio-temporal resolution dictated by the operational constraints as well as solving the optimal dispatch problem. We demonstrate that accounting for uncertainty in atmospheric conditions results in blackout prevention, whereas decisions using only mean forecast does not. We discuss issues in using the framework for planning problems, whose time horizon is of several decades and what requirements this problem would entail from climate simulation systems.

  10. Onboard near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A.; Cliff, G.; Kelley, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies optimal and near-optimal trajectories of high-performance aircraft in symmetric flight. Onboard, real-time, near-optimal guidance is considered for the climb-dash mission, using some of the boundary-layer structure and hierarchical ideas from singular perturbations. In the case of symmetric flight, this resembles neighborhood-optimal guidance using energy-to-go as the running variable. However, extension to three-dimensional flight is proposed, using families of nominal paths with heading-to-go as the additional running variable. Some computational results are presented for the symmetric case.

  11. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  12. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  13. An Optimal Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles using Firefly Optimization Algorithm based Dynamic EDF Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Kayalvizhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of global warming gases from burning gasoline for transportation in vehicles is one of the biggest and most complex issues the world has ever faced. In an intention to eradicate the environmental crisis caused due to global warming, electric vehicles were been introduced that are powered by electric motor which works on the energy stored in a battery pack. Inspired by the research on power management in electric vehicles, this paper focuses on the development of an energy management system for electric vehicles (EMSEV to optimally balance the energy from battery pack. The proposed methodology uses firefly optimization algorithm to optimize the power consumption of the devices like electric motor, power steering, air conditioner, power window, automatic door locks, radio, speaker, horn, wiper, GPS, internal and external lights etc., from the battery in electric vehicles. Depending upon the distance to cover and the battery availability, the devices are made to switch down automatically through dynamic EDF scheduling. CAN protocol is used for effective communication between the devices and the controller. Simulation results are obtained using MATLAB.

  14. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  15. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  16. Optimal Energy Management of Multi-Microgrids with Sequentially Coordinated Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nah-Oak Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimal electric energy management of a cooperative multi-microgrid community with sequentially coordinated operations. The sequentially coordinated operations are suggested to distribute computational burden and yet to make the optimal 24 energy management of multi-microgrids possible. The sequential operations are mathematically modeled to find the optimal operation conditions and illustrated with physical interpretation of how to achieve optimal energy management in the cooperative multi-microgrid community. This global electric energy optimization of the cooperative community is realized by the ancillary internal trading between the microgrids in the cooperative community which reduces the extra cost from unnecessary external trading by adjusting the electric energy production amounts of combined heat and power (CHP generators and amounts of both internal and external electric energy trading of the cooperative community. A simulation study is also conducted to validate the proposed mathematical energy management models.

  17. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...

  18. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  19. Energy Management System Optimization for BatteryUltracapacitor Powered Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Koroglu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage and environment pollution in the transportation are major problems of today’s world. Although electric vehicles are promising solutions to these problems, their energy management methods are complicated and need to be improved for the extensive usage. In this work, the heuristic optimization methods; Differential Evolution Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization, are used to provide an optimal energy management system for a battery/ultracapacitor powered electric vehicle without prior knowledge of the drive cycle. The proposed scheme has been simulated in Matlab and applied on the ECE driving cycle. The differences between optimization methods are compared with reproducible and measurable error criteria. Results and the comparisons show the effectiveness and the practicality of the applied methods for the energy management problem of the multi-source electric vehicles

  20. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company.

  1. Optimal power flow for technically feasible Energy Management systems in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; T. T. Quynh, T.; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    flow is carried out using a Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. The control level is organized into two different sub-levels, the highest of which accounts for minimum cost operation and the lowest one solving the optimal power flow and devising the set points of inverter interfaced generation units......This paper presents a combined optimal energy and power flow management for islanded microgrids. The highest control level in this case will provide a feasible and optimized operating point around the economic optimum. In order to account for both unbalanced and balanced loads, the optimal power...

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation Management of a Ship Electrical Power System with Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Meng, Lexuan

    2016-01-01

    for the proposed plan is derived based on the solution from a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Simulation results showed that including well-sized energy storage options together with optimal operation management of generating units can improve the economic operation of the test system while...... problems to shipboard systems where some means of generation and storage are also schedulable. First, the question of whether or how much energy storage to include into the system is addressed. Both the storage power rating in MW and the capacity in MWh are optimized. Then, optimal operating strategy......Next generation power management at all scales is highly relying on the efficient scheduling and operation of different energy sources to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the energy storage options within energy systems can also lead to more efficient use...

  3. Distributed Optimal Control of Smart Energy Grids with Congestion Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Kramer, Hendrik; Bliek, F; Larsen, Gunn; Carloni, Raffaella; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Lazar, ircea

    2016-01-01

    One of the big challenges in the transition towards smart grids is how to deal with the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources such as wind or solar energy. For example, a prediction of the electricity supply and demand is typically made a day ahead, but the actual supply during operation

  4. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Xia; Huaixin Chen; Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Bin Wang(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China)

    2015-01-01

    The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy sto...

  5. Optimal Energy Management for a Complex Hybrid Electric Vehicle:Tolerating Power-loss of Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-zhi; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Yong; WU Zhi-wei

    2009-01-01

    The energy management may perform well under normal conditions, but may lead to poor behavior under abnormal situations. To tackle this problem, an optimal control strategy called rule-based equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (RECMS) is developed for a new complex hybrid electric vehicle (CHEV).It optimizes the energy efficiency and drive performance to cater for normal and power-loss operations of the tractive motor. Firstly, the strategy formulates a novel objective function based on the equivalent fuel concept.By accounting for the actual fuel cost, the equivalent fuel cost for the electric machines and virtual fuel cost for the drivability, the cost function is obtained. Furthermore, some penalty factors are presented to optimize the performance target. Finally, experiments for a practical CHEV are performed to validate a simulation model.Then simulations are carried out for both rule-based and RECMS. The results show that the optimal energy management is working well.

  6. Optimization of Key Parameters of Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using DIRECT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rule-based logic threshold control strategy has been frequently used in energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to its convenience in adjusting parameters, real-time performance, stability, and robustness. However, the logic threshold control parameters cannot usually ensure the best vehicle performance at different driving cycles and conditions. For this reason, the optimization of key parameters is important to improve the fuel economy, dynamic performance, and drivability. In principle, this is a multiparameter nonlinear optimization problem. The logic threshold energy management strategy for an all-wheel-drive HEV is comprehensively analyzed and developed in this study. Seven key parameters to be optimized are extracted. The optimization model of key parameters is proposed from the perspective of fuel economy. The global optimization method, DIRECT algorithm, which has good real-time performance, low computational burden, rapid convergence, is selected to optimize the extracted key parameters globally. The results show that with the optimized parameters, the engine operates more at the high efficiency range resulting into a fuel savings of 7% compared with non-optimized parameters. The proposed method can provide guidance for calibrating the parameters of the vehicle energy management strategy from the perspective of fuel economy.

  7. Optimal Management of High-Energy Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond; Taylor, Benjamin C; Gentile, John

    2015-08-01

    The ideal treatment method for fibular fractures associated with high-energy pilon injuries remains unknown. In this investigation, the authors reviewed a consecutive series of 137 patients who sustained high-energy pilon injuries and assessed the effect of fibular fixation and timing on radiographic and clinical outcomes. At a mean follow-up of 18.7 months, the authors found that the presence or lack of fibular fixation did not have an effect on the timing or rate of union of the pilon fractures; similarly, there was no significant difference between these groups regarding the presence or development of coronal or sagittal malalignment intraoperatively or at final follow-up. Fibular union rates were also not significantly different between groups, but fibular fixation increased operative time in a statistically significant manner. Interestingly, when comparing fibular fixation during the temporization stage vs the definitive fixation stage, the authors found that early fixation of the fibular fracture also had no effect on alignment, healing, or complication rates. Fixation of the fibula during external fixation placement statistically increased operative time during temporization but did not significantly decrease operative time during definitive stabilization. The authors cannot recommend fibular fixation with all associated pilon fractures because the presence or timing of fibular fixation does not significantly change the radiographic outcomes, complication rate, or need for future surgical interventions. Future clinical analysis is needed to further delineate the indication for fibular fixation in this scenario.

  8. Fuzzy approach for optimal energy-management of a domestic photovoltaic panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabene, Maher; Ammar, Mohsen Ben [The High Institute of Technological Studies (ISET), Rte Mahdia Km 2, BP88A, ElBustan, 3099 Sfax (Tunisia); Unite de commande de machines et reseaux de puissance CMERP-ENIS (Tunisia); Elhajjaji, Ahmed [Centre de Robotique, d' electrotechnique et d' automatique CREA (France)

    2007-10-15

    This paper introduces a new switching means giving a real time optimum connection mode of domestic appliances on either the electrical grid or a photovoltaic panel (PVP) output. A fuzzy algorithm makes the decision which ensures the optimal energy-management based on PVP generation and appliances states with respect to energy-saving criteria. Validation is driven on a 1 kW peak (kWp) PVP and domestic appliances of different powers installed at the Energy and Thermal Research Centre (CRTEn) in the north of Tunisia. Results confirm that energy saved during daylight is 80-90% of the PVP generated energy. (author)

  9. Optimal Energy Management Strategy of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have been recognized as one of the most promising vehicle categories nowadays due to their low fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Energy management is critical for improving the performance of PHEVs. This paper proposes an energy management approach based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The optimization objective is to minimize total energy cost (summation of oil and electricity from vehicle utilization. A main drawback of optimal strategies is that they can hardly be used in real-time control. In order to solve this problem, a rule-based strategy containing three operation modes is proposed first, and then the PSO algorithm is implemented on four threshold values in the presented rule-based strategy. The proposed strategy has been verified by the US06 driving cycle under the MATLAB/Simulink software environment. Two different driving cycles are adopted to evaluate the generalization ability of the proposed strategy. Simulation results indicate that the proposed PSO-based energy management method can achieve better energy efficiency compared with traditional blended strategies. Online control performance of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through a driver-in-the-loop real-time experiment.

  10. An optimal energy management development for various configuration of plug-in and hybrid electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Montazeri-Gh; Mehdi Mahmoodi-K

    2015-01-01

    Due to soaring fuel prices and environmental concerns, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology attracts more attentions in last decade. Energy management system, configuration of HEV and traffic conditions are the main factors which affect HEV's fuel consumption, emission and performance. Therefore, optimal management of the energy components is a key element for the success of a HEV. An optimal energy management system is developed for HEV based on genetic algorithm. Then, different powertrain system component combinations effects are investigated in various driving cycles. HEV simulation results are compared for default rule-based, fuzzy and GA-fuzzy controllers by using ADVISOR. The results indicate the effectiveness of proposed optimal controller over real world driving cycles. Also, an optimal powertrain configuration to improve fuel consumption and emission efficiency is proposed for each driving condition. Finally, the effects of batteries in initial state of charge and hybridization factor are investigated on HEV performance to evaluate fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption average reduction of about 14% is obtained for optimal configuration data in contrast to default configuration. Also results indicate that proposed controller has reduced emission of about 10% in various traffic conditions.

  11. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as a global optimal control problem which aims to minimize fuel consumption. Pontryagin’s minimum principle is applied to solve the optimal control problem to realize a real-time control strategy for electrical energy management in vehicles. The control strategy can change the output of the intelligent alternator and the battery with the changes of electrical load and driving conditions in real-time. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional open-loop control strategy, the proposed control strategy for vehicle energy management can effectively reduce fuel consumption and the fuel consumption per 100 km is decreased by approximately 1.7%.

  12. Energy and operation management of a microgrid using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Jordan; Jevtić, Miroljub; Klimenta, Dardan

    2016-05-01

    This article presents an efficient algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) for energy and operation management (EOM) of a microgrid including different distributed generation units and energy storage devices. The proposed approach employs PSO to minimize the total energy and operating cost of the microgrid via optimal adjustment of the control variables of the EOM, while satisfying various operating constraints. Owing to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties and market prices, a probabilistic approach in the EOM is introduced. The proposed method is examined and tested on a typical grid-connected microgrid including fuel cell, gas-fired microturbine, wind turbine, photovoltaic and energy storage devices. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve the EOM of the microgrids.

  13. Determining an energy-optimal thermal management strategy for electric driven vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchaneck, Andre; Probst, Tobias; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Information Technology (IIIT)

    2012-11-01

    In electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles, thermal management may have a significant impact on vehicle range. Therefore, optimal thermal management strategies are required. In this paper a method for determining an energy-optimal control strategy for thermal power generation in electric driven vehicles is presented considering all controlled devices (pumps, valves, fans, and the like) as well as influences like ambient temperature, vehicle speed, motor and battery and cooling cycle temperatures. The method is designed to be generic to increase the thermal management development process speed and to achieve the maximal energy reduction for any electric driven vehicle (e.g., by waste heat utilization). Based on simulations of a prototype electric vehicle with an advanced cooling cycle structure, the potential of the method is shown. (orig.)

  14. Energy Management Optimization for Cellular Networks under Renewable Energy Generation Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir Ben

    2017-03-28

    The integration of renewable energy (RE) as an alternative power source for cellular networks has been deeply investigated in literature. However, RE generation is often assumed to be deterministic; an impractical assumption for realistic scenarios. In this paper, an efficient energy procurement strategy for cellular networks powered simultaneously by the smart grid (SG) and locally deployed RE sources characterized by uncertain processes is proposed. For a one-day operation cycle, the mobile operator aims to reduce its total energy cost by optimizing the amounts of energy to be procured from the local RE sources and SG at each time period. Additionally, it aims to determine the amount of extra generated RE to be sold back to SG. A chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the RE generation uncertainty. Then, two convex approximation approaches: Chernoff and Chebyshev methods, characterized by different levels of knowledge about the RE generation, are developed to determine the energy procurement strategy for different risk levels. In addition, their performances are analyzed for various daily scenarios through selected simulation results. It is shown that the higher complex Chernoff method outperforms the Chebyshev one for different risk levels set by the operator.

  15. Optimizing energy management of decentralized photovoltaic. Fuel cell - direct storage - power supply units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo; Schufft, Wolfgang; Bocklisch, Steffen [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (TUC) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a new optimizing energy management concept for decentralized power supply units. Main goal is the coordinated utilization of dynamically controllable combined-heat-and-power-plants (e.g. fuel cell cogeneration plants) and electrochemical direct storages (e.g. future electric car batteries) for the active balancing of fluctuating renewable energy generation (e.g. building integrated photovoltaics) and fluctuation electricity consumption. The self-utilization and partial storage of renewable energy helps to stabilize the grid in a ''bottom-up'' approach. The new energy mangement concept features a three-layer control structure, which aims for the optimization of the power flows, minimizing the fuel consumption and the dynamic stress imposed onto the fuel cell. (orig.)

  16. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid - Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2010-01-01

    The smart power grid aims at harnessing information and communication technologies to enhance reliability and enforce sensible use of energy. Its realization is geared by the fundamental goal of effective management of demand load. In this work, we envision a scenario with real-time communication between the operator and consumers. The grid operator controller receives requests for power demands from consumers, with different power requirement, duration, and a deadline by which it is to be completed. The objective is to devise a power demand task scheduling policy that minimizes the grid operational cost over a time horizon. The operational cost is a convex function of instantaneous power consumption and reflects the fact that each additional unit of power needed to serve demands is more expensive as demand load increases.First, we study the off-line demand scheduling problem, where parameters are fixed and known. Next, we devise a stochastic model for the case when demands are generated continually and sched...

  17. An Event-Triggered Online Energy Management Algorithm of Smart Home: Lyapunov Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid on the user side, a home energy management system is the core of optimal operation for a smart home. In this paper, the energy scheduling problem for a household equipped with photovoltaic devices was investigated. An online energy management algorithm based on event triggering was proposed. The Lyapunov optimization method was adopted to schedule controllable load in the household. Without forecasting related variables, real-time decisions were made based only on the current information. Energy could be rapidly regulated under the fluctuation of distributed generation, electricity demand and market price. The event-triggering mechanism was adopted to trigger the execution of the online algorithm, so as to cut down the execution frequency and unnecessary calculation. A comprehensive result obtained from simulation shows that the proposed algorithm could effectively decrease the electricity bills of users. Moreover, the required computational resource is small, which contributes to the low-cost energy management of a smart home.

  18. Convex Optimization for the Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Engine Start and Gearshift Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to solve the energy management problem for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs with engine start and gearshift costs. The method is based on a combination of deterministic dynamic programming (DP and convex optimization. As demonstrated in a case study, the method yields globally optimal results while returning the solution in much less time than the conventional DP method. In addition, the proposed method handles state constraints, which allows for the application to scenarios where the battery state of charge (SOC reaches its boundaries.

  19. Analysis and Improvement of the Energy Management of an Isolated Microgrid in Lencois Island based on a Linear Optimization Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization-based decision support strategy to enhance the management of the distributed energy sources of an islanded microgrid. The solutions provided by the optimization algorithm are compared with the current strategy, already implemented in a real site microgrid...... on Lencois’ island/Brazil. Significant economic and energy savings are achieved when the optimal management of the diesel generator is performed....

  20. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. T.; Hashim, H.

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study.

  1. Integrated modeling approach for optimal management of water, energy and food security nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2017-03-01

    Water, energy and food (WEF) are inextricably interrelated. Effective planning and management of limited WEF resources to meet current and future socioeconomic demands for sustainable development is challenging. WEF production/delivery may also produce environmental impacts; as a result, green-house-gas emission control will impact WEF nexus management as well. Nexus management for WEF security necessitates integrated tools for predictive analysis that are capable of identifying the tradeoffs among various sectors, generating cost-effective planning and management strategies and policies. To address these needs, we have developed an integrated model analysis framework and tool called WEFO. WEFO provides a multi-period socioeconomic model for predicting how to satisfy WEF demands based on model inputs representing productions costs, socioeconomic demands, and environmental controls. WEFO is applied to quantitatively analyze the interrelationships and trade-offs among system components including energy supply, electricity generation, water supply-demand, food production as well as mitigation of environmental impacts. WEFO is demonstrated to solve a hypothetical nexus management problem consistent with real-world management scenarios. Model parameters are analyzed using global sensitivity analysis and their effects on total system cost are quantified. The obtained results demonstrate how these types of analyses can be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders to make cost-effective decisions for optimal WEF management.

  2. An optimization-based approach for facility energy management with uncertainties, and, Power portfolio optimization in deregulated electricity markets with risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun

    Topic 1. An Optimization-Based Approach for Facility Energy Management with Uncertainties. Effective energy management for facilities is becoming increasingly important in view of the rising energy costs, the government mandate on the reduction of energy consumption, and the human comfort requirements. This part of dissertation presents a daily energy management formulation and the corresponding solution methodology for HVAC systems. The problem is to minimize the energy and demand costs through the control of HVAC units while satisfying human comfort, system dynamics, load limit constraints, and other requirements. The problem is difficult in view of the fact that the system is nonlinear, time-varying, building-dependent, and uncertain; and that the direct control of a large number of HVAC components is difficult. In this work, HVAC setpoints are the control variables developed on top of a Direct Digital Control (DDC) system. A method that combines Lagrangian relaxation, neural networks, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed to predict the system dynamics and uncontrollable load, and to optimize the setpoints. Numerical testing and prototype implementation results show that our method can effectively reduce total costs, manage uncertainties, and shed the load, is computationally efficient. Furthermore, it is significantly better than existing methods. Topic 2. Power Portfolio Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Markets with Risk Management. In a deregulated electric power system, multiple markets of different time scales exist with various power supply instruments. A load serving entity (LSE) has multiple choices from these instruments to meet its load obligations. In view of the large amount of power involved, the complex market structure, risks in such volatile markets, stringent constraints to be satisfied, and the long time horizon, a power portfolio optimization problem is of critical importance but difficulty for an LSE to serve the

  3. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  4. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use and conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  5. Application of Optimal Production Control theory for Home Energy Management in a Micro Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We consider the optimal stochastic control problem for home energy systems with solar and energy storage devices when the demand is realized from the grid. The demand is subject to Brownian motions with both drift and variance parameters modulated by a continuous-time Markov chain that represents the regime of electricity price. We model the systems as pure stochastic differential equation models, and then we follow the completing square technique to solve the stochastic home energy management problem. The effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed approach is validated through a simulation example. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those studied here, our results imply the proposed framework could reduce the electricity cost from short-term purchase in peak hour market.

  6. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  7. Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of three energy experts on the issue of school facility energy management. The experts respond to the following questions: will energy deregulation occur in all 50 states and will it provide real savings; and will the majority of districts hire ESCOs to manage their energy needs? (GR)

  8. A Novel Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm for Home Energy Management System in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is an effective method to lower peak-to-average ratio of demand, facilitate the integration of renewable resources (e.g., wind and solar and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and strengthen the reliability of power system. In smart grid, implementing DR through home energy management system (HEMS in residential sector has a great significance. However, an algorithm that only optimally controls parts of HEMS rather than the overall system cannot obtain the best results. In addition, single objective optimization algorithm that minimizes electricity cost cannot quantify user’s comfort level and cannot take a tradeoff between electricity cost and comfort level conveniently. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes a framework of HEMS that consists of grid, load, renewable resource (i.e., solar resource, and battery. In this framework, a user has the ability to sell electricity to utility grid for revenue. Different comfort level indicators are proposed for different home appliances according to their characteristics and user preferences. Based on these comfort level indicators, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization algorithm for HEMS that minimizes electricity cost and maximizes user’s comfort level simultaneously. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm can reduce user’s electricity cost significantly, ensure user’s comfort level, and take a tradeoff between the cost and comfort level conveniently.

  9. Multi-Level Energy Management and Optimal Control of a Residential DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exploitation of renewable energies together with the increased role of low-voltage DC (LVDC) micro-sources in the generation mix of the future electricity networks, have become the driving force behind the DC microgrid applications. In this paper, an optimal dispatch model of a resident......Extensive exploitation of renewable energies together with the increased role of low-voltage DC (LVDC) micro-sources in the generation mix of the future electricity networks, have become the driving force behind the DC microgrid applications. In this paper, an optimal dispatch model...... of a residential DC microgrid (R-DCMG) with different distributed generations (DGs) and loads is proposed and implemented as an optimal hierarchical control strategy. A system-level optimizer is designed to calculate the optimal operating points of the controllable energy sources (CESs) when needed, while lower...

  10. Optimal Energy Management for SmartGrids Considering Thermal Load and Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Duong Tung

    2016-01-01

    More active participation of the demand side and efficient integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) such as electric vehicles (trVs), energy storage (ES), and renewable energy sources (RESs) into the existing power systems are important design objectives of the future smart grid. In general, effective demand side management (DSM) would benefit both system operators (e.g., peak demand reduction) and electricity customers (e.g., cost saving). For building and home energy scheduling de...

  11. Energy Optimization and Management of Demand Response Interactions in a Smart Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed framework enables innovative power management in smart campuses, integrating local renewable energy sources, battery banks and controllable loads and supporting Demand Response interactions with the electricity grid operators. The paper describes each system component: the Energy Management System responsible for power usage scheduling, the telecommunication infrastructure in charge of data exchanging and the integrated data repository devoted to information storage. We also discuss the relevant use cases and validate the framework in a few deployed demonstrators.

  12. An Efficient Approach for Energy Consumption Optimization and Management in Residential Building Using Artificial Bee Colony and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management in residential buildings according to occupant’s requirement and comfort is of vital importance. There are many proposals in the literature addressing the issue of user’s comfort and energy consumption (management with keeping different parameters in consideration. In this paper, we have utilized artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm for maximizing user comfort and minimizing energy consumption simultaneously. We propose a complete user friendly and energy efficient model with different components. The user set parameters and the environmental parameters are inputs of the ABC, and the optimized parameters are the output of the ABC. The error differences between the environmental parameters and the ABC optimized parameters are inputs of fuzzy controllers, which give the required energy as the outputs. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to maximize the comfort index and minimize the error difference between the user set parameters and the environmental parameters, which ultimately decreases the power consumption. The experimental results show that the proposed model is efficient in achieving high comfort index along with minimized energy consumption.

  13. Optimizing Gas Generator Efficiency in a Forward Operating Base Using an Energy Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    System (EMS) were investigated in this thesis. The EMS provides an interface between power sources, loads, and energy storage elements to form a microgrid ...consumption between the traditional architecture and EMS-enabled microgrid . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Energy management system, forward...operating base (FOB), generators, Microgrid , power electronics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT

  14. Optimal Cooperative Management of Energy Storage Systems to Deal with Over- and Under-Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal cooperative voltage control approach, which coordinates storage units in a distribution network. This technique is developed for storage systems’ active power management with a local strategy to provide robust voltage control and a distributed strategy to deliver op...

  15. LOW COMPLEXITY CONSTRAINTS FOR ENERGY AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS MULTICORE PROCESSORS USING DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Radhamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization in multicore processor environment is significant in real world dynamic applications, as it is crucial to find and track the change effectively over time, which requires an optimization algorithm. In massively parallel processing multicore processor architectures, like other population based metaheuristics Constraint based Bacterial Foraging Particle Swarm Optimization (CBFPSO scheduling can be effectively implemented. In this study we discuss possible approaches to parallelize CBFPSO in multicore system, which uses different constraints; to exploit parallelism are explored and evaluated. Due to the ability of keeping good balance between convergence and maintenance, for real world applications, among the various algorithms for parallel architecture optimization CBFPSOs are attracting more and more attentions in recent years. To tackle the challenges of parallel architecture optimization, several strategies have been proposed, to enhance the performance of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and have obtained success on various multicore parallel architecture optimization problems. But there still exist some issues in multicore architectures which require to be analyzed carefully. In this study, a new Constraint based Bacterial Foraging Particle Swarm Optimization (CBFPSO scheduling for multicore architecture is proposed, which updates the velocity and position by two bacterial behaviours, i.e., reproduction and elimination dispersal. The performance of CBFPSO is compared with the simulation results of GA and the result shows that the proposed algorithm has pretty good performance on almost all types of cores compared to GA with respect to completion time and energy consumption.

  16. EAF Management Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the main advantages of electric arc furnace (EAF): it has a great contribution to reintroduce significant quantities of reusable metallic materials in the economic circuit, it constitutes itself as an important part in the Primary Materials and Energy Recovery (PMER), good productivity, good quality / price ratio, the possibility of developing a wide variety of classes and types of steels, including special steels and high alloy. In this paper it is presented some important developments of electric arc furnace: vacuum electric arc furnace, artificial intelligence expert systems for pollution control Steelworks. Another important aspect presented in the article is an original block diagram for optimization the EAF management system. This scheme is based on the original objective function (criterion function) represented by the price / quality ratio. The article presents an original block diagram for optimization the control system of the EAF. For designing this concept of EAF management system, many principles were used.

  17. Optimal Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heat and Power in Different Demand Type Buildings Considering Seasonal Demand Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal energy management strategy for a cooperative multi-microgrid system with combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP is proposed and has been verified for a test case of building microgrids (BMGs. Three different demand types of buildings are considered and the BMGs are assumed to be equipped with their own combined heat and power (CHP generators. In addition, the BMGs are also connected to an external energy network (EEN, which contains a large CHP, an adsorption chiller (ADC, a thermal storage tank, and an electric heat pump (EHP. By trading the excess electricity and heat energy with the utility grid and EEN, each BMG can fulfill its energy demands. Seasonal energy demand variations have been evaluated by selecting a representative day for the two extreme seasons (summer and winter of the year, among the real profiles of year-round data on electricity, heating, and cooling usage of all the three selected buildings. Especially, the thermal energy management aspect is emphasized where, bi-lateral heat trading between the energy supplier and the consumers, so-called energy prosumer concept, has been realized. An optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming has been developed for minimizing the daily operation cost of the EEN while fulfilling the energy demands of the BMGs. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  18. On-Site Energy Management by Integrating Campus Buildings and Optimizing Local Energy Systems, Case Study of the Campus in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genku Kayo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the potential study on the impact of energy improvements of existing campus buildings by on-site energy management and operational strategies. The focus buildings in the campus are mainly built in the 1960s, and therefore it is time to carry out renovation work. In connection with renovations, the aim is to improve the energy efficiency of the buildings, and to develop the functionality of the properties to meet the current requirements. Thus, in this study, the potentials of on-site energy generation and sharing in the cluster of campus buildings in Finland were studied. By means of optimisation method, the optimal combined heat and power systems (CHP capacity distribution and operation mode for minimizing annual primary energy consumption were simulated. The results show the integration of buildings has advantage for on-site energy management as 23% of primary energy reduction compared with current situation. Consequently, integrating buildings and optimizing on-site energy management can be one of effective strategies for minimizing primary energy consumption. Furthermore, the study to improve operation strategies of building service system considering current space use in the building clarified that up to 13% of total energy use reduction is expected. The research work also proposes the way of providing environmental information to increase awareness of building energy usage in the campus.

  19. Specification of an Information Delivery Tool to Support Optimal Holistic Environmental and Energy Management in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2008-07-01

    Building performance assessment for the operational phase of a building's life cycle is heuristic, typically working from available historical metered data and focusing on bulk energy assessment. Building Management Systems are used in the operational phase of the building to control the building's internal environment according to the design criteria outlined during the design phase. Recent developments in mechanisms that communicate building performance such as standardized building performance objectives and metrics enable the use of the output from whole building energy simulation tools by nontechnical personnel and all project stakeholders. This paper proposes to specify and demonstrate the utilization of an Information Delivery Tool that supports optimum holistic environmental and energy analysis aimed at an established profile of building managers utilizing standardized performance objectives and metrics.

  20. Optimal energy management system implementation in power networks with multiple Microgrids by using multi-period imperialist competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Parhizi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal energy management in systems based on multiple Microgrids (MG is a vital component to ensure the economic dispatch of generation resources. Energy management system (EMS can be employed to achieve the optimum utilization of resources, to reach the operational performance targets in the MGs as well as to control exchange power among them and with grid as well. In this regard, a double-layer control scheme (DLCS equipped with primary and secondary controllers are proposed in this paper. In primary control level, EMS is operating separately for each MG by considering the problem constraints and uncertainty of renewable resources by using Taguchi’s approach, power set-points of generation resources and possible shortage or surplus of power generation in the MGs. Then, the shortage or surplus generation of the MGs should be submitted to a central energy management system (CEMS at the secondary layer. In order to validate the proposed control structure, a case study including two MGs and a lumped load is simulated and optimized based on multi-period imperialist competition (MICA algorithm. Different scenarios are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed DLCS. The obtained results clearly show that the proposed DLCS is effective for achieving optimal dispatch of generation resources in systems with multiple MGs. Furthermore, the proposed DLCS is able to control the performance of the MGs in interaction with the grid and with each other as well.

  1. Optimizing energy management of fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems; Optimierendes Energiemanagement von Brennstoffzelle-Direktspeicher-Hybridsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo

    2010-03-29

    The dissertation presents a new optimizing energy management concept for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. Initially, the characteristics of specific energy time series are investigated on the basis of real measurement data. A new concept for the multi-scale analysis, modelling and prediction of fluctuating photovoltaic supply and electric load demand profiles is developed. The second part of the dissertation starts with a discussion of the benefits of and the basic coupling and control principles for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. The typical characteristics of a PEM-fuel cell, a metal hydride hydrogen storage, a lithium-ion battery and a supercap unit are presented. A new modular DC/DC-converter is described. Results from experimental and theoretical investigations of the individual components and the overall hybrid system are discussed. New practicable models for the voltage-current-curve, the state of charge behaviour and the conversion losses are presented. The third part of the dissertation explains the new energy management concept. The optimization of power flows is achieved by a control-oriented approach, employing a) the primary control of bus voltage and fuel cell current, b) the secondary control to limit fuel cell current gradient and operating range and to perform direct storage charge control, and c) the system control to optimally adjust secondary control parameters aiming for a reduction of dynamic fuel cell stress and hydrogen consumption. Results from simulations and experimental investigations demonstrate the benefits and high capabilities of the new optimizing energy management concept. Examples of stationary and portable applications conclude the dissertation. (orig.)

  2. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Optimal Management of Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassi, Luca; Ubertini, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The present chapter discusses the importance of energy systems proper management to reduce energy costs and environmental impact. A numerical model for the optimal management of a power plant in buildings and industrial plants is presented. The model allows evaluating different operating strategies for the power plant components. The different strategies are defined on the basis of a pure economic optimisation (minimisation of total cost) and/or of an energetic optimisation (minimisation of f...

  4. Application of the Fuel-Optimal Energy Management in Design Study of a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Pedram Pourhashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of occasional criticism they have attracted, hybrid vehicles (HVs have been warmly welcomed by industry and academia alike. The key advantages of an HV, including fuel economy and environment friendliness, however, depend greatly on its energy management strategy and the way its design parameters are “tuned.” The optimal design and sizing of the HV remain a challenge for the engineering community, due to the variety of criteria and especially dynamic measures related to nature of its working conditions. This paper proposes an optimal design scheme that begins with presenting an energy management strategy based on minimum fuel consumption in finite driving cycle horizon. The strategy utilizes a dynamic programming approach and is consistent with charge sustenance. The sensitivity of the vehicle’s performance metrics to multiple design parameters is then studied using a design of experiments (DOE methodology. The proposed scheme provides the designer with a reliable tool for investigating various design scenarios and achieving the optimal one.

  5. Residential Energy Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)

  6. An Optimized Energy Management Strategy for Preheating Vehicle-Mounted Li-ion Batteries at Subzero Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs at low temperatures. In low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulting from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as the temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating the battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then, given a certain ambient temperature, a target preheating temperature is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with decreasing ambient temperature, however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save on total vehicle operation costs.

  7. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  8. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  9. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...

  10. ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN REFINERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Japan energy saving activities of refineries in 1970s and 1980s were reviewed. The activities led by task teams were strongly supported by the corporate management. The teams consisted of well-trained and experienced persons from technical, maintenance, operation and manufacturing planning, and focused on cost cut, preventing energy losses, uncovering a lot of energy losses and preventing losses with no or small investment. For instance, loss measurement, less stripping steam, less reflux ratios, less treat gas, lower pressure and lower temperature, etc. In 1990s, environmental discussions suggested to introduce ultra low sulfur fuels and less CO2 emission fuels. In addition to the above, oil prices hike and supply shortage drive these activities. Energy saving should be evaluated by the overall optimization (saving and value generation). Energy utilization can be managed.

  11. Energy saving in greenhouses: optimal use of climate conditions and crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Elings, A.; Dueck, T.A.; Meinen, E.

    2006-01-01

    In the last few years, energy consumption in greenhouses has gained increased interest, due to the liberalisation of the energy market and the increasing prices of natural gas. In this paper, the effects of a series of adaptations in greenhouse climate and cropping systems on crop production and

  12. Distributed optimal control and congestion management in the universal smart energy framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dinh Bao; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Bliek, Frits; Kramer, Wouter; Larsen, Gunn K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the supply-demand matching problem in the hierarchical market-based structure of the Universal Smart Energy Framework [12]. A mismatch between the forecasted and the actual load in smart electricity grids can arise due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources. To

  13. Contribution to energy optimization, management and processing; Contribution a l'optimisation, la gestion et le traitement de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, C.

    2003-12-15

    Nowadays, renewable energies become an alternative solution to the classical energies obtained from fossil resources. Renewable energies have reached a high level of development, mainly in terms of cost and production facilities. However, the electrical conversion systems are often not optimized in terms of reliability, electrical efficiency and cost production. For that, there is a lot of reticence to install these systems in home sites or in big centrals for mass energy production. Since 1997 LAAS-CNRS has focused his research in the optimization of the power conversion chains from a system point of view. Indeed, due to the inexistence of optimal solutions for these electrical systems and the absence of research groups in France interested in this problem, the research goals were finally centered on the electrical conversion and thermal management of photovoltaic energy systems. First works were focused in the optimization of conversion efficiency. For that, LAAS-CNRS has developed and installed a complete outdoor photovoltaic system. The PV demonstration site has 1 kW of peak power and an automatic measurement system capable of characterize the electrical efficiency of different power conversion structures with high level of precision. Novel power conversion structures devoted for photovoltaic systems have been developed in collaboration of foreign research groups like the GAEI from University Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona) and the EPIC from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (Barcelona). Meteorological dependence of the renewable energy sources produces a low level of predictability of the energy production. In order to produce energy without strong variations we have coupled different energy sources like PV generators and small wind generators by means of batteries. Additional studies have been made regarding to the optimal battery management. Maturity in the studies of the photovoltaic systems shows news trends and new possible applications of this systems

  14. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An on-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Feedback coefficients are found as functions of the remaining energy to go (dash energy less current energy) along the nominal path.

  16. Drive optimization in an energy management context. Consumption-optimized routes for automobiles; Fahrtoptimierung im Energiemanagement-Kontext. Verbrauchsoptimierte Routen fuer Kraftfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    The present thesis outlines the contribution of a navigation system to an integral energy management for passenger vehicle. The main goal of reducing the vehicle's fuel consumption is reached by using environmental information for the current trip. In particular algorithms using these information for building environmentally friendly routes are developed. A digital map holds all the relevant information about the entire street network a vehicle can use to reach its destination. Within a specific test region this network is enhanced by information about the topography and speed limits for all street categories. The dynamic map built by overlaying traffic data provides a highly detailed view of expected speeds on different road segments. For this reason a concept is being developed that allows to fuse speed information from different sources. The highly detailed speed information on a link-by-link basis is used to feed a simplified vehicle model in addition to topographic data from the static map and to a driver model that involves the driver's behavior. This way, a prediction of fuel usage along different route alternatives is being calculated. Furthermore different optimization algorithms making use of these simplified models for calculating the most efficient route are developed. Subsequently the vehicle model is validated by measurement and the integration of the routing algorithms into an integral energy management system is shown. Especially the simplifications for reducing the simulation time are being evaluated. Finally the comparison of different approaches gives an overview of their aptitude for environmentally friedly navigation The proof of optimality for an approach based on the behavior of ant colonies searching for food is given in several steps. The main advantage of this new approach is the combination of the simulation models with the optimization algorithm at runtime. This thesis delivers the required components for building the Green

  17. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state.

  18. Optimization of Automatic Train Control for Energy Management and Service Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanna P. Gordon; Richard M. Wheeler; Timothy J. Sa; Donald A. Sheaffer

    1999-11-01

    A new generation of automatic train control systems is currently under development in the commuter-rail transit industry. These systems will utilize radio communication between wayside control computers and trains in order to provide high precision train control beyond the capability of today's automatic systems. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is developing such a modern control system in collaboration with Harmon Industries. This system, called the Advanced Automatic Train Control (AATC) system, will allow for precision train locating and control, and will facilitate coordination of the trajectories of multiple trains. This system will be capable of running trains more closely together and decreasing the time a train requires to traverse the system, while simultaneously operating with a more modest traction power infrastructure, and providing a smoother, more comfortable ride to commuters. The authors have collaborated with BART to develop a simulator of the AATC system and the traction power system, and they have utilized this simulator as a testbed for the development of advanced train control techniques. Several train control algorithms, including one employing a neural network for train voltage prediction, have been developed and tested in the simulator. Smoother train trajectories, reduced power infrastructure requirements, and reduced energy consumption have been demonstrated. Improved service reliability is also expected to result.

  19. DEM - distribution energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Kekkonen, V.; Koreneff, G. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    , optimization of energy production, short-term trade management, retail tariff design and planning of power purchase from the markets

  20. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  1. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  2. An optimal energy management system for islanded Microgrids based on multi-period artificial bee colony combined with Markov Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Azarinejadian, Fatemeh; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    neural network combined with a Markov chain (ANN-MC) approach is used to predict nondispatchable power generation and load demand considering uncertainties. Furthermore, other capabilities such as extendibility, reliability, and flexibility are examined about the proposed approach......., the DR magnitude, the duration, and the minimum cost of energy. In this paper, a multiperiod artificial bee colony optimization algorithm is implemented for economic dispatch considering generation, storage, and responsive load offers. The better performance of the proposed algorithm is shown...

  3. Optimization of electric energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraner, A.R.

    1984-02-01

    Several examples are used to show how electrical energy consumption can be reduced using appropriate consultation. According to on detailed analysis on energy consumption, a reduction can be achieved with peak loads as well as with the application of a combined emergency power supply - thermal machine, at least for middle- and large-sized buildings. The calculations for profitability are extended for the following areas: energy-saving light systems, ventilation plants, elevator plants, and kitchen equipment. A comment on employee motivation closes the report.

  4. A Novel Home Energy Management System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The number of electronic devices found in home environments is increasing, leading to an increase in the energy consumption in users’ premises. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce and optimize the energy consumption...... the different devices at the service level and provides the necessary tools to apply energy management strategies....

  5. Energy management study for lunar oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.

  6. Energy Optimization in Dyehouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-12-04

    Dec 4, 2014 ... “A nation that can't control its energy sources can't control its future,” Barack ... Electricity can be used to run machines or provide lighting while steam may be used to ... section consist basically of wastewater recovery, condensate recovery, cooling ..... Assume efficiency of heating system performance= 0.85.

  7. Optimizing management of glycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudesna; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J

    2016-06-01

    The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model. From diagnosis, intensive glycaemic control and individualised care is aimed at reducing complications. In older people, the goal is maintaining quality of life and minimizing morbidity, especially as overtreatment increases hypoglycaemia risk. Maintaining durable glycaemic control is challenging and complex to achieve without hypoglycaemia, weight gain and other significant adverse effects. Overcoming patient and physician barriers can help ensure adequate treatment initiation and intensification. Cardiovascular safety studies with newer glucose-lowering agents are now mandatory, with a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin), and two glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide and semaglutide) being the first to demonstrate superior CV outcomes compared with placebo.

  8. An Integrated Optimal Energy Management/Gear-Shifting Strategy for an Electric Continuously Variable Transmission Hybrid Powertrain Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuan-Yi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an integrated energy management/gear-shifting strategy by using a bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in an engine/motor hybrid powertrain with electric continuously variable transmission. A control-oriented vehicle model was constructed on the Matlab/Simulink platform for further integration with developed control strategies. A baseline control strategy with four modes was developed for comparison with the proposed BFA. The BFA was used with five bacterial populations to search for the optimal gear ratio and power-split ratio for minimizing the cost: the equivalent fuel consumption. Three main procedures were followed: chemotaxis, reproduction, and elimination-dispersal. After the vehicle model was integrated with the vehicle control unit with the BFA, two driving patterns, the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure, were used to evaluate the energy consumption improvement and equivalent fuel consumption compared with the baseline. The results show that [18.35%,21.77%] and [8.76%,13.81%] were improved for the optimal energy management and integrated optimization at the first and second driving cycles, respectively. Real-time platform designs and vehicle integration for a dynamometer test will be investigated in the future.

  9. Energy Management Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmania Dept. of Education, Hobart (Australia). Facilities Services Section.

    This report presents an overview of the energy management plan for Tasmanian schools designed to minimize the costs of all forms of energy usage within these facilities. The policy and objectives of the plan are provided along with details of the plan itself and its current status. Appendices contain an extract from Asset Management Plan for Real…

  10. Energy accounting and optimization for mobile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mian

    Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multi-core system like modern smartphones and tablets. In this thesis, we provide the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offer the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. To obtain the Shapley value-based ground truth, one only needs to know if a process is active during the time under question and the system energy consumption during the same time. We further provide a utility optimization formulation of energy management and show, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). We show an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting, it is related to Shapley value in that both require the system energy consumption for all possible combination of processes under question. We provide a novel system solution that meet this requirement by acquiring system energy consumption in situ for an OS scheduler period, i.e.,10 ms. We report a prototype implementation of both Shapley value-based energy accounting and OEM based scheduling. Using this prototype and smartphone workload, we experimentally demonstrate how erroneous existing energy accounting policies can

  11. Optimism in Enrollment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster-Williams, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment managers, like most managers, have goals that must be focused on with precision, excitement, and vigor. Enrollment managers must excel at enrollment planning. Typically, enrollment planning unites undergraduate and graduate recruitment plans, out-of-state recruitment plans, marketing plans, retention plans, international enrollment…

  12. Optimal energy management system in grid connected Microgrid integrated with distributed generation by using the multi-period artificial bee colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azarinejadian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presenting proper and efficient energy management system (EMS in the Microgrids (MG is an important issue for gaining assurance to optimize energy usage based on price preference and system technical constraints. Nowadays by utilizing renewable energy resources and energy storage systems in MG, in addition to reducing the pollution caused by fossil fuels, the safety and power system reliability can also be improved. The proposed algorithm to implement an EMS shall increase the MG ability in both islanded and grid connected operating mode to supply non-responsive load demands from the economic points of view. Implementing EMS over the MG of Institute de Recerca on Energia de Catalunya (IREC based on artificial bee colony (ABC optimization approach to economic dispatch between various generation units, considering their offer price is main novelty of this paper. The obtained results from the proposed algorithm when compared with the EMS algorithm based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP demonstrate the reduction of about 18% of the total generation; and it also improves the efficiency of the demand/ generation side management.

  13. The Novel Application of Optimization and Charge Blended Energy Management Control for Component Downsizing within a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integration of battery systems is often cited as one of the main barriers to vehicle commercialization. The ability to integrate the optimization of the energy management control system with the sizing of key PHEV powertrain components presents a significant area of research. Contained within this paper is an optimization study in which a charge blended strategy is used to facilitate the downsizing of the electrical machine, the internal combustion engine and the high voltage battery. An improved Equivalent Consumption Method has been used to manage the optimal power split within the powertrain as the PHEV traverses a range of different drivecycles. For a target CO2 value and drivecycle, results show that this approach can yield significant downsizing opportunities, with cost reductions on the order of 2%–9% being realizable.

  14. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  15. Energy and Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  16. Energy management manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The Pueblo of Laguna lies in the Grants Uranium Belt. The Grants belt is the source of more than half of all uranium produced in the US. Currently the Pueblo has development agreements with Conoco and Anaconda. Only the Anaconda leasehold has been developed - an open pit mine and 2 underground mines. The Pueblo has several areas of concern in managing mineral development. These include monitoring and enforcing performance standards, and taxing severance of uranium from the land. Constraints on tribal regulation of energy development are discussed in Chapter 1. Energy management program needs of the Pueblo of Laguna are discussed in Chapter 2. Chapter three contains the energy management plan to be used by the Pueblo as it formulates and implements an energy development and management strategy. (DMC)

  17. Optimization of well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine

    Groundwater is a limited but important resource for fresh water supply. Differ- ent conflicting objectives are important when operating a well field. This study investigates how the management of a well field can be improved with respect to different objectives simultaneously. A framework...... objectives. The sequential scheduling optimizes the management stepwise for daily time steps, and allows the final management to vary in time. The research shows that this method performs better than the constant scheduling when large variations in the hydrological conditions occur. This novel approach can...... multi-objective optimization framework has shown to be useful in optimizing the management of well fields, and it has successfully been applied to the two case studies, Hardhof and Søndersø waterworks. If the method is applied to all Danish waterworks it is estimated that 20-32 GWh/year could be saved...

  18. Energy management manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The Jacarilla reservation lies on the San Juan Basin in New Mexico, with vast oil and gas deposits, actively developed since the late 1950s. Constraints on Tribal regulation of energy development are discussed in Section I. Section II describes the relationship between Federal agencies and the Tribe; identifies energy management problems; recommends management activities to address the problems; and points out skill requirements. The Tribe has now adopted a formal statement of goals and objectives for its minerals management program and details of the program are described in Section III. Information on the legal analysis of oil and gas development on the land of the Tribe is given in the appendix. (MCW)

  19. Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Longbo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to achieve close-to-optimal utility performance in energy harvesting networks with only finite capacity energy storage devices. In these networks, nodes are capable of harvesting energy from the environment. The amount of energy that can be harvested is time varying and evolves according to some probability law. We develop an \\emph{online} algorithm, called the Energy-limited Scheduling Algorithm (ESA), which jointly manages the energy and makes power allocation decisions for packet transmissions. ESA only has to keep track of the amount of energy left at the network nodes and \\emph{does not require any knowledge} of the harvestable energy process. We show that ESA achieves a utility that is within $O(\\epsilon)$ of the optimal, for any $\\epsilon>0$, while ensuring that the network congestion and the required capacity of the energy storage devices are \\emph{deterministically} upper bounded by bounds of size $O(1/\\epsilon)$. We then also develop the Modified-ESA algorithm (MESA) to ac...

  20. Optimize Internal Workflow Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Workflow Management has the role of creating andmaintaining an efficient flow of information and tasks inside anorganization. The major benefit of workflows is the solutions tothe growing needs of organizations. The external and theinternal processes associated with a business need to be carefullyorganized in order to provide a strong foundation for the dailywork. This paper focuses internal workflow within a company,attempts to provide some basic principles related to workflows,and a workflows solution for modeling and deploying usingVisual Studio and SharePoint Server.

  1. Microgrid management architecture considering optimal battery dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tim George

    Energy management and economic operation of microgrids with energy storage systems at the distribution level have attracted significant research interest in recent years. One of the challenges in this area has been the coordination of energy management functions with decentralized and centralized dispatch. In this thesis a distributed dispatch algorithm for a microgrid consisting of a photovoltaic source with energy storage which can work with a centralized dispatch algorithm that ensure stability of the microgrid is proposed. To this end, first a rule based dispatch algorithm is formulated which is based on maximum resource utilization and can work in both off grid and grid connected mode. Then a fixed horizon optimization algorithm which minimizes the cost of power taken from the grid is developed. In order to schedule the battery based on changes in the PV farm a predictive horizon methodology based optimization is designed. Further, the rule based and optimization based dispatch methodologies is linked to optimize the voltage deviations at the microgrid Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that, an optimal active power dispatch considering the nominal voltage bandwidth can be initiated for the microgrid in both grid connected or off grid mode of operation. Also, the method allows the grid operator to consider cost based optimal renewable generation scheduling and/or the maximum power extraction based modes of operation simultaneously or separately based on grid operating conditions and topologies. Further, the methods allows maintaining PCC voltage within the limits during these modes of operation and at the same time ensure that the battery dispatch is optimal.

  2. Optimal Management of DoD Lands for Military Training, Ecosystem Services, and Renewable Energy Generation: Framework and Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    training activity may have an impact on the natural resource base (e.g., degradation in soil , water, and vegetation conditions), ecosys- tem...availability of solar exposure for photovoltaic production. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or...Resources1 Geothermal Energy Resources1 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Resources2 Wind Energy Resources2 ERDC/CERL TR-13-2 7 Each type of

  3. Energy management programs - computer technology, a tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, G

    1996-08-01

    Energy management systems were defined and reviewed, focusing on how the development in computer technology has impacted on the development of energy management systems. It was shown that the rise of micro-computer systems made it possible to create a tool that is well adapted to the urgent need for optimizing electromechanical systems to meet energy reduction criteria while still maintaining occupant comfort. Two case studies were cited to show the kind of savings realized by the different energy management systems installed. Besides managing energy, energy management systems can also help in detecting certain operating failures or irregularities in equipment configurations, monitoring and measuring energy consumption, as well as performing such peripherally related functions as gathering data about operating and space temperatures.

  4. Energy management and cooperation in microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Katayoun

    Microgrids are key components of future smart power grids, which integrate distributed renewable energy generators to efficiently serve the load demand locally. However, random and intermittent characteristics of renewable energy generations may hinder the reliable operation of microgrids. This thesis is thus devoted to investigating new strategies for microgrids to optimally manage their energy consumption, energy storage system (ESS) and cooperation in real time to achieve the reliable and cost-effective operation. This thesis starts with a single microgrid system. The optimal energy scheduling and ESS management policy is derived to minimize the energy cost of the microgrid resulting from drawing conventional energy from the main grid under both the off-line and online setups, where the renewable energy generation/load demand are assumed to be non-causally known and causally known at the microgrid, respectively. The proposed online algorithm is designed based on the optimal off-line solution and works under arbitrary (even unknown) realizations of future renewable energy generation/load demand. Therefore, it is more practically applicable as compared to solutions based on conventional techniques such as dynamic programming and stochastic programming that require the prior knowledge of renewable energy generation and load demand realizations/distributions. Next, for a group of microgrids that cooperate in energy management, we study efficient methods for sharing energy among them for both fully and partially cooperative scenarios, where microgrids are of common interests and self-interested, respectively. For the fully cooperative energy management, the off-line optimization problem is first formulated and optimally solved, where a distributed algorithm is proposed to minimize the total (sum) energy cost of microgrids. Inspired by the results obtained from the off-line optimization, efficient online algorithms are proposed for the real-time energy management

  5. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to

  6. Energy Conservation Management in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines an energy management program to be presented at the annual meeting of the Association of School Business Officials. The program is based on the Carleton Board of Education (Ontario) energy management program. (Author/MLF)

  7. Energy management and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Energy management is treated by first exploring the energy requirements for a cryogenic tunnel. The requirement is defined as a function of Mach number, Reynolds number, temperature, and tunnel size. A simple program and correlation is described which allow calculation of the energy required. Usage of energy is also addressed in terms of tunnel control and research operation. The potential of a new wet expander is outlined in terms of cost saved by reliquefying a portion of the exhaust. The expander is described as a potentially more efficient way of recovering a fraction of the cold nitrogen gas normally exhausted to the atmosphere from a cryogenic tunnel. The role of tunnel insulation systems is explored in terms of requirements, safety, cost, maintenance, and efficiency. A detailed description of two external insulation systems is given. One is a rigid foam with a fiber glass and epoxy shell. The other is composed of glass fiber mats with a flexible outer vapor barrier; this system is nitrogen purged. The two systems are compared with the purged system being judged superior.

  8. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  9. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  10. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    newcomers and veterans in the field of cache power management. It will help graduate students, CAD tool developers and designers in understanding the need of energy efficiency in modern computing systems. Further, it will be useful for researchers in gaining insights into algorithms and techniques for micro-architectural and system-level energy optimization using dynamic cache reconfiguration. We sincerely believe that the ``food for thought'' presented in this book will inspire the readers to develop even better ideas for designing ``green'' processors of tomorrow.

  11. Industrial energy management; Betriebliches Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, D.

    2007-07-01

    Effective and successful energy and facility management uses a holistic view in which the life cycles of plants and buildings are considered, plus efficient controlling and reporting. The challenge is not in short-term cost reduction but in ensuring long-term effects. This requires management strategies which make use of synergy effects by means of interdisciplinary measures. Main topics: management of energy utilization, energy conversion and energy supply. (GL)

  12. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  13. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  14. Optimal Privacy-Cost Trade-off in Demand-Side Management with Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Onur; Gündüz, Deniz; Gómez-Vilardebó, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Demand-side energy storage management is studied from a joint privacy-energy cost optimization perspective. Assuming that the user's power demand profile as well as the electricity prices are known non-causally, the optimal energy management (EM) policy that jointly increases the privacy of the user and reduces his energy cost is characterized. The backward water-filling interpretation is provided for the optimal EM policy. While the energy cost is reduced by requesting more energy when the p...

  15. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Energy Criteria for Resource Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Resource optimization in building design is based on the total system over its expected useful life. Alternative environmental systems can be evaluated in terms of resource costs and goal effectiveness. (Author/MF)

  17. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  18. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    125–143 DOI 10.1007/s00158-014-1117-8 RESEARCH PAPER Multiobjective topology optimization of energy absorbing materials Raymond A. Wildman · George A...recent developments. J Multiscale Model 3(4):1–42 Qiao P, Yang M, Bobaru F (2008) Impact mechanics and high-energy absorbing materials: review . J Aerosp...ARL-RP-0533 ● AUG 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials by

  19. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  20. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  1. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  2. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-05

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  3. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    , these works assume flat, highly simplified network models, which overlook the physical connectivity. This work proposes an optimal power flow solution that considers the entire system: the storage device limits, voltages limits, currents limits, and power limits. The power network may be arbitrarily complex......Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...

  4. Optimal management of perimenopausal depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Parry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management

  5. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  6. Optimization of PV system operation in distributed electricity grids by intelligent energy management; Optimierung des Einsatzes von PV Anlagen in dezentral organisierten Stromnetzen durch intelligentes Betriebsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erge, T.; Laukamp, H.; Puls, H.G.; Thoma, M.; Wittwer, C. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Kroeger-Vodde, A. [PSE Projektgesellschaft Solare Energiesysteme mbH (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    With an increasing number of decentralized electricity generators especially in electrical distribution grid segments, energy flows in the grids are changing from an purely centralised supply structure towards more complex distributed solutions. With lots of fluctuating electricity generation from PV or other technologies, special emphasis must be put on high supply reliability, good power quality and economic operation of the grids. This can be achieved by applying intelligent energy management. (orig.)

  7. Microgrids: Energy management by loss minimization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Basu, S. Chowdhury, S.P. Chowdhury

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy management is a techno-economic issue, which dictates, in the context of microgrids, how optimal investment in technology front could bring optimal power quality and reliability (PQR of supply to the consumers. Investment in distributed energy resources (DERs, with their connection to the utility grid at optimal locations and with optimal sizes, saves energy in the form of line loss reduction. Line loss reduction is the indirect benefit to the microgrid owner who may recover it as an incentive from utility. The present paper focuses on planning of optimal siting and sizing of DERs based on minimization of line loss. Optimal siting is done, here, on the loss sensitivity index (LSI method and optimal sizing by differential evolution (DE algorithms, which is, again, compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Studies are conducted on 6-bus and 14-bus radial networks under islanded mode of operation with electric demand profile. Islanding helps planning of DER capacity of microgrid, which is self-sufficient to cater its own consumers without utility’s support.

  8. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives....... The method has been to make extensive efficiency measurements within the specified operating area with optimized efficiency and with constant air-gap flux, and to establish reliable converter and motor loss models based on those measurements. The loss models have been used to analyze energy optimal control...

  9. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  10. Energy Efficiency Optimization for MIMO Broadcasting Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the energy efficiency (EE) for the MIMO broadcasting channels (BC) is addressed in this paper, taking into account the transmit independent power which is related to the active transmit antenna number. A new optimization framework is proposed, in which transmit covariance optimization under fixed active transmit antenna sets is first performed and active transmit antenna selection (ATAS) is utilized then. To optimize the EE under a fixed transmit antenna set, we propose an energy efficient iterative waterfilling scheme according to the block-coordinate ascent algorithm, through transforming the problem into a concave fractional optimization via uplink-downlink duality. It is proved that the proposed scheme converges to the global optimality. After that, ATAS is employed to determine the active transmit antenna set and to turn off the rest inactive antennas. ATAS can balance the active transmit antenna number related EE gain with higher capacity gain and the EE loss with more transmit independent po...

  11. Optimization of use of waste in the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Alternative uses of waste for energy production become increasingly interesting when considered from two perspectives, that of waste management and the energy system perspective. This paper presents the results of an enquiry into the use of waste in a future energy system. The analysis...... was performed using the energy system analysis model, Balmorel. The study is focused on Germany and the Nordic countries and demonstrates the optimization of both investments and production within the energy systems. The results present cost optimization excluding taxation concerning the use of waste for energy...... production in Denmark in a 2025 scenario with 48% renewable energy. Investments in a range of waste conversion technologies are facilitated, including waste incineration, co-combustion with coal, anaerobic digestion, and gasification. The most economically feasible solutions are found to be incineration...

  12. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

  13. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  14. Optimizing management of pancreaticopleural fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Wronski; Maciej Slodkowski; Wlodzimierz Cebulski; Daniel Moronczyk; Ireneusz W Krasnodebski

    2011-01-01

    fluid collections. Four out of 8 patients in our series required subsequent surgery due to a failed non-operative treat ment. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was per formed in 3 cases. In one case, only external drainage of the pancreatic pseudocyst was done because of dif fuse peripancreatic inflammatory infiltration precluding safe dissection. There were no perioperative mortalities. There was no recurrence of a pancreaticopleural fistula in any of the patients.CONCLUSION: Optimal management of pancreatico pleural fistulas requires appropriate patient selection that should be based on the underlying pancreatic duct abnormalities.

  15. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  16. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  17. Vibration energy harvester optimization using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Kurfurst, J.; Singule, V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization study of a vibration energy harvester. This harvester can be used as autonomous source of electrical energy for remote or wireless applications, which are placed in environment excited by ambient mechanical vibrations. The ambient energy of vibrations is usually on very low level but the harvester can be used as alternative source of energy for electronic devices with an expected low level of power consumption of several mW. The optimized design of the vibration energy harvester was based on previous development and the sensitivity of harvester design was improved for effective harvesting from mechanical vibrations in aeronautic applications. The vibration energy harvester is a mechatronic system which generates electrical energy from ambient vibrations due to precision tuning up generator parameters. The optimization study for maximization of harvested power or minimization of volume and weight are the main goals of our development. The optimization study of such complex device is complicated therefore artificial intelligence methods can be used for tuning up optimal harvester parameters.

  18. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... to evaluate different separate solutions when they interact in the building.When trying to optimize several parameters there is a need for a method, which will show the correct price-performance of each part of a building under design. The problem with not having such a method will first be showed...

  19. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  20. Optimal Energy Aware Clustering in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sarrafzadeh

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks is among the fastest growing technologies that have the potential of changing our lives drastically. These collaborative, dynamic and distributed computing and communicating systems will be self organizing. They will have capabilities of distributing a task among themselves for efficient computation. There are many challenges in implementation of such systems: energy dissipation and clustering being one of them. In order to maintain a certain degree of service quality and a reasonable system lifetime, energy needs to be optimized at every stage of system operation. Sensor node clustering is another very important optimization problem. Nodes that are clustered together will easily be able to communicate with each other. Considering energy as an optimization parameter while clustering is imperative. In this paper we study the theoretical aspects of the clustering problem in sensor networks with application to energy optimization. We illustrate an optimal algorithm for clustering the sensor nodes such that each cluster (which has a master is balanced and the total distance between sensor nodes and master nodes is minimized. Balancing the clusters is needed for evenly distributing the load on all master nodes. Minimizing the total distance helps in reducing the communication overhead and hence the energy dissipation. This problem (which we call balanced k-clustering is modeled as a mincost flow problem which can be solved optimally using existing techniques.

  1. Global Optimization by Energy Landscape Paving

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, L T; Wille, Luc T.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a novel heuristic global optimization method, energy landscape paving (ELP), which combines core ideas from energy surface deformation and tabu search. In appropriate limits, ELP reduces to existing techniques. The approach is very general and flexible and is illustrated here on two protein folding problems. For these examples, the technique gives faster convergence to the global minimum than previous approaches.

  2. ASPECTS OF OPTIMIZATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. BEILICCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Water management system include all activities and works which providing the administration of public domain of water, with local / national interest, and qualitative, quantitative and sustainable management of water resources. Hydrotechnical arrangements, consisting of a set of hydraulic structures, produce both a favorable and unfavorable influences on environment. Their different constructive and exploitation solutions exercise a significantly impact on the environment. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of each solution must be weighed and determined to materialize one or other of them seriously argued.The optimization of water management systems is needed to meet current and future requirements in the field of rational water management in the context of integrated water resources management. Optimization process of complex water management systems includes several components related to environmental protection, technical side and the business side. This paper summarizes the main aspects and possibilities of optimization of existing water management systems and those that are to be achieved.

  3. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    by 33% compared to current level and that the CO2 emission should be halved. This calls for sustainable development in the building sector, but at the same time, it has to be economically efficient. People are conscious about savings in energy, but consideration to economic aspects are their primary...... concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... life time). The design and construction of buildings should take into account both energy, environment and economical aspects. The design of a building is very complex and the work on optimizing the design raises several questions. Which criteria are the decisive when choosing a solution? How...

  4. Balancing energy strategies in electricity portfolio management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Christoph; Rachev, Svetlozar T. [Karlsruhe University, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fabozzi, Frank J. [Yale School of Management, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Traditional management of electricity portfolios is focused on the day-ahead market and futures of longer maturity. Within limits, market participants can however also resort to the balancing energy market to close their positions. In this paper, we determine strategic positions in the balancing energy market and identify corresponding economic incentives in an analysis of the German balancing energy demand. We find that those strategies allow an economically optimal starting point for real-time balancing and create a marketplace for flexible capacity that is more open than alternative marketplaces. The strategies we proffer in this paper we believe will contribute to an effective functioning of the electricity market. (author)

  5. Energy management. Thermal engineering analyses of complex processes. Bilancing, modelling and optimization using the production of paper as an example; Energiemanagement. Waermetechnische Analyse komplexer Prozesse. Bilanzieren, Modellieren und Optimieren am Beispiel der Papierherstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treppe, Konrad (ed.); Dixit, Onkar; Mollekopf, Norbert [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Kuitunen, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme, Dresden (Germany); Pinnau, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Schinke, Lars [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Kamischke, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The energy optimization of complex production processes should be continuous and anchored in everyday operation. Since the year 1950, more than 70 % of the energy conservation could be achieved for example by heat recovery in the manufacture of paper. However, with decreasing temperature it is becoming more complex to use the heat from the exhaust air sensibly. The contribution under consideration supports practitioners in the energy management with regard to more efficient production by improving the energy efficiency. Furthermore, facilities can be made more independent from the uncertain market environment. Smart metering as a method of thermal engineering analysis of complex processes is clearly illustrated by practical examples and is an aid in making investment decisions for or against measures to save energy.

  6. Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhou Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.

  7. Optimal Energy Allocation for Wireless Communications with Energy Harvesting Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Chin Keong

    2011-01-01

    We consider the use of energy harvesters, in place of conventional batteries with fixed energy storage, for point-to-point wireless communications. In addition to the challenge of transmitting in a channel with time selective fading, energy harvesters provide a perpetual but unreliable energy source. In this paper, we consider the problem of energy allocation over a finite horizon, taking into account channel conditions and energy sources that are time varying, so as to maximize the throughput. Two types of side information (SI) on the channel conditions and harvested energy are assumed to be available: causal SI (of the past and present slots) and full SI (of the past, present and future slots). We obtain structural results for the optimal energy allocation, via the use of dynamic programming and convex optimization techniques. In particular, if unlimited energy can be stored in the battery with harvested energy and full SI is available, we prove the optimality of a water-filling energy allocation solution w...

  8. Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Edward

    Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

  9. Thermal energy management process experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal energy management processes experiment (TEMP) will demonstrate that through the use of two-phase flow technology, thermal systems can be significantly enhanced by increasing heat transport capabilities at reduced power consumption while operating within narrow temperature limits. It has been noted that such phenomena as excess fluid puddling, priming, stratification, and surface tension effects all tend to mask the performance of two-phase flow systems in a 1-g field. The flight experiment approach would be to attack the experiment to an appropriate mounting surface with a 15 to 20 meter effective length and provide a heat input and output station in the form of heaters and a radiator. Using environmental data, the size, location, and orientation of the experiment can be optimized. The approach would be to provide a self-contained panel and mount it to the STEP through a frame. A small electronics package would be developed to interface with the STEP avionics for command and data handling. During the flight, heaters on the evaporator will be exercised to determine performance. Flight data will be evaluated against the ground tests to determine any anomalous behavior.

  10. Modeling and Optimization for Piercing Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong; PAN Xiao-li; YUAN Yong; MAO Zhi-zhong; WANG Fu-li

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important quality index in the production of seamless tubes. The complex factors affecting energy consumption make it difficult to build its mechanism model, and optimization is also very difficult, if not impossible. The piercing process was divided into three parts based on the production process, and an energy consumption prediction model was proposed based on the step mean value staged multiway partial least square meth-od. On the basis of the batch process prediction model, a genetic algorithm was adopted to calculate the optimum mean value of each process parameter and the minimum piercing energy consumption. Simulation proves that the op-timization method based on the energy consumption prediction model can obtain the optimum process parameters ef-fectively and also provide reliable evidences for practical production.

  11. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  12. Energy management of DSL systems: Experimental findings

    KAUST Repository

    Guenach, Mamoun

    2013-12-01

    We present a measurement study of the energy consumption of an operator-side digital subscriber line (DSL) board under various conditions of data rate and power spectral density, with and without vectoring. The results highlight practical opportunities and challenges for optimizing rate-power-stability tradeoffs in DSL access systems, complementing simulation-based studies focused on energy reduction through spectral optimization. We validate models for line board consumption that can be tied with line driver consumption based on the aggregate transmit power of each line, and demonstrate that near-optimal rate-power-stability tradeoffs can be obtained through external line management of data rate, Signal-to-Noise-Ratio margin and power spectral density parameters. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Energy Management Controls. Course Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This course is one of four in a solar systems and energy management program developed by the Bergen County Vocational-Technical Schools to help tradespeople (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; mechanics; plumbers; and electricians) to develop an awareness of alternate energy sources and to gain skills in the areas of solar installations…

  14. Energy Risk Management with Carbon Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, Julien

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mean-variance optimization and portfolio frontier analysis of energy risk management with carbon assets, introduced in January 2005 as part of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. In a stylized exercise, we compute returns, standard deviations and correlations for various asset classes from April 2005 to January 2009. Our central result features an expected return of 3% with a standard deviation < 0.06 by introducing carbon assets – carbon futures and CERs- in a diversifie...

  15. Automated Multivariate Optimization Tool for Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P. G.; Griffith, B. T.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2006-07-01

    Building energy simulations are often used for trial-and-error evaluation of ''what-if'' options in building design--a limited search for an optimal solution, or ''optimization''. Computerized searching has the potential to automate the input and output, evaluate many options, and perform enough simulations to account for the complex interactions among combinations of options. This paper describes ongoing efforts to develop such a tool. The optimization tool employs multiple modules, including a graphical user interface, a database, a preprocessor, the EnergyPlus simulation engine, an optimization engine, and a simulation run manager. Each module is described and the overall application architecture is summarized.

  16. Coordinated Energy Management in Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines energy management in a heterogeneous processor consisting of an integrated CPU–GPU for high-performance computing (HPC applications. Energy management for HPC applications is challenged by their uncompromising performance requirements and complicated by the need for coordinating energy management across distinct core types – a new and less understood problem. We examine the intra-node CPU–GPU frequency sensitivity of HPC applications on tightly coupled CPU–GPU architectures as the first step in understanding power and performance optimization for a heterogeneous multi-node HPC system. The insights from this analysis form the basis of a coordinated energy management scheme, called DynaCo, for integrated CPU–GPU architectures. We implement DynaCo on a modern heterogeneous processor and compare its performance to a state-of-the-art power- and performance-management algorithm. DynaCo improves measured average energy-delay squared (ED2 product by up to 30% with less than 2% average performance loss across several exascale and other HPC workloads.

  17. Energy management analysis of lunar oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzolari, R.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Energy load models in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being developed. The load models will be used as a first step to ultimately determine the optimal energy system needed to supply the power requirements for the process. The goal is to determine the energy requirements in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite to produce oxygen. The general approach is shown, and the objectives are to determine the energy loads of the processes in the system. Subsequent energy management studies will be made to minimize the system losses (irreversibilities) and to design optimal energy system power requirements. A number of processes are being proposed as possible candidates for lunar application and some detailed experimental efforts are being conducted within this project at the University of Arizona. Priorities are directed toward developing the energy models for each of the proposed processes being considered. The immediate goals are to identify the variables that would impact energy requirements and energy sources of supply.

  18. Energy Harvesting By Optimized Piezo Transduction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Boban, Bijo; Satheesh, U; Devaprakasam, D

    2014-01-01

    We report generation of electrical energy from nonlinear mechanical noises available in the ambient environment using optimized piezo transduction mechanisms. Obtaining energy from an ambient vibration has been attractive for remotely installed standalone microsystems and devices. The mechanical noises in the ambient environment can be converted to electrical energy by a piezo strip based on the principle of piezoelectric effect. In this work, we have designed and developed a standalone energy harvesting module based on piezo transduction mechanisms. Using this designed module we harvested noise energy and stored electrical energy in a capacitor. Using NI-PXI workstation with a LabVIEW programming, the output voltage of the piezo strip and voltage of the capacitor were measured and monitored. In this paper we discuss about the design, development, implementation, performance and characteristics of the energy harvesting module.

  19. Optimal Energy Mix with Renewable Portfolio Standards in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Korea is a heavily energy-dependent country whose primary energy consumption ranks ninth in the world. However, at the same time, it promised to reduce carbon emission and planned to use more renewable energy. Thus, the objective of this study is to propose an optimal energy mix planning model in electricity generation from various energy sources, such as gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass, which considers more renewable and sustainable portions by imposing governmental regulation named renewable portfolio standard (RPS. This optimization model minimizes various costs such as construction cost, operation and management cost, fuel cost, and carbon emission cost while satisfying minimal demand requirement, maximal annual installation potential, and renewable portfolio standard constraints. Results showed that this optimization model could successfully generate energy mix plan from 2012 to 2030 while minimizing the objective costs and satisfying all the constraints. Therefore, this optimization model contributes more efficient and objective method to the complex decision-making process with a sustainability option. This proposed energy mix model is expected to be applied not only to Korea, but also to many other countries in the future for more economical planning of their electricity generation while affecting climate change less.

  20. Optimization of finances into regional energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yuryevich Domnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern Russian energy collides with the need for major investments in the modernization and renewal of generation and transmission capacity. In terms of attracting sufficient financial resources and find ways to increase, energy sector profitability and investment attractiveness of particular importance is the problem of investment financing optimizing aimed at minimizing the cost of financing while maintaining financial stability of the power companies and the goals and objectives of Russian energy system long-term development. The article discusses the problem of investment projects financing in power generation from the point of view of the need to achieve optimal investment budget. Presents the author’s approach to the investment financing optimization of power generation company that will achieve the minimum cost of resources involved, taking into account the impact of the funding structure for the power generating company financial sustainability. The developed model is applied to the problem of investment budget optimizing, for example, regional power generating company. The results can improve the efficiency of investment in energy, sustainable and competitive development of regional energy systems.

  1. Greenhouse climate management: an optimal control approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis a methodology is developed for the construction and analysis of an optimal greenhouse climate control system.In chapter 1, the results of a literature survey are presented and the research objectives are defined. In the literature, optimal greenhouse climate management systems have be

  2. Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the local Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding the most general form of the Skyrme energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body local density. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable wi...

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  4. Guide to energy management; Veiledning for energiledelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    A systematic and practical guide to energy management. Energy management signifies here a methodology concerning how an organisation continuously can work on improving all aspects of energy efficiency and energy consumption. Focus is on how energy management can be implemented in the companies already existing environment management systems. Useful recommendations and examples are provided (ml)

  5. Energy optimization in mobile sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwei

    Mobile sensor networks are considered to consist of a network of mobile robots, each of which has computation, communication and sensing capabilities. Energy efficiency is a critical issue in mobile sensor networks, especially when mobility (i.e., locomotion control), routing (i.e., communications) and sensing are unique characteristics of mobile robots for energy optimization. This thesis focuses on the problem of energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, and the research results can be extended to energy optimization of a network of mobile robots that monitors the environment, or a team of mobile robots that transports materials from stations to stations in a manufacturing environment. On the energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, our research focuses on the investigation and development of distributed optimization algorithms to exploit the mobility of robotic sensor nodes for network lifetime maximization. In particular, the thesis studies these five problems: 1. Network-lifetime maximization by controlling positions of networked mobile sensor robots based on local information with distributed optimization algorithms; 2. Lifetime maximization of mobile sensor networks with energy harvesting modules; 3. Lifetime maximization using joint design of mobility and routing; 4. Optimal control for network energy minimization; 5. Network lifetime maximization in mobile visual sensor networks. In addressing the first problem, we consider only the mobility strategies of the robotic relay nodes in a mobile sensor network in order to maximize its network lifetime. By using variable substitutions, the original problem is converted into a convex problem, and a variant of the sub-gradient method for saddle-point computation is developed for solving this problem. An optimal solution is obtained by the method. Computer simulations show that mobility of robotic sensors can significantly prolong the lifetime of the whole robotic sensor network while

  6. Community energy management : foundation paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This paper examined the potential for community energy management (CEM) to contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. CEM is the integration of energy considerations into municipal planning and management processes so that the benefits of such planning exceed the impacts of individual initiatives. The goals of CEM may be to reduce public sector expenditures, job creation and improving the quality of life. The main initiative is to create more livable communities with affordable housing in attractive environments that enhance accessibility to services and employment, preserve green space, reduce pollution and noise and create a safer urban landscape. CEM typically encompasses land use planning, transportation management, influencing design, and fostering efficient and environmentally benign energy supply and delivery systems. Two particular aspects of CEM were examined in detail. The first was the relationship between land use and energy use and the second was the potential for district energy systems in Canadian communities. District heating has proven to make a significant difference in the overall energy intensity of urban settlements. It is a long accepted technology in Europe where entire district energy systems replace the furnaces of individual buildings. The advantage of district energy systems is the wide variety of fuels and energy sources that can be used to fire the boilers. They can also achiever higher levels of efficiency. District energy can be designed to provide for domestic hot water heating needs for both residential and business purposes, and as such, waste heat from industrial activities or power production is sufficient. District energy systems can also burn municipal solid waste, methane from landfill sites and sewage gas. There are currently 160 district energy systems in operation in Canada. 64 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  8. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike;

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  9. METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY OF PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of t

  10. Optimal component sizing in a two-reservoir passive energy harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsing, E.; Cowell, M.; Moura, S.; Wright, P.

    2016-11-01

    We utilize particle swarm optimization to reduce the size of the energy management components in an energy harvesting system, allowing us to eliminate the need for voltage regulators or DC-DC converters without affecting system performance. Prior literature on optimal power management in microelectronics [1, 2] has relied on engineering estimates or exhaustive parameter searches to optimize system design. No prior literature has considered the optimal design of a device with only passive components [3]. By using particle swarm optimization, we demonstrate a 55% reduction in device size relative to conventional engineering calculations of an optimal device design.

  11. Optimizing Performance Management by Management by Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Xi

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the critical problem of the development of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises, where unstructured management hinders the healthy growth of the enterprise. Changchun Chengshi Ltd. Co China is a small enterprise troubled by an inefficient work force. In order to increase productivity the owner of Chengshi requested a solution to extricate the company from this difficult position. This thesis was conducted to fulfill the owner’s request. The initial objective of...

  12. Optimization and resilience in natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the putative tradeoff between optimization and resilience in the management of natural resources, using a framework that incorporates different sources of uncertainty that are common in natural resources management. We address one-time decisions, and then expand the decision context to the more complex problem of iterative decision making. For both cases we focus on two key sources of uncertainty: partial observability of system state and uncertainty as to system dynamics. Optimal management strategies will vary considerably depending on the timeframe being considered and the amount and quality of information that is available to characterize system features and project the consequences of potential decisions. But in all cases an optimal decision making framework, if properly identified and focused, can be useful in recognizing sound decisions. We argue that under the conditions of deep uncertainty that characterize many resource systems, an optimal decision process that focuses on robustness does not automatically induce a loss of resilience.

  13. 考虑电动汽车能量管理的微网储能容量优化%Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage for Microgrids Considering Energy Management of Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明锐; 谢青青; 李路遥; 孙华

    2015-01-01

    The engineering method of energy storage sizing and the operation and management of electric vehicles (EVs) were studied considering the moving load and storage characteristics of EVs in microgrids. The value at risk (VaR) theory was applied to evaluating the risk of the configured storage. Three EV regional energy management modes including uncoordinated charging, coordinated charging and coordinated charging/discharging were formulated utilizing a price incentive model. The optimal storage size was calculated by minimizing the comprehensive cost of microgrid in a day in grid-connected mode. The impacts of interactive power penalty coefficient and fluctuation on selecting storage size were also analyzed. VaR theory was applied to analyzing the islanded operation risk in various energy managements and the feasibility of the configured storage size was verified. The simulation result validates that compared with uncoordinated charging mode, coordinated charging and coordinated charging /discharging modes reduces storage size, lowers the comprehensive cost and decreased the fluctuation of interactive power. Compared with no EV participating in islanded microgrid, the length of islanded time is extended and the risk of autonomous islanded operation is decreased significantly when encouraging EV to discharge.%基于电动汽车(electric vehicles,EVs)移动负载和储能特性,提出含EV的微网储能容量工程化配置方法和EV运行管理模式,并将风险价值(value at risk,VaR)理论引入微网储能容量风险评估。联网时利用电价引导机制,制定EV无序充电、有序充电和有序充放电三种区域化能量管理模式;最小化一日内微网综合成本,求解微网最优储能容量,并分析交互功率波动惩罚系数、波动率对储能容量选择的影响。运用 VaR 理论,分析不同能量管理模式下孤岛时的微网运行时间风险,验证储能容量优化的有效性。仿真结果表明,

  14. Optimized supernova constraints on dark energy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan-Otto, C

    2006-01-01

    A model-independent method to study the possible evolution of dark energy is presented. Optimal estimates of the dark energy equation of state w are obtained from current supernovae data from Riess et al. (2004) following a principal components approach. We assess the impact of varying the number of piecewise constant estimates of w using a model selection method, the Bayesian information criterion, and compare the most favored models with some parametrizations commonly used in the literature. Although data seem to prefer a cosmological constant, some models are only moderately disfavored by our selection criterion: a constant w, w linear in the scale factor, w linear in redshift and the two-parameter models introduced here. Among these, the models we find by optimization are slightly preferred. However, current data do not allow us to draw a conclusion on the possible evolution of dark energy. Interestingly, the best fits for all varying-w models exhibit a w<-1 at low redshifts.

  15. Housing Development Building Management System (HDBMS For Optimized Electricity Bills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixian Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart Buildings is a modern building that allows residents to have sustainable comfort with high efficiency of electricity usage. These objectives could be achieved by applying appropriate, capable optimization algorithms and techniques. This paper presents a Housing Development Building Management System (HDBMS strategy inspired by Building Energy Management System (BEMS concept that will integrate with smart buildings using Supply Side Management (SSM and Demand Side Management (DSM System. HDBMS is a Multi-Agent System (MAS based decentralized decision making system proposed by various authors. MAS based HDBMS was created using JAVA on a IEEE FIPA compliant multi-agent platform named JADE. It allows agents to communicate, interact and negotiate with energy supply and demand of the smart buildings to provide the optimal energy usage and minimal electricity costs.  This results in reducing the load of the power distribution system in smart buildings which simulation studies has shown the potential of proposed HDBMS strategy to provide the optimal solution for smart building energy management.

  16. Design of energy management indicator.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García; Carlos Requejo Bravo; Roberto Fernández Collado

    2010-01-01

    This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the c...

  17. Optimal Low Energy Earth-Moon Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the ballistic lunar capture trajectory is examined to determine whether one or more additional impulses may improve on the cost of the transfer.

  18. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...

  19. Dynamic Model and Optimization of Hybrid Energy Management in Smart Home%智能家庭混合能源管理的动态建模与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈加健; 杨根科; 潘常春

    2012-01-01

    With the development of smart grid, the role of family will be gradually transformed from the pure consumer into both an energy client and supplier. In this case, various energy devices should be coordinated and optimized to achieve better user satisfaction as well as low electricity bills. This paper establishes the optimal control model of energy management at home, and proposes an intelligent solution strategy based on particle swarm optimization. Particularly, this paper considers four types of energy suppliers including power, photovoltaic, solar collectors, and energy storage battery, and try to minimize the energy expenditure while satisfying the user demand for air temperature and hot water supply. Finally, this article demonstrates the effectiveness of our model and algorithm via simulation.%智能电网使家庭由静态的能源消费者向动态参与者转变,需对多种不同的供能设备进行协同优化控制.以电网、光伏发电、太阳能集热器及储能电池4种能源为智能家庭的供给源,以室温控制、热水供应为两大主要服务目标,以最小化能源费用支出为优化指标,建立了家庭能源管理的优化控制模型,并提出基于粒子群算法的智能求解策略.通过对某虚拟家庭的仿真,验证了模型和算法的有效性.

  20. Brookhaven buildings energy conservation optimization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carhart, S C; Mulherkar, S S; Sanborn, Y

    1978-01-01

    The Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model is a linear programming representation of energy use in buildings. Starting with engineering and economic data on cost and performance of energy technologies used in buildings, including both conversion devices (such as heat pumps) and structural improvements, the model constructs alternative flows for energy through the technologies to meet demands for space heating, air conditioning, thermal applications, and electric lighting and appliances. Alternative paths have different costs and efficiencies. Within constraints such as total demand for energy services, retirement of existing buildings, seasonal operation of certain devices, and others, the model calculates an optimal configuration of energy technologies in buildings. The penetration of the various basic technologies within this configuration is specified in considerable detail, covering new and retrofit markets for nine building types in four regions. Each market may choose from several appropriate conversion devices and four levels each of new and retrofit structural improvement. The principal applications for which the model was designed described briefly.

  1. COMMUNITY BASED HOME ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Smart Grid (SG scenario, domestic consumers can gain cost reduction benefit by scheduling their Appliance Activation Time (AAT towards the slots of low charge. Minimization in cost is essential in Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS to induce consumers acceptance for power scheduling to accommodate for a Demand Response (DR at peak hours. Despite the fact that many algorithms address the power scheduling for HEMS, community based optimization has not been the focus. This paper presents an algorithm that targets the minimization of energy costs of whole community while keeping a low Peak to Average Ratio (PAR and smooth Power Usage Pattern (PUP. Objective of cost reduction is accomplished by finding most favorable AAT by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in conjunction with Inclined Block Rate (IBR approach and Circular Price Shift (CPS. Simulated numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CPS to assist the merger of PSO & IBR to enhance the reduction/stability of PAR and cost reduction.

  2. Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Sandra; Broberg, Sarah; Ottosson, Mikael; Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments ...

  3. Smart energy management for households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS). This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of f

  4. Energy planning and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration`s final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program.

  5. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    , we open up for exible power consumption schemes with the possibility of reducing operational costs and we develop and demonstrate prototype control technology that creates completely new business opportunities for selling regulating power to the grid. Moreover, this enables a larger penetration...... of wind energy in the power production and increases the potential market size for wind power generators and other renewable energy sources. Thus, we aim at promoting the use of environmentally sustainable power production technologies while creating new business opportunities for both power consumers...... with forecasts of future disturbances. At each time step the values of the control inputs are computed by solving an open-loop nite time optimal control problem over a dened prediction horizon. Only the rst step in this optimal open-loop sequence is implemented as a control command. Feedback is obtained...

  6. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  7. Optimal Reserve Management Pattern for Turkish Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Talasli; Suheyla Ozyildirim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we model a representative bank’s optimal reserve management pattern by adopting institutional aspects of the Turkish required reserve regime. The cost minimization problem, in general, takes into account the expected opportunity cost of holding reserves and penalty costs for not fulfilling the liability of reserve requirement. We extend this problem for reserve carry-over provision and use of late liquidity window facility and compute the optimal reserve pattern by dynamic progr...

  8. A Bi-directional Energy Splitable Model for Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajeswari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks is a budding  prototype of networking and computing, where a node may be self powered and individual node have the capability to sense and compute and communicate. Wireless Sensor Networks have been proposed for variety of applications such as Industrial control and monitoring and home automation and consumer electronics and security andMilitary sensing, Asset tracking and supply chain management, Intelligent Agriculture, Missile directing, Fire alarming, Landslide Warning, Environmental monitoring and health monitoring and commercial applications. In Wireless Sensor Network large number of nodes are deployed randomly. Depends on the network architecture the application may be personalized such as Energy Efficiency, Routing and Power Management and data dissemination. Energy Optimization involves in minimizing an energy expenditure and maximizing the lifetime of the complete network. In the proposed work, the placement of nodes are directly involved with residual energy. Energy Optimization in sensor network is very difficult task to achieve it. The optimization of energy is performed through Bidirectional Energy Splitable Model. The data flow in both forward and backward directions are considered, In order to achieve the best QOS in transmission, some parameters such as load, delay and direction of individual nodes are considered. A mathematical model is developed to determine the data flow of  individual node based on the residual energy.

  9. Pareto optimality in organelle energy metabolism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angione, Claudio; Carapezza, Giovanni; Costanza, Jole; Lió, Pietro; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In low and high eukaryotes, energy is collected or transformed in compartments, the organelles. The rich variety of size, characteristics, and density of the organelles makes it difficult to build a general picture. In this paper, we make use of the Pareto-front analysis to investigate the optimization of energy metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Using the Pareto optimality principle, we compare models of organelle metabolism on the basis of single- and multiobjective optimization, approximation techniques (the Bayesian Automatic Relevance Determination), robustness, and pathway sensitivity analysis. Finally, we report the first analysis of the metabolic model for the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis, which is found in several protozoan parasites. Our analysis has shown the importance of the Pareto optimality for such comparison and for insights into the evolution of the metabolism from cytoplasmic to organelle bound, involving a model order reduction. We report that Pareto fronts represent an asymptotic analysis useful to describe the metabolism of an organism aimed at maximizing concurrently two or more metabolite concentrations.

  10. Optimal management of equine keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks DE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paula D Galera1, Dennis E Brooks21College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Departments of Large and Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Keratomycosis in the horse exists in several unique clinical forms. This paper discusses the diagnosis and clinical management of keratomycosis in the horse associated with tear film instability, epithelial keratopathy, subepithelial infiltrates, superficial and deep ulcers, plaques, melting ulcers, descemetoceles, iris prolapse, and stromal abscesses. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment of equine keratomycosis can make a major difference in the maintenance of a cosmetic and visual eye.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, horse, cornea, melting, keratoplasty

  11. D5.4 – Energy management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    This report will focus on strategies for energy management as well at the building level and at the microgrid level. The designed energy management controller will manage energy flow such that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local consumers and the power trade between...... the microgrid and the grid is shrunk to minimum. Buildings’ role is to provide flexibility to the energy management controller so that this controller can use this flexibility to enhance the local use of the local produced energy and by that mean lower the energy bill for each house in the microgrid....... The Optimization of building loads are based on electricity price signal and shedding, shifting or rescheduling the power consumption pattern. The main shiftable loads are the HVAC systems. This system will be the primary controllable load for the energy management controller but also curtailable load and non...

  12. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  13. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdent, Vianney; Grum, Morten; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Peter S.

    2017-05-01

    Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs) during both wet and dry weather periods. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have significantly improved in recent years, having increased their spatial and temporal resolution. Finer resolution NWP are suitable for urban-catchment-scale applications, providing longer lead time than radar extrapolation. However, forecasts are inevitably uncertain, and fine resolution is especially challenging for NWP. This uncertainty is commonly addressed in meteorology with ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers and hence tools are necessary to provide insight on ensemble forecast usage and to support the rationality of decisions (i.e. forecasts are uncertain and therefore errors will be made; decision makers need tools to justify their choices, demonstrating that these choices are beneficial in the long run). This study presents an economic framework to support the decision-making process by providing information on when acting on the forecast is beneficial and how to handle the EPS. The relative economic value (REV) approach associates economic values with the potential outcomes and determines the preferential use of the EPS forecast. The envelope curve of the REV diagram combines the results from each probability forecast to provide the highest relative economic value for a given gain-loss ratio. This approach is traditionally used at larger scales to assess mitigation measures for adverse events (i.e. the actions are taken when events are forecast). The specificity of this study is to optimize the energy consumption in IUDWS during low-flow periods by exploiting the electrical smart grid market (i.e. the actions are taken

  14. Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation.

  15. Practical guide to energy management for processors

    CERN Document Server

    Consortium, Energywise

    2012-01-01

    Do you know how best to manage and reduce your energy consumption? This book gives comprehensive guidance on effective energy management for organisations in the polymer processing industry. This book is one of three which support the ENERGYWISE Plastics Project eLearning platform for European plastics processors to increase their knowledge and understanding of energy management. Topics covered include: Understanding Energy,

  16. 随机任务在云计算平台中能耗的优化管理方法%Policy of Energy Optimal Management for Cloud Computing Platform with Stochastic Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭一鸣; 曾国荪; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    In the running process of cloud computing system, the idle compute nodes will generate a large amount of idle energy consumption. Furthermore, the unmatching task scheduling strategy will also cause a great waste of energy consumption. This paper presents a policy of energy optimal management for cloud computing system based on task scheduling strategy. First, use queueing system to model the cloud computing system for analyzing the mean response time, mean power consumption of cloud computing system, and constructing the energy consumption model of cloud computing system. In order to reduce waste of energy, a high service utilization task scheduling and a low execution energy task scheduling strategy are propsed, which are used to reduce idle energy and "luxury" energy respectively. Based on the idea of the strategies, an algorithm is designed which is called minimum expectation execution energy with performance constraints (ME3PC). Repeated experiments show that this energy management strategy can reduce the energy consumption considerably while meeting performance constraints.%针对云计算系统在运行过程中由于计算节点空闲而产生大量空闲能耗,以及由于不匹配任务调度而产生大量“奢侈”能耗的能耗浪费问题,提出一种通过任务调度方式的能耗优化管理方法.首先,用排队模型对云计算系统进行建模,分析云计算系统的平均响应时间和平均功率,建立云计算系统的能耗模型.然后提出基于大服务强度和小执行能耗的任务调度策略,分别针对空闲能耗和“奢侈”能耗进行优化控制.基于该调度策略,设计满足性能约束的最小期望执行能耗调度算法ME3PC(minimum expectation execution energy with performance constraints).实验结果表明,该算法在保证执行性能的前提下,可大幅度降低云计算系统的能耗开销.

  17. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  18. Portfolio Optimization under Entropic Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,properties of the entropic risk measure are examined rigorously in a general framework.This risk measure is then applied in a dynamic portfolio optimization problem,appearing in the risk management constraint.By considering the dual problem,we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution and obtain an analytic expression for the solution.

  19. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis;

    2015-01-01

    of evidence to develop an optimal pain management protocol in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Most studies assessed unimodal analgesic approaches rather than a multimodal technique. There is a need for more procedure-specific studies comparing pain and analgesic requirements for open and minimally......BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains...... invasive surgical procedures. Finally, while we wait for appropriate procedure specific evidence from publication of adequate studies assessing optimal pain management after radical prostatectomy, we propose a basic analgesic guideline....

  20. 独立光伏发电系统的能量优化管理%Energy optimize manage of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾贵玺; 赵钢超; 温世运; 高广远

    2012-01-01

    A stand -alone photovoltaic system that consists of a solar cell array, a battery, a uni - directional DC-DC converter and a bi-directional DC—DC converter, is proposed. In order to maintain DC bus voltage stability in different working conditions, a kind of photovoltaic system coordinate control strategy is presented to manage energy of the system, achieve a collaborative work of photovoltaic cells and battery. Matlab simulations show the correctness and feasibility of the control strategy.%提出了一个由光伏电池、蓄电池、单向DC-DC变换器和双向DC-DC变换器组成的独立光伏发电系统.为了在不同的工作条件下使直流母线电压稳定,采用一种光伏发电系统的协调控制策略,对系统能量进行管理,使光伏电池和蓄电池协同工作.通过Matlab仿真证明了所提出的控制策略的正确性与可行性.

  1. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles....

  2. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  3. Energy Management in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bruneo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid vision imposes a new approach towards energy supply that is more affordable, reliable and sustainable. The core of this new vision is the use of advanced technology to monitor power system dynamics in real time and identify system in stability. In order to implement strategic vision for energy management, it is possible to identify three main areas of investigation such as smart generation, smart grid and smart customer. Focusing on the latter topic, in this paper we present an application specifically designed to monitor an industrial site with particular attention to power consumption. This solution is a real time analysis tool, able to produce useful results to have a strategic approach in the energy market and to provide statistic analysis useful for the future choices of the industrial company. The application is based on a three layers architecture. The technological layer uses a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN to acquire data from the electrical substations. The middleware layer faces the integration problems by processing the raw data. The application layer manages the data acquired from the sensors. This WSN based architecture represents an interesting example of a low cost and non-invasive monitoring application to keep the energy consumption of an industrial site under control. Some of the added value features of the proposed solution are the routing network protocol, selected in order to have an high availability of the WSN, and the use of the WhereX middleware, able to easily implement integration among the different architectural parts.

  4. Energy manager design for microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

  5. Analog Ensemble Methodology: Expansion and Optimization for Renewable Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L.; Cervone, G.; Delle Monache, L.

    2015-12-01

    Renewable energy is fundamental for sustaining and developing society. Solar and wind energy are promising sources because of their decreased environmental impact relative to conventional energy sources, improved efficiency, and increased use. A key challenge with renewable energy production is the generation of accurate renewable energy forecasts at varying spatial and temporal scales to assist utility companies in effective energy management. Specifically, this research applies the Analog Ensemble (AnEn) methodology to short-term (0-48 hour) wind speed forecasting for power generation and short-term (0-72) hour solar power measured (PM) output predictions. AnEn uses a set of past observations corresponding to the best analogs of a deterministic numerical weather prediction model to generate a probability distribution of future atmospheric states: an ensemble of analogs. Currently the AnEn methodology equally weights predictors and only handles 1D(time). We determine an optimal distribution of predictor weights based upon parameter characteristics, investigate spatial variations in the application of the methodology and develop a theory expanding the methodology into 2D. The AnEn methodology improves short-term prediction accuracy, decreases computational costs and provides uncertainty quantification allowing utility companies to manage over- or under power generation for renewable energy sources.

  6. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  7. Energy and exergy optimization of food waste pretreatment and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanjun; Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zhou, Zhaozhi; Ni, Mingjiang

    2017-06-22

    With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%. Under such circumstance, the optimal steam energy and exergy increments reach 194.92 and 324.50 kJ/kg-FW, respectively. The novel system is then applied under the local conditions of Hangzhou, China. Results show that approximately 2.7 or 11.6% (from energy or exergy analysis perspective) of electricity can be additionally generated from 1 ton of MSW if the proposed novel FW system is implemented. Besides, comparisons between energy and exergy analysis are also discussed.

  8. Prediction-based Dynamic Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical constraint in wireless sensor networks. Focusing on the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a method of prediction-based dynamic energy management. A particle filter was introduced to predict a target state, which was adopted to awaken wireless sensor nodes so that their sleep time was prolonged. With the distributed computing capability of nodes, an optimization approach of distributed genetic algorithm and simulated annealing was proposed to minimize the energy consumption of measurement. Considering the application of target tracking, we implemented target position prediction, node sleep scheduling and optimal sensing node selection. Moreover, a routing scheme of forwarding nodes was presented to achieve extra energy conservation. Experimental results of target tracking verified that energy-efficiency is enhanced by prediction-based dynamic energy management.

  9. Prosumers strategy for DHC energy flow optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasek Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the proposal of discrete model of district heating and cooling system (DHC for energy flow optimization. The aim is to achieve the best solution of the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are representing by prosumers object. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning of production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in sizes and designs. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most accurate information about the particular values at a time, object properties and other, should provide tools for simulation and control of modern DHC, possibly superior units as Smart Energy Grids - understood as a system integrating Smart Grids (electricity and Smart Thermal Grids (heat a cool.

  10. Complex Evaluation Model of Corporate Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ágnes Kádár Horváth

    2014-01-01

    With the ever increasing energy problems at the doorstep alongside with political, economic, social and environmental challenges, conscious energy management has become of increasing importance in corporate resource management. Rising energy costs, stricter environmental and climate regulations as well as considerable changes in the energy market require companies to rationalise their energy consumption and cut energy costs. This study presents a complex evaluation model of corporate energy m...

  11. Energy Management and Control System: Desired Capabilities and Functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Meador, Richard J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Wouden, Carl

    2005-04-29

    This document discusses functions and capabilities of a typical building/facility energy management and control systems (EMCS). The overall intent is to provide a building operator, manager or engineer with basic background information and recommended functions, capabilities, and good/best practices that will enable the control systems to be fully utilized/optimized, resulting in improved building occupant quality of life and more reliable, energy efficient facilities.

  12. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  13. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  14. Machine learning techniques for energy optimization in mobile embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoo, Brad Kyoshi

    Mobile smartphones and other portable battery operated embedded systems (PDAs, tablets) are pervasive computing devices that have emerged in recent years as essential instruments for communication, business, and social interactions. While performance, capabilities, and design are all important considerations when purchasing a mobile device, a long battery lifetime is one of the most desirable attributes. Battery technology and capacity has improved over the years, but it still cannot keep pace with the power consumption demands of today's mobile devices. This key limiter has led to a strong research emphasis on extending battery lifetime by minimizing energy consumption, primarily using software optimizations. This thesis presents two strategies that attempt to optimize mobile device energy consumption with negligible impact on user perception and quality of service (QoS). The first strategy proposes an application and user interaction aware middleware framework that takes advantage of user idle time between interaction events of the foreground application to optimize CPU and screen backlight energy consumption. The framework dynamically classifies mobile device applications based on their received interaction patterns, then invokes a number of different power management algorithms to adjust processor frequency and screen backlight levels accordingly. The second strategy proposes the usage of machine learning techniques to learn a user's mobile device usage pattern pertaining to spatiotemporal and device contexts, and then predict energy-optimal data and location interface configurations. By learning where and when a mobile device user uses certain power-hungry interfaces (3G, WiFi, and GPS), the techniques, which include variants of linear discriminant analysis, linear logistic regression, non-linear logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbor, are able to dynamically turn off unnecessary interfaces at runtime in order to save energy.

  15. Database Design and Management in Engineering Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    for 4 Steekanta Murthy, T., Shyy, Y.-K. and Arora, J. S. MIDAS: educational and research purposes. It has considerably Management of Information for...an education in the particular field of ,-". expertise. ..-. *, The types of information to be retained and presented depend on the user of the system...191 . ,. 110 Though the design of MIDAS is directly influenced by Obl- SPOC qUery-bioek the current structural optimization applications, it possesses

  16. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  17. Enhanced Multi-Objective Energy Optimization by a Signaling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three metaheuristics are used to solve a smart grid multi-objective energy management problem with conflictive design: how to maximize profits and minimize carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, and the results compared. The metaheuristics implemented are: weighted particle swarm optimization (W-PSO, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II. The performance of these methods with the use of multi-dimensional signaling is also compared with this technique, which has previously been shown to boost metaheuristics performance for single-objective problems. Hence, multi-dimensional signaling is adapted and implemented here for the proposed multi-objective problem. In addition, parallel computing is used to mitigate the methods’ computational execution time. To validate the proposed techniques, a realistic case study for a chosen area of the northern region of Portugal is considered, namely part of Vila Real distribution grid (233-bus. It is assumed that this grid is managed by an energy aggregator entity, with reasonable amount of electric vehicles (EVs, several distributed generation (DG, customers with demand response (DR contracts and energy storage systems (ESS. The considered case study characteristics took into account several reported research works with projections for 2020 and 2050. The findings strongly suggest that the signaling method clearly improves the results and the Pareto front region quality.

  18. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  19. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  20. A distributed multi-agent linear biobjective algorithm for energy flow optimization in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A distributed linear bi-objective optimization algorithm for management of energy flow in a microgrid with individual agents is introduced. In contrast to widely used centralized approaches for energy management a distributed multi-agent scheme for optimization of energy flow within a microgrid...... as a classical transportation problem. This allows applying an auction algorithm scheme in a distributed way where each energy supply system node is either a source or a sink and is represented by an individual acting agent. The single-objective approach is extended towards bi-objectivity to build a framework...

  1. Integrated design by optimization of electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roboam, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular integrated optimal design with modeling and optimization methods and tools. It is made up of six chapters dedicated to integrated optimal design. First, the signal processing of mission profiles and system environment variables are discussed. Then, optimization-oriented analytical models, methods and tools (design frameworks) are proposed. A "multi-level optimization" smartly coupling several optimization processes is the subject of one chapter. Finally, a technico-economic optimizatio

  2. Electret-based cantilever energy harvester: design and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Boisseau, S; Sylvestre, A

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper the design, the optimization and the fabrication of an electret-based cantilever energy harvester. We develop the mechanical and the electrostatic equations of such a device and its implementation using Finite Elements (FEM) and Matlab in order to get an accurate model. This model is then used in an optimization process. A macroscopic prototype (3.2cm^{2}) was built with a silicon cantilever and a Teflon\\textregistered electret. Thanks to this prototype, we manage to harvest 17\\muW with ambient-type vibrations of 0.2g on a load of 210M{\\Omega}. The experimental results are consistent with simulation results.

  3. Nonlinear predictive energy management of residential buildings with photovoltaics & batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies a nonlinear predictive energy management strategy for a residential building with a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system and second-life lithium-ion battery energy storage. A key novelty of this manuscript is closing the gap between building energy management formulations, advanced load forecasting techniques, and nonlinear battery/PV models. Additionally, we focus on the fundamental trade-off between lithium-ion battery aging and economic performance in energy management. The energy management problem is formulated as a model predictive controller (MPC). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme achieves 96%-98% of the optimal performance given perfect forecasts over a long-term horizon. Moreover, the rate of battery capacity loss can be reduced by 25% with negligible losses in economic performance, through an appropriate cost function formulation.

  4. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method.......The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives...

  5. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  6. Optimal control theory for sustainable environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Yogendra; Diwekar, Urmila; Cabezas, Heriberto

    2008-07-15

    Sustainable ecosystem management aims to promote the structure and operation of the human components of the system while simultaneously ensuring the persistence of the structures and operation of the natural component. Given the complexity of this task owing to the diverse temporal and spatial scales and multidisciplinary interactions, a systems theory approach based on sound mathematical techniques is essential. Two important aspects of this approach are formulation of sustainability-based objectives and development of the management strategies. Fisher information can be used as the basis of a sustainability hypothesis to formulate relevant mathematical objectives for disparate systems, and optimal control theory provides the means to derive time-dependent management strategies. Partial correlation coefficient analysis is an efficient technique to identify the appropriate control variables for policy development. This paper represents a proof of concept for this approach using a model system that includes an ecosystem, humans, a very rudimentary industrial process, and a very simple agricultural system. Formulation and solution of the control problems help in identifying the effective management options which offer guidelines for policies in real systems. The results also emphasize that management using multiple parameters of different nature can be distinctly effective.

  7. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  8. Energy Management. A Guide for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Association of School Boards, Winneconne.

    A successful energy management program in a single school or a school district requires an energy audit or survey. The audit identifies how much energy is being consumed, as well as where it is going. Furthermore, it shows opportunities for energy conservation. The walk-through energy conservation survey is the method that has the best prospect…

  9. DOE`s Energy Optimization Program supports license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown (United States); Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P. [Jupiter Corp. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    While industry is primarily responsible for reducing costs and maintaining operational safety, the Federal government has a strategic national interest in continued operation of the existing NPPs. This view was supported by the President`s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Panel on Federal Energy Research and Development (R and D) last year. In its November 1997 report the PCAST panel determined the role of nuclear power in meeting global greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals as crucial and made specific recommendations for nuclear energy R and D that the US Department of Energy (DOE) should undertake. As part of these recommendations, PCAST asked that DOE work with the national laboratories, universities, and industry to address the critical issues that may prevent the continued operation of existing NPPs. DOE`s Strategic Plan, issued in September 1997, also specifies that the US maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. DOE has proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program to preserve the future use of nuclear energy) and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). The goal of NEPO is to ensure that current NPPs can continue to deliver adequate and affordable energy supplies up to and beyond their initial 40-yr license period by resolving open issues related to aging mechanisms, by applying new technologies to improve the cost-effectiveness and predictability of the life-cycle management process, and by providing a strong technical basis for long-term operation via stable and efficient license renewal programs.

  10. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives...

  11. Energy management in the paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, A.

    1987-12-01

    Energy is a vitally important resource in the paper and board industry. Good energy management can have a dramatic positive effect on profits. This article focusses on the better management of existing resources in terms both of energy price and efficiency of use. The need is stressed for measurement of performance in these respects both in absolute terms and relative to that of others.

  12. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony

    2016-06-22

    The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

  13. Profitability and optimization of data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussa, M. [Sonatrach, Alger (Algeria). Petroleum Engineering and Development

    2008-07-01

    Information systems and technologies for the oil and gas industry were discussed with particular reference to the use of data analysis in dynamic planning processes. This paper outlined the risks and challenges associated with reorganizing data systems and the costs associated with equipment and software purchases. Issues related to Intranet encryption and electronic commerce systems were also reviewed along with the impact of the Internet on the oil and gas industry. New methods for using real time data systems for updating well data were outlined together with recent developments in Intranet and Extranet technologies and services. Other topics of discussion included new software applications for network optimization and nodal analyses; industry-specific software developed for well testing and reservoir engineering; and simulation and management production software. Data management solutions for storing, retrieving and analyzing data streams were presented. It was concluded that successful organizations must develop accurate data systems in order to ensure continuing success. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The novel application of optimization and charge blended energy management control for component downsizing within a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, R; Marco, James; Assadian, Francis

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) is widely seen as an interim solution for the decarbonization of the transport sector. Within a PHEV, determining the required energy storage capacity of the battery remains one of the primary concerns for vehicle manufacturers and system integrators. This fact is particularly pertinent since the battery constitutes the largest contributor to vehicle mass. Furthermore, the financial cost associated with the procurement, design and integ...

  15. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, V.; Grum, M.; Munk-Nielsen, T.

    2017-01-01

    extrapolation. However, forecasts are inevitably uncertain, and fine resolution is especially challenging for NWP. This uncertainty is commonly addressed in meteorology with ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers and hence tools are necessary to provide...... insight on ensemble forecast usage and to support the rationality of decisions (i.e. forecasts are uncertain and therefore errors will be made; decision makers need tools to justify their choices, demonstrating that these choices are beneficial in the long run). This study presents an economic framework......Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs...

  16. Energy Optimization for Outdoor Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Boukhechba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone is no longer only a communication device, but also a powerful environmental sensing unit that can monitor a user’s ambient context. Mobile users take their devices with them everywhere which increases the availability of persons’ traces. Extracting and analyzing knowledge from these traces represent a strong support for several applications domains, ranging from traffic management to advertisement and social studies. However, the limited battery capacity of mobile devices represents a big hurdle for context detection, no matter how useful the service may be. We present a novel approach to online recognizing users’ outdoor activities without depleting the mobile resources. We associate the places visited by individuals during their movements with meaningful human activities using a novel algorithm that clusters incrementally user’s moves into different types of activities. To optimize the battery consumption, the algorithm behaves variably on the basis of users’ behaviors and the remaining battery level. Studies using real GPS records from two big datasets demonstrate that the proposal is effective and is capable of inferring human activities without draining the phone resources.

  17. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance...... with a comparative methodology. The ultimate goal of this is to achieve a cost-optimal improvement of buildings’ energy performance (new and existing) in reality....

  18. Stochastic energy balancing in substation energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shirzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, a smart grid is considered as a network of distributed interacting nodes represented by renewable energy sources, storage and loads. The source nodes become active or inactive in a stochastic manner due to the intermittent nature of natural resources such as wind and solar irradiance. Prediction and stochastic modelling of electrical energy flow is a critical task in such a network in order to achieve load levelling and/or peak shaving in order to minimise the fluctuation between off-peak and peak energy demand. An effective approach is proposed to model and administer the behaviour of source nodes in this grid through a scheduling strategy control algorithm using the historical data collected from the system. The stochastic model predicts future power consumption/injection to determine the power required for storage components. The stochastic models developed based on the Box-Jenkins method predict the most efficient state of the electrical energy flow between a distribution network and nodes and minimises the peak demand and off-peak consumption of acquiring electrical energy from the main grid. The performance of the models is validated against the autoregressive moving average (ARIMA and the Markov chain models used in previous work. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms both the ARIMA and the Markov chain model in terms of forecast accuracy. Results are presented, the strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed, and possible future work is described.

  19. A Data Driven Pre-cooling Framework for Energy Cost Optimization in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwanath, Arun; Chandan, Vikas; Mendoza, Cameron; Blake, Charles

    2017-05-16

    Commercial buildings consume significant amount of energy. Facility managers are increasingly grappling with the problem of reducing their buildings’ peak power, overall energy consumption and energy bills. In this paper, we first develop an optimization framework – based on a gray box model for zone thermal dynamics – to determine a pre-cooling strategy that simultaneously shifts the peak power to low energy tariff regimes, and reduces both the peak power and overall energy consumption by exploiting the flexibility in a building’s thermal comfort range. We then evaluate the efficacy of the pre-cooling optimization framework by applying it to building management system data, spanning several days, obtained from a large commercial building located in a tropical region of the world. The results from simulations show that optimal pre-cooling reduces peak power by over 50%, energy consumption by up to 30% and energy bills by up to 37%. Next, to enable ease of use of our framework, we also propose a shortest path based heuristic algorithmfor solving the optimization problemand show that it has comparable erformance with the optimal solution. Finally, we describe an application of the proposed optimization framework for developing countries to reduce the dependency on expensive fossil fuels, which are often used as a source for energy backup.We conclude by highlighting our real world deployment of the optimal pre-cooling framework via a software service on the cloud platform of a major provider. Our pre-cooling methodology, based on the gray box optimization framework, incurs no capital expense and relies on data readily available from a building management system, thus enabling facility managers to take informed decisions for improving the energy and cost footprints of their buildings

  20. Comprehensive energy management eco routing & velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The book discusses the emerging topic of comprehensive energy management in electric vehicles from the viewpoint of academia and from the industrial perspective. It provides a seamless coverage of all relevant systems and control algorithms for comprehensive energy management, their integration on a multi-core system and their reliability assurance (validation and test). Relevant European projects contributing to the evolvement of comprehensive energy management in fully electric vehicles are also included.

  1. The unavoidable uncertainty of renewable energy and its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Conventional energy systems gave the luxury of a fully controllable and deterministically manageable energy production. Renewable energies are uncertain and often unavailable at the time of demand. Wind and solar energies are highly variable, dependent on atmospheric and climatic conditions and unpredictable. The related uncertainty is much higher than commonly thought, as both the wind and sunshine duration processes exhibit Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour. Lack of proper modelling of this behaviour results in overestimation of wind and solar energy potentials, and frequent "surprises" of persisting low (or high) production. Proper modelling of the uncertainty is a necessary step for renewable energy management. This latter requires both structural measures - in particular integration with pumped storage hydropower systems - and optimization methodologies for the operation of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems. These key ideas are illustrated with a case study for a big district of Greece.

  2. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  3. Optimal control strategies for hydrogen production when coupling solid oxide electrolysers with intermittent renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-12-01

    The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.

  4. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  5. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an effective energy management system (EMS) for application in integrated building and microgrid system is introduced and implemented as a multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed architecture covers different key modelling aspects such as distributed heat and electricity...

  6. Energy management in municipal heritage; Management de l'energie dans le patrimoine municipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Energie-Cites has organized a week dedicated to the practices of energy consumption management in the municipalities and to network practices for energy efficiency. Practical presentations and site visits provided the participants with many methodological elements on energy policy, electricity demand management, optimising the design of municipal buildings, energy efficiency, integrated logistics for use of biomass energy, methods of energy consumption monitoring, legal framework for energy efficiency. (A.L.B.)

  7. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation) have failed to file their...

  8. Group Search Optimizer for the Mobile Location Management Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Group Search Optimizer for the Mobile Location Management Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Xiong, Congcong; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25180199

  10. Sustainable-energy managment practices in an energy economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkwa, K.

    2001-10-01

    The economic survival of any nation depends upon its ability to produce and manage sufficient supplies of low-cost safe energy. The world's consumption of fossil fuel resources currently increasing at 3% per annum is found to be unsustainable. Projections of this trend show that mankind will exhaust all known reserves in the second half of the coming century. Governments, industrialists, commercial organizations, public sector departments and the general public have now become aware of the urgent requirements for the efficient management of resources and energy-consuming activities. Most organizations in the materials, manufacturing and retail sectors and in the service industries have also created energy management departments, or have employed consultants, to monitor energy consumption and to reduce wastage. Conversely, any sustained attempt to reduce rates of energy consumption even by as little as 0.1% per annum ensures relatively an eternal future supply as well as reduction on environmental and ecological effect. Thus, there is no long- term solution to energy flow problem other than systematic and effective energy management and the continuous application of the techniques of energy management. Essential energy management strategies in support of a sustainable energy- economy are discussed.

  11. Application of Hybrid Optimization-Expert System for Optimal Power Management on Board Space Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Basheer, Omar Ali AL

    1996-01-01

    The space power system has two sources of energy: photo-voltaic blankets and batteries. The optimal power management problem on-board has two broad operations: off-line power scheduling to determine the load allocation schedule of the next several hours based on the forecast of load and solar power availability. The nature of this study puts less emphasis on speed requirement for computation and more importance on the optimality of the solution. The second category problem, on-line power rescheduling, is needed in the event of occurrence of a contingency to optimally reschedule the loads to minimize the 'unused' or 'wasted' energy while keeping the priority on certain type of load and minimum disturbance of the original optimal schedule determined in the first-stage off-line study. The computational performance of the on-line 'rescheduler' is an important criterion and plays a critical role in the selection of the appropriate tool. The Howard University Center for Energy Systems and Control has developed a hybrid optimization-expert systems based power management program. The pre-scheduler has been developed using a non-linear multi-objective optimization technique called the Outer Approximation method and implemented using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The optimization model has the capability of dealing with multiple conflicting objectives viz. maximizing energy utilization, minimizing the variation of load over a day, etc. and incorporates several complex interaction between the loads in a space system. The rescheduling is performed using an expert system developed in PROLOG which utilizes a rule-base for reallocation of the loads in an emergency condition viz. shortage of power due to solar array failure, increase of base load, addition of new activity, repetition of old activity etc. Both the modules handle decision making on battery charging and discharging and allocation of loads over a time-horizon of a day divided into intervals of 10

  12. Autonomous tools for Grid management, monitoring and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Wislicki, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    We outline design and lines of development of autonomous tools for the computing Grid management, monitoring and optimization. The management is proposed to be based on the notion of utility. Grid optimization is considered to be application-oriented. A generic Grid simulator is proposed as an optimization tool for Grid structure and functionality.

  13. Energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Grace Camille

    The introduction of mobile devices changed the landscape of computing. Gradually, these devices are replacing traditional personal computer (PCs) to become the devices of choice for entertainment, connectivity, and productivity. There are currently at least 45.5 million people in the United States who own a mobile device, and that number is expected to increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Users of mobile devices expect and mandate that their mobile devices have maximized performance while consuming minimal possible power. However, due to the battery size constraints, the amount of energy stored in these devices is limited and is only growing by 5% annually. As a result, we focused in this dissertation on energy efficiency analysis and optimization for mobile platforms. We specifically developed SoftPowerMon, a tool that can power profile Android platforms in order to expose the power consumption behavior of the CPU. We also performed an extensive set of case studies in order to determine energy inefficiencies of mobile applications. Through our case studies, we were able to propose optimization techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency of mobile devices and proposed guidelines for energy-efficient application development. In addition, we developed BatteryExtender, an adaptive user-guided tool for power management of mobile devices. The tool enables users to extend battery life on demand for a specific duration until a particular task is completed. Moreover, we examined the power consumption of System-on-Chips (SoCs) and observed the impact on the energy efficiency in the event of offloading tasks from the CPU to the specialized custom engines. Based on our case studies, we were able to demonstrate that current software-based power profiling techniques for SoCs can have an error rate close to 12%, which needs to be addressed in order to be able to optimize the energy consumption of the SoC. Finally, we summarize our contributions and outline possible

  14. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  15. Demand-Side Energy Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Iniewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about climate change, increasing energy prices and dependability of energy supply ask for drastic changes in the energy supply chain, but also in the current demand-supply philosophy. Current trends in energy consumptions result in an increasing and more fluctuating electricity usage, causi

  16. Principles of light energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N.

    1994-01-01

    Six methods used to minimize excess energy effects associated with lighting systems for plant growth chambers are reviewed in this report. The energy associated with wall transmission and chamber operating equipment and the experimental requirements, such as fresh air and internal equipment, are not considered here. Only the energy associated with providing and removing the energy for lighting is considered.

  17. Optimization of the Public Buildings Energy Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipović, P.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings nowadays atthe EU level. Increasing energy efficiency can lead to both better thermal comfort, as well as netsavings on energy bills. Furthermore, the right choice of energy source can lead to large savings inCO2...

  18. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  19. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances ...

  20. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  1. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  2. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance wi...

  3. Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

  4. Visual prosthesis wireless energy transfer system optimal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueping; Yang, Yuan; Gao, Yong

    2014-01-16

    Wireless energy transfer system is an effective way to solve the visual prosthesis energy supply problems, theoretical modeling of the system is the prerequisite to do optimal energy transfer system design. On the basis of the ideal model of the wireless energy transfer system, according to visual prosthesis application condition, the system modeling is optimized. During the optimal modeling, taking planar spiral coils as the coupling devices between energy transmitter and receiver, the effect of the parasitic capacitance of the transfer coil is considered, and especially the concept of biological capacitance is proposed to consider the influence of biological tissue on the energy transfer efficiency, resulting in the optimal modeling's more accuracy for the actual application. The simulation data of the optimal model in this paper is compared with that of the previous ideal model, the results show that under high frequency condition, the parasitic capacitance of inductance and biological capacitance considered in the optimal model could have great impact on the wireless energy transfer system. The further comparison with the experimental data verifies the validity and accuracy of the optimal model proposed in this paper. The optimal model proposed in this paper has a higher theoretical guiding significance for the wireless energy transfer system's further research, and provide a more precise model reference for solving the power supply problem in visual prosthesis clinical application.

  5. Research challenges for energy data management (panel)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    This panel paper aims at initiating discussion at the Second International Workshop on Energy Data Management (EnDM 2013) about the important research challenges within Energy Data Management. The authors are the panel organizers, extra panelists will be recruited before the workshop...

  6. Optimal Design of RF Energy Harvesting Device Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Sato, Y.; Adriano, R.; Igarashi, H.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents optimal design of an RF energy harvesting device using genetic algorithm (GA). In the present RF harvester, a planar spiral antenna (PSA) is loaded with matching and rectifying circuits. On the first stage of the optimal design, the shape parameters of PSA are optimized using . Then, the equivalent circuit of the optimized PSA is derived for optimization of the circuits. Finally, the parameters of RF energy harvesting circuit are optimized to maximize the output power using GA. It is shown that the present optimization increases the output power by a factor of five. The manufactured energy harvester starts working when the input electric field is greater than 0.5 V/m.

  7. Optimization Model for Economic Evaluation of Wind Farms - How to Optimize a Wind Energy Project Economically and Technically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a review and systematize methods and techniques of economic evaluation applied to renewable energy projects, specific to wind energy projects. Both project and cost methodologies of economic evaluation are reviewed for a model optimization construction for a proposed optimization model with its objective function most appropriated. It is necessary to engage in different approaches, but complementary, microeconomic project evaluation methods and optimization methods applied to engineering solutions in wind energy converter systems. Optimization model for economic evaluation of wind farms can be as an efficient planning and resource management, which is the key to the success of an energy project. Wind energy is one of the most potent alternative energy resources; however the economics of wind energy is not yet universally favorable to place wind at a competitive platform with coal and natural gas (fossil fuels. Economic evaluation models of wind projects developed would allow investors to better plan their projects, as well as provide valuable insight into the areas that require further development to improve the overall economics of wind energy projects.

  8. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN CLUSTER BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SHANKAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are made up of sensor nodes which are usually battery-operated devices, and hence energy saving of sensor nodes is a major design issue. To prolong the networks lifetime, minimization of energy consumption should be implemented at all layers of the network protocol stack starting from the physical to the application layer including cross-layer optimization. Optimizing energy consumption is the main concern for designing and planning the operation of the WSN. Clustering technique is one of the methods utilized to extend lifetime of the network by applying data aggregation and balancing energy consumption among sensor nodes of the network. This paper proposed new version of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, protocols called Advanced Optimized Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (AOLEACH, Optimal Deterministic Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (ODLEACH, and Varying Probability Distance Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (VPDL combination with Shuffled Frog Leap Algorithm (SFLA that enables selecting best optimal adaptive cluster heads using improved threshold energy distribution compared to LEACH protocol and rotating cluster head position for uniform energy dissipation based on energy levels. The proposed algorithm optimizing the life time of the network by increasing the first node death (FND time and number of alive nodes, thereby increasing the life time of the network.

  9. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used to evaluate the resulting multiobjective optimization problem: the sum-weighted Pareto front and an adapted goal programming methodology. With this new methodology, the system operators can consider both the costs and voltage stability. Priority can be assigned to one objective function according to the operating scenario. Additionally, it is possible to evaluate the impact of the distributed generation and the electric vehicles in the management of voltage stability in the future electric networks. One detailed case study considering a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network.

  10. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to f

  11. 基于V2X的混合动力汽车分层能量管理及优化%Hierarchical energy management and optimization of hybrid electric vehicles based on V2X

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 林如宁; 辛付龙

    2016-01-01

    The control systems of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which greatly affect their power performances, fuel economy and emissions are nonlinear, multi-variable, time-varying, and not differentiable, and they are the key objectives and the most difficult parts for HEVs. One of the most popular concerns about HEVs is the realization of real-time control. Researchers have come up with multiple architectures about the optimization of the energy management control of HEVs, and the most commonly used algorithms are dynamic programming (DP), equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), Pontryagin’s minimum strategy (PMP), as well as some algorithms developed from them. In order to achieve the optimal solutions with DP, a given route or velocity profile is required, which is yet normally impossible. Therefore, some researchers come up with the method of model predictive control (MPC) to obtain the predicted driving cycle, so that the need of prior-knowledge can be met. As the combination of DP and ECMS is time-consuming, some researchers finally find ECMS and PMP can be alternatives to achieve global optimal solutions or approximate to them. However, these methods mentioned above cannot realize real-time control, even though many efforts have been done to develop more time-efficient algorithms, and the controlled objects were simplified in different degrees and some details were ignored, such as driver’s intention, road conditions, signal lights and mutual effects among vehicles under real driving environment. With the development of intelligent traffic system (ITS), the real-time control based on vehicle connection becomes possible. In the connected vehicle environment, vehicles can communicate with each other and with traffic infrastructure, and they can also share their position and velocity information within the vehicle group with the help of the technologies of dedicated short range communication (DSRC), radio frequency identification devices (RFID

  12. Electric load management and energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  13. Optimal Packet Scheduling on an Energy Harvesting Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Ozcelik, F Mehmet; Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    An offline transmission completion time minimization problem for an energy harvesting transmitter is considered. Specifically, optimal power and rate allocation for data packets arriving at arbitrary but known instances is studied. Communication takes place under a fading channel and transmitter is restricted with a limited energy storage capability. An optimal policy takes into account the channel state as well as the state of energy and data buffers. Moreover, the solution needs to strike a tradeoff between energy efficiency and delay. By exhibiting an equivalent convex problem, the unique optimal scheduling solution is obtained through an iterative convex optimization technique, sequential unconstrained minimization. The optimal solution under finite and infinite energy storage is examined on problem instances.

  14. Smart Energy Management of Multiple Full Cell Powered Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad S. Alam

    2007-04-23

    In this research project the University of South Alabama research team has been investigating smart energy management and control of multiple fuel cell power sources when subjected to varying demands of electrical and thermal loads together with demands of hydrogen production. This research has focused on finding the optimal schedule of the multiple fuel cell power plants in terms of electric, thermal and hydrogen energy. The optimal schedule is expected to yield the lowest operating cost. Our team is also investigating the possibility of generating hydrogen using photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells through finding materials for efficient light harvesting photoanodes. The goal is to develop an efficient and cost effective PEC solar cell system for direct electrolysis of water. In addition, models for hydrogen production, purification, and storage will be developed. The results obtained and the data collected will be then used to develop a smart energy management algorithm whose function is to maximize energy conservation within a managed set of appliances, thereby lowering O/M costs of the Fuel Cell power plant (FCPP), and allowing more hydrogen generation opportunities. The Smart Energy Management and Control (SEMaC) software, developed earlier, controls electrical loads in an individual home to achieve load management objectives such that the total power consumption of a typical residential home remains below the available power generated from a fuel cell. In this project, the research team will leverage the SEMaC algorithm developed earlier to create a neighborhood level control system.

  15. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    dissertation presents a bottom-up highly resolved model of a generic residential energy eco-system in the United States. The model is able to capture the entire energy footprint of an individual household, to include all appliances, space conditioning systems, in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles, and any other energy needs, viewing residential and transportation energy needs as an integrated continuum. The residential energy eco-system model is based on a novel bottom-up approach that quantifies consumer energy use behavior. The incorporation of stochastic consumer behaviors allows capturing the electricity consumption of each residential specific end-use, providing an accurate estimation of the actual amount of available controllable resources, and for a better understanding of the potential of residential demand response programs. A dynamic energy management framework is then proposed to manage electricity consumption inside each residential energy eco-system. Objective of the dynamic energy management framework is to optimize the scheduling of all the controllable appliances and in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles to minimize cost. Such an automated energy management framework is used to simulate residential demand response programs, and evaluate their impact on the electric power infrastructure. For instance, time-varying electricity pricing might lead to synchronization of the individual residential demands, creating pronounced rebound peaks in the aggregate demand that are higher and steeper than the original demand peaks that the time-varying electricity pricing structure intended to eliminate. The modeling tools developed in this study can serve as a virtual laboratory for investigating fundamental economic and policy-related questions regarding the interplay of individual consumers with energy use. The models developed allow for evaluating the impact of different energy policies, technology adoption, and electricity price structures on the total

  16. Success factors of energy management in energy-intensive industries : energy performance measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sivill, Leena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores energy performance measurement in support of energy management in the energy-intensive industries. In general, performance measurement is used in management for raising awareness, evaluating performance, setting targets and offering decision support. These purposes also apply to energy management, defined here as the management of all activities related to the economic and responsible use of energy in an organisation. This thesis answers the following three questions...

  17. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance......., in particular the types of energy use that should be included in it. Since the user perspective and the cost of energy-efficiency technologies is so crucial for the successful adaptation of energy-conservation solutions, such like the Net ZEB concept, this paper has deployed the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The results...

  18. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs) management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into ...

  19. Comparison of operation optimization methods in energy system modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    , possibilities for decoupling production constraints may be valuable. Introduction of heat pumps in the district heating network may pose this ability. In order to evaluate if the introduction of heat pumps is economically viable, we develop calculation methods for the operation patterns of each of the used...... energy technologies. In the paper, three frequently used operation optimization methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined technologies. One of the investigated approaches utilises linear programming for optimisation, one uses linear programming with binary...... operation constraints, while the third approach uses nonlinear programming. In the present case the non-linearity occurs in the boiler efficiency of power plants and the cv-value of an extraction plant. The linear programming model is used as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest...

  20. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  1. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  2. Dynamic optimization the calculus of variations and optimal control in economics and management

    CERN Document Server

    Kamien, Morton I

    2012-01-01

    Since its initial publication, this text has defined courses in dynamic optimization taught to economics and management science students. The two-part treatment covers the calculus of variations and optimal control. 1998 edition.

  3. Optimization of energy planning strategies in municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    The paper evaluates the current status of community energy planning in northern Europe via a review of literature, practice and the performance of a barrier analysis for successful community energy planning. Main findings of the paper are that current community energy planning lacks a systematic...... approach, suffers from insufficient information, tools and resources. Municipalities are often unable to take on a steering role in community energy planning. To overcome these barriers and guide municipalities in the pre-project phase, a decision-support methodology, based on community energy profiles...... (CEP), is presented. The methodology was applied in a case study in Germany. With CEPs, a possibility to merge qualitative data from local settings into generic energy modelling is shown, which could contribute to improved community energy strategies....

  4. Optimization in the energy sector; Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [German] Die Umsetzung der Energiewende und die Entwicklungen auf den nationalen und internationalen Energiemaerkten erfordern immer wieder fundierte Analysen und neue Antworten. Die Fachtagung ''Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft'' gibt hier einen Ueberblick ueber Methoden und Modelle, die praxisnah zur Entscheidungsunterstuetzung eingesetzt werden koennen. Speicher und Elektromobilitaet ebenso wie Nachfrageflexibilitaet sind wichtige Faktoren fuer die langfristige Gestaltung des deutschen und europaeischen Energiesystems. Aber auch methodischen Aspekten wie die Beruecksichtigung von Unsicherheiten wird im Rahmen der Tagung ein wichtiger Platz eingeraeumt. Ein zentrales Thema ist zudem die kurz- und

  5. 基于混沌遗传算法的PHEV能量管理策略优化%Optimization of Energy Management Strategy of PHEV Based on Chaos-Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓元望; 王兵杰; 张上安; 韩卫

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a new Chaos-Genetic Algorithm,which improved the combination between the chaos mapping and genetic algorithm in order to add chaotic search to the population evolution,so that the ergodicity of the genetic algorithm can be enhanced.And the algorithm can effectively overcome the defects of local optimum of the genetic.In the software ADVISOR2002,for a Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (PHEV) using fuzzy energy management strategy as the research object,the membership functions and rules of fuzzy EMS were optimized with Chaos-Genetic Algorithm.Simulation results demonstrate that this Chaos-Genetic Algorithm can optimize the fuzzy EMS globally.Compared with the original fuzzy control strategy,the optimized fuel economy increases by 5.15% and the CO emission reduces by 6.39%.%提出了一种新的混沌遗传算法,改进了混沌映射和遗传算法的结合方式,使种群在进化的过程中能够混沌搜索解空间,从而增强遗传算法的遍历性.该算法有效地克服了遗传算法局部收敛的缺陷.在软件ADVISOR2002中,以一辆采用模糊能量管理策略的插电式混合动力电动汽车(Plug-in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle,PHEV)为研究对象,应用该混沌遗传算法对其隶属函数和控制规则进行了优化.仿真结果表明,该算法可以实现对模糊控制器的全局优化.与原模糊控制策略相比,优化后的燃油经济性提高了5.15%,CO排放减少了6.39%.

  6. Energy Management System Audit and Implementation in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the high energy consumption of educational buildings in available study; it is conducted to estimate the energy consumption at the Faculty of Humanities (Building No. 2, Science and Research Campus (SRC of the Islamic Azad University (IAU, Tehran, Iran. Auditing and implementing the energy management system in the implied building, efforts are finally made to propose managerial solutions towards reducing energy consumption in this building. After gathering data of the building, including quantity of energy consumption in a one-year period of study in 2005 and the energy consumption equipment in the building followed by a detailed data analysis, the overall energy consumption tendency is investigated in the building. As a result, it is found that the lightening system and electric motors of central heating system consumed the highest level of electricity energy and the highest thermal energy consumption due to boilers. By more analysis of the entire data, solutions are suggested for reducing the energy consumption used in lightening, central heating and cooling systems and boilers. A review of all the practical solutions for improving the systems available in the building showed that regarding the energy management matrix, the energy management system in the building stood at zero point, because the building lacked any operating unit under the title of 'Energy Management' which could monitor energy consumption at the university. Therefore, it is concluded that the energy efficiency in the building may be optimized to a certain extent by presenting a system for energy data collection, analysis and systematic implementation as well as a system for collection of basic information about energy-consuming equipment by means of measurement instruments. By providing this system, procedures are presented for optimizing energy consumption and saving in the building, while a management system and a complete information system are created at the

  7. Fully localised nonlinear energy growth optimals in pipe flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pringle, Chris C T; Kerswell, Rich R

    2014-01-01

    A new, fully-localised, energy growth optimal is found over large times and in long pipe domains at a given mass flow rate. This optimal emerges at a threshold disturbance energy below which a nonlinear version of the known (streamwise-independent) linear optimal (Schmid \\& Henningson 1994) is selected, and appears to remain the optimal up until the critical energy at which transition is triggered. The form of this optimal is similar to that found in short pipes (Pringle et al.\\ 2012) albeit now with full localisation in the streamwise direction. This fully-localised optimal perturbation represents the best approximation yet of the {\\em minimal seed} (the smallest perturbation capable of triggering a turbulent episode) for `real' (laboratory) pipe flows.

  8. A Novel Web Service Based Home Energy Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    and optimize the energy consumption in home environments. The main element of HEMS is the home gateway. In this paper, a home gateway suitable for HEMS is presented. The home gateway proposed uses rules to implement the home energy management system. The rules can be downloaded though web services from a rule......In the last years energy consumption in the home environments has increased considerably. There is an interest to provide users with means to reduce their energy consumption. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce...... server. Furthermore, web services are used to provide modularity to the home gateway by enabling the deployment of the different logical components into different devices, if necessary....

  9. Optimal Transmission Policies for Energy Harvesting Two-hop Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Orhan, Oner

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a two-hop communication system with energy harvesting nodes is considered. Unlike battery powered wireless nodes, both the source and the relay are able to harvest energy from environment during communication, therefore, both data and energy causality over the two hops need to be considered. Assuming both nodes know the harvested energies in advance, properties of optimal transmission policies to maximize the delivered data by a given deadline are identified. Using these properties, optimal power allocation and transmission schedule for the case in which both nodes harvest two energy packets is developed.

  10. Energy Efficiency: The New Holy Grail of Data Management Systems Research

    CERN Document Server

    Harizopoulos, Stavros; Meza, Justin; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy

    2009-01-01

    Energy costs are quickly rising in large-scale data centers and are soon projected to overtake the cost of hardware. As a result, data center operators have recently started turning into using more energy-friendly hardware. Despite the growing body of research in power management techniques, there has been little work to date on energy efficiency from a data management software perspective. In this paper, we argue that hardware-only approaches are only part of the solution, and that data management software will be key in optimizing for energy efficiency. We discuss the problems arising from growing energy use in data centers and the trends that point to an increasing set of opportunities for software-level optimizations. Using two simple experiments, we illustrate the potential of such optimizations, and, motivated by these examples, we discuss general approaches for reducing energy waste. Lastly, we point out existing places within database systems that are promising for energy-efficiency optimizations and ...

  11. Framework for energy management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomar, H.I. III; Hirsch, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    Energy cost-avoidance programs can involve the entire campus in a positively directed effort if organizing the program is looked upon as an opportunity and not just a continuing problem. An effective program will deal with the technical and nontechnical aspects of increasing energy efficiency, and will view the campus as a decentralized community. A comprehensive program will consider the three basic components (energy generation, distribution systems, and end use) of the total energy system and the various external and internal factors affecting the system. A comprehensive framework should include an information base, energy activity calendar, total utility system analysis and control program, building utility system analysis and control program, community awareness and communication program, and policy development and analysis program. The University of Pennsylvania provides a case study. 5 references.

  12. Optimal DG Source Allocation for Grid Connected Distributed Generation with Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ezhilarasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an Energy Management System (EMS for allocation of DG source in a grid connected hybrid power system. Modeling and simulation for EMS is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The objective of proposed EMS for micro grid is to optimize the fuel cost, improving the energy utilization efficiency and to manage the peak load demand by scheduling the generation according to the availability of the fuel. The proposed intelligent energy management system is designed to optimize the availability of energy to the load according to the level of priority and to manage the power flow. The developed management system performance was assessed using a hybrid system having PV panels, Wind Turbine (WT, battery and biomass gasifier. Real time field test has been conducted and the parameters i.e., solar irradiance, temperature, wind speed are gathered from 4.05 KW off grid and 2.0 KW On grid Solar Photovoltaic systems (SPV system and wind turbine. The dynamic behavior of the proposed model is examined under different operating conditions. The simulation results of proposed EMS using fuzzy logic expert system shows the minimization on the operating cost and emission level of micro grid by optimal scheduling of power generation and maintains the State of Charge (SOC of batteries in desired value which improves the battery life. The proposed multi objective intelligent energy management system aims to minimize the operational cost and the environmental impact of a micro grid.

  13. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency can have a significant influence on user experience of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Although energy is consumed by hardware, software optimization plays an important role in saving energy, and thus software developers have to participate in the optimization...... strategies. The framework also lays a foundation for the code optimization by automatic tools. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that achieves this for a high-level language such as Java. In a case study, the experimental evaluation shows that our approach is able to save from 6.4% to 50...

  14. Green mobile devices and networks energy optimization and scavenging techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Venkataraman, Hrishikesh

    2012-01-01

    While battery capacity fails to keep up with the power-demanding features of the latest mobile devices, powering the functional advancement of wireless devices requires a revolution in the concept of battery life and recharge capability. Future hand-held devices and wireless networks should be able to recharge themselves automatically from the environment and optimize their energy consumption. Green Mobile Devices and Networks: Energy Optimization and Scavenging Techniques provides insights into the principles and technical challenges behind both automatic optimization of energy consumption an

  15. Optimal Maintenance Management of Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pliego Marugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays offshore wind energy is the renewable energy source with the highest growth. Offshore wind farms are composed of large and complex wind turbines, requiring a high level of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS. Firms are employing robust remote condition monitoring systems in order to improve RAMS, considering the difficulty to access the wind farm. The main objective of this research work is to optimise the maintenance management of wind farms through the fault probability of each wind turbine. The probability has been calculated by Fault Tree Analysis (FTA employing the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD in order to reduce the computational cost. The fault tree presented in this paper has been designed and validated based on qualitative data from the literature and expert from important European collaborative research projects. The basic events of the fault tree have been prioritized employing the criticality method in order to use resources efficiently. Exogenous variables, e.g., weather conditions, have been also considered in this research work. The results provided by the dynamic probability of failure and the importance measures have been employed to develop a scheduled maintenance that contributes to improve the decision making and, consequently, to reduce the maintenance costs.

  16. Optimal strategies for electric energy contract decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haili

    2000-10-01

    The power industry restructuring in various countries in recent years has created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In such an environment, electric power companies compete for the market share through spot and bilateral markets. Being profit driven, electric power companies need to make decisions on spot market bidding, contract evaluation, and risk management. New methods and software tools are required to meet these upcoming needs. In this research, bidding strategy and contract pricing are studied from a market participant's viewpoint; new methods are developed to guide a market participant in spot and bilateral market operation. A supplier's spot market bidding decision is studied. Stochastic optimization is formulated to calculate a supplier's optimal bids in a single time period. This decision making problem is also formulated as a Markov Decision Process. All the competitors are represented by their bidding parameters with corresponding probabilities. A systematic method is developed to calculate transition probabilities and rewards. The optimal strategy is calculated to maximize the expected reward over a planning horizon. Besides the spot market, a power producer can also trade in the bilateral markets. Bidding strategies in a bilateral market are studied with game theory techniques. Necessary and sufficient conditions of Nash Equilibrium (NE) bidding strategy are derived based on the generators' cost and the loads' willingness to pay. The study shows that in any NE, market efficiency is achieved. Furthermore, all Nash equilibria are revenue equivalent for the generators. The pricing of "Flexible" contracts, which allow delivery flexibility over a period of time with a fixed total amount of electricity to be delivered, is analyzed based on the no-arbitrage pricing principle. The proposed algorithm calculates the price based on the optimality condition of the stochastic optimization formulation

  17. Keeping the energy management process alive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, W.L. (Hoechst Celanese, Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1993-06-03

    A common misconception in industry is to consider energy reduction as simply an energy conservation program. Energy is conserved by turning off equipment and shutting down processes. These measures, however, have a negative impact on plant production. Energy needs to be managed to produce a final product or service at the absolute minimum Btu consumption. Four goals mark a successful energy management process: Maximize producer efficiency; minimize consumer energy use; maintain high energy load factor; and use energy most economically. The first law of energy management states that plant utilities must always be adequate to meet production/process demands. In other words, it the output of the plant is threatened because energy supplies are inadequate, accommodations of one sort or another are made so that production/process targets are met until a new energy supply or source is developed. This paper discusses the use of a well-structured approach; assigning an energy coordinator; spelling out program specifics; applying control techniques; and staffing the effort adequately.

  18. Optimization of directional elastic energy propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Chang, Hannah R.; Ruzzene, Massimo;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how topology optimization can be used to design a periodically perforated plate, in order to obtain a tailored anisotropic group velocity profile. The main method is demonstrated on both low and high frequency bending wave propagation in an aluminum plate, ...

  19. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Sauerbrei Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. Keywords: herpes simplex virus, epidemiology, infection, antiviral therapy, laboratory diagnosis, prevention

  20. Geometric Process-Based Maintenance and Optimization Strategy for the Energy Storage Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is critical for improving energy structure and reducing environment pollution. But its strong fluctuation and randomness have a serious effect on the stability of the microgrid without the coordination of the energy storage batteries. The main factors that influence the development of the energy storage system are the lack of valid operation and maintenance management as well as the cost control. By analyzing the typical characteristics of the energy storage batteries in their life cycle, the geometric process-based model including the deteriorating system and the improving system is firstly built for describing the operation process, the preventive maintenance process, and the corrective maintenance process. In addition, this paper proposes an optimized management strategy, which aims to minimize the long-run average cost of the energy storage batteries by defining the time interval of the detection and preventive maintenance process as well as the optimal corrective maintenance times, subjected to the state of health and the reliability conditions. The simulation is taken under the built model by applying the proposed energy storage batteries’ optimized management strategy, which verifies the effectiveness and applicability of the management strategy, denoting its obvious practicality on the current application.

  1. Securing a Home Energy Managing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2016-01-01

    and building software. Our approach starts with a general view of the involved stakeholders and the HEMS. Given the system overview, a threat model is constructed from the HEMP developer's point of view. Based on the threats that have been detected, possible mitigation strategies are proposed taking......Energy management in households gets increasingly more attention in the struggle to integrate more sustainable energy sources. Especially in the electrical system, smart grid towards a better utilisation of the energy production and distribution infrastructure. The Home Energy Management System...

  2. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  3. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  4. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki T

    2013-07-01

    the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis requires cooperation within a professional team which includes the entire therapeutic spectrum, extending from simple watchful observation of nonprogressive mild deformities through to early surgery for rapidly deteriorating curvature. Probably most demanding is adequate management with regard to the individual course of the disease in a given patient, while avoiding overtreatment or undertreatment. Keywords: management, idiopathic scoliosis, adolescence

  5. Energy based optimization of viscous-friction dampers on cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F.; Boston, C.

    2010-04-01

    This investigation optimizes numerically a viscous-friction damper connected to a cable close to one cable anchor for fastest reduction of the total mechanical cable energy during a free vibration decay test. The optimization parameters are the viscous coefficient of the viscous part and the ratio between the friction force and displacement amplitude of the friction part of the transverse damper. Results demonstrate that an almost pure friction damper with negligibly small viscous damping generates fastest cable energy reduction over the entire decay. The ratio between the friction force and displacement amplitude of the optimal friction damper differs from that derived from the energy equivalent optimal viscous damper. The reason for this is that the nonlinearity of the friction damper causes energy spillover from the excited to higher modes of the order of 10%, i.e. cables with attached friction dampers vibrate at several frequencies. This explains why the energy equivalent approach does not yield the optimal friction damper. Analysis of the simulation data demonstrates that the optimally tuned friction damper dissipates the same energy per cycle as if each modal component of the cable were damped by its corresponding optimal linear viscous damper.

  6. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    directions of an industrial policy of region. The situational-analytical centers (SAC) of regional administration The major component of SAC is dynamic modeling, analysis, forecasting and optimization systems, based on modern intellectual information technologies. Spheres of SAC are not only financial streams management and investments optimization, but also strategic forecasting functions, which provide an optimum choice, "aiming", search of optimum ways of regional development and corresponding investments. It is expedient to consider an opportunity of formation of the uniform organizational-methodical center of an industrial policy of region. This organization can be directly connected to the scheduled-analytical services of the largest economic structures, local authorities, the ministries and departments. Such "direct communication" is capable to provide an effective regional development strategic management. Anyway, the output on foreign markets demands concentration of resources and support of authorities. Offered measures are capable to provide a necessary coordination of efforts of a various level economic structures. For maintenance of a regional industrial policy an attraction of all newest methods of strategic planning and management is necessary. Their activity should be constructed on the basis of modern approaches of economic systems management, cause the essence of an industrial policy is finally reduced to an effective regional and corporate economic activities control centers formation. Opportunities of optimum regional economy planning and management as uniform system Approaches to planning regional economic systems can be different. We will consider some most effective methods of planning and control over a regional facilities condition. All of them are compact and evident, that allows to put them into the group of average complexity technologies. At the decision of problems of a regional resource management is rather perspective the so

  7. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, T.; Cutler, D.; Anderson, K.; Olis, D.; Elgqvist, E.; Callahan, M.; Walker, A.

    2014-08-01

    REopt is NREL's energy planning platform offering concurrent, multi-technology integration and optimization capabilities to help clients meet their cost savings and energy performance goals. The REopt platform provides techno-economic decision-support analysis throughout the energy planning process, from agency-level screening and macro planning to project development to energy asset operation. REopt employs an integrated approach to optimizing a site?s energy costs by considering electricity and thermal consumption, resource availability, complex tariff structures including time-of-use, demand and sell-back rates, incentives, net-metering, and interconnection limits. Formulated as a mixed integer linear program, REopt recommends an optimally-sized mix of conventional and renewable energy, and energy storage technologies; estimates the net present value associated with implementing those technologies; and provides the cost-optimal dispatch strategy for operating them at maximum economic efficiency. The REopt platform can be customized to address a variety of energy optimization scenarios including policy, microgrid, and operational energy applications. This paper presents the REopt techno-economic model along with two examples of recently completed analysis projects.

  8. The Optimal Management of Informational Servicing Logistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan Al SALAIMEH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews optimization problems of informational servicing logistic systems (ISLS management in problems class, which can be solved by the queuing system (QS theory. Examples of mathematics models building and effective algorithm development for quasi-optimal management of informational servicing logistic systems are presented.

  9. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  10. Soft-systems model of energy management and checklists for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawkes, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the energy management process developed using a soft systems methodology. The model divides energy management into 4 levels; good housekeeping, retro-fit projects, plant replacement projects and new process design. The purpose of the model is to assist energy managers and other agents of change implement technical changes resulting in energy conservation. However, as with all soft systems models, it should not be taken as a final development, but rather a starting point for structured debate. From the model a number of checklists for energy managers are developed and presented.

  11. Energy-Constrained Optimal Quantization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios B. Giannakis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available As low power, low cost, and longevity of transceivers are major requirements in wireless sensor networks, optimizing their design under energy constraints is of paramount importance. To this end, we develop quantizers under strict energy constraints to effect optimal reconstruction at the fusion center. Propagation, modulation, as well as transmitter and receiver structures are jointly accounted for using a binary symmetric channel model. We first optimize quantization for reconstructing a single sensor's measurement, and deriving the optimal number of quantization levels as well as the optimal energy allocation across bits. The constraints take into account not only the transmission energy but also the energy consumed by the transceiver's circuitry. Furthermore, we consider multiple sensors collaborating to estimate a deterministic parameter in noise. Similarly, optimum energy allocation and optimum number of quantization bits are derived and tested with simulated examples. Finally, we study the effect of channel coding on the reconstruction performance under strict energy constraints and jointly optimize the number of quantization levels as well as the number of channel uses.

  12. Channel adaptive rate control for energy optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BLANCH Carolina; POLLIN Sofie; LAFRUIT Gauthier; EBERLE Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Low energy consumption is one of the main challenges for wireless video transmission on battery limited devices. The energy invested at the lower layers of the protocol stack involved in data communication, such as link and physical layer, represent an important part of the total energy consumption. This communication energy highly depends on the channel conditions and on the transmission data rate. Traditionally, video coding is unaware of varying channel conditions. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach in which the rate control mechanism of the video codec becomes channel-aware and steers the instantaneous output rate according to the channel conditions to reduce the communication energy. Our results show that energy savings of up to30% can be obtained with a reduction of barely 0.1 dB on the average video quality. The impact of feedback delays is shown to be small. In addition, this adaptive mechanism has low complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  13. Optimization of energy systems based on Evolutionary and Social metaphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Optimization problems that arise in energy systems design often have several features that hinder the use of many optimization techniques. These optimization problems have non-continuous mixed variable definition domains, are heavily constrained, are multimodal (i.e. have many local optima) and, foremost, the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem are often computationally intensive. Three methods are tested here: (a) a Struggle Genetic Algorithm (StrGA), (b) a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA), and (c) a PSOA with Struggle Selection (PSOStr). The last is a hybrid of the evolutionary StrGA and the socially inspired PSOA. They are tested in four purely mathematical and three energy systems thermoeconomic optimization problems. All of the methods solved successfully all the problems. The PSOStr, however, outperformed the other methods in terms of both solution accuracy and computational cost (i.e. function evaluations). (author)

  14. Consultant for energy managers; Adviseur voor energiemanagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlug, N.H.G. [KEMA Procesautomatisering en Informatietechnologie, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    Attention is paid to the possibilities of the computer program Central Management and Energy Management System (CBES, abbreviated in Dutch). CBES is a tool for large-scale consumers and distributors of electricity in the Netherlands to find the best method to meet the demand for electrical energy. It takes into account purchase and sale contracts, maintenance and environmental effects and evaluates operational, strategic and financial data. 2 figs.

  15. Optimal Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Trucks Using Route Information Optimisation de la gestion de l’énergie dans des véhicules poids lourds électriques hybrides utilisant le guidage d’itinéraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To benchmark a hybrid vehicle’s Energy Management Strategy (EMS usually a given, often certified, velocity trajectory is exploited. In this paper it is reasoned that it is also beneficial to optimize the velocity trajectory. Especially optimizing the vehicle braking trajectories, through maximization of energy recuperation, results in considerable fuel savings on the same traveled distance. Given future route (target velocities as function of traveled distance/location, traffic, and possibly weather information, together with the vehicle’s road load parameters, the future power request trajectory can be estimated. Dynamic Programming (DP techniques can then be used to predict the optimal power split trajectory for the upcoming route, such that a desired state-of-charge at the end of the route is reached. The DP solution is re-calculated at a certain rate in order to adapt to changing conditions, e.g., traffic conditions, and used in a lower level real-time EMS to guarantee both battery state-of-charge as well as minimal fuel consumption. Pour évaluer la Stratégie de Gestion de l’Énergie (SGE d’un véhicule hybride, on exploite généralement un cycle de conduite donné, souvent certifié. Dans cet article, l’optimisation de l’itinéraire apparaît aussi comme nécessaire. L’optimisation, en particulier, des conditions de freinage du véhicule, par la maximisation de la récupération d’énergie, permet des économies considérables de combustible sur une même distance parcourue. Pour un itinéraire donné (vitesses cibles en fonction de la distance parcourue et de la position, compte tenu des conditions de circulation, des éventuelles données météorologiques et des paramètres de perte du véhicule, on peut estimer les besoins en puissance nécessaire pour le parcourir. Des techniques de Programmation Dynamique (PD peuvent alors être employées pour prévoir la répartition de puissance optimale pour un parcours donn

  16. Energy efficiency improvement by gear shifting optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Ivan A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that elements of driver’s behavior related to gear selection have considerable influence on the fuel consumption. Optimal gear shifting is a complex task, especially for inexperienced drivers. This paper presents an implemented idea for gear shifting optimization with the aim of fuel consumption minimization with more efficient engine working regimes. Optimized gear shifting enables the best possible relation between vehicle motion regimes and engine working regimes. New theoretical-experimental approach has been developed using On-Board Diagnostic technology which so far has not been used for this purpose. The matrix of driving modes according to which tests were performed is obtained and special data acquisition system and analysis process have been developed. Functional relations between experimental test modes and adequate engine working parameters have been obtained and all necessary operations have been conducted to enable their use as inputs for the designed algorithm. The created Model has been tested in real exploitation conditions on passenger car with Otto fuel injection engine and On-Board Diagnostic connection without any changes on it. The conducted tests have shown that the presented Model has significantly positive effects on fuel consumption which is an important ecological aspect. Further development and testing of the Model allows implementation in wide range of motor vehicles with various types of internal combustion engines.

  17. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty i...

  18. Fuzzy energy management strategy for HEV based on particle swarm optimization with compressibility factor%带压缩因子粒子群优化的混合动力汽车模糊能量管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美兰; 张宇; 杨子发; 康娣

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the refit HAFEI hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) , a fuzzy controller of energy management is constructed based on particle swarm optimization( PSO) with compressibility factor,which using the system torque request and the battery state of charge ( SOC) as inputs, and the engine torque as the output. In this way, the problems of the low precision and limited adaptive capability in conventional fuzzy control are overcome, and the robustness and control accuracy of fuzzy controller are improved. The simulation results show that the optimized fuzzy control strategy can improve fuel economy 14. 19% compared with the traditional fuzzy control algorithm. The recovery efficiency of the battery is 18. 95% , 23.95% and 14.47% respectively before optimization, and is increased to 29. 37% , 26. 20% and 20. 12% respectively. Amount of NOX, CO, HC in exhaust is 0.202 g/km, 1. 1 g/km respectively, 0. 282 g/km, and is reduced to 0. 104 g/km, 0.46 g/km, 0. 279 g/km respectively after optimization.%针对改装后的哈飞赛豹混合动力汽车,以混合驱动系统需求转矩和电池组荷电状态(SOC)为输入,以发动机转矩为输出,应用带压缩因子粒子群算法优化量化因子的方法构建了能量管理模糊控制器,克服了传统的模糊控制存在精确度不高、自适应能力有限等问题,使模糊控制器的鲁棒性和控制精确度都得到提高.基于混合动力汽车专用仿真软件的研究表明,经过优化的模糊能量管理策略与未优化的策略相比燃油经济性提高了14.19%;优化前蓄电池的回收效率分别为18.95%、23.95%和14.47%,而优化后的分别提高至29.37%、26.20%、和20.12%;尾气中NOx、CO、HC由优化前0.202 g/km、1.1 g/km和0.282 g/km分别降至0.104 g/km、0.46 g/km和0.279 g/km.

  19. An Energy Management Service for the Smart Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rottondi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the electricity grid towards the smart grid paradigm is fostering the integration of distributed renewable energy sources in smart buildings: a combination of local power generation, battery storage and controllable loads can greatly increase the energetic self-sufficiency of a smart building, enabling it to maximize the self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity and to participate in the energy market, thus taking advantage of time-variable tariffs to achieve economic savings. This paper proposes an energy management infrastructure specifically tailored for a smart office building, which relies on measured data and on forecasting algorithms to predict the future patterns of both local energy generation and power loads. The performance is compared to the optimal energy usage scheduling, which would be obtained assuming the exact knowledge of the future energy production and consumption trends, showing gaps below 10% with respect to the optimum.

  20. 1995 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Records Management Group (RMG) provides a forum for DOE and its contractor personnel to review and discuss subjects, issues, and concerns of common interest. This forum will include the exchange of information, and interpretation of requirements, and a dialog to aid in cost-effective management of the DOE Records Management program. Issues addressed by the RMG may result in recommendations for DOE-wide initiatives. Proposed DOE-wide initiatives shall be, provided in writing by the RMG Steering Committee to the DOE Records Management Committee and to DOE`s Office of ERM Policy, Records, and Reports Management for appropriate action. The membership of the RMG is composed of personnel engaged in Records Management from DOE Headquarters, Field sites, contractors, and other organizations, as appropriate. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  2. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels o...

  3. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...... should further specify: (1) the connection orthe lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimumenergy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options...... case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB aimed to determine the cost-optimal “zero” energy balance,minimum energy performance requirements and options of supplying renewable energy. The calculation encompassed three levels of energy frames, which mirrored theDanish low-energy building classes...

  4. Success factors of energy management in energy-intensive industries. Energy performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivill, L.

    2011-10-15

    This thesis explores energy performance measurement in support of energy management in the energy-intensive industries. In general, performance measurement is used in management for raising awareness, evaluating performance, setting targets and offering decision support. These purposes also apply to energy management, defined here as the management of all activities related to the economic and responsible use of energy in an organisation. This thesis answers the following three questions: 1) what is the concept of energy performance in a business organisation? 2) what is the importance of energy performance measurement to energy management in the energy-intensive industries? and 3) what are the subsequent needs for future research and development? A variety of methods are used, ranging from qualitative research to the modelling of energy systems and case demonstrations. The findings indicate that energy management should focus on improving energy performance, not energy efficiency, because this broader view is able to capture both the operational and strategic perspectives of energy management. This is in line with the trends of managerial integration and the adoption of sustainable development into management practice. The domain of energy performance indicators should entail organisational, systemic and temporal dimensions. From the perspective of operational management, performance measurement should address all the three means to improve energy performance, namely technology, operation and process integration. In addition to the operational management, future research and development should define the role of energy performance measurement in all the other management functions. These recommendations provide a wide spectrum of opportunities for the development of energy performance indicators, energy performance measurement systems and their underlying deployment processes in different industrial sectors, organisations and systems. (orig.)

  5. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  6. Fuel management optimization based on power profile by Cellular Automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadaei, Amir Hosein, E-mail: Fadaei_amir@aut.ac.i [Faculty of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnique), Hafez Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Nader Maleki [Faculty of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnique), Hafez Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedinejad, Ehsan [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Str., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fadaei, Mohammad Mehdi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Punak Square, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kia, Shabnam [Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Punak Square, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Fuel management in PWR nuclear reactors is comprised of a collection of principles and practices required for the planning, scheduling, refueling, and safe operation of nuclear power plants to minimize the total plant and system energy costs to the extent possible. Despite remarkable advancements in optimization procedures, inherent complexities in nuclear reactor structure and strong inter-dependency among the fundamental parameters of the core make it necessary to evaluate the most efficient arrangement of the core. Several patterns have been presented so far to determine the best configuration of fuels in the reactor core by emphasis on minimizing the local power peaking factor (P{sub q}). In this research, a new strategy for optimizing the fuel arrangements in a VVER-1000 reactor core is developed while lowering the P{sub q} is considered as the main target. For this purpose, a Fuel Quality Factor, Z(r), served to depict the reactor core pattern. Mapping to ideal pattern is tracked over the optimization procedure in which the ideal pattern is prepared with considering the Z(r) constraints and their effects on flux and P{sub q} uniformity. For finding the best configuration corresponding to the desired pattern, Cellular Automata (CA) is applied as a powerful and reliable tool on optimization procedure. To obtain the Z(r) constraints, the MCNP code was used and core calculations were performed by WIMS and CITATION codes. The results are compared with the predictions of a Neural Network as a smart optimization method, and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as a reference proposed by the designer.

  7. 1994 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Records Management Group (RMG) provides a forum for DOE and its contractor personnel to review and discuss subjects, issues, and concerns of common interest. This forum will include the exchange of information, and interpretation of requirements, and a dialog to aid in cost-effective management of the DOE Records Management program. This report contains the contributions from this forum.

  8. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    . Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis requires cooperation within a professional team which includes the entire therapeutic spectrum, extending from simple watchful observation of nonprogressive mild deformities through to early surgery for rapidly deteriorating curvature. Probably most demanding is adequate management with regard to the individual course of the disease in a given patient, while avoiding overtreatment or undertreatment.

  9. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    . Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis requires cooperation within a professional team which includes the entire therapeutic spectrum, extending from simple watchful observation of nonprogressive mild deformities through to early surgery for rapidly deteriorating curvature. Probably most demanding is adequate management with regard to the individual course of the disease in a given patient, while avoiding overtreatment or undertreatment. PMID:24600296

  10. Interconnecting Microgrids via the Energy Router with Smart Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel and flexible interconnecting framework for microgrids and corresponding energy management strategies are presented, in response to the situation of increasing renewable-energy penetration and the need to alleviate dependency on energy storage equipment. The key idea is to establish complementary energy exchange between adjacent microgrids through a multiport electrical energy router, according to the consideration that adjacent microgrids may differ substantially in terms of their patterns of energy production and consumption, which can be utilized to compensate for each other’s instant energy deficit. Based on multiport bidirectional voltage source converters (VSCs and a shared direct current (DC power line, the energy router serves as an energy hub, and enables flexible energy flow among the adjacent microgrids and the main grid. The analytical model is established for the whole system, including the energy router, the interconnected microgrids and the main grid. Various operational modes of the interconnected microgrids, facilitated by the energy router, are analyzed, and the corresponding control strategies are developed. Simulations are carried out on the Matlab/Simulink platform, and the results have demonstrated the validity and reliability of the idea for microgrid interconnection as well as the corresponding control strategies for flexible energy flow.

  11. A Review of Deterministic Optimization Methods in Engineering and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing reliance on modeling optimization problems in practical applications, a number of theoretical and algorithmic contributions of optimization have been proposed. The approaches developed for treating optimization problems can be classified into deterministic and heuristic. This paper aims to introduce recent advances in deterministic methods for solving signomial programming problems and mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems. A number of important applications in engineering and management are also reviewed to reveal the usefulness of the optimization methods.

  12. Incorporate Energy Strategy into Particle Swarm Optimizer Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lun; DONG De-cun; LU Yan; CHEN Lan

    2008-01-01

    The issue of optimizing the dynamic parameters in Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) is addressed in this paper.An algorithm is designed which makes all particles originally endowed with a certain level energy, what here we define as EPSO (Energy Strategy PSO).During the iterative process of PSO algorithm, the Inertia Weight is updated according to the calculation of the particle's energy.The portion ratio of the current residual energy to the initial endowed energy is used as the parameter Inertia Weight which aims to update the particles' velocity efficiently.By the simulation in a graph theoritical and a functional optimization problem respectively, it could be easily found that the rate of convergence in EPSO is obviously increased.

  13. Energy Management Dynamic Control Topology In MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, G.; Kumar, TNR

    2017-08-01

    Topology management via per-node transmission power adjustment has been shown effective in extending network lifetime. The existing algorithms constructs static topologies which fail to take the residual energy of network nodes, and cannot balance energy consumption efficiently. To address this problem, a Light Weighted Distributed Topology Control algorithm EMDCT(Energy Management Dynamic Control Topology ) is proposed in this paper. Based on the link metric of the network, both the energy consumption rate level and residual energy levels at the two end nodes are considered. EMDCT generates a Dynamic Topology that changes with the variation of node energy without the aid of location information, each node determines its transmission power according to local network information, which reduces the overhead complexity of EMDCT greatly. The experiment results show that EMDCT preserves network connectivity and manitains minimum-cost property of the network also it can extend network lifetime more remarkably.

  14. Multipurpose Water Reservoir Management: An Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Scola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reservoirs that feed large hydropower plants should be managed in order to provide other uses for the water resources. Those uses include, for instance, flood control and avoidance, irrigation, navigability in the rivers, and other ones. This work presents an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach for the study of multiple water usages in multiple interlinked reservoirs, including both power generation objectives and other objectives not related to energy generation. The classical evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is employed as the basic multiobjective optimization machinery, being modified in order to cope with specific problem features. The case studies, which include the analysis of a problem which involves an objective of navigability on the river, are tailored in order to illustrate the usefulness of the data generated by the proposed methodology for decision-making on the problem of operation planning of multiple reservoirs with multiple usages. It is shown that it is even possible to use the generated data in order to determine the cost of any new usage of the water, in terms of the opportunity cost that can be measured on the revenues related to electric energy sales.

  15. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practiceof Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-02-01

    In this report, the third in a series, we provide an evaluation of several products that exemplify the current state of practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the federal sector. The first report [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second report [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. Part 4 of this series will discuss applications software from a user's perspective. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of reports provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  16. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  17. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  18. Optimizing Ice Thermal Storage to Reduce Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher L.

    Energy cost for buildings is an issue of concern for owners across the U.S. The bigger the building, the greater the concern. A part of this is due to the energy required to cool the building and the way in which charges are set when paying for energy consumed during different times of the day. This study will prove that designing ice thermal storage properly will minimize energy cost in buildings. The effectiveness of ice thermal storage as a means to reduce energy costs lies within transferring the time of most energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak periods. Multiple variables go into the equation of finding the optimal use of ice thermal storage and they are all judged with the final objective of minimizing monthly energy costs. This research discusses the optimal design of ice thermal storage and its impact on energy consumption, energy demand, and the total energy cost. A tool for optimal design of ice thermal storage is developed, considering variables such as chiller and ice storage sizes and charging and discharge times. The simulations take place in a four-story building and investigate the potential of Ice Thermal Storage as a resource in reducing and minimizing energy cost for cooling. The simulations test the effectiveness of Ice Thermal Storage implemented into the four-story building in ten locations across the United States.

  19. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  20. Online algorithms for optimal energy distribution in microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu; Nelms, R Mark

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an optimal energy distribution strategy for microgrids in a smart grid environment, and featuring a detailed analysis of the mathematical techniques of convex optimization and online algorithms, this book provides readers with essential content on how to achieve multi-objective optimization that takes into consideration power subscribers, energy providers and grid smoothing in microgrids. Featuring detailed theoretical proofs and simulation results that demonstrate and evaluate the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm, this text explains step-by-step how the problem can b

  1. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into four different industries (i.e., e-commerce industry, consumer service industry, public sector, and fashion industry and four various SOs features (i.e., advertising, channel coordination, pricing, and inventory. Moreover, we conduct the technical review on the stylish industries/topics and typical optimization models. The classical optimization approaches for SOs management in supply chain are presented. The managerial implications of SOs in supply chain are discussed.

  2. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  3. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  4. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  5. Optimal Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, G O; Michelin, S

    2016-01-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy toward this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with ...

  6. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  7. Energy-optimal programming and scheduling of the manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, N.; Frumuşanu, G.; Epureanu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The shop floor energy system covers the energy consumed for both the air conditioning and manufacturing processes. At the same time, most of energy consumed in manufacturing processes is converted in heat released in the shop floor interior and has a significant influence on the microclimate. Both these components of the energy consumption have a time variation that can be realistic assessed. Moreover, the consumed energy decisively determines the environmental sustainability of the manufacturing operation, while the expenditure for running the shop floor energy system is a significant component of the manufacturing operations cost. Finally yet importantly, the energy consumption can be fundamentally influenced by properly programming and scheduling of the manufacturing operations. In this paper, we present a method for modeling and energy-optimal programming & scheduling the manufacturing operations. In this purpose, we have firstly identified two optimization targets, namely the environmental sustainability and the economic efficiency. Then, we have defined three optimization criteria, which can assess the degree of achieving these targets. Finally, we have modeled the relationship between the optimization criteria and the parameters of programming and scheduling. In this way, it has been revealed that by adjusting these parameters one can significantly improve the sustainability and efficiency of manufacturing operations. A numerical simulation has proved the feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  9. Greenhouse climate management : an optimal control approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis a methodology is developed for the construction and analysis of an optimal greenhouse climate control system.

    In chapter 1, the results of a literature survey are presented and the research objectives are defined. In the literature, optimal greenhouse climate

  10. Basic aspects and contributions to the optimization of energy systems exploitation of a super tanker ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitar, C.; Novac, I.

    2017-08-01

    Today, the concept of energy efficiency or energy optimization in ships has become one of the main problems of engineers in the whole world. To increase the fiability of a crude oil super tanker ship it means, among other things, to improve the energy performance and optimize the fuel consumption of ship through the development of engines and propulsion system or using alternative energies. Also, the importance of having an effective and reliable Power Management System (PMS) in a vessel operating system means to reduce operational costs and maintain power system of machine parts working in minimum stress in all operating conditions. Studying the Energy Efficiency Design Index and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator for a crude oil super tanker ship, it allows us to study the reconfiguration of ship power system introducing new generation systems.

  11. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation....

  12. Integrated energy management study. Energy efficient transport program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.

  13. US Department of Energy, Annual report on energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    A report on DOE's In-house Energy Management Program for reducing energy consumption and increasing energy efficiency in all of its facilities and operations is presented. Programs in energy conservation surveys and studies, retrofit projects, fuel conversion projects, operation and maintenance improvements, driver training, and employee awareness have enabled the department to reduce its energy consumption in FY 1979 by 12.7% in BTU per gross sq. ft. as compared to 1973. Total cost of energy conservation projects in 1979 was $11.455 million. Cost avoidance as a result of implementing these programs is expected to be $3.75 million annually. To date, DOE has invested $51.4 million in retrofit projects.

  14. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices Architectures, Design, Modeling and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Spreemann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic vibration transducers are seen as an effective way of harvesting ambient energy for the supply of sensor monitoring systems. Different electromagnetic coupling architectures have been employed but no comprehensive comparison with respect to their output performance has been carried out up to now. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices introduces an optimization approach which is applied to determine optimal dimensions of the components (magnet, coil and back iron). Eight different commonly applied coupling architectures are investigated. The results show that correct dimensions are of great significance for maximizing the efficiency of the energy conversion. A comparison yields the architectures with the best output performance capability which should be preferably employed in applications. A prototype development is used to demonstrate how the optimization calculations can be integrated into the design–flow. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices targets the design...

  15. Dynamic Energy Management System for a Smart Microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Sharma, Ratnesh K; Gautam, Prajwal K; Ahmadi, Afshin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent dynamic energy management system (I-DEMS) for a smart microgrid. An evolutionary adaptive dynamic programming and reinforcement learning framework is introduced for evolving the I-DEMS online. The I-DEMS is an optimal or near-optimal DEMS capable of performing grid-connected and islanded microgrid operations. The primary sources of energy are sustainable, green, and environmentally friendly renewable energy systems (RESs), e.g., wind and solar; however, these forms of energy are uncertain and nondispatchable. Backup battery energy storage and thermal generation were used to overcome these challenges. Using the I-DEMS to schedule dispatches allowed the RESs and energy storage devices to be utilized to their maximum in order to supply the critical load at all times. Based on the microgrid's system states, the I-DEMS generates energy dispatch control signals, while a forward-looking network evaluates the dispatched control signals over time. Typical results are presented for varying generation and load profiles, and the performance of I-DEMS is compared with that of a decision tree approach-based DEMS (D-DEMS). The robust performance of the I-DEMS was illustrated by examining microgrid operations under different battery energy storage conditions.

  16. Energy Optimization of Road Tunnel Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A road tunnel is an enclosed and covered infrastructure for the vehicular traffic. Its lighting system provides 24 h of artificial sources only, with a higher amount of electric power used during the day. Due to safety reasons, when there is natural lighting outside the tunnel, the lighting levels in the stretches right after the entrance and before the exit must be high, in order to guide the driver’s eye towards the middle of the tunnel where the luminance must guarantee safe driving, avoid any over-dimensioning of the lighting systems, and produce energy savings. Such effects can be reached not only through the technological advances in the field of artificial lighting sources with high luminous efficiency, but also through new materials for road paving characterized by a higher reflection coefficient than other ordinary asphalts. This case study examines different technical scenarios, analyzing and comparing possible energy and economic savings. Traditional solutions are thus compared with scenarios suggesting the solutions previously mentioned. Special asphalts are interesting from an economic point of view, whereas the high costs of LED sources nowadays represent an obstacle for their implementation.

  17. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J.

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  18. An Optimization Framework for Dynamic Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenbo Du; Humberto E Garcia; Christiaan J.J. Paredis

    2014-03-01

    A computational framework for the efficient analysis and optimization of dynamic hybrid energy systems (HES) is developed. A microgrid system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) is modeled using the Modelica language in the Dymola environment. The optimization loop is implemented in MATLAB, with the FMI Toolbox serving as the interface between the computational platforms. Two characteristic optimization problems are selected to demonstrate the methodology and gain insight into the system performance. The first is an unconstrained optimization problem that optimizes the dynamic properties of the battery, reactor and generator to minimize variability in the HES. The second problem takes operating and capital costs into consideration by imposing linear and nonlinear constraints on the design variables. The preliminary optimization results obtained in this study provide an essential step towards the development of a comprehensive framework for designing HES.

  19. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  20. Reaction Path Optimization with Holonomic Constraints and Kinetic Energy Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Jason B; Haas, Kevin R; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2009-08-11

    Two methods are developed to enhance the stability, efficiency, and robustness of reaction path optimization using a chain of replicas. First, distances between replicas are kept equal during path optimization via holonomic constraints. Finding a reaction path is, thus, transformed into a constrained optimization problem. This approach avoids force projections for finding minimum energy paths (MEPs), and fast-converging schemes such as quasi-Newton methods can be readily applied. Second, we define a new objective function - the total Hamiltonian - for reaction path optimization, by combining the kinetic energy potential of each replica with its potential energy function. Minimizing the total Hamiltonian of a chain determines a minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP). If the distances between replicas are kept equal and a consistent force constant is used, then the kinetic energy potentials of all replicas have the same value. The MHP in this case is the most probable isokinetic path. Our results indicate that low-temperature kinetic energy potentials (optimization and can significantly reduce the required steps of minimization by 2-3 times without causing noticeable differences between a MHP and MEP. These methods are applied to three test cases, the C7eq-to-Cax isomerization of an alanine dipeptide, the (4)C1-to-(1)C4 transition of an α-d-glucopyranose, and the helix-to-sheet transition of a GNNQQNY heptapeptide. By applying the methods developed in this work, convergence of reaction path optimization can be achieved for these complex transitions, involving full atomic details and a large number of replicas (>100). For the case of helix-to-sheet transition, we identify pathways whose energy barriers are consistent with experimental measurements. Further, we develop a method based on the work energy theorem to quantify the accuracy of reaction paths and to determine whether the atoms used to define a path are enough to provide quantitative estimation of energy barriers.

  1. Portfolio management : minimizing energy costs in an open access market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, P. [U.S. Generating Company (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of evolving market structures for electric utilities, discussed portfolio management in an open access market and enumerated critical abilities that will be required for success in the new marketplace. Viewgraphs provided information regarding the current retail restructuring landscape and merchant plant activity by region. Bar graphs were included to represent the growth of power marketing and the results of utility divestiture auctions. Critical capabilities to successfully optimize a competitive energy portfolio, including functional integration, teamwork and goals alignment, the aggressive use of information technology, liquidity, and risk management, were discussed at length. As an example of the new approach, the structure and operating plans of PG and E, one of the largest unregulated energy trading company in the U.S., were reviewed. In brief, the company plans to be aggressive in all competitive energy markets, to focus on asset development and acquisition, and to gain liquidity through trading and marketing. 16 figs.

  2. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  3. Optimal planning of integrated multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Gibescu, M.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration of these infrast......In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration...... of these infrastructures using conversion technologies (e.g. gas-to-electricity-and-heat, power-to-heat, power-to-gas), and the placement of energy storage. The model is demonstrated using a representative case study from the city of Eindhoven. Current energy data from 2015 is combined with city development scenarios...... and sustainability goals for 2030 and 2045. Optimal green- and brownfield designs for a district's future integrated energy system are compared using a one-step, as well as a two-step planning approach. As expected, the greenfield designs are more cost efficient, as their results are not constrained by the existing...

  4. Optimizing Energy Conversion: Magnetic Nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Dylan; Dann, Martin; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2015-03-01

    We present herein the work started at SUNY Oswego as a part of a SUNY 4E grant. The SUNY 4E Network of Excellence has awarded SUNY Oswego and collaborators a grant to carry out extensive studies on magnetic nanoparticles. The focus of the study is to develop cost effective rare-earth-free magnetic materials that will enhance energy transmission performance of various electrical devices (solar cells, electric cars, hard drives, etc.). The SUNY Oswego team has started the preliminary work for the project and graduate students from the rest of the SUNY 4E team (UB, Alfred College, Albany) will continue the project. The preliminary work concentrates on analyzing the properties of magnetic nanoparticle candidates, calculating molecular orbitals and band gap, and the fabrication of thin films. SUNY 4E Network of Excellence Grant.

  5. Optimization of energy extraction in transverse galloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribes-Palmer, F.; Sanz-Andres, A.

    2013-11-01

    A numerical method to analyse the stability of transverse galloping based on experimental measurements, as an alternative method to polynomial fitting of the transverse force coefficient Cz, is proposed in this paper. The Glauert-Den Hartog criterion is used to determine the region of angles of attack (pitch angles) prone to present galloping. An analytic solution (based on a polynomial curve of Cz) is used to validate the method and to evaluate the discretization errors. Several bodies (of biconvex, D-shape and rhomboidal cross sections) have been tested in a wind tunnel and the stability of the galloping region has been analysed with the new method. An algorithm to determine the pitch angle of the body that allows the maximum value of the kinetic energy of the flow to be extracted is presented.

  6. Improved Large-Scale Process Cooling Operation through Energy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Kapoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study based on real plant data collected from chiller plants at the University of Texas at Austin. It highlights the advantages of operating the cooling processes based on an optimal strategy. A multi-component model is developed for the entire cooling process network. The model is used to formulate and solve a multi-period optimal chiller loading problem, posed as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem. The results showed that an average energy savings of 8.57% could be achieved using optimal chiller loading as compared to the historical energy consumption data from the plant. The scope of the optimization problem was expanded by including a chilled water thermal storage in the cooling system. The effect of optimal thermal energy storage operation on the net electric power consumption by the cooling system was studied. The results include a hypothetical scenario where the campus purchases electricity at wholesale market prices and an optimal hour-by-hour operating strategy is computed to use the thermal energy storage tank.

  7. Energy Management Policies for Energy-Neutral Source-Channel Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglione, Paolo; Erkip, Elza; Zemen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In cyber-physical systems where sensors measure the temporal evolution of a given phenomenon of interest and radio communication takes place over short distances, the energy spent for source acquisition and compression may be comparable with that used for transmission. Additionally, in order to avoid limited lifetime issues, sensors may be powered via energy harvesting and thus collect all the energy they need from the environment. This work addresses the problem of energy allocation over source acquisition/compression and transmission for energy-harvesting sensors. At first, focusing on a single-sensor, energy management policies are identified that guarantee a maximal average distortion while at the same time ensuring the stability of the queue connecting source and channel encoders. It is shown that the identified class of policies is optimal in the sense that it stabilizes the queue whenever this is feasible by any other technique that satisfies the same average distortion constraint. Moreover, this class...

  8. Energy management during the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the jump to the front-side of the L/D curve need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real time trajectory control are discussed.

  9. The Energy Savings and Environmental Benefits for Small and Medium Enterprises by Cloud Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Tseng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMES play an important role in Taiwan’s economy. The reduction of energy costs and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are critical to preserving the environment. This paper uses the experimental results from 65 sites, gathered over two years since 2012, to determine how the integration of Internet communication, cloud computing technologies and a cloud energy management service (cloud EMS can reduce energy consumption by cost-effective means. The EMS has three levels: infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. Working jointly with ChungHwa Telecom, Taiwan’s leading telecom service provider, data from detection devices, control devices, air-conditioning and lighting systems are all uploaded to a cloud EMS platform, to give a so called intelligent energy management network application service platform (IEN-ASP. Various energy saving management functions are developed using this platform: (1 air conditioning optimization; (2 lighting system optimization; (3 scheduling control; (4 power billing control and (5 occupancy detection and timing control. Using the international performance measurement and verification protocol (IPMVP, the energy used at the test sites, before and after the use of the IEN-ASP, are compared to calculate the energy saved. The experimental results show that there is an average energy saving of 5724 kWh per year, which represents a saving ratio of 5.84%. This translates to a total reduction in CO2 emissions of 9,926,829 kg per year. Using the data collected, a regression model is used to demonstrate the correlation between the power that is consumed, the energy that is saved and the area of the sites. Another interesting result is that, if the experimental sites are maintained by experienced electricians or other personnel and EMS protocols are followed, the energy saving can be as great as 6.59%.

  10. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen; Bouchafaa, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  11. Energy optimization for a wind DFIG with flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzaoui, Ihssen, E-mail: hamzaoui-ihssen2000@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Khemis Miliana, Ain Defla (Algeria); Bouchafaa, Farid, E-mail: fbouchafa@gmail.com [Laboratory of Instrumentation, Faculty of Electronics and Computer, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El-Alia 16111 Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The type of distributed generation unit that is the subject of this paper relates to renewable energy sources, especially wind power. The wind generator used is based on a double fed induction Generator (DFIG). The stator of the DFIG is connected directly to the network and the rotor is connected to the network through the power converter with three levels. The objective of this work is to study the association a Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) in wind generator. This system is used to improve the quality of electricity provided by wind generator. It is composed of a flywheel; an induction machine (IM) and a power electronic converter. A maximum power tracking technique « Maximum Power Point Tracking » (MPPT) and a strategy for controlling the pitch angle is presented. The model of the complete system is developed in Matlab/Simulink environment / to analyze the results from simulation the integration of wind chain to networks.

  12. Intelligent energy management control for independent microgrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T BOGARAJ; J KANAKARAJ

    2016-07-01

    This work presents a new adaptive scheme for energy management in an independent microgrid.The proposed energy management system has been developed to manage the utilization of power among the hybrid resources and energy storage system in order to supply the load requirement based on multi-agent system (MAS) concept and predicted renewable powers and load powers. Auto regressive moving average models have been developed for predicting the wind speed, atmospheric temperature, irradiation, and connected loads. The structure proposed in this paper includes renewable sources as primary source and storage system as secondary source. A wind generator and solar PV array system together acts as primary source, which supplies power to the local load most of the time in this energy management strategy. When they fail to meet the load demand, the secondary source present in the system will assist the primary source and help to attain the goal of satisfying load demand without interruption. If the primary source and secondary source together are not able to meet the load demand then load shedding will be executed according to the priority set. Thus the developed MAS algorithm co-ordinates the hybrid system components and achieves energy management among renewableenergy sources, storage units, and load under varying environmental conditions and varying loads. STATCOM based compensation has been implemented to balance the reactive power demand and to mitigate the voltage fluctuations and harmonics on the AC bus. The proposed microgrid has been simulated with MAS concept in Matlab/Simulink environment. The results presented in this paper show cases the effectiveness of the proposed energy management controller.

  13. ROLE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN TAX OPTIMIZATION OF ECONOMIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkatov V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the fact that in modern conditions the question of the effectiveness of tax accounting, the optimal model of its interaction with management accounting, as well as enhancing the role of the tax administration, tax optimization at the level of the entity and the construction of the administrative account for tax purposes are particularly acute. As a consequence there is the need to investigate the bookkeeping and fiscal accounting data harmonization with the aim of taxation control, analysis, management and optimization. This problem is solved through organization and fulfillment of management accounting playing the key role in data consolidation in the unified information system to solve the arising problems. The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of management accounting aimed at taxation optimization. The scientific and methodical approaches and recommendations presented in the article allow extension of the theoretical understanding of the tax and management accounting systems, increase the range of missions in management accounting tasks related to tax optimization and effective management of tax liabilities of the organization. All this will enhance the analyticity of information, the effectiveness of management decisions in the field of taxation. The provisions of the article can be used in the practice of accounting and economic services organizations, audit, consulting organizations

  14. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  15. Ant colony optimization approach to estimate energy demand of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Toksari, M. [Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey). Engineering Faculty, Industrial Engineering Department

    2007-08-15

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of energy demand in Turkey. Energy demand model is first proposed using the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent systems in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. ACO energy demand estimation (ACOEDE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear and quadratic. Quadratic{sub A}COEDE provided better-fit solution due to fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEDE model plans the energy demand of Turkey until 2025 according to three scenarios. The relative estimation errors of the ACOEDE model are the lowest when they are compared with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) projection. (author)

  16. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The obje......Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption....... The objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization....

  17. Optimal energy consumption analysis of natural gas pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There are many compressor stations along long-distance natural gas pipelines. Natural gas can be transported using different boot programs and import pressures, combined with temperature control parameters. Moreover, different transport methods have correspondingly different energy consumptions. At present, the operating parameters of many pipelines are determined empirically by dispatchers, resulting in high energy consumption. This practice does not abide by energy reduction policies. Therefore, based on a full understanding of the actual needs of pipeline companies, we introduce production unit consumption indicators to establish an objective function for achieving the goal of lowering energy consumption. By using a dynamic programming method for solving the model and preparing calculation software, we can ensure that the solution process is quick and efficient. Using established optimization methods, we analyzed the energy savings for the XQ gas pipeline. By optimizing the boot program, the import station pressure, and the temperature parameters, we achieved the optimal energy consumption. By comparison with the measured energy consumption, the pipeline now has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 11 to 16 percent.

  18. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  19. Optimal continuous-variable teleportation under energy constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2017-05-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the crucial protocols in quantum information processing. It is important to accomplish an efficient teleportation under practical conditions, aiming at a higher fidelity desirably using fewer resources. The continuous-variable (CV) version of quantum teleportation was first proposed using a Gaussian state as a quantum resource, while other attempts were also made to improve performance by applying non-Gaussian operations. We investigate the CV teleportation to find its ultimate fidelity under energy constraint identifying an optimal quantum state. For this purpose, we present a formalism to evaluate teleportation fidelity as an expectation value of an operator. Using this formalism, we prove that the optimal state must be a form of photon-number entangled states. We further show that Gaussian states are near optimal, while non-Gaussian states make a slight improvement and therefore are rigorously optimal, particularly in the low-energy regime.

  20. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  1. Optimal dynamic management of groundwater pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, S.M.; Remson, I.

    1982-01-01

    The linear programing-superposition method is presented for managing multiple sources of groundwater pollution over time. The method uses any linear solute transport simulation model to generate a unit source-concentration response matrix that is incorporated into a management model. -from Authors

  2. Brute force optimization: combining mass energy simulation and life cycle analysis to optimize building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, Stuart; Richman, Russell [Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University (Canada)], email: sfix@ryerson.ca, email: richman@ryerson.ca

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of energy resources and the rising concerns about the environment, building designers are shifting towards green building designs. However since no design optimization for an entire building exists, a significant degree of uncertainty is involved in design decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the brute force optimization process which is a method removing the uncertainty from green building designs. This method relies on the selection of optimization criteria and then several simulations are performed. A demonstration pilot was carried out in Toronto and over one million design permutations were conducted. Results showed that parameters such as total building area, window performance and infiltration level are the most important to the lifetime energy consumption of a building. This study pointed out the important parameters to optimize in order to reduce a building's energy consumption.

  3. Synergy optimization and operation management on syndicate complementary knowledge cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    The number of multi enterprises knowledge cooperation has grown steadily, as a result of global innovation competitions. I have conducted research based on optimization and operation studies in this article, and gained the conclusion that synergy management is effective means to break through various management barriers and solve cooperation's chaotic systems. Enterprises must communicate system vision and access complementary knowledge. These are crucial considerations for enterprises to exert their optimization and operation knowledge cooperation synergy to meet global marketing challenges.

  4. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  5. Energy Smart Management of Scientific Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow; Rotem, Dron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang

    2009-04-12

    Scientific data centers comprised of high-powered computing equipment and large capacity disk storage systems consume considerable amount of energy. Dynamic power management techniques (DPM) are commonly used for saving energy in disk systems. These involve powering down disks that exhibit long idle periods and placing them in standby mode. A file request from a disk in standby mode will incur both energy and performance penalties as it takes energy (and time) to spin up the disk before it can serve a file. For this reason, DPM has to make decisions as to when to transition the disk into standby mode such that the energy saved is greater than the energy needed to spin it up again and the performance penalty is tolerable. The length of the idle period until the DPM decides to power down a disk is called idlenessthreshold. In this paper, we study both analytically and experimentally dynamic power management techniques that save energy subject to performance constraints on file access costs. Based on observed workloads of scientific applications and disk characteristics, we provide a methodology for determining file assignment to disks and computing idleness thresholds that result in significant improvements to the energy saved by existing DPMsolutions while meeting response time constraints. We validate our methods with simulations that use traces taken from scientific applications.

  6. Perspective texture synthesis based on improved energy optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Arsalan Bashir

    Full Text Available Perspective texture synthesis has great significance in many fields like video editing, scene capturing etc., due to its ability to read and control global feature information. In this paper, we present a novel example-based, specifically energy optimization-based algorithm, to synthesize perspective textures. Energy optimization technique is a pixel-based approach, so it's time-consuming. We improve it from two aspects with the purpose of achieving faster synthesis and high quality. Firstly, we change this pixel-based technique by replacing the pixel computation with a little patch. Secondly, we present a novel technique to accelerate searching nearest neighborhoods in energy optimization. Using k- means clustering technique to build a search tree to accelerate the search. Hence, we make use of principal component analysis (PCA technique to reduce dimensions of input vectors. The high quality results prove that our approach is feasible. Besides, our proposed algorithm needs shorter time relative to other similar methods.

  7. Energy - achieving an optimum through information. Energie - optimal durch Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith.

  8. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  9. Spectral decomposition of optimal asset-liability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decamps, M.; de Schepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns optimal asset-liability management when the assets and the liabilities are modeled by means of correlated geometric Brownian motions as suggested in Gerber and Shiu [2003. Geometric Brownian motion models for assets and liabilities: from pension funding to optimal dividends.

  10. Reliability-Based Optimization for Maintenance Management in Bridge Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of optimizing maintenance, repair and reconstruction decisions for bridge networks. Incorporating network topologies into bridge management problems is computationally difficult. Because of the interdependencies among networked bridges, they have to be analyzed together. Simulation-based numerical optimization techniques adopted in past research are limited to networks of moderate sizes. In this dissertation, novel approaches are developed to dete...

  11. Spectral decomposition of optimal asset-liability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decamps, M.; de Schepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns optimal asset-liability management when the assets and the liabilities are modeled by means of correlated geometric Brownian motions as suggested in Gerber and Shiu [2003. Geometric Brownian motion models for assets and liabilities: from pension funding to optimal dividends. Nort

  12. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  13. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  14. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  15. Well Field Management Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources is important because groundwater availability is limited and, locally, groundwater quality has been impaired because of contamination. Here we present a multi-objective optimization framework for improving the management of a water works that operates...... with infiltration basins, injection wells and abstraction wells. The two management objectives are to minimize the amount of water needed for infiltration and to minimize the risk of getting contaminated water into the drinking water wells. The management is subject to a daily demand fulfilment constraint. Two...... optimization results are presented for the Hardhof water works in Zurich, Switzerland. It is found that both methods perform better than the historical management. The constant scheduling performs best in fairly stable conditions, whereas the sequential optimization performs best in extreme situations...

  16. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  17. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  18. Analysis of EnergyPlus for use in residential building energy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Justin S.

    This work explored the utility of EnergyPlus as a simulation engine for doing residential building energy optimization, with the objective of finding the modeling areas that require further development in EnergyPlus for residential optimization applications. This work was conducted primarily during 2006-2007, with publication occurring later in 2010. The assessments and recommendations apply to the simulation tool versions available in 2007. During this work, an EnergyPlus v2.0 (2007) input file generator was developed for use in BEopt 0.8.0.4 (2007). BEopt 0.8.0.4 is a residential Building Energy optimization program developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Residential modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus v2.0 were scrutinized and tested. Modeling deficiencies were identified in a number of areas. These deficiencies were compared to deficiencies in the DOE2.2 V44E4(2007)/TRNSYS simulation engines. The highest priority gaps in EnergyPlus v2.0's residential modeling capability are in infiltration, duct leakage, and foundation modeling. Optimization results from DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were analyzed to search for modeling differences that have a significant impact on optimization results. Optimal buildings at different energy savings levels were compared to look for biases. It was discovered that the EnergyPlus v2.0 optimizations consistently chose higher wall insulation levels than the DOE2.2 V44E4 optimizations. The points composing the optimal paths chosen by DOE2.2 V44E4 and EnergyPlus v2.0 were compared to look for points chosen by one optimization that were significantly different from the other optimal path. These outliers were compared to consensus optimal points to determine the simulation differences that cause disparities in the optimization results. The differences were primarily caused by modeling of window radiation exchange and HVAC autosizing.

  19. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  20. Topology optimisation for energy management in underwater sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Devesh K.; Wettergren, Thomas A.; Ray, Asok; Mukherjee, Kushal

    2015-09-01

    In general, battery-powered sensors in a sensor network are operable as long as they can communicate sensed data to a processing node. In this context, a sensor network has two competing objectives: (1) maximisation of the network performance with respect to the probability of successful search for a specified upper bound on the probability of false alarms, and (2) maximisation of the network's operable life. As both sensing and communication of data consume battery energy at the sensing nodes of the sensor network, judicious use of sensing power and communication power is needed to improve the lifetime of the sensor network. This paper presents an adaptive energy management policy that will optimally allocate the available energy between sensing and communication at each sensing node to maximise the network performance subject to specified constraints. Under the assumptions of fixed total energy allocation for a sensor network operating for a specified time period, the problem is reduced to synthesis of an optimal network topology that maximises the probability of successful search (of a target) over a surveillance region. In a two-stage optimisation, a genetic algorithm-based meta-heuristic search is first used to efficiently explore the global design space, and then a local pattern search algorithm is used for convergence to an optimal solution. The results of performance optimisation are generated on a simulation test bed to validate the proposed concept. Adaptation to energy variations across the network is shown to be manifested as a change in the optimal network topology by using sensing and communication models for underwater environment. The approximate Pareto-optimal surface is obtained as a trade-off between network lifetime and probability of successful search over the surveillance region.

  1. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. Theresults indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies overenergy......, cost-optimal “zero” energybalance accounts only for the building related energy use....... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  2. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-22

    REopt is a techno-economic decision support model used to optimize energy systems for buildings, campuses, communities, and microgrids. The primary application of the model is for optimizing the integration and operation of behind-the-meter energy assets. This report provides an overview of the model, including its capabilities and typical applications; inputs and outputs; economic calculations; technology descriptions; and model parameters, variables, and equations. The model is highly flexible, and is continually evolving to meet the needs of each analysis. Therefore, this report is not an exhaustive description of all capabilities, but rather a summary of the core components of the model.

  3. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  4. Optimization Problems in Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Romero Morales (Dolores)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMaria Dolores Romero Morales was born on Augustus 5th, 1971, in Sevilla (Spain). She studied Mathematics at University of Sevilla from 1989 to 1994 and specialized in Statistics and Operations Research. She wrote her Master's thesis on Global Optimization in Location Theory under the sup

  5. Bioenergy in energy transformation and climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a large inter-model comparison of 15 models, we comprehensively characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run

  6. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. The results indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies over energy......, cost-optimal “zero” energy balance accounts only for the building related energy use....... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  7. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  8. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the mai

  9. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the

  10. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  11. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  12. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled ``Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management`` was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois` and the Midwest`s solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  13. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China: A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  14. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  15. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  16. Intermodal Energy Transfer in a Tapered Optical Fiber: Optimizing Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Ravets, S; Kordell, P R; Wong-Campos, J D; Rolston, S L; Orozco, L A

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the energy transfer between modes during the tapering process of an optical nanofiber through spectrogram analysis. The results allow optimization of the tapering process, and we measure transmission in excess of 99.95% for the fundamental mode. We quantify the adiabaticity condition through calculations and place an upper bound on the amount of energy transferred to other modes at each step of the tapering, giving practical limits to the tapering angle.

  17. 1st International Symposium on Energy System Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtner, Wolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Leibfried, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address diverse challenges in energy systems, ranging from operational to investment planning problems, from market economics to technical and environmental considerations, from distribution grids to transmission grids and from theoretical considerations to data provision concerns and applied case studies. The International Symposium on Energy System Optimization (ISESO) was held on November 9th and 10th 2015 at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) and was organized by HITS, Heidelberg University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  18. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  19. Uncertainty, learning, and the optimal management of wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    Wildlife management is limited by uncontrolled and often unrecognized environmental variation, by limited capabilities to observe and control animal populations, and by a lack of understanding about the biological processes driving population dynamics. In this paper I describe a comprehensive framework for management that includes multiple models and likelihood values to account for structural uncertainty, along with stochastic factors to account for environmental variation, random sampling, and partial controllability. Adaptive optimization is developed in terms of the optimal control of incompletely understood populations, with the expected value of perfect information measuring the potential for improving control through learning. The framework for optimal adaptive control is generalized by including partial observability and non-adaptive, sample-based updating of model likelihoods. Passive adaptive management is derived as a special case of constrained adaptive optimization, representing a potentially efficient suboptimal alternative that nonetheless accounts for structural uncertainty.

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  1. Management changes in the Lithuanian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclovas Miskinis; Rimantas Deksnys [Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). Lithuanian Energy Institute

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania was invited at the end of 2002 to become a member of the European Union and to join NATO. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state. In order to transform the management in the energy sector, it was necessary to perform a lot of significant changes. Positive changes are based on the implementation of experience in other Central and Eastern European countries and many studies prepared by national specialists in cooperation with foreign experts. This paper describes the main alterations in management of the Lithuanian economy and energy sectors and recent changes in the power sector. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and necessary improvements in the near future. (author)

  2. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  3. A model for the optimal risk management of farm firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is an integrated part of business or firm management and deals with the problem of how to avoid the risk of economic losses when the objective is to maximize expected profit. This paper will focus on the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks in agriculture follow......, we derive a criterion for optimal risk management in the sense that we derive the optimal combination of expected income and variance on return to capital on the efficient frontier....... for risk management Risk management is typically based on numerical analysis and the concept of efficiency. None of the methods developed so far actually solve the basic question of how the individual manager should behave so as to optimise the balance between expected profit/income and risk. In the paper...

  4. Software Project Scheduling Management by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh B. Hanchate

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization is, like GA, a heuristic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence. In this paper, we present a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve software project scheduling problem. PSO itself inherits very efficient local search method to find the near optimal and best-known solutions for all instances given as inputs required for SPSM (Software Project Scheduling Management. At last, this paper imparts PSO and research situation with SPSM. The effect of PSO parameter on project cost and time is studied and some better results in terms of minimum SCE (Software Cost Estimation and time as compared to GA and ACO are obtained.

  5. Power Management Optimization of an Experimental Fuel Cell/Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Farouk Odeim; Jürgen Roes; Angelika Heinzel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid system is investigated in terms of modeling and power management design and optimization. The power management strategy is designed based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. The supercapacitor is responsible for the peak power demands. The battery assists the supercapacitor in fulfilling the transient power demand by controlling its state-of-energy, whereas the fuel cell system, ...

  6. Optimal Scheduling of Industrial Task-Continuous Load Management for Smart Power Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change and energy crisis around the world, an increasing amount of attention has been paid to developing clean energy and improving energy efficiency. The penetration of distributed generation (DG is increasing rapidly on the user’s side of an increasingly intelligent power system. This paper proposes an optimization method for industrial task-continuous load management in which distributed generation (including photovoltaic systems and wind generation and energy storage devices are both considered. To begin with, a model of distributed generation and an energy storage device are built. Then, subject to various constraints, an operation optimization problem is formulated to maximize user profit, renewable energy efficiency, and the local consumption of distributed generation. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by comparing user profit under different power modes.

  7. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  8. Multi-objective optimization of the management of a waterworks using an integrated well field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study uses multi-objective optimization of an integrated well field model to improve the management of a waterworks. The well field model, called WELLNES (WELL field Numerical Engine Shell) is a dynamic coupling of a groundwater model, a pipe network model, and a well model. WELLNES is capable...... of predicting the water level and the energy consumption of the individual production wells. The model has been applied to Søndersø waterworks in Denmark, where it predicts the energy consumption within 1.8% of the observed. The objectives of the optimization problem are to minimize the specific energy...... provides the decision-makers with compromise solutions between the two competing objectives. In the test case the Pareto optimal solutions are compared with an exhaustive benchmark solution. It is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced by 4% by changing the pumping configuration without violating...

  9. Exploiting variability for energy optimization of parallel programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, Wim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de Jong, Wibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Xin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Here in this paper we present optimizations that use DVFS mechanisms to reduce the total energy usage in scientific applications. Our main insight is that noise is intrinsic to large scale parallel executions and it appears whenever shared resources are contended. The presence of noise allows us to identify and manipulate any program regions amenable to DVFS. When compared to previous energy optimizations that make per core decisions using predictions of the running time, our scheme uses a qualitative approach to recognize the signature of executions amenable to DVFS. By recognizing the "shape of variability" we can optimize codes with highly dynamic behavior, which pose challenges to all existing DVFS techniques. We validate our approach using offline and online analyses for one-sided and two-sided communication paradigms. We have applied our methods to NWChem, and we show best case improvements in energy use of 12% at no loss in performance when using online optimizations running on 720 Haswell cores with one-sided communication. With NWChem on MPI two-sided and offline analysis, capturing the initialization, we find energy savings of up to 20%, with less than 1% performance cost.

  10. Synthesis, design and operation optimization of a marine energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Kougioufas, Aristotelis V.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Recent developments in the global fuel markets imposed the need of increased fuel economy and cost effectiveness of sea-going vessels. Optimization of the ship's total energy system, as a whole, is now a demand of the marine industry sector in order to address the significant increase of installation and operational costs. This study is focused on the synthesis, design and operation optimization of a marine energy system. A realistic example of a cruise liner energy system has been selected. Basic technology options have been identified and a generic energy system model has been constructed. Various configuration options, types of technologies and existence of components have been incorporated in the generic system. In addition, time varying operational requirements for this cruise liner ship have been considered, resulting in a time dependent operation optimization problem. The complete optimization problem has been solved using a novel algorithm, inspired by evolutionary and social behavior metaphors. A parametric analysis with respect to the fuel price demonstrated changes in the optimum synthesis of the system. (author)

  11. A Decomposition Algorithm for Optimal Control of Distributed Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Standardi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In economic model predictive control of distributed energy systems, the constrained optimal control problem can be expressed as a linear program with a block-angular structure. In this paper, we present an efficient Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm specifically tailored to problems...

  12. Stabilized Quasi-Newton Optimization of Noisy Potential Energy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bastian; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient, but also very reliable. Unfortunately computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a sever problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are sup...

  13. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  14. Optimal throughput for cognitive radio with energy harvesting in fading wireless channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu-Van, Hiep; Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    Energy resource management is a crucial problem of a device with a finite capacity battery. In this paper, cognitive radio is considered to be a device with an energy harvester that can harvest energy from a non-RF energy resource while performing other actions of cognitive radio. Harvested energy will be stored in a finite capacity battery. At the start of the time slot of cognitive radio, the radio needs to determine if it should remain silent or carry out spectrum sensing based on the idle probability of the primary user and the remaining energy in order to maximize the throughput of the cognitive radio system. In addition, optimal sensing energy and adaptive transmission power control are also investigated in this paper to effectively utilize the limited energy of cognitive radio. Finding an optimal approach is formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process. The simulation results show that the proposed optimal decision scheme outperforms the myopic scheme in which current throughput is only considered when making a decision.

  15. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  16. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  17. Modelling, design, and optimization of net-zero energy buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Building energy design is currently going through a period of major changes. One key factor of this is the adoption of net-zero energy as a long term goal for new buildings in most developed countries. To achieve this goal a lot of research is needed to accumulate knowledge and to utilize it in practical applications. In this book, accomplished international experts present advanced modeling techniques as well as in-depth case studies in order to aid designers in optimally using simulation tools for net-zero energy building design. The strategies and technologies discussed in this book are, ho

  18. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems: An Ontology-Based Multi-Agent Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Mirian, Maryam S.;

    2016-01-01

    into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  19. Demontration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob James; John McDermott; Sanjay Patnaik; Steve Piche`

    2009-01-07

    This project encompassed the design, development, and demonstration of integrated online optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (BEC) located in Baldwin, Illinois. The overall project objective was to improve coal-based generation's emission profile, efficiency, maintenance requirements and plant asset life in order to enhance the long-term viability of the United States abundant coal resources. Five separate but integrated optimization products were developed, addressing combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide availability optimization. Optimization results are inherently unit-specific and cannot be known for a particular generating unit in advance. However, NeuCo believed that the following were reasonable targets for the completed, integrated set of products: Furnace NOx reduction improvement by 5%, Heat rate improvement by 1.5%, Increase of annual Available MWh by 1.5%, Commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulates; and Commensurate increases in profitability from lower costs, improved reliability, and greater commercial availability. The goal during Phase I was to establish each system and demonstrate their integration in unified plant optimization. Efforts during Phase I focused on: (1) developing, deploying, integrating, and testing prototypes for each of the five products; (2) identifying and addressing issues required for the products to integrate with plant operations; and (3) systematically collecting and assimilating feedback to improve subsequent product releases. As described in the Phase II continuation application NeuCo successfully achieved the goal for Phase I. The goal of Phase II was to improve upon the products installed and tested in Phase I and to quantify the benefits of the integrated system. As this report documents, NeuCo has also successfully achieved the goal for Phase II. The overall results of the project, compared

  20. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Porto

    Full Text Available Landscapes are often patchworks of private properties, where composition and configuration patterns result from cumulative effects of the actions of multiple landowners. Securing the delivery of services in such multi-ownership landscapes is challenging, because it is difficult to assure tight compliance to spatially explicit management rules at the level of individual properties, which may hinder the conservation of critical landscape features. To deal with these constraints, a multi-objective simulation-optimization procedure was developed to select non-spatial management regimes that best meet landscape-level objectives, while accounting for uncoordinated and uncertain response of individual landowners to management rules. Optimization approximates the non-dominated Pareto frontier, combining a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a simulator that forecasts trends in landscape pattern as a function of management rules implemented annually by individual landowners. The procedure was demonstrated with a case study for the optimum scheduling of fuel treatments in cork oak forest landscapes, involving six objectives related to reducing management costs (1, reducing fire risk (3, and protecting biodiversity associated with mid- and late-successional understories (2. There was a trade-off between cost, fire risk and biodiversity objectives, that could be minimized by selecting management regimes involving ca. 60% of landowners clearing the understory at short intervals (around 5 years, and the remaining managing at long intervals (ca. 75 years or not managing. The optimal management regimes produces a mosaic landscape dominated by stands with herbaceous and low shrub understories, but also with a satisfactory representation of old understories, that was favorable in terms of both fire risk and biodiversity. The simulation-optimization procedure presented can be extended to incorporate a wide range of landscape dynamic processes, management rules

  1. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  2. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babak Mozafari; Sirus Mohammadi

    2014-08-01

    Microgrids (MGs) are Low Voltage distribution networks comprising various distributed generators (DG), storage devices and controllable loads that can operate either interconnected or isolated from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Energy storage system (ESS) is a vital part of an MG. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG. Self-adaptive Bee Swarm Optimization (SBSO) algorithm is applied to optimize the operation strategies and capacities of ESS in MGs in order to find maximal NPV, the generation schedule of ESS and distributed generation sources. This paper is to suggest, among those available ESS, the optimal sizes and types of them and their optimal arrangement, such that the total NPV achieved during the system operational lifetime period is maximized. After introducing the methodology, a case study is presented for illustration.

  3. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipeng Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  4. Energy Optimized Link Selection Algorithm for Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ravindranath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing is the revolutionary distributed computing research area which consists of three different domains: cloud computing, wireless networks and mobile computing targeting to improve the task computational capabilities of the mobile devices in order to minimize the energy consumption. Heavy computations can be offloaded to the cloud to decrease energy consumption for the mobile device. In some mobile cloud applications, it has been more energy inefficient to use the cloud compared to the conventional computing conducted in the local device. Despite mobile cloud computing being a reliable idea, still faces several problems for mobile phones such as storage, short battery life and so on. One of the most important concerns for mobile devices is low energy consumption. Different network links has different bandwidths to uplink and downlink task as well as data transmission from mobile to cloud or vice-versa. In this paper, a novel optimal link selection algorithm is proposed to minimize the mobile energy. In the first phase, all available networks are scanned and then signal strength is calculated. All the calculated signals along with network locations are given input to the optimal link selection algorithm. After the execution of link selection algorithm, an optimal network link is selected.

  5. Optimal Energy Transfer in Light-Harvesting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lipeng; Shenai, Prathamesh; Zheng, Fulu; Somoza, Alejandro; Zhao, Yang

    2015-08-20

    Photosynthesis is one of the most essential biological processes in which specialized pigment-protein complexes absorb solar photons, and with a remarkably high efficiency, guide the photo-induced excitation energy toward the reaction center to subsequently trigger its conversion to chemical energy. In this work, we review the principles of optimal energy transfer in various natural and artificial light harvesting systems. We begin by presenting the guiding principles for optimizing the energy transfer efficiency in systems connected to dissipative environments, with particular attention paid to the potential role of quantum coherence in light harvesting systems. We will comment briefly on photo-protective mechanisms in natural systems that ensure optimal functionality under varying ambient conditions. For completeness, we will also present an overview of the charge separation and electron transfer pathways in reaction centers. Finally, recent theoretical and experimental progress on excitation energy transfer, charge separation, and charge transport in artificial light harvesting systems is delineated, with organic solar cells taken as prime examples.

  6. Optimal control of end-user energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    van de Ven, Peter M; Massoulie, Laurent; Salonidis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of retail energy markets exhibit price fluctuations and provide customers such as data centers and residential users the opportunity to buy energy at lower than average prices. Such cost savings however are hard to obtain in practice because they require users to observe the price fluctuations and shift their consumption to low price periods. We propose to use energy storage to allow users to satisfy demand at times when prices are high with energy previously bought during low-price periods. We investigate how to control the battery to minimize energy costs, subject to fluctuating prices and user demand. We formulate this problem as a Markov Decision Process and show that the optimal policy has a threshold structure. We then numerically compute the thresholds using real-world traces from existing energy markets. We show that energy storage using this policy leads to significant cost savings, and study the impact of the battery size on the optimal policy and the potential savings.

  7. Optimal Investment by Financially Xenophobic Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Jason G; Ingmar Nyman

    2000-01-01

    Case studies show that corporate managers seek financial independence to avoid interference by outside financiers. We incorporate this financial xenophobia as a fixed cost in a simple dynamic model of financing and investment. To avoid refinancing in the future, the firm alters its behavior depending on the extent of its financial xenophobia and the realization of a revenue shock. With a sufficiently adverse shock, the firm holds no liquidity. Otherwise, the firm precautionarily saves and hol...

  8. Managing Retention Use of Simulation and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Early Retirement Separation Policy N P R S Advancement Planning Promotion Plan by Community N Compensation Policy Pay and Incentives Force...Shaping Tools Managing Losses and Excesses High Year TenureE4 E6 Temporary Early Retirement Authority Perform to Serve Selective Reenlistment Bonus...T Selective Early Retirement N P R S N Length of ServiceNominal Actual Nominal Steady State 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

  9. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  10. Stand management optimization – the role of simplifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies on optimal stand management often make simplifications or restrict the choice of treatments. Examples of simplifications are neglecting natural regeneration that appears on a plantation site, omitting advance regeneration in simulations, or restricting thinning treatments to low thinning (thinning from below. Methods This study analyzed the impacts of simplifications on the optimization results for Fennoscandian boreal forests. Management of pine and spruce plantations was optimized by gradually reducing the number of simplifying assumptions. Results Forced low thinning, cleaning the plantation from the natural regeneration of mixed species and ignoring advance regeneration all had a major impact on optimization results. High thinning (thinning from above resulted in higher NPV and longer rotation length than thinning from below. It was profitable to leave a mixed stand in the tending treatment of young plantation. When advance regeneration was taken into account, it was profitable to increase the number of thinnings and postpone final felling. In the optimal management, both pine and spruce plantation was gradually converted into uneven-aged mixture of spruce and birch. Conclusions The results suggest that, with the current management costs and timber price level, it may be profitable to switch to continuous cover management on medium growing sites of Fennoscandian boreal forests.

  11. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  12. Optimization Models and Methods for Demand-Side Management of Residential Users: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The residential sector is currently one of the major contributors to the global energy balance. However, the energy demand of residential users has been so far largely uncontrollable and inelastic with respect to the power grid conditions. With the massive introduction of renewable energy sources and the large variations in energy flows, also the residential sector is required to provide some flexibility in energy use so as to contribute to the stability and efficiency of the electric system. To address this issue, demand management mechanisms can be used to optimally manage the energy resources of customers and their energy demand profiles. A very promising technique is represented by demand-side management (DSM, which consists in a proactive method aimed at making users energy-efficient in the long term. In this paper, we survey the most relevant studies on optimization methods for DSM of residential consumers. Specifically, we review the related literature according to three axes defining contrasting characteristics of the schemes proposed: DSM for individual users versus DSM for cooperative consumers, deterministic DSM versus stochastic DSM and day-ahead DSM versus real-time DSM. Based on this classification, we provide a big picture of the key features of different approaches and techniques and discuss future research directions.

  13. MILP model for energy optimization in EIP water networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Sadegh [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); Tan, Raymond R. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Chiu, Anthony S.F. [De La Salle University, Industrial Engineering Department, Manila (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The eco-industrial park (EIP) concept provides a framework in which several plants can cooperate with each other and exchange their wastewater to minimize total freshwater consumption. Energy analysis is a methodology that considers the total, cumulative energy which has been consumed within a system; thus, by minimizing energy, an environmentally optimal EIP can be designed. This article presents a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for minimizing energy of an interplant water network in an EIP. The methodology accounts for the environmental impacts of water use, energy consumption, and capital goods within the EIP in a balanced manner. The proposed technique is then demonstrated by solving a case study from literature. (orig.)

  14. Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.

  15. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  16. Manage your energy, not your time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tony

    2007-10-01

    As the demands of the workplace keep rising, many people respond by putting in ever longer hours, which inevitably leads to burnout that costs both the organization and the employee. Meanwhile, people take for granted what fuels their capacity to work--their energy. Increasing that capacity is the best way to get more done faster and better. Time is a finite resource, but energy is different. It has four wellsprings--the body, emotions, mind, and spirit--and in each, it can be systematically expanded and renewed. In this article, Schwartz, founder of the Energy Project, describes how to establish rituals that will build energy in the four key dimensions. For instance, harnessing the body's ultradian rhythms by taking intermittent breaks restores physical energy. Rejecting the role of a victim and instead viewing events through three hopeful lenses defuses energy-draining negative emotions. Avoiding the constant distractions that technology has introduced increases mental energy. And participating in activities that give you a sense of meaning and purpose boosts the energy of the spirit. The new workday rituals succeed only if leaders support their adoption, but when that happens, the results can be powerful. A group of Wachovia Bank employees who went through an energy management program outperformed a control group on important financial metrics like loans generated, and they reported substantially improved customer relationships, productivity, and personal satisfaction. These findings corroborated anecdotal evidence gathered about the effectiveness of this approach at other companies, including Ernst & Young, Sony, and Deutsche Bank. When organizations invest in all dimensions of their employees' lives, individuals respond by bringing all their energy wholeheartedly to work -and both companies and their people grow in value.

  17. Optimal energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G O; de Langre, E; Michelin, S

    2016-11-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy towards this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with a rigid cylinder device. This results from two passive control mechanisms inherent to the cable geometry: (i) the adaptability to the flow velocity of the fundamental frequencies of cables through the flow-induced tension and (ii) the selection of successive vibration modes by the flow velocity for cables with gravity-induced tension.

  18. Optimal energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, G. O.; de Langre, E.; Michelin, S.

    2016-11-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible cables are an example of flow-induced vibrations that can act as energy harvesting systems by converting energy associated with the spontaneous cable motion into electricity. This work investigates the optimal positioning of the harvesting devices along the cable, using numerical simulations with a wake oscillator model to describe the unsteady flow forcing. Using classical gradient-based optimization, the optimal harvesting strategy is determined for the generic configuration of a flexible cable fixed at both ends, including the effect of flow forces and gravity on the cable's geometry. The optimal strategy is found to consist systematically in a concentration of the harvesting devices at one of the cable's ends, relying on deformation waves along the cable to carry the energy towards this harvesting site. Furthermore, we show that the performance of systems based on VIV of flexible cables is significantly more robust to flow velocity variations, in comparison with a rigid cylinder device. This results from two passive control mechanisms inherent to the cable geometry: (i) the adaptability to the flow velocity of the fundamental frequencies of cables through the flow-induced tension and (ii) the selection of successive vibration modes by the flow velocity for cables with gravity-induced tension.

  19. Energy-Efficient Design and Optimization of Wireline Access Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaumik, Sourjya; Narlikar, Girija; Wilfong, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Access networks, in particular, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) equipment, are a significant source of energy consumption for wireline operators. Replacing large monolithic DSLAMs with smaller remote DSLAM units closer to customers can reduce the energy consumption as well as increase the reach of the access network. This paper attempts to formalize the design and optimization of the "last mile" wireline access network with energy as one of the costs to be minimized. In particular, the placement of remote DSLAM units needs to be optimized. We propose solutions for two scenarios. For the scenario where an existing all-copper network from the central office to the customers is to be transformed into a fiber-copper network with remote DSLAM units, we present optimal polynomial-time solutions. In the green-field scenario, both the access network layout and the placement of remote DSLAM units must be determined. We show that this problem is NP-complete. We present an optimal ILP formulation and also design an effici...

  20. Human factors by descent energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  1. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  2. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  3. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  4. Optimal management of chronic osteomyelitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande KC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketan C Pande Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Chronic osteomyelitis is a challenging condition to treat. It is seen mostly after open fractures or in implant-related infections following treatment of fractures and prosthetic joint replacements. Recurrence of infection is well known, and successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach with surgical debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapy as the cornerstone of treatment. Staging of the disease and identification of the causative microorganism is essential before initiation of treatment. Important surgical steps include radical debridement of necrotic and devitalized tissue, removal of implants, management of resultant dead space, soft-tissue coverage, and skeletal stabilization or management of skeletal defects. The route of administration and duration of antimicrobial therapy continues to be debated. The role of biofilm is now clearly established in the chronicity of bone infection, and newer modalities are being developed to address various issues related to biofilm formation. The present review addresses various aspects of chronic osteomyelitis of long bones seen in adults, with a review of recent developments. Keywords: osteomyelitis, infection, biofilm, bone, therapy, treatment

  5. Optimal management of hemophilic arthropathy and hematomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobet S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sébastien Lobet,1,2 Cedric Hermans,1 Catherine Lambert1 1Hemostasis-Thrombosis Unit, Division of Hematology, 2Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: Hemophilia is a hematological disorder characterized by a partial or complete deficiency of clotting factor VIII or IX. Its bleeding complications primarily affect the musculoskeletal system. Hemarthrosis is a major hemophilia-related complication, responsible for a particularly debilitating chronic arthropathy, in the long term. In addition to clotting factor concentrates, usually prescribed by the hematologist, managing acute hemarthrosis and chronic arthropathy requires a close collaboration between the orthopedic surgeon and physiotherapist. This collaboration, comprising a coagulation and musculoskeletal specialist, is key to effectively preventing hemarthrosis, managing acute joint bleeding episodes, assessing joint function, and actively treating chronic arthropathy. This paper reviews, from a practical point of view, the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of hemarthrosis and chronic hemophilia-induced arthropathy for hematologists, orthopedic surgeons, and physiotherapists. Keywords: hemophilia, arthropathy, hemarthrosis, hematoma, physiotherapy, target joint

  6. Sustainable energy management - a prerequisite for the realization Kyoto Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Golušin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy management can be defined as the process of planning, directing, implementing and controlling the process of generation, transmission and energy consumption. Energy management is a kind of synthesis of phenomena and concepts of modern energy management (management, or the use of modern settings management in the energy sector. Furthermore, when outlining the basic settings for power management Modern management is based on the assumptions of sustainability and conservation of energy stability for present and future generations. Therefore, modern energy management can be seen as a kind of synthesis of three actuarial sciences: energy, sustainable development and management. Sustainable Energy Management is a unique new concept, idea and approach that require many changes in the traditional way of understanding and interpretation of energy management at all levels. Sustainable energy management concept can not therefore be construed as an adopted and defined the concept, but must be constantly modified and adjusted in accordance with changes in the three areas that define it, and in accordance with the specific country or region where applicable. Accordingly, sustainable energy management can be defined as the process of energy management that is based on fundamental principles of sustainable development.

  7. Energy management control strategy and optimization for plug-in 4WD hybrid electric vehicle%插电式四驱混合动力汽车能量管理控制策略及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立军; 邱利宏; 辛付龙; 陈朋; 王金波

    2015-01-01

    为精确计算驾驶员请求转矩,克服模糊逻辑及模糊比例-积分-微分(proportion integration differentiation,PID)需要先验知识的固有缺陷,该文提出利用径向基函数(radial basis function,RBF)神经网络拟合转矩识别系数。考虑到动力部件的瞬态特性,建立了各动力部件及传动系统的动力学模型,制定了基于规则的控制策略并描述了各驱动模式的成立条件及其动力学方程。为减少程序运行时间,提出修正动态规划(correctional dynamic programming,CDP)算法对控制策略进行全局优化。搭建硬件在环试验台架,对控制策略进行了试验。试验结果表明,基于规则和修正动态规划的控制策略均能实现良好的控制效果。引入转矩识别后,车速误差明显减小,燃油经济性提高了4.54%。采用修正动态规划后,燃油经济性进一步提高了14.04%。该文研究方法可以为制定复杂混合动力系统控制策略提供理论依据。%For a plug-in four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (4WD PHEV), there are 3 power components which can work independently or cooperatively. Therefore, it has many work modes and the energy management control is relatively complicated. As the calculation of the torque request of the driver by the gas pedal travel only is not precise and that method can’t reflect the driver’s intention, especially the intensity of the acceleration, thus rendering bad power performances and fuel consumption. And to overcome the inherent defects of fuzzy logic and fuzzy PID (proportion integration differentiation) that they relied on prior knowledge to set the parameters and it was difficult to realize good control effect, it was put forward in this paper that the torque identification coefficient could be obtained through RBF (radial basis function) neural network, whose inputs were the gas pedal travel and its change rate, and the output was the torque

  8. Optimization of energy and manpower requirements in Nigerian bakeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Madu, A.C.; Nwanya, S.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Agunwamba, J.C. [Department Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2011-01-15

    A study on energy and manpower requirements for the bakery industry in Nigeria was carried out, covering 90 bakeries representing 75% of total registered bakeries in Onitsha city. Analysis of the energy and manpower related time series data, using engineering and statistical tools, resulted in the development of empirical model for the estimation of capacity, manpower and energy requirements in the bakery industry. This empirical model can be used for the design of a new bakery or expansion of existing one. The conditions for optimum inventory and design were determined through this optimization and the results were compared with existing system. The study revealed a huge capital investment which amounts to 5.6 billion Naira annually, a correlation between capacity of the bakery plants and resource usage (manpower, raw materials and energy use), and jobs creation potentials for 960 persons for Onitsha city alone. Diesel contributes 66.75% of total heating energy need, followed by firewood, 22.57% and petrol, 10.68%. Application of optimization techniques could result in 61% savings in inventory costs and cut in energy by about 7.4% with overall cost reduction of 8%. (author)

  9. Design optimization of PVDF-based piezoelectric energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jundong; Zhao, Guanxing; Li, Bo; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-01

    Energy harvesting is a promising technology that powers the electronic devices via scavenging the ambient energy. Piezoelectric energy harvesters have attracted considerable interest for their high conversion efficiency and easy fabrication in minimized sensors and transducers. To improve the output capability of energy harvesters, properties of piezoelectric materials is an influential factor, but the potential of the material is less likely to be fully exploited without an optimized configuration. In this paper, an optimization strategy for PVDF-based cantilever-type energy harvesters is proposed to achieve the highest output power density with the given frequency and acceleration of the vibration source. It is shown that the maximum power output density only depends on the maximum allowable stress of the beam and the working frequency of the device, and these two factors can be obtained by adjusting the geometry of piezoelectric layers. The strategy is validated by coupled finite-element-circuit simulation and a practical device. The fabricated device within a volume of 13.1 mm(3) shows an output power of 112.8 μW which is comparable to that of the best-performing piezoceramic-based energy harvesters within the similar volume reported so far.

  10. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  11. Financial arrangement selection for energy management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroof, Eric Aubrey

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to develop a model (E-FUND) to help facility managers select financial arrangements for energy management projects (EMPs). The model was developed with the help of a panel of expert financiers. The panel also helped develop a list of key objectives critical to the decision process. The E-FUND model was tested by a population of facility managers in four case studies. Findings and conclusions. The results may indicate that having a high economic benefit (from an EMP) is not overwhelmingly important, when compared to other qualitative objectives. The results may also indicate that the true lease and performance contract may be the most applicable financial arrangements for EMPs.

  12. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  13. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION OPTIMISATION DE LA CONVERSION DE L’ENERGIE EOLIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Soufi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy increases, because people are increasingly concerned with environmental issues. Among renewable, wind power is now widely used. Their study showed that a value of wind speed, there is a maximum mechanical power supplied by the turbine. So, power is supplied are particularly changes with maximum speed.However, the objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal.To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of numerical simulations carried out using the software MatLab Simulink will be presented is discussed.

  15. Reliability-based design optimization for nonlinear energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Sumin; Lee, Soobum; Hu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    The power output of a vibration energy harvesting device is highly sensitive to uncertainties in materials, manufacturing, and operating conditions. Although the use of a nonlinear spring (e.g., snap-through mechanism) in energy harvesting device has been reported to reduce the sensitivity of power output with respect to the excitation frequency, the nonlinear spring characteristic remains significantly sensitive and it causes unreliable power generation. In this paper, we present a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) study of vibration energy harvesters. For a nonlinear harvester, a purely mechanical nonlinear spring design implemented in the middle of cantilever beam harvester is considered in the study. This design has the curved section in the center of beam that causes bi-stable configuration. When vibrating, the inertia of the tip mass activates the curved shell to cause snap-through buckling and make the nature of vibration nonlinear. In this paper, deterministic optimization (DO) is performed to obtain deterministic optimum of linear and nonlinear energy harvester configuration. As a result of the deterministic optimization, an optimum bi-stable vibration configuration of nonlinear harvester can be obtained for reliable power generation despite uncertainty on input vibration condition. For the linear harvester, RBDO is additionally performed to find the optimum design that satisfies a target reliability on power generation, while accounting for uncertainty in material properties and geometric parameters.

  16. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  17. Electric power energy strategic management - GEEE; Gestao estrategica de energia eletrica - GEEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagattoli, Sandro Geraldo; Deschamps, Eduardo [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil)]. E-mails: sandrogb@furb.br; edudes@furb.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces and explains the concept and the applications of the Strategical Management of Electric Energy - SMEE, in terms of a energy management philosophy or a model for electric energy consumers, whose theoretical basis is oriented by principles of strategic management and has by eventual purpose to increase the enterprise competitiveness. In its holistic and systemic character, SMEE connects several areas and processes of a company and integrates many electric energy acquisition and use optimization approaches, including the analysis of the external environment by considering a strategical positioning in the face of the electric energy market. Key-words . strategical management, competitiveness, electric energy conservation, load management, tariffs and supply legislation, technical-economic composition of power sources. (author)

  18. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  19. An Optimization of the Risk Management using Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ŞONTEA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a process that can be used in financial risk management by resolving problems of minimizing the risk measure (VaR using derivatives products, bonds and options. This optimization problem was formulated in the hedging situation of a portfolio formed by an active and a put option on this active, respectively a bond and an option on this bond. In the first optimization problem we will obtain the coverage ratio of the optimal price for the excertion of the option which is in fact the relative cost of the option’s value. In the second optimization problem we obtained optimal exercise price for a put option which is to support a bond.

  20. Review: Optimization methods for groundwater modeling and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-09-01

    Optimization methods have been used in groundwater modeling as well as for the planning and management of groundwater systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the various optimization methods that have been used for solving the inverse problem of parameter identification (estimation), experimental design, and groundwater planning and management. Various model selection criteria are discussed, as well as criteria used for model discrimination. The inverse problem of parameter identification concerns the optimal determination of model parameters using water-level observations. In general, the optimal experimental design seeks to find sampling strategies for the purpose of estimating the unknown model parameters. A typical objective of optimal conjunctive-use planning of surface water and groundwater is to minimize the operational costs of meeting water demand. The optimization methods include mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, quadratic programming, dynamic programming, stochastic programming, nonlinear programming, and the global search algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and tabu search. Emphasis is placed on groundwater flow problems as opposed to contaminant transport problems. A typical two-dimensional groundwater flow problem is used to explain the basic formulations and algorithms that have been used to solve the formulated optimization problems.

  1. Pooling optimal combinations of energy thresholds in spectroscopic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Runz, Armin; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2014-03-01

    Photon counting detectors used in spectroscopic CT are often based on small pixels and therefore offer only limited space to include energy discriminators and their associated counters in each pixel cell. For this reason, it is important to make efficient use of the available energy discriminators in order to achieve an optimized material contrast at a radiation dose as low as possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of evaluating every possible combination of energy thresholds, given a fixed number of counters, rapidly increases with the resolution at which this search is performed, and makes brute-force approaches to this problem infeasible. In this work, we introduce methods from machine learning, in particular sparse regression, to perform a feature selection to determine optimal combinations of energy thresholds. We will demonstrate how methods enforcing row-sparsity on a linear regression's coefficient matrix can be applied to the multiple response problem in spectroscopic CT, i.e. the case in which a single set of energy thresholds is sought to simultaneously retrieve concentrations pertaining to a multitude of materials in an optimal way. These methods are applied to CT images experimentally obtained with a Medipix3RX detector operated in charge summing mode and with a CdTe sensor at a pixel pitch of 110μm. We show that the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), generalized to the multiple response case, chooses four out of 20 possible threshold positions that allow discriminating PMMA, iodine and gadolinium in a contrast agent phantom at a higher accuracy than with equally spaced thresholds. Finally, we illustrate why it might be unwise to use a higher number of energy thresholds than absolutely necessary.

  2. Energy-Optimal Scheduling in Low Duty Cycle Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aydin, Nursen; Ercetin, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption of a wireless sensor node mainly depends on the amount of time the node spends in each of the high power active (e.g., transmit, receive) and low power sleep modes. It has been well established that in order to prolong node's lifetime the duty-cycle of the node should be low. However, low power sleep modes usually have low current draw but high energy cost while switching to the active mode with a higher current draw. In this work, we investigate a MaxWeightlike opportunistic sleep-active scheduling algorithm that takes into account time- varying channel and traffic conditions. We show that our algorithm is energy optimal in the sense that the proposed ESS algorithm can achieve an energy consumption which is arbitrarily close to the global minimum solution. Simulation studies are provided to confirm the theoretical results.

  3. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  4. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  5. Delegated Portfolio Management and Optimal Allocation of Portfolio Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Vangsgaard Christensen, Michael; Gamskjaer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether the application of the mean-variance framework on portfolio manager allocation offers any out-of-sample benefits compared to a naïve strategy of equal weighting. Based on an exclusive data-set of high-net-worth (HNW) investors, we utilize a wide variety...

  6. Optimizing a High Energy Physics (HEP) Toolkit on Heterogeneous Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Lindal, Yngve Sneen; Jarp, Sverre

    2011-01-01

    A desired trend within high energy physics is to increase particle accelerator luminosities, leading to production of more collision data and higher probabilities of finding interesting physics results. A central data analysis technique used to determine whether results are interesting or not is the maximum likelihood method, and the corresponding evaluation of the negative log-likelihood, which can be computationally expensive. As the amount of data grows, it is important to take benefit from the parallelism in modern computers. This, in essence, means to exploit vector registers and all available cores on CPUs, as well as utilizing co-processors as GPUs. This thesis describes the work done to optimize and parallelize a prototype of a central data analysis tool within the high energy physics community. The work consists of optimizations for multicore processors, GPUs, as well as a mechanism to balance the load between both CPUs and GPUs with the aim to fully exploit the power of modern commodity computers. W...

  7. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  8. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  9. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  10. Optimizing energy transfer efficiency in highly branched nanoplasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronine, Dmitri; Traverso, Andrew; Wang, Kai; Yi, Zhenhuan; Sokolov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Energy transfer in highly branched nanoplasmonic particle waveguides is simulated and optimized by varying the waveguide branching geometry and composition. The periodically branched nanostructures provide a new route towards efficient nanoscale light concentration and local field enhancement. On the one hand, they mimick the analogous randomly branched plasmonic nanostructures which have been previously used for surface-enhanced optical spectroscopy such as SERS. On the other hand, the design is inspired by branched molecular aggregates used for energy funneling. The proposed nanostructures may find applications in sensing, light harvesting and nanophotonics.

  11. Cost Evaluation and Portfolio Management Optimization for Biopharmaceutical Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, W.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is suffering from declining R&D productivity and yet biopharmaceutical firms have been attracting increasing venture capital investment. Effective R&D portfolio management can deliver above average returns under increasing costs of drug development and the high risk of clinical trial failure. This points to the need for advanced decisional tools that facilitate decision-making in R&D portfolio management by efficiently identifying optimal solutions while accounting...

  12. Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.; Olis, D.

    2012-02-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island. NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REO) tool was utilized to identify RE technologies that present the best opportunity for life-cycle cost-effective implementation while also serving to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and increase the percentage of RE used at NAVSTA Newport. The technologies included in REO are daylighting, wind, solar ventilation preheating (SVP), solar water heating, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal (heating and electric), and biomass (gasification and cogeneration). The optimal mix of RE technologies depends on several factors including RE resources; technology cost and performance; state, utility, and federal incentives; and economic parameters (discount and inflation rates). Each of these factors was considered in this analysis. Technologies not included in REO that were investigated separately per NAVSTA Newport request include biofuels from algae, tidal power, and ground source heat pumps (GSHP).

  13. Optimal management strategies for placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A G; Porter, T F; Soisson, P; Silver, R M

    2009-04-01

    To determine which interventions for managing placenta accreta were associated with reduced maternal morbidity. Retrospective cohort study. Two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Utah. All identified cases of placenta accreta from 1996 to 2008. Cases of placenta accreta were identified using standard ICD-9 codes for placenta accreta, placenta praevia, and caesarean hysterectomy. Medical records were then abstracted for maternal medical history, hospital course, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal and neonatal complications were compared according to antenatal suspicion of accreta, indications for delivery, preoperative preparation, attempts at placental removal before hysterectomy, and hypogastric artery ligation. Early morbidity (prolonged maternal intensive care unit admission, large volume of blood transfusion, coagulopathy, ureteral injury, or early re-operation) and late morbidity (intra-abdominal infection, hospital re-admission, or need for delayed re-operation). Results Seventy-six cases of placenta accreta were identified. When accreta was suspected, scheduled caesarean hysterectomy without attempting placental removal was associated with a significantly reduced rate of early morbidity compared with cases in which placental removal was attempted (67 versus 36%, P=0.038). Women with preoperative bilateral ureteric stents had a lower incidence of early morbidity compared with women without stents (18 versus 55%, P=0.018). Hypogastric artery ligation did not reduce maternal morbidity. Scheduled caesarean hysterectomy with preoperative ureteric stent placement and avoiding attempted placental removal are associated with reduced maternal morbidity in women with suspected placenta accreta.

  14. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.

  15. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  16. A Simulation Framework for Optimal Energy Storage Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Suazo-Martínez; Eduardo Pereira-Bonvallet; Rodrigo Palma-Behnke

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in Energy Storage Systems (ESS), quantification of their technical and economical benefits remains a challenge. To assess the use of ESS, a simulation approach for ESS optimal sizing is presented. The algorithm is based on an adapted Unit Commitment, including ESS operational constraints, and the use of high performance computing (HPC). Multiple short-term simulations are carried out within a multiple year horizon. Evaluation is performed for Chile's No...

  17. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements:Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike; Erhorn, Hans; Poel, Bart; Hitchin, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/31/EU. This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure...

  18. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  19. Energy Efficiency Management Platform (E2MP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Energy Efficiency Management Platform (E2MP) is a power-aware, "Green" computing technology for managing energy consumption on High End Computing (HEC) systems...

  20. Climate Leadership webinar on Integrating Energy and Climate Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergan, a multi-specialty healthcare company and pharmaceutical manufacturer, discusses how it manages climate and energy risks, how these areas are linked, and how energy and climate management strategies pervade critical business decisions.