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Sample records for optimal electrode layout

  1. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther;

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested...... and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 mu m beads from 1 mu m as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes...... of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results....

  2. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Hyttel Clausen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 μm beads from 1 μm as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results.

  3. Optimization-Based Layout Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abdel-Malek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The layout problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, designers concerned with the placement of levers, knobs, controls, etc. in the reachable workspace of a human, and also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. This paper proposes a hybrid optimization method (gradient-based optimization and simulated annealing to obtain the layout design. We implemented the proposed algorithm for a project at Oral-B Laboratories, where a manufacturing cell involves an operator who handles three objects, some with the left hand, others with the right hand.

  4. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  5. Optimization of a furniture factory layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Kanduč

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimizing a factory floor layout in a Slovenian furniture factory. First, the current state of the manufacturing system is analyzed by constructing a discrete event simulation (DES model that reflects the manufacturing processes. The company produces over 10,000 different products, and their manufacturing processes include approximately 30,000 subprocesses. Therefore, manually constructing a model to include every subprocess is not feasible. To overcome this problem, a method for automated model construction was developed to construct a DES model based on a selection of manufacturing orders and relevant subprocesses. The obtained simulation model provided insight into the manufacturing processes and enable easy modification of model parameters for optimizing the manufacturing processes. Finally, the optimization problem was solved: the total distance the products had to traverse between machines was minimized by devising an optimal machine layout. With the introduction of certain simplifications, the problem was best described as a quadratic assignment problem. A novel heuristic method based on force-directed graph drawing algorithms was developed. Optimizing the floor layout resulted in a significant reduction of total travel distance for the products.

  6. Evolutionary optimization technique for site layout planning

    KAUST Repository

    El Ansary, Ayman M.

    2014-02-01

    Solving the site layout planning problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to a favorite view). This paper introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique is based on genetic algorithm which explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional site planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in solving the site layout planning of simple residential dwellings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal Sensor Layouts in Underwater Locomotory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Retrieving and understanding global flow characteristics from local sensory measurements is a challenging but extremely relevant problem in fields such as defense, robotics, and biomimetics. It is an inverse problem in that the goal is to translate local information into global flow properties. In this talk we present techniques for optimization of sensory layouts within the context of an idealized underwater locomotory system. Using techniques from fluid mechanics and control theory, we show that, under certain conditions, local measurements can inform the submerged body about its orientation relative to the ambient flow, and allow it to recognize local properties of shear flows. We conclude by commenting on the relevance of these findings to underwater navigation in engineered systems and live organisms.

  8. Layout optimization for multilayer overlay targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, L. A.; Smith, N. P.; Ausschnitt, C. P.; Morningstar, J.; Muth, W.; Schneider, J.; Yerdon, R.

    2006-03-01

    A novel overlay target developed by IBM and Accent Optical Technologies, Blossom, allows simultaneous overlay measurements of multiple layers (currently, up to 28) with a single target. This is achieved by a rotationally symmetric arrangement of small (4 micron) targets in a 50 micron square area, described more fully in a separate paper. In this paper, we examine the lessons learned in developing and testing the Blossom design. We start by examining proximity effects; the spacing of adjacent targets means that both the precision-like Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) and accuracy of a measurement can be affected by proximity of features. We use a mixture of real and modelled data to illustrate this problem, and find that the layout of Blossom reduces the proximity-induced bias. However, we do find that in certain cases proximity effects can increase the TMU of a particular measurement. The solution is to ensure that parts of the target that interact detrimentally are maximally separated. We present a solution to this, viewing the problem as a constrained Travelling Salesman Problem. We have imposed some global constraints, for example printing front-end and back-end layers on separate targets, and consistency with the overlay measurement strategy. Initially, we assume that pairwise measurements are either critical or non-critical, and optimize the layout so that the critical layers are both not placed adjacent to any prior or intermediate-layer features. We then build upon this structure, to consider the effect of low-energy implants (that cannot be seen once processed) and site re-use possibilities. Beyond this, we also investigate the impact of more strategic optimizations, for example, tuning the number of features on each layer. In each case, we present on-product performance data achieved, and modelled data on some additional target variants / extreme cases.

  9. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized acco

  10. Structure splitting framework for data-layout optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiong; WANG Ru-chuan

    2009-01-01

    To improve data cache performance, optimizing program data layout by data reorganization has become an important method of decreasing the impact of increasing gap of speed between processor and memory. In this article, a structure splitting framework with an analysis model named structure field relation graph (SFRG) is presented to optimize program data layout. The SFRG can be used to quantify relationship between fields. It helps to find an optimal layout for structure as well as the optimal program data layout. And the data cache performance is improved through SFRG-based structure splitting. Experiments show that this framework is effective in optimizing program data layout and improving the performance of data cache and whole program.

  11. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  12. Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE): An efficient optimization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Navid; Sabaghzadeh, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    For finding the optimum layout of spacecraft subsystems, important factors such as the center of gravity, moments of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies, etc. should be taken into account. This large number of effective parameters makes the optimum layout process of spacecraft subsystems complex and time consuming. In this paper, an automatic tool, based on multi-objective optimization methods, is proposed for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems. In this regard, an efficient Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE) is produced by integration of some modeling, FEM, and optimization software. SCALE automatically provides optimal solutions for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems with considering important constraints such as center of gravity, moment of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies and structural strength. In order to show the superiority and efficiency of SCALE, layout of a telecommunication spacecraft and a remote sensing spacecraft are performed. The results show that, the objective functions values for obtained layouts by using SCALE are in a much better condition than traditional one i.e. Reference Baseline Solution (RBS) which is proposed by the engineering system team. This indicates the good performance and ability of SCALE for finding the optimal layout of spacecraft subsystems.

  13. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong;

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc...... with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%....

  14. Satellite antenna layout and optimization in electromagnetic compatibility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Xie, Shuguo; Liu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the main factors that impact the layout of satellite antenna. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is used to establish mathematical model for calculating the coupling of satellite antenna, and set up the objective function of the placement optimization. The genetic algorithm incorporating high-frequency simulation to minimize antenna coupling by optimally positioning satellite antenna is described in detail. The results of antenna placement on a realistic satellite show that this method is effective in the optimal design of satellite antenna layout for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility.

  15. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity...... are subject to boundary conditions and minimum distance conditions. The improved genetic algorithm (GA) for real number coding was used to search the optimal result. Then the optimized result was compared to the result from the experienced layout method. Results show the advantages of the present method...

  16. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    are subject to boundary conditions and minimum distance conditions. The improved genetic algorithm (GA) for real number coding was used to search the optimal result. Then the optimized result was compared to the result from the experienced layout method. Results show the advantages of the present method......Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity...

  17. THE LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION OF STIFFENERS FOR PLATE-SHELL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Suhuan; Yang Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    The plate-shell structures with stiffeners are widely used in a broad range of engineering structures. This study presents the layout optimization of stiffeners. The minimum weight of stiffeners is taken as the objective function with the global stiffness constraint. In the layout optimization, the stiffeners should be placed at the locations with high strain energy/or stress.Conversely, elements of stiffeners with a small strain energy/or stress are considered to be used inefficiently and can be removed. Thus, to identify the element efficiency so that most inefficiently used elements of stiffeners can be removed, the element sensitivity of the strain energy of stiffeners is introduced, and a search criterion for locations of stiffeners is presented. The layout optimization approach is given for determining which elements of the stiffeners need to be kept or removed. In each iterative design, a high efficiency reanalysis approach is used to reduce the computational effort. The present approach is implemented for the layout optimization of stiffeners for a bunker loaded by the hydrostatic pressure. The numerical results show that the present approach is effective for dealing with layout optimization of stiffeners for plate-shell structures.

  18. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors.

  19. Optimal Material Layout - Applied on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    to determine the optimal material layout of a slab in the ultimate load state, based on simple inputs such as outer geometry, boundary conditions, multiple load cases and design domains. The material layout of the optimal design can either be fully orthotropic or isotropic, or a combination with a predefined......This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible...... coupling between design domains and reinforcement directions. The implementation is a lower bound formulation, resulting in a convex optimisation problem that consists of a number of linear constraints from the equilibrium equations and a number of convex non-linear constraints from the yield criteria...

  20. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently-...

  1. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  2. Layout optimization with algebraic multigrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regler, Hans; Ruede, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    Finding the optimal position for the individual cells (also called functional modules) on the chip surface is an important and difficult step in the design of integrated circuits. This paper deals with the problem of relative placement, that is the minimization of a quadratic functional with a large, sparse, positive definite system matrix. The basic optimization problem must be augmented by constraints to inhibit solutions where cells overlap. Besides classical iterative methods, based on conjugate gradients (CG), we show that algebraic multigrid methods (AMG) provide an interesting alternative. For moderately sized examples with about 10000 cells, AMG is already competitive with CG and is expected to be superior for larger problems. Besides the classical 'multiplicative' AMG algorithm where the levels are visited sequentially, we propose an 'additive' variant of AMG where levels may be treated in parallel and that is suitable as a preconditioner in the CG algorithm.

  3. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently-......-proposed proximity search paradigm. Computational results on very large scale instances involving up to 20,000 potential turbine sites prove the practical viability of the overall approach....

  4. Optimal Layout of Transshipment Facilities on An Infinite Homogeneous Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Weijun; Ouyang, Yanfeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies optimal spatial layout of transshipment facilities and the corresponding service regions on an infinite homogeneous plane $\\mathbb{R}^2$ that minimize the total cost for facility set-up, outbound delivery and inbound replenishment transportation. The problem has strong implications in the context of freight logistics and transit system design. This paper first focuses on a Euclidean plane and presents a new proof for the known Gersho's conjecture, which states that the opti...

  5. Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

    2013-04-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ≤ 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

  6. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  7. Optimal Bangla Keyboard Layout using Data Mining Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Hassan, Md Mahadi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal Bangla Keyboard Layout, which distributes the load equally on both hands so that maximizing the ease and minimizing the effort. Bangla alphabet has a large number of letters, for this it is difficult to type faster using Bangla keyboard. Our proposed keyboard will maximize the speed of operator as they can type with both hands parallel. Here we use the association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the keyboard. First, we analyze the frequencies of data consisting of monograph, digraph and trigraph, which are derived from data wire-house, and then used association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the layout. Experimental results on several data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach with better performance.

  8. The Model for Two-dimensional Layout Optimization Problem with Performance Constraints and Its Optimality Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; En-min Feng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the two-dimensional layout optimization problem.An optimization model with performance constraints is presented.The layout problem is partitioned intofinite subproblems in terms of graph theory,in such a way of that each subproblem overcomes its on-o inature optimal variable.A minimax problem is constructed that is locally equivalent to each subproblem.By using this minimax problem,we present the optimality function for every subproblem and prove that the first order necessary optimality condition is satisfied at a point if and only if this point is a zero of optimality function.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF MULTI-OBJECTVE FACILITY LAYOUT USING NON-TRADITIONAL OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. NARAYANA REDDY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased global competition in manufacturing and increased consciousness towards reducing manufacturing costs has renewed interest in the efficient design of facility layout. The success of a manufacturing organization depends on the proper design of various systems required in the production cycle. One such system is design of the facility that is able to adapt quickly and effectively, the technological changes and market requirements. Facility layout problem deals with the physical arrangement of a given number of machines or departments within a given configuration. The assignment of facilities to locations is one of the most important issues that must be resolved in manufacturing systems. The facilities layout focuses on the organization of a company’s physical facilities to promote the efficient use of resources such as equipment, material, people and energy. Well-studied combinatorial optimization problem arises in a variety of problems such as schools, airports, etc. but the focus of our work is on solving the facility layout of manufacturing plants. Several researchers have used different methodologies for getting better solutions of facility layout problems. The methodologies that are used to solve the facility layout problems are discussed briefly in this paper work. Alternative layouts are generated for the arrangement of facilities using a software program written in Turbo C++, taking qualitative and quantitative inputs in the form of flow matrix, distance matrix and closeness rating matrix. Scores are computed for each of thealternative layout generated. Based on their scores, the alternative layouts are evaluated and the best among them is selected. The results are obtained by running the program. The best layout among the alternatives is evaluated based on lowest objective function value.

  10. Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain: A preliminary study on a Gaussian hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    One of the crucial problems for wind farm (WF) development is wind farm layout optimization. It seeks to find the optimal positions of wind turbines (WTs) inside a WF, so as to maximize and/or minimize a single objective or multiple objectives, while satisfying certain constraints. Although...... adaptive mechanisms and applied to solve the layout optimization problem of a WF on a Gaussian shape hill. The layout of the WF with a certain number of WTs is optimized to maximize the total power output, which obtained steady improvements over expert guess layouts....

  11. Optimization of wind farm turbines layout using an evolutive algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Javier Serrano; Santos, Jesus Riquelme; Payan, Manuel Burgos [Department of Electrical Engineering, Av. de los Descubrimientos, University of Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez Rodriguez, Angel G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and Automatic, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Mora, Jose Castro [Persan S.A., Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    The optimum wind farm configuration problem is discussed in this paper and an evolutive algorithm to optimize the wind farm layout is proposed. The algorithm's optimization process is based on a global wind farm cost model using the initial investment and the present value of the yearly net cash flow during the entire wind-farm life span. The proposed algorithm calculates the yearly income due to the sale of the net generated energy taking into account the individual wind turbine loss of production due to wake decay effects and it can deal with areas or terrains with non-uniform load-bearing capacity soil and different roughness length for every wind direction or restrictions such as forbidden areas or limitations in the number of wind turbines or the investment. The results are first favorably compared with those previously published and a second collection of test cases is used to proof the performance and suitability of the proposed evolutive algorithm to find the optimum wind farm configuration. (author)

  12. Solving the wind farm layout optimization problem using random search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    is presented, which starts from an initial feasible layout and then improves the layout iteratively in the feasible solution space. It was first proposed in our previous study and improved in this study by adding some adaptive mechanisms. It can serve both as a refinement tool to improve an initial design......Wind farm (WF) layout optimization is to find the optimal positions of wind turbines (WTs) inside a WF, so as to maximize and/or minimize a single objective or multiple objectives, while satisfying certain constraints. In this work, a random search (RS) algorithm based on continuous formulation...... by expert guesses or other optimization methods, and as an optimization tool to find the optimal layout of WF with a certain number of WTs. A new strategy to evaluate layouts is also used, which can largely save the computation cost. This method is first applied to a widely studied ideal test problem...

  13. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe;

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  14. OPTIMIZING LAYOUT OF URBAN STREET CANYON USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION COUPLING WITH MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia-song; ZHAO Bao-qing; YE Chun; YANG De-qing; HUANG Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Optimizing the layout of the urban street canyon to achieve the maximum environmental benefits should become a new idea for modern urban street design and planning. This paper aims to find out the optimized street canyon from a viewpoint of environmental protection by using the two-dimensional numerical simulation model with the turbulence model, coupling with the mathematical optimization method. The total pollutant concentration within and at top of the specific street canyons was taken as the objective function, and the height of one side of the canyon as the constrained condition. A nonlinearly improved constrained variable metric solver was used. The effect of the height of the leeward building and windward building on the integrated pollutant dispersion was studied to achieve the most beneficial configuration of the urban geometry. The optimization of layout for an asymmetrical street canyon was obtained. It is further found that the step-down street canyon with a large height difference is generally a good layout favoring to reduce the concentration accumulation in the street canyon.

  15. Optimization lighting layout based on gene density improved genetic algorithm for indoor visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Kong, Deqian; Xia, Peijie

    2017-05-01

    For indoor visible light communication system, the layout of LED lamps affects the uniformity of the received power on communication plane. In order to find an optimized lighting layout that meets both the lighting needs and communication needs, a gene density genetic algorithm (GDGA) is proposed. In GDGA, a gene indicates a pair of abscissa and ordinate of a LED, and an individual represents a LED layout in the room. The segmented crossover operation and gene mutation strategy based on gene density are put forward to make the received power on communication plane more uniform and increase the population's diversity. A weighted differences function between individuals is designed as the fitness function of GDGA for reserving the population having the useful LED layout genetic information and ensuring the global convergence of GDGA. Comparing square layout and circular layout, with the optimized layout achieved by the GDGA, the power uniformity increases by 83.3%, 83.1% and 55.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the convergence of GDGA is verified compared with evolutionary algorithm (EA). Experimental results show that GDGA can quickly find an approximation of optimal layout.

  16. FLEXIBLE ASSEMBLY FIXTURING LA-YOUT MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Xinmin; Luo Laijun; Lin Zhongqin

    2004-01-01

    There are many welding fixture layout design problems of flexible parts in body-in-white assembly process, which directly cause body assemble variation.The fixture layout design quality is mainly influenced by the position and quantity of fixture locators and clamps.A general analysis model of flexible assembles deformation caused by fixture is set up based on "N-2-1" locating principle, in which the locator and clamper are treated as the same fixture layout elements.An analysis model for the flexible part deformation in fixturing is set up in order to obtain the optimization object function and constraints accordingly.The final fixture element layout could be obtained through global optimal research by using improved genetic algorithm, which effectively decreases fixture elements layout influence on flexible assembles deformation.

  17. Layout Optimization of Structures with Finite-size Features using Multiresolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellappa, S.; Diaz, A. R.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for layout optimization in structures with multiple finite-sized heterogeneities is presented. Multiresolution analysis is used to compute reduced operators (stiffness matrices) representing the elastic behavior of material distributions with heterogeneities of sizes that are comparable...

  18. Research on Layout Optimization of Urban Circle Solid Waste Transfer and Disposal Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Systematic Layout Planning theory and the analysis of transfer stations’ technological processes, a layout optimization model for solid waste transfer and disposal stations was made. The operating units’ layout of the solid waste transfer and disposal stations was simulated and optimized using the genetic algorithm, which could achieve reasonable technological processes, the smallest floor space and the lowest construction cost. The simulation result can also direct the initial engineering design and can also provide reference for similar engineering design methods.

  19. Layout Optimization of Sensor-based Reconstruction of Explosion Overpressure Field Based on the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Bai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In underwater blasting experiment, the layout of the sensor has always been highly concerned. From the perspective of reconstruction with explosion overpressure field, the paper presents four indicators, which can obtain the optimal sensor layout scheme and guide sensor layout in practical experiment, combining with the genetic algorithm with global search. Then, a multi-scale model in every subregion of underwater blasting field was established to be used simulation experiments. By Matlab, the variation of these four indicators with different sensor layout, and reconstruction accuracy are analyzed and discussed. Finally, a conclusion has been raised through the analysis and comparison of simulation results, that the program can get a better sensor layout. It requires fewer number of sensors to be able to get good results with high accuracy. In the actual test explosions, we can refer to this scheme laid sensors.

  20. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  1. Optimal Layout of Sensors on Wind Turbine Blade Based on Combinational Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guimei Gu; Yu Zhao; Xin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a comprehensive combinational algorithm for sensor layout to solve the problem that unreasonable sensor layout affects the effectiveness of data selection and reduces the accuracy of monitoring system in healthy monitoring system of wind turbine blade structure. This algorithm integrates the advantages of kinetic energy method, effective independence method, modal assurance criterion (MAC), and many other optimal methods. In order to avoid information redundancy caused by p...

  2. Simultaneous optimization of micro-heliostat geometry and field layout using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazardjani, Mani Yousefpour; Kronhardt, Valentina; Dikta, Gerhard; Göttsche, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    A new optimization tool for micro-heliostat (MH) geometry and field layout is presented. The method intends simultaneous performance improvement and cost reduction through iteration of heliostat geometry and field layout parameters. This tool was developed primarily for the optimization of a novel micro-heliostat concept, which was developed at Solar-Institut Jülich (SIJ). However, the underlying approach for the optimization can be used for any heliostat type. During the optimization the performance is calculated using the ray-tracing tool SolCal. The costs of the heliostats are calculated by use of a detailed cost function. A genetic algorithm is used to change heliostat geometry and field layout in an iterative process. Starting from an initial setup, the optimization tool generates several configurations of heliostat geometries and field layouts. For each configuration a cost-performance ratio is calculated. Based on that, the best geometry and field layout can be selected in each optimization step. In order to find the best configuration, this step is repeated until no significant improvement in the results is observed.

  3. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  4. Integrated Layout and Support Structure Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, T.; Ponnurangam, C.; Zhang, J.; Rotea, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper develops a multidisciplinary design optimization framework for integrated design optimization of offshore wind farm layout and support structure. A computational model is developed to characterize the physics of the wind farm wake, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads, response of the support structure to these loads, soil- structure interaction, as well as different cost elements. Levelized cost of energy is introduced as the objective function. The design constraints are the farm external boundary, and support structure buckling, first modal-frequency, fatigue damage and ultimate stresses. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four optimization scenarios are considered: a feasible baseline design, optimization of layout only, optimization of support structure only, and integrated design of the layout and support structure. Compared to the baseline design, the optimization results show that the isolated support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 0.6%, the isolated layout design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.0%, and the integrated layout and support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.6%.

  5. Multi-objective random search algorithm for simultaneously optimizing wind farm layout and number of turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximi...

  6. Based on GIS Technology of Urban Gardening and Greening Layout Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tiedong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the accelerated process of urbanization, city environment problems are highlighted, city landscape and city modernization phase matching. However, the urban gardening and greening is difficult to optimize the layout, with the new city landscape green area increased every year, which will make the City Landscaping Administration difficulty. In this study, detailed analysis of GIS technology development trend as well as in the city green space applications, which is supported by GIS technology, integrated distribution of population, manpower, material resources and financial resources, city greening planning design, construction, transportation cost and the maintenance management and other comprehensive factors, application technology based on GIS mesh accessibility calculation method, exploring the construction of urban gardening and greening layout optimization model of city landscape green space, spatial distribution characteristics and verify the layout optimization model is feasible and practical, in order to strengthen the city landscaping work play a role.

  7. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED ON PYRAMID MODEL FOR SATELLITE MODULE LAYOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bao; Teng Hongfei

    2005-01-01

    To improve the global search ability of particle swarm optimization (PSO), a multi-population PSO based on pyramid model (PPSO) is presented. Then, it is applied to solve the layout optimization problems against the background of an international commercial communication satellite (INTELSAT-Ⅲ) module. Three improvements are developed, including multi-population search based on pyramid model, adaptive collision avoidance among particles, and mutation of degraded particles. In the numerical examples of the layout design of this simplified satellite module, the performance of PPSO is compared to global version PSO and local version PSO (ring and Neumann PSO). The results show that PPSO has higher computational accuracy, efficiency and success ratio.

  8. Electrical Parasitics and Thermal Modeling for Optimized Layout Design of High Power SiC Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Dutta, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    and parasitic inductance models of SiC power modules. These models can replace the models by Finite Element Methods (FEM) to predict temperatures and electrical parasitics of power modules with much faster speed and acceptable errors and will be used for study of real operation of power modules. As a case study......, the presented models are verified by a conventional and an optimized power module layout. The optimized layout is designed based on the reduction of stray inductance and temperature in a P-cell and N-cell half-bridge module. The presented models are verified by FEM simulations and also experiment....

  9. LADS: Optimizing Data Transfers using Layout-Aware Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of signifi- cantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today s 100 gigabit networks to real- ize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink. Data stor- age infrastructure at both the source and sink and its in- terplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this paper, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network en- vironment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework called LADS for terabit networks. LADS ex- ploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to use zero-copy, OS-bypass hardware when available. It can further im- prove data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared stor- age resource, improving I/O bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks.

  10. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  12. A Multi-Objective Optimization Framework for Offshore Wind Farm Layouts and Electric Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current offshore wind farms (OWFs design processes are based on a sequential approach which does not guarantee system optimality because it oversimplifies the problem by discarding important interdependencies between design aspects. This article presents a framework to integrate, automate and optimize the design of OWF layouts and the respective electrical infrastructures. The proposed framework optimizes simultaneously different goals (e.g., annual energy delivered and investment cost which leads to efficient trade-offs during the design phase, e.g., reduction of wake losses vs collection system length. Furthermore, the proposed framework is independent of economic assumptions, meaning that no a priori values such as the interest rate or energy price, are needed. The proposed framework was applied to the Dutch Borssele areas I and II. A wide range of OWF layouts were obtained through the optimization framework. OWFs with similar energy production and investment cost as layouts designed with standard sequential strategies were obtained through the framework, meaning that the proposed framework has the capability to create different OWF layouts that would have been missed by the designers. In conclusion, the proposed multi-objective optimization framework represents a mind shift in design tools for OWFs which allows cost savings in the design and operation phases.

  13. Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design Considering Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    leading to energy losses. It is expected that the optimized placement of wind turbines (WT) over a large sea area can lead to the best tradeoff between energy yields and capital investment. This paper proposes a novel way to position offshore WTs for a regular shaped wind farm. In addition to optimizing...

  14. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind...... direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented....

  15. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  16. Layout Design-Based Research on Optimization and Assessment Method for Shipbuilding Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Mei Meng; Shuang Liu

    2013-01-01

    The research study proposes to examine a three-dimensional visualization program,emphasizing on improving genetic algorithms through the optimization of a layout design-based standard and discrete shipbuilding workshop.By utilizing a steel processing workshop as an example,the principle of minimum logistic costs will be implemented to obtain an ideological equipment layout,and a mathematical model.The objectiveness is to minimize the total necessary distance traveled between machines.An improved control operator is implemented to improve the iterative efficiency of the genetic algorithm,and yield relevant parameters.The Computer Aided Tri-DimensionalInterface Application (CATIA) software is applied to establish the manufacturing resource base and parametric model of the steel processing workshop.Based on the results of optimized planar logistics,a visual parametric model of the steel processing workshop is constructed,and qualitative and quantitative adjustments then are applied to the model.The method for evaluating the results of the layout is subsequently established through the utilization of AHP.In order to provide a mode of reference to the optimization and layout of the digitalized production workshop,the optimized discrete production workshop will possess a certain level of practical significance.

  17. Layout design-based research on optimization and assessment method for shipbuilding workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Meng, Mei; Liu, Shuang

    2013-06-01

    The research study proposes to examine a three-dimensional visualization program, emphasizing on improving genetic algorithms through the optimization of a layout design-based standard and discrete shipbuilding workshop. By utilizing a steel processing workshop as an example, the principle of minimum logistic costs will be implemented to obtain an ideological equipment layout, and a mathematical model. The objectiveness is to minimize the total necessary distance traveled between machines. An improved control operator is implemented to improve the iterative efficiency of the genetic algorithm, and yield relevant parameters. The Computer Aided Tri-Dimensional Interface Application (CATIA) software is applied to establish the manufacturing resource base and parametric model of the steel processing workshop. Based on the results of optimized planar logistics, a visual parametric model of the steel processing workshop is constructed, and qualitative and quantitative adjustments then are applied to the model. The method for evaluating the results of the layout is subsequently established through the utilization of AHP. In order to provide a mode of reference to the optimization and layout of the digitalized production workshop, the optimized discrete production workshop will possess a certain level of practical significance.

  18. Optimization for Solving Workcell Layouts using Gaussian Penalties for Escaping Local Minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Thomas Fridolin; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    2017-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a method for optimizing the layout of workcells taking into consideration both the reachability of the robot as well as the expected cycle time. To analyse the reachability for systems using sensors to pose estimate objects, the method uses a combination of ...

  19. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  20. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  1. Timing and Area Optimization for VLSI Circuit and Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-10

    eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices derived from the graph. A graph can be represented by the adjacency matriz A(G).I aii, if (vi, vi) E E •j =. (4.2...Design, vol. CAD-10, pp. 356-365, Mar. 1991. 3 [65] T. Saaao, ed., Logic Synthesis and Optimization. Boston , Massachussetts: Kluwer, 1993. [661 Y.-C. Ju

  2. Automatic analog IC sizing and optimization constrained with PVT corners and layout effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Nuno; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for automatic analog integrated circuit (IC) sizing and optimization. The authors provide a historical perspective on the early methods proposed to tackle automatic analog circuit sizing, with emphasis on the methodologies to size and optimize the circuit, and on the methodologies to estimate the circuit’s performance. The discussion also includes robust circuit design and optimization and the most recent advances in layout-aware analog sizing approaches. The authors describe a methodology for an automatic flow for analog IC design, including details of the inputs and interfaces, multi-objective optimization techniques, and the enhancements made in the base implementation by using machine leaning techniques. The Gradient model is discussed in detail, along with the methods to include layout effects in the circuit sizing. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the qual...

  3. Incorporating single detector failure into the ROP detector layout optimization for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: Doddy.Kastanya@snclavalin.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ROP TSP value needs to be adjusted when any detector in the system fails. • Single detector failure criterion has been incorporated into the detector layout optimization as a constraint. • Results show that the optimized detector layout is more robust with respect to its vulnerability to a single detector failure. • An early rejection scheme has been introduced to speed-up the optimization process. - Abstract: In CANDU{sup ®} reactors, the regional overpower protection (ROP) systems are designed to protect the reactor against overpower in the fuel which could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. In the CANDU{sup ®} 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, each of which is connected to a fast-acting shutdown system. Each ROP system consists of a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal flux detector assemblies. The placement of these ROP detectors is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In the past few years, two algorithms, DETPLASA and ADORE, have been developed to optimize the detector layout for the ROP systems in CANDU reactors. These algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. The objective of the optimization process is typically either to maximize the TSP value for a given number of detectors in the system or to minimize the number of detectors in the system to obtain a target TSP value. One measure to determine the robustness of the optimized detector layout is to evaluate the maximum decrease (penalty) in TSP value when any single detector in the system fails. The smaller the penalty, the more robust the design is. Therefore, in order to ensure that the optimized detector layout is robust, the single detector failure (SDF) criterion has been incorporated as an additional constraint into the ADORE algorithm. Results from this study indicate that there

  4. Optimal multi-floor plant layout based on the mathematical programming and particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jun

    2015-01-01

    In the fields of researches associated with plant layout optimization, the main goal is to minimize the costs of pipelines and pumping between connecting equipment under various constraints. However, what is the lacking of considerations in previous researches is to transform various heuristics or safety regulations into mathematical equations. For example, proper safety distances between equipments have to be complied for preventing dangerous accidents on a complex plant. Moreover, most researches have handled single-floor plant. However, many multi-floor plants have been constructed for the last decade. Therefore, the proper algorithm handling various regulations and multi-floor plant should be developed. In this study, the Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) problem including safety distances, maintenance spaces, etc. is suggested based on mathematical equations. The objective function is a summation of pipeline and pumping costs. Also, various safety and maintenance issues are transformed into inequality or equality constraints. However, it is really hard to solve this problem due to complex nonlinear constraints. Thus, it is impossible to use conventional MINLP solvers using derivatives of equations. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is employed. The ethylene oxide plant is illustrated to verify the efficacy of this study.

  5. Method of improving photoelectric efficiency for laser power beaming based on photovoltaic cell layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Li, Xiaojiang

    2017-02-01

    In accordance with the high impact of the uneven distribution of laser beam power on the photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic cell (PV) array, a method based on PV layout optimization is proposed to improve the photovoltaic efficiency. First of all, a mathematical model of series-parallel PV array is built, and by analyzing the influencing factors on photovoltaic efficiency, the idea and scheme to improve the photovoltaic efficiency based on PV layout optimization is provided; then, the MATLAB/Simulink simulation tool is used to simulate the effects of improving photoelectric efficiency. The simulation results show that compared to the traditional PV array, the optimized PV array can obtain higher photovoltaic efficiency, and compared to the situation with uneven temperature distribution, the array efficiency has higher efficiency under even temperature distribution.

  6. Seismic-Reliability-Based Optimal Layout of a Water Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an economic, cost-constrained optimal design of a water distribution system (WDS that maximizes seismic reliability while satisfying pressure constraints. The model quantifies the seismic reliability of a WDS through a series of procedures: stochastic earthquake generation, seismic intensity attenuation, determination of the pipe failure status (normal, leakage, and breakage, pipe failure modeling in hydraulic simulation, and negative pressure treatment. The network’s seismic reliability is defined as the ratio of the available quantity of water to the required water demand under stochastic earthquakes. The proposed model allows no pipe option in decisions, making it possible to identify seismic-reliability-based optimal layout for a WDS. The model takes into account the physical impact of earthquake events on the WDS, which ultimately affects the network’s boundary conditions (e.g., failure level of pipes. A well-known benchmark network, the Anytown network, is used to demonstrate the proposed model. The network’s optimal topology and pipe layouts are determined from a series of optimizations. The results show that installing large redundant pipes degrades the system’s seismic reliability because the pipes will cause a large rupture opening under failure. Our model is a useful tool to find the optimal pipe layout that maximizes system reliability under earthquakes.

  7. A deterministic algorithm for generating optimal three-stage layouts of homogenous strip pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The time required by the algorithms for general layouts to solve the large-scale two-dimensional cutting problems may become unaffordable. So this paper presents an exact algorithm to solve above problems.Design/methodology/approach: The algorithm uses the dynamic programming algorithm to generate the optimal homogenous strips, solves the knapsack problem to determine the optimal layout of the homogenous strip in the composite strip and the composite strip in the segment, and optimally selects the enumerated segments to compose the three-stage layout.Findings: The algorithm not only meets the shearing and punching process need, but also achieves good results within reasonable time.Originality/value: The algorithm is tested through 43 large-scale benchmark problems. The number of optimal solutions is 39 for this paper’s algorithm; the rate of the rest 4 problem’s solution value and the optimal solution is 99.9%, and the average consumed time is only 2.18 seconds. This paper’s pattern is used to simplify the cutting process. Compared with the classic three-stage, the two-segment and the T-shape algorithms, the solutions of the algorithm are better than that of the above three algorithms. Experimental results show that the algorithm to solve a large-scale piece packing quickly and efficiency.

  8. Polynomial chaos for the computation of annual energy production in wind farm layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, A. S.; Stanley, A. P. J.; Thomas, J. J.; Alonso, J. J.; Ning, A.

    2016-09-01

    Careful management of wake interference is essential to further improve Annual Energy Production (AEP) of wind farms. Wake effects can be minimized through optimization of turbine layout, wind farm control, and turbine design. Realistic wind farm optimization is challenging because it has numerous design degrees of freedom and must account for the stochastic nature of wind. In this paper we provide a framework for calculating AEP for any relevant uncertain (stochastic) variable of interest. We use Polynomial Chaos (PC) to efficiently quantify the effect of the stochastic variables—wind direction and wind speed—on the statistical outputs of interest (AEP) for wind farm layout optimization. When the stochastic variable includes the wind direction, polynomial chaos is one order of magnitude more accurate in computing the AEP when compared to commonly used simplistic integration techniques (rectangle rule), especially for non grid-like wind farm layouts. Furthermore, PC requires less simulations for the same accuracy. This allows for more efficient optimization and uncertainty quantification of wind farm energy production.

  9. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  10. Application of layout optimization to the design of additively manufactured metallic components

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, C. J.; Gilbert, M.; Todd, I; Derguti, F.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (‘3D printing’) techniques provide engineers with unprecedented design freedoms, opening up the possibility for stronger and lighter component designs. In this paper ‘layout optimization’ is used to provide a reference volume and to identify potential design topologies for a given component, providing a useful alternative to continuum based topology optimization approaches (which normally require labour intensive post-processing in order to realise a practical component...

  11. A note on “An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venkata Rao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper published by Maniya and Bhatt (2011 (An alternative multiple attribute decision making methodology for solving optimal facility layout design selection problems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 61, 542-549 proposed an alternative multiple attribute decision making method named as “Preference Selection Index (PSI method” for selection of an optimal facility layout design. The authors had claimed that the method was logical and more appropriate and the method gives directly the optimal solution without assigning the relative importance between the facility layout design selection attributes. This note discusses the mathematical validity and the shortcomings of the PSI method.

  12. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination . Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented.

  13. Reinforcement layout design for concrete structures based on continuum damage and truss topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new procedure for the layout design of reinforcement in concrete structures. Concrete is represented by a gradient-enhanced continuum damage model with strain-softening and reinforcement is modeled as elastic bars that are embedded into the concrete domain. Adjoint...... sensitivity analysis is derived in complete consistency with respect to path-dependency and the nonlocal model. Classical truss topology optimization based on the ground structure approach is applied to determine the optimal topology and cross-sections of the reinforcement bars. This approach facilitates...

  14. Optimal Layout of Sensors on Wind Turbine Blade Based on Combinational Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, Guimei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a comprehensive combinational algorithm for sensor layout to solve the problem that unreasonable sensor layout affects the effectiveness of data selection and reduces the accuracy...

  15. A Layout Optimization Method of Composite Wing Structures Based on Carrying Efficiency Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qun; DING Yunliang; JIN Haibo

    2011-01-01

    A two-level layout optimization strategy is proposed in this paper for large-scale composite wing structures.Design requirements are adjusted at the system level according to structural deformation,while the layout is optimized at the subsystem level to satisfy the constraints from system level.The approaching degrees of various failure critical loads in wing panels are employed to gauge the structure's carrying efficiency.By optimizing the efficiency as an objective,the continuity of the problem could be guaranteed.Stiffened wing panels are modeled by the equivalent orthotropic plates,and the global buckling load is predicted by energy method.The nonlinear effect of stringers' support elasticity on skin local buckle resistance is investigated and approximated by neural network(NN) surrogate model.These failure predictions are based on analytical solutions,which could effectively save calculation resources.Finally,the integral optimization of a large-scale wing structure is completed as an example.The result fulfills design requirements and shows the feasibility of this method.

  16. Multi-slicing strategy for the three-dimensional discontinuity layout optimization (3D DLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming

    2017-03-01

    Discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) is a recently presented topology optimization method for determining the critical layout of discontinuities and the associated upper bound limit load for plane two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) problems. The modelling process (pre-processing) for DLO includes defining the discontinuities inside a specified domain and building the target function and the global constraint matrix for the optimization solver, which has great influence on the the efficiency of the computation processes and the reliability of the final results. This paper focuses on efficient and reliable pre-processing of the discontinuities within the 3D DLO and presents a multi-slicing strategy, which naturally avoids the overlapping and crossing of different discontinuities. Furthermore, the formulation of the 3D discontinuity considering a shape of an arbitrary convex polygon is introduced, permitting the efficient assembly of the global constraint matrix. The proposed method eliminates unnecessary discontinuities in 3D DLO, making it possible to apply 3D DLO for solving large-scale engineering problems such as those involving landslides. Numerical examples including a footing test, a 3D landslide and a punch indentation are considered, illustrating the effectiveness of the presented method. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Multi-Objective Random Search Algorithm for Simultaneously Optimizing Wind Farm Layout and Number of Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang

    2016-09-01

    A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximize the total power production, which is calculated by considering the wake effects using the Jensen wake model combined with the local wind distribution. The other is to minimize the total electrical cable length. This length is assumed to be the total length of the minimal spanning tree that connects all turbines and is calculated by using Prim's algorithm. Constraints on wind farm boundary and wind turbine proximity are also considered. An ideal test case shows the proposed algorithm largely outperforms a famous multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). In the real test case based on the Horn Rev 1 wind farm, the algorithm also obtains useful Pareto frontiers and provides a wide range of Pareto optimal layouts with different numbers of turbines for a real-life wind farm developer.

  18. Selecting a proper design period for heliostat field layout optimization using Campo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafifar, Mohammad; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different approaches are considered to calculate the cosine factor which is utilized in Campo code to expand the heliostat field layout and maximize its annual thermal output. Furthermore, three heliostat fields containing different number of mirrors are taken into consideration. Cosine factor is determined by considering instantaneous and time-average approaches. For instantaneous method, different design days and design hours are selected. For the time average method, daily time average, monthly time average, seasonally time average, and yearly time averaged cosine factor determinations are considered. Results indicate that instantaneous methods are more appropriate for small scale heliostat field optimization. Consequently, it is proposed to consider the design period as the second design variable to ensure the best outcome. For medium and large scale heliostat fields, selecting an appropriate design period is more important. Therefore, it is more reliable to select one of the recommended time average methods to optimize the field layout. Optimum annual weighted efficiency for heliostat fields (small, medium, and large) containing 350, 1460, and 3450 mirrors are 66.14%, 60.87%, and 54.04%, respectively.

  19. Considering induction factor using BEM method in wind farm layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Dehghan, M.; Torabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which was conside......For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which...... on the method of Blade Element Momentum theory. By this method, the effect of blade profile, wind speed and angular velocity of wind turbine on the induction factor can be easily taken into account. The results show that for different blade profiles and operational conditions, the induction factor differs from...... the single value used so far. Also it is shown that this difference has a very significant effect in calculated gained power from a wind farm. It is clearly seen that considering the new method for calculating an appropriate induction factor affects the total calculated power generation of a wind farm...

  20. A New Optimization via Simulation Approach for Dynamic Facility Layout Problem with Budget Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Azimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new efficient heuristic algorithm has been developed for the dynamic facility layout problem with budget constraint (DFLPB using optimization via simulation technique. The heuristic integrates integer programming and discrete event simulation to address DFLPB. In the proposed algorithm, the nonlinear model of the DFLP has been changed to a pure integer programming (PIP model. Then, the optimal solution of the PIP model has been used in a simulation model that has been designed in a similar manner as the DFLP for determining the probability of assigning a facility to a location. After a sufficient number of runs, the simulation model obtains near optimum solutions. Finally, to test the performance of the algorithm, several test problems have been taken from the literature and solved. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient in terms of speed and accuracy than other heuristic algorithms presented in previous works.

  1. Stiffener Layout Optimization of Inlet Structure for Electrostatic Precipitator by Improved Adaptive Growth Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The inlet structure is the main part of an electrostatic precipitator, so its mechanical properties, including the static strength, stiffness, and vibration characteristics, play an important role in the structural safety. In order to achieve good mechanical performance and lightweight of the inlet structure, an optimal design method, which is based on growth mechanism of the branching systems in nature and optimality criteria, named the improved adaptive growth method, is suggested. The method is applied to optimize the stiffener layout of the inlet structure, and the multiobjective optimization mathematical model which consists of the minimum compliance and the maximum natural frequency is considered. The optimality criteria method is applied to solve the design problem. The design result shows that the suggested method is effective, compared with the empirical design of the inlet structure, the weight of the optimal structure is reduced by 3.0%, while the global stiffness and the first natural frequency are increased by 18.83% and 4.66%, respectively.

  2. Optimization of space-time material layout for 1D wave propagation with varying mass and stiffness parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for optimal layout of materials in the spatial and temporal domains for a 1D structure subjected to transient wave propagation. A general optimization procedure is outlined including derivation of design sensitivities for the case when the mass density and stiffness vary in ...

  3. A New Computer Program for Plant Layout Design - OPDEP Optimal Plant Design and Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    systematized technique of plant layout can be traced to "Systematic Layout Planning", by Richard Muther (1). He attempts to provide procedures with sufficient...11). This is the same basic assumption stated by Muther (1) in his previously mentioned book on plant layout. The author acknowledges that this may be...analysis and reasoning towards some optimum solution. REFERENCES 1. Muther , R. Systematic Layout Planning. Industrial Education Institute, Boston

  4. Optimized Design of Outlets Layout in Thermal Pressure Naturally Ventilated Rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Sui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal pressure ventilation principles to achieve passive ventilation in buildings is an important way to promote green and low consumption building strategy. The reasonable vents layout design can fully tap the potential of thermal pressure ventilation. Aimed to civil buildings with internal heating source, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD technology, the effects of outlets layout on thermal natural ventilation in rooms were studied. Three types of typical air outlets distribution patterns were considered and the airflow distribution of thermal natural ventilation in rooms was simulated. The ventilation rates and the average workspace temperatures of different simulated conditions were given. The velocity and temperature fields of different simulated conditions were analyzed and the indoor thermal stratification characteristics were discussed. In addition, the effective heat coefficients of different simulated conditions were analyzed and compared. The results show that the strategy of dispersed outlets on ceiling can achieve the optimal natural ventilation effect. The results can provide theoretical references for the design of natural ventilation system in civil buildings.

  5. Automatic yield-line analysis of slabs using discontinuity layout optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew; He, Linwei; Smith, Colin C; Le, Canh V

    2014-08-01

    The yield-line method of analysis is a long established and extremely effective means of estimating the maximum load sustainable by a slab or plate. However, although numerous attempts to automate the process of directly identifying the critical pattern of yield-lines have been made over the past few decades, to date none has proved capable of reliably analysing slabs of arbitrary geometry. Here, it is demonstrated that the discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) procedure can successfully be applied to such problems. The procedure involves discretization of the problem using nodes inter-connected by potential yield-line discontinuities, with the critical layout of these then identified using linear programming. The procedure is applied to various benchmark problems, demonstrating that highly accurate solutions can be obtained, and showing that DLO provides a truly systematic means of directly and reliably automatically identifying yield-line patterns. Finally, since the critical yield-line patterns for many problems are found to be quite complex in form, a means of automatically simplifying these is presented.

  6. Maximization of the annual energy production of wind power plants by optimization of layout and yaw-based wake control: Maximization of wind plant AEP by optimization of layout and wake control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebraad, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Thomas, Jared J. [Brigham Young University, Provo UT USA; Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University, Provo UT USA; Fleming, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dykes, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-05-24

    This paper presents a wind plant modeling and optimization tool that enables the maximization of wind plant annual energy production (AEP) using yaw-based wake steering control and layout changes. The tool is an extension of a wake engineering model describing the steady-state effects of yaw on wake velocity profiles and power productions of wind turbines in a wind plant. To make predictions of a wind plant's AEP, necessary extensions of the original wake model include coupling it with a detailed rotor model and a control policy for turbine blade pitch and rotor speed. This enables the prediction of power production with wake effects throughout a range of wind speeds. We use the tool to perform an example optimization study on a wind plant based on the Princess Amalia Wind Park. In this case study, combined optimization of layout and wake steering control increases AEP by 5%. The power gains from wake steering control are highest for region 1.5 inflow wind speeds, and they continue to be present to some extent for the above-rated inflow wind speeds. The results show that layout optimization and wake steering are complementary because significant AEP improvements can be achieved with wake steering in a wind plant layout that is already optimized to reduce wake losses.

  7. Optimization procedure for design of heliostat field layout of a 1MWe solar tower thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Lin, Zi; Zhang, Hongxin; Ni, Zhengguo

    2008-03-01

    A procedure for designing and optimizing heliostat field layout of solar tower thermal power plant is developed. The ray tracing is used for the calculation of the optical efficiency of field. The mathematical theory of the calculation is derived. The parametric search algorithm, which allows variation of the field parameters within a specified range, is used for the optimization of field. The field layout is made automatically according to the no-blocking loss condition and the heliostats are located at the positions where the annual incident cosine value is higher. In this way, the blocking and cosine losses are lowered. Because the optimization of the distance between fore-and-aft two rows of heliostat is avoided, the computer time is reduced effectively. Using this procedure the heliostat field of a 1MWe solar tower power plant was designed. Four modes of layout including North-South cornfield, North-South stagger, Radial cornfield and Radial stagger were experimented and optimized respectively. The comparison of the field efficiency for the four optimized results was made. It is concluded that the North-South cornfield layout is the optimal decision for the 1MWe solar tower power plant.

  8. Development of a Prediction Model Based on RBF Neural Network for Sheet Metal Fixture Locating Layout Design and Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqi; Yang, Bo; Kang, Yonggang; Yang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Fixture plays an important part in constraining excessive sheet metal part deformation at machining, assembly, and measuring stages during the whole manufacturing process. However, it is still a difficult and nontrivial task to design and optimize sheet metal fixture locating layout at present because there is always no direct and explicit expression describing sheet metal fixture locating layout and responding deformation. To that end, an RBF neural network prediction model is proposed in this paper to assist design and optimization of sheet metal fixture locating layout. The RBF neural network model is constructed by training data set selected by uniform sampling and finite element simulation analysis. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the proposed method.

  9. Coupling ant colony optimization and the extended great deluge algorithm for the discrete facility layout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourelfath, M.; Nahas, N.; Montreuil, B.

    2007-12-01

    This article uses a hybrid optimization approach to solve the discrete facility layout problem (FLP), modelled as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The idea of this approach design is inspired by the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method, combined with the extended great deluge (EGD) local search technique. Comparative computational experiments are carried out on benchmarks taken from the QAP-library and from real life problems. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to construction and improvement heuristics such as H63, HC63-66, CRAFT and Bubble Search, as well as other existing meta-heuristics developed in the literature based on simulated annealing (SA), tabu search and genetic algorithms (GAs). This algorithm is compared also to other ant colony implementations for QAP. The experimental results show that the proposed ant colony optimization/extended great deluge (ACO/EGD) performs significantly better than the existing construction and improvement algorithms. The experimental results indicate also that the ACO/EGD heuristic methodology offers advantages over other algorithms based on meta-heuristics in terms of solution quality.

  10. Layout Optimization for the Dishes Installed on a Rotating Table——The Packing Problem With Equilibrium Behavioural Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕弘飞; 孙守林; 葛文海; 钟万勰

    1994-01-01

    The layout optimization for the dishes installed on a rotating table is investigated. This is a packing problem with equilibrium behavioural constraints. To deal with its layout topo-models and initial layout, a mathematical model and heuristic approaches, including the method of model-changing iteration (MCI) and the method of main objects topo-models (MOT), are proposed, with a series of intuitive algorithms embedded in, such as the technique for the search under the initial guess and the strategies for remission of "combinatorial explosion" . The validity and reliability of the proposed algorithms are verified by numerical examples and engineering applications, which could be used in satellite module, multiple spindle box, rotating structure and so on.

  11. A novel method for designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly in home-based rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duojin; Wu, Jing; Lin, Qinglian

    2017-04-28

    The home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients improves their autonomy, independence and reintegration into society. Hence, a suitable environment plays an important role in rehabilitation, as do different assistance technologies. The majority of accidents at home involving elderly people occur in the bathroom. Therefore, the planning of the layout of facilities is important in this potentially dangerous area. This paper proposes an approach towards designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in the bathroom, based on logistical and nonlogistical relationships. A fuzzy-based analytical hierarchical process (fuzzy-AHP) is then proposed for a comprehensive evaluation of the alternatives for this layout plan. This approach was applied to the home of a 71 years old female patient, who was experiencing home-based rehabilitation. After the initial designing and optimizing of the layout of the facilities in her bathroom, a plan could then be created for her particular needs. The results of this research could then enable the home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients to be more effective. Value: This paper develops a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly. Implications for Rehabilitation Develop a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom. Provide a mathematical and more scientific approach to home layout design for home-based rehabilitation. Provide new opportunities for research, for both the therapist and the patient to analyse the home facility layout.

  12. Research on Internal Layout Optimization of Logistics Node under the Conditions of Complex Terrain Based on Computer Vision and Geographical Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of logistics node space relationship beyond expression based on computer vision technology, proposes internal layout optimization mathematical model of logistics node on the basis of overall consideration of function zone geometry shape, the optimal area utilization rate, and the minimum material handling cost, and then designs a highly mixed genetic simulated annealing algorithm based on multiagent to get layout solution. Through contrasting, the result has shown that the model and algorithms put forward in this paper can realize large-scale internal layout optimization of logistics node under the conditions of complex terrain and multiple constraints.

  13. Wind Farm Layout Optimization through a Crossover-Elitist Evolutionary Algorithm performed over a High Performing Analytical Wake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner-Bossi, Nicolas; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Wind turbine wakes can significantly disrupt the performance of further downstream turbines in a wind farm, thus seriously limiting the overall wind farm power output. Such effect makes the layout design of a wind farm to play a crucial role on the whole performance of the project. An accurate definition of the wake interactions added to a computationally compromised layout optimization strategy can result in an efficient resource when addressing the problem. This work presents a novel soft-computing approach to optimize the wind farm layout by minimizing the overall wake effects that the installed turbines exert on one another. An evolutionary algorithm with an elitist sub-optimization crossover routine and an unconstrained (continuous) turbine positioning set up is developed and tested over an 80-turbine offshore wind farm over the North Sea off Denmark (Horns Rev I). Within every generation of the evolution, the wind power output (cost function) is computed through a recently developed and validated analytical wake model with a Gaussian profile velocity deficit [1], which has shown to outperform the traditionally employed wake models through different LES simulations and wind tunnel experiments. Two schemes with slightly different perimeter constraint conditions (full or partial) are tested. Results show, compared to the baseline, gridded layout, a wind power output increase between 5.5% and 7.7%. In addition, it is observed that the electric cable length at the facilities is reduced by up to 21%. [1] Bastankhah, Majid, and Fernando Porté-Agel. "A new analytical model for wind-turbine wakes." Renewable Energy 70 (2014): 116-123.

  14. APPROACH FOR LAYOUT OPTIMIZATION OF TRUSS STRUCTURES WITH DISCRETE VARIABLES UNDER DYNAMIC STRESS, DISPLACEMENT AND STABILITY CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lian-shuan; WANG Yue-fang; SUN Huan-chun

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for layout optimization of truss structures with discrete variables subjected to dynamic stress, dynamic displacement and dynamic stability constraints. By using the quasi-static method, the mathematical model of structure optimization under dynamic stress, dynamic displacement and dynamic stability constraints were transformed into one subjected to static stress, displacement and stability constraints. The optimization procedures include two levels, i.e., the topology optimization and the shape optimization. In each level, the comprehensive algorithm was used and the relative difference quotients of two kinds of variables were used to search the optimum solution. A comparison between the optimum results of model with stability constraints and the optimum results of model without stability constraint was given. And that shows the stability constraints have a great effect on the optimum solutions.

  15. Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); A. Gupta (Akash); S. Parhi (Sampanna); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContainer terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes (QCs), stack cranes (SCs), transport vehicles, vehicle travel path, and stack layout. The terminal design process is complex because it is affected by factors su

  16. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  17. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  18. Niching genetic algorithms for optimization in electromagnetics. II. Shape optimization of electrodes using the CSM

    OpenAIRE

    Sareni, Bruno; Krähenbühl, Laurent; Muller, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for automatic design of electrodes. The investigated method consists in identifying an optimal shape from an optimal equipotential resulting from a system of point charges. The electric field and potential are computed using the point charge simulation method. Niching genetic algorithms and constrained optimization techniques are applied to the electrode benchmark in order to find multiple optimal profiles.

  19. Optimization of Electrode Channels in Brain Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrunnahar, M.; Dias, N. S.; Schiff, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    What is the optimal number of electrodes one can use in discrimination of tasks for a Brain Computer Interface(BCI)? To address this question, the number and location of scalp electrodes in the acquisition of human electroencephalography (EEG) and discrimination of motor imagery tasks were optimized by using a systematic optimization approach. The systematic analysis results in the most reliable procedure in electrode optimization as well as a validating means for the other feature selection techniques. We acquired human scalp EEG in response to cue-based motor imagery tasks. We employed a systematic analysis by using all possible combinations of the channels and calculating task discrimination errors for each of these combinations by using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for feature classification. Channel combination that resulted in the smallest discrimination error was selected as the optimum number of channels to be used in BCI applications. Results from the systematic analysis were compared with another feature selection algorithm: forward stepwise feature selection combined with LDA feature classification. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the fully optimized technique for a reliable selection of scalp electrodes in BCI applications. PMID:19964437

  20. A new layout optimization technique for interferometric arrays, applied to the MWA

    CERN Document Server

    Beardsley, A P; Morales, M F; Cappallo, R C; Goeke, R; Emrich, D; Lonsdale, C J; Arcus, W; Barnes, D; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Bunton, J D; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A; deSouza, L; Gaensler, B M; Greenhill, L J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koeing, R; Kratzenberg, E; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Pathikulangara, J; Prabu, T; Remillard, R A; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Uday; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2012-01-01

    Antenna layout is an important design consideration for radio interferometers because it determines the quality of the snapshot point spread function (PSF, or array beam). This is particularly true for experiments targeting the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization signal as the quality of the foreground subtraction depends directly on the spatial dynamic range and thus the smoothness of the baseline distribution. Nearly all sites have constraints on where antennas can be placed---even at the remote Australian location of the MWA (Murchison Widefield Array) there are rock outcrops, flood zones, heritages areas, emergency runways and trees. These exclusion areas can introduce spatial structure into the baseline distribution that enhance the PSF sidelobes and reduce the angular dynamic range. In this paper we present a new method of constrained antenna placement that reduces the spatial structure in the baseline distribution. This method not only outperforms random placement algorithms that avoid exclusion zones, but sur...

  1. FY08 LDRD Final Report LOCAL: Locality-Optimizing Caching Algorithms and Layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P

    2009-02-27

    This project investigated layout and compression techniques for large, unstructured simulation data to reduce bandwidth requirements and latency in simulation I/O and subsequent post-processing, e.g. data analysis and visualization. The main goal was to eliminate the data-transfer bottleneck - for example, from disk to memory and from central processing unit to graphics processing unit - through coherent data access and by trading underutilized compute power for effective bandwidth and storage. This was accomplished by (1) designing algorithms that both enforce and exploit compactness and locality in unstructured data, and (2) adapting offline computations to a novel stream processing framework that supports pipelining and low-latency sequential access to compressed data. This report summarizes the techniques developed and results achieved, and includes references to publications that elaborate on the technical details of these methods.

  2. Toward the 5nm technology: layout optimization and performance benchmark for logic/SRAMs using lateral and vertical GAA FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Bao, Trong; Ryckaert, Julien; Sakhare, Sushil; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Verkest, Diederik; Thean, Aaron; Wambacq, Piet

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a layout and performance analysis of logic and SRAM circuits for vertical and lateral GAA FETs using 5nm (iN5) design rules. Extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) processes are exploited to print the critical features: 32 nm gate pitch and 24 nm metal pitch. Layout architectures and patterning compromises for enabling the 5nm node will be discussed in details. A distinct standard-cell template for vertical FETs is proposed and elaborated for the first time. To assess electrical performances, a BSIM-CMG model has been developed and calibrated with TCAD simulations, which accounts for the quasi-ballistic transport in the nanowire channel. The results show that the inbound power rail layout construct for vertical devices could achieve the highest density while the interleaving diffusion template can maximize the port accessibility. By using a representative critical path circuit of a generic low power SoCs, it is shown that the VFET-based circuit is 40% more energy efficient than LFET designs at iso-performance. Regarding SRAMs, benefits given by vertical channel orientation in VFETs has reduced the SRAM area by 20%~30% compared to lateral SRAMs. A double exposures with EUV canner is needed to reach a minimum tip-to-tip (T2T) of 16 nm for middle-of-line (MOL) layers. To enable HD SRAMs with two metal layers, a fully self-aligned gate contact for LFETs and 2D routing of the top electrode for VFETs are required. The standby leakage of vertical SRAMs is 4~6X lower than LFET-based SRAMs at iso-performance and iso-area. The minimum operating voltage (Vmin) of vertical SRAMs is 170 mV lower than lateral SRAMs. A high-density SRAM bitcell of 0.014 um2 can be obtained for the iN5 technology node, which fully follows the SRAM scaling trend for the 45nm nodes and beyond.

  3. Optimization of electrode placement in electromyographic control of dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbran, Scott H.; Calius, Emilio P.; Dunlop, G. Reg; Anderson, Iain A.

    2009-03-01

    Human intention recognition is becoming a key part of powered prosthetics research. With the advent of smart materials, the usefulness of powered prosthetics has increased. Correspondingly, there is a greater need for control technology. Electromyography (EMG) has previously been used to control myoelectric hands; however the approach to electrode placement has been speculative at best. Carpi, Raspopovic and De Rossi have shown that dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) can be controlled by a variety of human electrophysiological signals, including EMG. To control a DEA device with multiple degrees of freedom using EMG, multiple electrode sites are required. This paper presents an approach to control an array of DEAs using a series of electrodes and an optimized electrode data filtering scheme to maximize classification accuracy when differentiating between hand grasps. A silicon mould of a human forearm was created with an array of electrodes embedded within it. Data from each electrode site was recorded using the Universal Electrophysiological Mapping (UnEmap) system developed at the University of Auckland Bioengineering Institute for the amplification and filtering of multiple biopotential signals. The recorded data was then processed off-line, in order to calculate spatial gradients; this would determine which electrode sites would give the best bipolar readings. The spatial gradients were then compared to each other in order to find the optimal electrode sites. Several points in the extensor compartment of the forearm were found to be useful in recognizing grasping, while several points in the flexor compartment of the forearm were found to be useful in differentiating between grasps.

  4. Parameterized Analysis of Zero Voltage Switching in Resonant Converters for Optimal Electrode Layout of Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.; Jensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Ring shaped PTs (Piezoelectric Transformers) are an attractive alternative to magnetics in power converters. The achievable energy efficiency is 98% and the power density is up to 30W/cm3. Additionally power supplies based on PTs display low levels of conducted and radiated EMI due to power conve...

  5. Lithium-niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Groellmann, Peter; Mutter, Gerhard

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a lithium niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here as 'Digi- MIOC' (digital-electroded multifunction integrated optic chip, which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting microfiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to-electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) - FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power, and high reliabliity are also highlighted.

  6. A New Method for Optimizing Layout Parameter of an Integrated On-Chip Inductor in CMOS RF IC's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力南; 钱鹤

    2000-01-01

    Analyzing the influence on Q factor, which was caused by the parasitic effect in a CMOS RF on-chip integrated inductor, a concise method to increase the Q factor has been ob tained when optimizing the layout parameter. Using this method, the Q factor of 7.9 can be achieved in a 5nH inductor (operating frequency is 2GHz) while the errors in inductance are less than 0.5 % compared with the aimed values. It is proved by experiments that this method can guarantee the sufficient accuracy but require less computation time. Therefore, it is of great use for the design of the inductor in CMOS RF IC's.

  7. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty...

  8. Non-linear optimization of track layouts in loop-sorting-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Emil; Hansen, Michael R.; Ebbesen, Morten K.

    2013-01-01

    Optimization used for enhancing geometric structures iswell known. Applying obstacles to the shape optimization problemis on the other hand not very common. It requires a fast contact search algorithmand an exact continuous formulation to solve the problem robustly. This paper focuses on combinin...

  9. The Wireless Sensor Networks Base Layout and Density Optimization Oriented towards Traffic Information Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are applied in Intelligent Transport System for data collection. For the low redundancy rate of the wireless sensor networks nodes of traffic information collection, the senor nodes should be deployed reasonably for the WSN nodes to work effectively, and, thus, the base network structure and the density optimization of the sensor network are one of the main problems of WSN application. This paper establishes the wireless sensor networks design optimization model oriented to the traffic information collection, solving the design optimization model with the chemical reaction optimization (CRO algorithm. The experimental results show that CRO algorithm outperforms the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO in solving the wireless sensor network design optimization oriented to the traffic information collection, capable of optimizing the wireless sensor network deployment of traffic information collection to contribute to the great improvement of the comprehensive value of the network performance. The reasonable design of the wireless sensor network nodes has great significance for the information collection, post-maintenance-and-extension, and cost saving of a monitoring system.

  10. A multi-objective optimization framework for offshore wind farm layouts and electric infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rodrigues (Silvio); C. Restrepo (Carlos); G. Katsouris (George); R. Teixeira Pinto (Rodrigo); M. Soleimanzadeh (Maryam); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); P. Bauer (Pavol)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCurrent offshore wind farms (OWFs) design processes are based on a sequential approach which does not guarantee system optimality because it oversimplifies the problem by discarding important interdependencies between design aspects. This article presents a framework to integrate,

  11. LimitS - A system for limit state analysis and optimal material layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1997-01-01

    A system LimitS for limit state analysis and material optimization has been developed and implemented in a PC environment. The program is formulated in a general finite element format with stress-based elements. The solution method is based on the lower-bound theorem, where an optimal stress...... the statics and kinematics of the collapse mode are determined via the dual variables of the LP-problem. In LimitS the following element types are implemented: two- and three-dimensional beam elements; truss elements; triangular slab elements; and shear and stringer elements for plates with in-plane loading....... Examples of all three problem types are given including both limit state analysis and material optimization....

  12. LimitS - A system for limit state analysis and optimal material layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1997-01-01

    A system LimitS for limit state analysis and material optimization has been developed and implemented in a PC environment. The program is formulated in a general finite element format with stress-based elements. The solution method is based on the lower-bound theorem, where an optimal stress...... the statics and kinematics of the collapse mode are determined via the dual variables of the LP-problem. In LimitS the following element types are implemented: two- and three-dimensional beam elements; truss elements; triangular slab elements; and shear and stringer elements for plates with in-plane loading....... Examples of all three problem types are given including both limit state analysis and material optimization....

  13. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout: A Refinement Method by Random Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jianchuan; Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    turbines can be placed, hence, simplifying the problem from with continuous variables to with discrete variables. In this paper, a refinement method, based on continuous formulation, by using random search is proposed to improve the optimization results based on discrete formulations. Two sets...... of optimization results of a widely studied test case are refined using the proposed method. One set of the results is from a published work using GA based on discrete formulation, the other set is the improved results using authors’ own GA code. Steady improvements are obtained for both sets of results....

  14. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  15. Lithium niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Kemmler, Manfred W.; Spahlinger, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a Lithium Niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here to as 'Digi-MIOC', which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting micro fiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. As a consequence of this work, it has been possible for LITEF to cost effectively mass produce Digi-MIOCs. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to- electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) -FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power and high reliability are also highlighted.

  16. Optimal layout design of obstacles for panic evacuation using differential evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Li, Meifang; Lu, Xin; Tian, Lijun; Yu, Zhiyong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yana; Li, Ting

    2017-01-01

    To improve the pedestrian outflow in panic situations by suitably placing an obstacle in front of the exit, it is vital to understand the physical mechanism behind the evacuation efficiency enhancement. In this paper, a robust differential evolution is firstly employed to optimize the geometrical parameters of different shaped obstacles in order to achieve an optimal evacuation efficiency. Moreover, it is found that all the geometrical parameters of obstacles could markedly influence the evacuation efficiency of pedestrians, and the best way for achieving an optimal pedestrian outflow is to slightly shift the obstacle from the center of the exit which is consistent with findings of extant literature. Most importantly, by analyzing the profiles of density, velocity and specific flow, as well as the spatial distribution of crowd pressure, we have proven that placing an obstacle in panic situations does not reduce or absorb the pressure in the region of exit, on the contrary, promotes the pressure to a much higher level, hence the physical mechanism behind the evacuation efficiency enhancement is not a pressure decrease in the region of exit, but a significant reduction of high density region by effective separation in space which finally causes the increasing of escape speed and evacuation outflow. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that the panel-like obstacle is considerably more robust and stable than the pillar-like obstacle to guarantee the enhancement of evacuation efficiency under different initial pedestrian distributions, different initial crowd densities as well as different desired velocities.

  17. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  18. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  19. Course Layout

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This is an interactive diagram of a MATLAB course layout covering 16 topics in 4 different main areas: Basics of MATLAB, Numerical Methods in MATLAB, Symbolic Manipulations in MATLAB, Mathematical Modeling in MATLAB and Simulink AE2440 Introduction to Digital Computation

  20. GA-Based Multi-objective Optimization of Workshop Layout%基于遗传算法的车间布局多目标优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娜; 徐克林; 郭爽

    2011-01-01

    在分析单目标优化缺陷的基础上,构建了车间多行布局物流成本和空间利用率多目标组合优化模型.设计了车间多行布局遗传算法,针对自动换行、两行布置和三行布置三种不同布局策略的编码方式、遗传操作和适应度函数进行了研究.以某车间布局为实例,分别在单目标和多目标情况下,通过Matlab编程对三种不同布局策略进行了遗传运算,验证了算法的收敛性、实用性和有效性.该模型及算法对车间进行多目标多行布局具有借鉴意义.%Shortcomings of using single-objective optimization to solve the job shop multi-row facility layout problem are analyzed. With this in mind, multi-objective optimization for job shop multi-row facility layout problem is discussed. A multi-objective combinatorial optimization model with both material handling cost and space utilization considered is developed. Then, a modified genetic algorithm( GA)is proposed to solve it. The encoding, reproduction, and fitness functions are well designed for all three situations: automatic new-row layout, two-row layout, and three-row layout. A case problem from the industry is presented to show the application of the proposed method. With coding by Matlab, performance is compared with that obtained by single-objective methods. It shows that it outperforms the single-objective methods in applicability and computational efficiency.

  1. Characterization and optimization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Christopher Carter

    Experimental characterization and modeling were combined to find a procedure for optimizing the design of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes. The mass transfer and kinetic properties of the active layer used in electrodes fabricated at the Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research (CESHR) were characterized as a function of electrolyte polymer content NafionRTM, DuPont, Fayetteville, NC) and catalyst loading for different types of platinum catalysts (E-Tek, Natick, MA). Expressions from limiting cases of the fuel cell model showed the combination of electrode materials for maximum current density at maximum catalyst utilization. Models describing the fuel cell behavior were selected and used to explain how different operating pressures affect the system power density and efficiency. An "inert layer" method was developed to determine the effective proton conductivity of the active layer. A "buffer layer" method was developed to determine the oxygen diffusivity in the gas pores. A review of the literature and experiments at CESHR was used to determine the oxygen reduction activity of the active layer. Finally, a fitting method was developed to measure the agglomerate diffusivity from cell tests. A PEMFC model demonstrated that operating the fuel cell pressurized can improve the power density at high currents because of oxygen mass transport. limitations in the substrate. However. as better electrode designs improve oxygen mass transfer, pressurized operation will lose this advantage. In addition, the model confirmed that oxygen enrichment systems require too much energy to separate oxygen from air to improve the net performance of a fuel cell. From limiting approximations of the solutions of the differential material balances in the fuel cell model, a simple set of analytical expressions were derived that predict the optimum active layer thickness and maximum current density based on the materials of construction and operating

  2. 高速胎加工厂布局及优化%The layout designa nd optimization of tire manufacturing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云; 王立新

    2015-01-01

    在产品工艺流程分析的基础上,绘制产品工艺过程表、物流强度分析图、作业单位相关图,优化完成高速胎加工车间生产流程,对工厂布局进行设计,实现了高速胎工厂优化布置。%Based on product process analysis, it describes the product -process diagram, shows the logistic strength analysis diagram and work unit correlated chart, realizes the production process optimization of tire job-shop, obtains the optimal layout from analysis of layout of factory.

  3. Advanced Modeling System for Optimization of Wind Farm Layout and Wind Turbine Sizing Using a Multi-Level Extended Pattern Search Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, Bryony; Cagan, Jonathan; Moriarty, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a system of modeling advances that can be applied in the computational optimization of wind plants. These modeling advances include accurate cost and power modeling, partial wake interaction, and the effects of varying atmospheric stability. To validate the use of this advanced modeling system, it is employed within an Extended Pattern Search (EPS)-Multi-Agent System (MAS) optimization approach for multiple wind scenarios. The wind farm layout optimization problem involves optimizing the position and size of wind turbines such that the aerodynamic effects of upstream turbines are reduced, which increases the effective wind speed and resultant power at each turbine. The EPS-MAS optimization algorithm employs a profit objective, and an overarching search determines individual turbine positions, with a concurrent EPS-MAS determining the optimal hub height and rotor diameter for each turbine. Two wind cases are considered: (1) constant, unidirectional wind, and (2) three discrete wind speeds and varying wind directions, each of which have a probability of occurrence. Results show the advantages of applying the series of advanced models compared to previous application of an EPS with less advanced models to wind farm layout optimization, and imply best practices for computational optimization of wind farms with improved accuracy.

  4. Layout optimization of shipborne IMU based on genetic algorithm%基于遗传算法的舰载IMU优化布局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑荣才; 杨功流; 陈超英; 翁海娜

    2007-01-01

    IMU is used to provide shipborne weapon systems with accurate attitudes and to monitor deck deformation real time. It is worth researching further to optimize the location and number of IMU. The paper presented the principle of multi-IMU layout optimization and created its mathematical model. The IMU layout optimization was solved using Genetic Algorithm. The simulation results show that the number of IMU for shipborne weapon systems is decreased. The layout of shipborne IMU is an important factor that impacts the estimation accuracy of deck deformation, and the estimation accuracy is improved greatly by IMU layout optimization.%惯性测量单元(IMU)用来为舰载武器系统提供准确的姿态并实时监测舰船甲板的变形,对其数目和位置进行优化具有重要的实用价值.提出了多IMU优化布局的原则,建立了舰载IMU优化布局的数学模型,采用遗传算法对IMU的布局进行了优化求解.仿真结果表明,舰载IMU的布局是影响甲板变形估计精度的一个重要因素,通过对IMU的布局进行优化,减少了舰载武器系统所需IMU的数量;利用优化布局后IMU的输出信息对全舰甲板变形进行估计,估计精度有很大提高.

  5. Optimal Hospital Layout Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine

    This PhD project presents a design model that generates and evaluates hospital designs with respect to long-term performances and functionalities. By visualizing and quantifying costs and performances in the early design phases, it is possible to make design choices based on a qualified, profound...... foundation. The basis of the present study lies in solving the architectural design problem in order to respond to functionalities and performances. The emphasis is the practical applicability for architects, engineers and hospital planners for assuring usability and a holistic approach of functionalities...... and performances. By formal descriptions, a design model can weigh and compare the impact of different perspectives and, even in the early design phase, it can visualize and quantify consequences for design choices. By qualitative study of hospital design and hospital functionality, formal descriptions develop...

  6. Optimization of vehicular antenna layout based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的车载天线布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王显文; 沙斐

    2011-01-01

    A large number of different high-performance designing plans could be produced by changing the location coordinates of vehicular antenna based on genetic algorithms. This could guarantee the diversity of the antenna layout and overcome the human factors in traditional method effectively. Based on the designing plans, combining with the actual situation of locomotive's top, the optimized objective function of the vehicular antenna layout was proposed. How to use the Matlab mathematical tool to establish mathematical model and get the coordinates of antenna layout location were also discussed in detail. The correctness of the antenna layout was verified by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation software, and it provided a theoretical basis for the actual antenna layout.%基于遗传算法变换车载天线的位置坐标,可以产生大量截然不同的高性能设计方案,保证了天线布局设计的多样性,有效的克服了传统方法中的人为因素.并在此基础上结合机车顶上的实际情况提出了车载天线布局优化的目标函数,详细讨论了如何利用Matlab数学工具建立数学模型得到优化布局的天线位置坐标,并通过三维电磁仿真软件验证了天线布局的正确性,为实际的天线布局提供了理论依据.

  7. 抢险救援车仪器布置设计与优化%The Instrument Layout Design and Optimization of Rescue Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟; 金心; 余隋怀; 王毅

    2013-01-01

    为了提升抢险救援车仪器舱的设计质量,提高抢险救援车仪器布置设计的效率,提出了一种基于JACK的抢险救援车仪器布置设计与优化思路.该方法以险救援车仪器布置为研究对象,在分析险救援车仪器布置设计特点的基础上,运用人机工程学原理并结合计算机辅助人机功效仿真分析的特性,建立了运用JACK进行险救援车仪器布置设计与优化的目标和框架,并进一步研究了其中的关键技术.该方法和思路在某中型抢险救援车仪器布置设计与优化过程的实际应用中已取得了良好效果.%Here,an instrument layout design and optimization method,which based on JACK,is developed to enhance the design quality of the instrument compartment of rescue vehicles and improve the efficiency of the rescue vehicles instrument layout design.This method sets the rescue vehicles instrument layout as the research object.Firstly,it analyzes the features of the rescue vehicle instrument layout design.Then,it constructs the research framework of the rescue vehicles instrument layout design and optimization using JACK on the basis of ergonomic principles in accordance with the characteristics of computer-aided ergonomics simulation analysis.And the research processes of the key technologies are showed further.Finally,the instrument layout design process of a medium-sized rescue vehicle is employed to explain and test the method.

  8. Research on Optimization of Spatial Layout for Rural Chain Supermarket%农村连锁超市空间布局优化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦波; 孔慧珍

    2012-01-01

    The optimization model of spatial layout for rural chain supermarket was designed based on trading area theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA) ,which can be used evaluating the service conditions and the efficiency of stores. The model could provide scientific basis for layout adjusting of rural supermarket.%依据商圈理论和数据包络分析方法(DEA)评估区域内服务的需求状况和网点的运营效率,建立了农村连锁超市的空间布局优化模型,以期为区域网点的布局调整提供科学依据.

  9. Optimization of self-aligned double patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs using pattern matching for 10nm technology nodes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lynn T.; Schroeder, Uwe Paul; Woo, Youngtag; Zeng, Jia; Madhavan, Sriram; Capodieci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    A pattern-based methodology for optimizing Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs is developed based on detecting cut-induced hotspot patterns and replacing them with pre-characterized fixing solutions. A pattern library with predetermined fixing solutions is built. A pattern-based engine searches for matching patterns in the layout designs. When a match is found, the engine opportunistically replaces the detected pattern with a pre-characterized fixing solution, preserving only the design rule check-clean replacements. The methodology is demonstrated on a 10nm routed block. A small library of fourteen patterns reduced the number of cut-induced design rule check violations by 100% and lithography hotspots by 23%.

  10. Optimization of self-aligned double patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs using pattern matching for sub-20nm metal routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lynn T.-N.; Schroeder, Uwe Paul; Madhavan, Sriram

    2017-03-01

    A pattern-based methodology for optimizing SADP-compliant layout designs is developed based on identifying cut mask patterns and replacing them with pre-characterized fixing solutions. A pattern-based library of difficult-tomanufacture cut patterns with pre-characterized fixing solutions is built. A pattern-based engine searches for matching patterns in the decomposed layouts. When a match is found, the engine opportunistically replaces the detected pattern with a pre-characterized fixing solution. The methodology was demonstrated on a 7nm routed metal2 block. A small library of 30 cut patterns increased the number of more manufacturable cuts by 38% and metal-via enclosure by 13% with a small parasitic capacitance impact of 0.3%.

  11. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  12. The Layout Optimization of Main and Secondary Girder Floor System%主次梁楼盖体系的布置优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼世雄; 朱杰江; 张磊

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the layout of main and secondary girder roof system has been optimized by the composition of the floor optimization program.The structure model and internal force analysis are made by calling ETABS software, the optimization for the secondary beam number, the section size of main and secondary beam and the floor thickness is made by LINGO software, which are both under the Visual Basic (.NET 4.0) plat-form, and through this program, the optimal floor layout is achieved.%编制楼盖优化程序,对主次梁楼盖体系进行布置优化。在Visual Basic (.NET 4.0)平台下调用ETABS进行建模和内力分析,调用LINGO优化求解器对次梁数量、主次梁截面尺寸以及楼板厚度进行优化,得到楼盖最优布置。

  13. An Improved Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Chemical Plant Layout Optimization with Novel Non-overlapping and Toxic Gas Dispersion Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; WANG Zhenyu; ZHU Qunxiong

    2013-01-01

    New approaches for facility distribution in chemical plants are proposed including an improved non-overlapping constraint based on projection relationships of facilities and a novel toxic gas dispersion constraint.In consideration of the large number of variables in the plant layout model,our new method can significantly reduce the number of variables with their own projection relationships.Also,as toxic gas dispersion is a usual incident in a chemical plant,a simple approach to describe the gas leakage is proposed,which can clearly represent the constraints of potential emission source and sitting facilities.For solving the plant layout model,an improved genetic algorithm (GA) based on infeasible solution fix technique is proposed,which improves the globe search ability of GA.The case study and experiment show that a better layout plan can be obtained with our method,and the safety factors such as gas dispersion and minimum distances can be well handled in the solution.

  14. Evaluation and Optimization of Traffic Guide Sign Layout%指路标志版面评价与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小明; 张伟; 魏中华; 张中悦; 姜瑜; 朱英达

    2015-01-01

    To objectively measure the advantages and disadvantages of traffic guide sign layout, the effectiveness on ergonomics of traffic guide sign layout was quantitatively studied using multidimensional data. Fully considering information demand and information process, information demand, comprehension level, and information content were introduced, and the ergonomics evaluation model of traffic guide sign layout was established. It is more reasonable for signs to guide the routes that are close to the intersection and the important destinations that are nearby; and the arrangement of letters on the signs that is consistent with the direction of the roads, and the letters that are converted into the graphic symbols can improve the comprehension level of signs. Results show that ergonomics evaluation of traffic guide sign layout can more accurately image whether the layout of signs meets the driver's information demand;complies with the law of drive's perception; and facilitates driver's understanding of roadway configuration, and can be an effective measurement for studying the coordination among drivers, traffic guide signs, and roads.%为客观度量指路标志版面设计的优劣,从人类工效学角度应用多维量化数据评价道路交叉口指路标志版面工效性。综合考虑指路标志视认中的信息需求和信息处理过程,引入信息需求度、理解度和信息量,建立了指路标志版面工效性评价模型。发现指路标志指引交叉口直接衔接的道路信息及周边的重要地点信息更加合理,文字排列方式与道路线形保持一致、图形符号与文字结合都将提高标志内容理解水平。结果表明:版面工效性评价能很好地反映指路标志满足驾驶员信息需求、符合驾驶员认知规律、利于驾驶员感知道路线形的程度,是一种研究驾驶员、指路标志及道路之间协调性的有效方法。

  15. System Simulation and Optimization of Antenna Layout Based on HFSS-MATLAB-API%基于HFSS-MATLB-API的天线布局优化仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章耀文; 陈少昌

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of the number of antennas applied in the mobile platform, the electromagnetic compatibility problems of cars are becoming more and more serious. According to current situation of antenna layout lacking reasonable model and theoretical method, Matlab is used to control HFSS to generate different models for simulating and optimizing electromagnetic compatibility of the antenna layout by HFSS-Matlab-Api Script library. Using genetic algorithm to optimize layout. This approach can save mathematical model derivation process and reduce the work users repeatedly draw model and modify parameters of duplication. This approach can make full use of the simulation precision, reliability and convenience of HFSS, and using genetic algorithm to reduce the time and cost of blind test. In the end, the experimental results are consistent with the theory, thus verifying the feasibility of layout and optimization method.%随着用于车载平台的天线数量日益增多, 汽车的电磁兼容问题日益严重. 针对天线布局缺少统一合理模型和理论方法指导的现状,利用HFSS-Matlab-Api脚本库在Matlab中调用HFSS建模进行天线布局的电磁兼容性仿真, 采用遗传算法对布局进行优化. 此方法省去人为数学模型推导过程, 减少用户反复绘制模型、修改参数的重复工作. 不仅充分利用HFSS仿真的高精度、可靠性和便捷性, 而且采用遗传算法减少盲目的试探带来的时间和成本的浪费. 最后, 得到与理论相符合的实验结果, 从而验证了布局与优化方法的可行性.

  16. Optimizing electrode placement using finite-element models in radiofrequency ablation treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R; Miga, Michael I; Galloway, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    Conventional radiofrequency ablation (RFA) planning methods for identifying suitable electrode placements typically use geometric shapes to model ablation outcomes. A method is presented for searching electrode placements that couples finite-element models (FEMs) of RFA together with a novel optimization strategy. The method was designed to reduce the need for model solutions per local search step. The optimization strategy was tested against scenarios requiring single and multiple ablations. In particular, for a scenario requiring multiple ablations, a domain decomposition strategy was described to minimize the complexity of simultaneously searching multiple electrode placements. The effects of nearby vasculature on optimal electrode placement were also studied. Compared with geometric planning approaches, FEMs could potentially deliver electrode placement plans that provide more physically meaningful predictions of therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Engineering and Optimization of Silicon-Iron-Manganese Nanoalloy Electrode for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaboina, Pankaj K.; Cho, Jong-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of a battery is considered to be primarily dependent on the electrode material. However, engineering and optimization of electrodes also play a crucial role, and the same electrode material can be designed to offer significantly improved batteries. In this work, Si-Fe-Mn nanomaterial alloy (Si/alloy) and graphite composite electrodes were densified at different calendering conditions of 3, 5, and 8 tons, and its influence on electrode porosity, electrolyte wettability, and long-term cycling was investigated. The active material loading was maintained very high ( 2 mg cm-2) to implement electrode engineering close to commercial loading scales. The densification was optimized to balance between the electrode thickness and wettability to enable the best electrochemical properties of the Si/alloy anodes. In this case, engineering and optimizing the Si/alloy composite electrodes to 3 ton calendering (electrode densification from 0.39 to 0.48 g cm-3) showed enhanced cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 100% over 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Investigating optimal technique in the presence of motor system noise: application to the double layout somersault dismount on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Minimising joint torque is often used as an optimisation criterion when investigating human movement. Alternatively, an aspect of performance may be chosen to be maximised when investigating sporting movements. The aim of the study was to optimise the technique in the backward giant circle prior to a double layout somersault dismount from the high bar using various criteria to determine which best characterised the technique adopted by a gymnast. Ten recorded gymnast trials were used to determine bar release parameters and the level of noise in the gymnast's movements. A computer simulation model of a gymnast and bar was used to optimise giant circle technique under three criteria: minimising joint torques, maximising the release window and maximising success in the presence of motor system noise. Local and global optimisations of technique were performed using the three criteria starting from the average technique of the 10 recorded trials. All global optimum solutions diverged from the gymnast's technique. The local optimum for maximising success in the presence of noise had a success rate comparable with the global optimum (98% vs. 100%, respectively). It is concluded that the gymnast's technique is characterised by maximising success despite operating with motor system noise.

  19. Online medical journal article layout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a physical and logical layout analysis algorithm, which is applied to segment and label online medical journal articles (regular HTML and PDF-Converted-HTML files). For these articles, the geometric layout of the Web page is the most important cue for physical layout analysis. The key to physical layout analysis is then to render the HTML file in a Web browser, so that the visual information in zones (composed of one or a set of HTML DOM nodes), especially their relative position, can be utilized. The recursive X-Y cut algorithm is adopted to construct a hierarchical zone tree structure. In logical layout analysis, both geometric and linguistic features are used. The HTML documents are modeled by a Hidden Markov Model with 16 states, and the Viterbi algorithm is then used to find the optimal label sequence, concluding the logical layout analysis.

  20. 18.4%-Efficient Heterojunction Si Solar Cells Using Optimized ITO/Top Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namwoo; Um, Han-Don; Choi, Inwoo; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Seo, Kwanyong

    2016-05-11

    We optimize the thickness of a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer, and apply a microscale mesh-pattern metal electrode for high-efficiency a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells. A solar cell equipped with the proposed microgrid metal electrode demonstrates a high short-circuit current density (JSC) of 40.1 mA/cm(2), and achieves a high efficiency of 18.4% with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 618 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 74.1% as result of the shortened carrier path length and the decreased electrode area of the microgrid metal electrode. Furthermore, by optimizing the process sequence for electrode formation, we are able to effectively restore the reduction in VOC that occurs during the microgrid metal electrode formation process. This work is expected to become a fundamental study that can effectively improve current loss in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells through the optimization of transparent and metal electrodes.

  1. High-performance slow light photonic crystal waveguides with topology optimized or circular-hole based material layouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal waveguides are optimized for modal confinement and loss related to slow light with high group index. A detailed comparison between optimized circular-hole based waveguides and optimized waveguides with free topology is performed. Design robustness with respect to manufacturing...... imperfections is enforced by considering different design realizations generated from under-, standard- and over-etching processes in the optimization procedure. A constraint ensures a certain modal confinement, and loss related to slow light with high group index is indirectly treated by penalizing field...... of 0.48 or above. The comparisons between circular-hole based designs and topology optimized designs illustrate that the former can be efficient for dispersion engineering but that larger improvements are possible if irregular geometries are allowed....

  2. Underground Layout Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  3. Rank Based Selection of Electrode Positions for a Multi-Lead ECG Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermuller, Christoph; Fischer, Gerald; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electrical function of the heart seem to become a clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as easy and fast application. In this study we propose a new electrode array meeting clinical requirements such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. Within body surface regions of high sensitivity, identified in a prior, information content based study, the number of required electrodes was optimized using effort-gain plots. These plots were generated by applying a so called type one detector criterion. The optimal array was selected from a set of 12 electrode arrays. Each of them consists of two L-shaped regular spaced parts. The optimal array was found by comparing several layouts and electrode densities to the electrode array we use for clinical studies. It consists of 125 electrodes with a regular spacing between 2cm and 3cm.

  4. Optimization of EDM Process of (Cu-W EDM Electrodes on Different Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Tiwari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to determine the optimal cutting condition of EDM process of different work piece materials using different compositions of Cu-W tool Electrodes. The key cutting factors such as Discharge Current, Voltage, Pulse- On – Time, Duty Cycle, Spark Gap and flushing pressure will be optimized.

  5. On the Layout Optimization of a New Bionic Antiskid Tire Tread%新型仿生防滑轮胎花纹布局优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 周利坤

    2011-01-01

    传统轮胎防滑是通过提高轮胎表面的磨擦阻力来达到防滑目的。采用章鱼吸盘原理,从轮胎花纹防滑特点和仿生学基本原理入手,是进行轮胎花纹设计的一个新的尝试。在综合考虑传统轮胎花纹设计与仿章鱼吸盘式轮胎布局优化基本要求的基础上,初步设计了五种方案,并归纳出设计公式,进而建立以距离为横坐标、有效面积为纵坐标的研究方法。最后,通过借助MATLAB仿真五种方案吸盘有效面积变化规律,表明仿章鱼吸盘的布局设计较为科学合理。%The traditional way to make tire be non-slip is to increase the friction of the tire surface. However, it is a new attempt to design tire pattern based on octopus suckers principle that starts with the pattern characteristics and bionics principle. On the basis of comprehensive consideration of the traditional pattern design and basic requirement of the optimized layout of sucker tires tread imitating octopus, we design five programs at first and sum up design formula to establish the research methods with X-axis of distance and Y-axis of the effective size. At last, with the aid of MATLAB, the change scenario laws of the effective area for five suckers are simulated, which shows that the layout design of octopus sucker imitating is more scientifically reasonable.

  6. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes: optimization towards neural stimulation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, David J; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Diamond is well known to possess many favourable qualities for implantation into living tissue including biocompatibility, biostability, and for some applications hardness. However, conducting diamond has not, to date, been exploited in neural stimulation electrodes due to very low electrochemical double layer capacitance values that have been previously reported. Here we present electrochemical characterization of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes grown in the presence of nitrogen (N-UNCD) that exhibit charge injection capacity values as high as 163 µC cm(-2) indicating that N-UNCD is a viable material for microelectrode fabrication. Furthermore, we show that the maximum charge injection of N-UNCD can be increased by tailoring growth conditions and by subsequent electrochemical activation. For applications requiring yet higher charge injection, we show that N-UNCD electrodes can be readily metalized with platinum or iridium, further increasing charge injection capacity. Using such materials an implantable neural stimulation device fabricated from a single piece of bio-permanent material becomes feasible. This has significant advantages in terms of the physical stability and hermeticity of a long-term bionic implant.

  7. Reduction of edge effect on disk electrodes by optimized current waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boshuo; Petrossians, Artin; Weiland, James D

    2014-08-01

    Rectangular pulses applied to disk electrodes result in high current density at the edges of the disk, which can lead to electrode corrosion and tissue damage. We explored a method for reducing current density and corrosion, by varying the leading edge of the current pulse. Finite-element modeling and mathematical analysis were used to predict an optimal waveform that reduces current density at the edge while also maintaining short pulse duration. An approximation of the optimized waveform was implemented experimentally and applied to platinum disk electrodes. Surface analysis using energy-dispersive spectroscopy showed significant reduction of corrosion on the periphery of these electrodes after pulsing, compared to those pulsed with the control rectangular waveform.

  8. Optimization of spin-coated electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Shayenne Diniz da; Monteiro, Natalia Kondo; Tabuti, Francisco; Fonseca, Fabio Coral, E-mail: shaynnedn@hotmail.com, E-mail: nataliakm@usp.br, E-mail: fntabuti@ipen.br, E-mail: fabiocf@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Florio, Daniel Zanetti de, E-mail: daniel.florio@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Electrodes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) were fabricated by spin coating. Strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode and nickel yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anodes were synthesized and processed for enhanced deposition conditions. The influence of electrode microstructural parameters was investigated by a systematic experimental procedure aiming at optimized electrochemical performance of single cells. Polarization curves showed a strong dependence on both electrode thickness and sintering temperature. By a systematic control of such parameters, the performance of single cells was significantly enhanced due to decreasing of polarization resistance from 26 Ω cm² to 0.6 Ω cm² at 800°C. The results showed that spin-coated electrodes can be optimized for fast and cost effective fabrication of SOFCs. (author)

  9. Quasi-Monopolar Stimulation: A Novel Electrode Design Configuration for Performance Optimization of a Retinal Neuroprosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In retinal neuroprostheses, spatial interaction between electric fields from various electrodes - electric crosstalk - may occur in multielectrode arrays during simultaneous stimulation of the retina. Depending on the electrode design and placement, this crosstalk can either enhance or degrade the functional characteristics of a visual prosthesis. To optimize the device performance, a balance must be satisfied between the constructive interference of crosstalk on dynamic range and power consu...

  10. Integrated Method for Optimizing Connection Layout and Cable Selection for an Internal Network of a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wędzik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An internal network of a wind farm is similar to a wide network structure. Wind turbines are deployed over a vast area, and cable lines used to interconnect them may have lengths reaching tens of kilometres. The cost of constructing such a network is a major component of the entire investment. Therefore, it is advisable to develop a configuration of such a farm’s internal connections which will minimise the cost, while complying with technical requirements even at the design stage. So far this has usually been done within two independent processes. At first the network structure ensuring the shortest possible connections between the turbines is determined. Then appropriate cables compliant with technical regulations are selected for the specified structure. But does this design approach ensure the optimal (lowest investment cost? This paper gives an answer to this question. A method for accomplishing the task given in the title is presented. Examples of calculations are presented and results are compared for the two methods of optimal wind farm internal connection structure design and cable cross-section dimensioning: two-stage and integrated. The usefulness of employing the Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MNLP method in the process of determining the optimal structure of a wind farm’s cable network is demonstrated.

  11. Influence and optimization of the electrodes position in a piezoelectric energy harvesting flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeirua, Miguel; Doaré, Olivier; Michelin, Sébastien

    2015-06-01

    Fluttering piezoelectric plates may harvest energy from a fluid flow by converting the plate's mechanical deformation into electric energy in an output circuit. This work focuses on the influence of the arrangement of the piezoelectric electrodes along the plate's surface on the energy harvesting efficiency of the system, using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations. A weakly nonlinear model of a plate in axial flow, equipped with a discrete number of piezoelectric patches is derived and confronted to experimental results. Numerical simulations are then used to optimize the position and dimensions of the piezoelectric electrodes. These optimal configurations can be understood physically in the limit of small and large electromechanical coupling.

  12. Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells for generating power or treating domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-03-01

    Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact, multiple-electrode designs. Two possible configurations are a separator electrode assembly (SEA) or closely spaced electrodes (SPA) that lack a separator. It is shown here that the optimal configuration depends on whether the goal is power production or rate of wastewater treatment. SEA MFCs produced a 16% higher maximum power density (328 ± 11 mW m-2) than SPA MFCs (282 ± 29 mW m-2), and higher coulombic efficiencies (SEAs, 9-31%; SPAs, 2-23%) with domestic wastewater. However, treatment was accomplished in only 12 h with the SPA MFC, compared to 36 h with the SEA configuration. Ohmic resistance was not a main factor in performance as this component contributed only 4-7% of the total internal resistance. Transport simulations indicated that hindered oxygen diffusion into the SEA reactor was the primary reason for the increased treatment time. However, a reduction in the overall rate of substrate diffusion also may contribute to the long treatment time with the SEA reactor. These results suggest that SEA designs can more effectively capture energy from wastewater, but SPA configurations will be superior in terms of treatment efficiency due to a greatly reduced time needed for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quasi-monopolar stimulation: a novel electrode design configuration for performance optimization of a retinal neuroprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Khalili Moghadam

    Full Text Available In retinal neuroprostheses, spatial interaction between electric fields from various electrodes - electric crosstalk - may occur in multielectrode arrays during simultaneous stimulation of the retina. Depending on the electrode design and placement, this crosstalk can either enhance or degrade the functional characteristics of a visual prosthesis. To optimize the device performance, a balance must be satisfied between the constructive interference of crosstalk on dynamic range and power consumption and its negative effect on artificial visual acuity. In the present computational modeling study, we have examined the trade-off in these positive and negative effects using a range of currently available electrode array configurations, compared to a recently proposed stimulation strategy - the quasi monopolar (QMP configuration - in which the return current is shared between local bipolar guards and a distant monopolar electrode. We evaluate the performance of the QMP configuration with respect to the implantation site and electrode geometry parameters. Our simulation results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of QMP are only significant at electrode-to-cell distances greater than the electrode dimensions. Possessing a relatively lower activation threshold, QMP was found to be superior to the bipolar configuration in terms of providing a relatively higher visual acuity. However, the threshold for QMP was more sensitive to the topological location of the electrode in the array, which may need to be considered when programming the manner in which electrode are simultaneously activated. This drawback can be offset with a wider dynamic range and lower power consumption of QMP. Furthermore, the ratio of monopolar return current to total return can be used to adjust the functional performance of QMP for a given implantation site and electrode parameters. We conclude that the QMP configuration can be used to improve visual information

  14. Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Seyhmus; Dannhauer, Moritz; Erem, Burak; Macleod, Rob; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) aims to alter brain function non-invasively via electrodes placed on the scalp. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large patch electrodes to deliver electrical current to the brain region of interest (ROI). Recent studies have shown that using dense arrays containing up to 512 smaller electrodes may increase the precision of targeting ROIs. However, this creates a need for methods to determine effective and safe stimulus patterns as the number of degrees of freedom is much higher with such arrays. Several approaches to this problem have appeared in the literature. In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating optimal electrode stimulus patterns for targeted and directional modulation in dense array tDCS which differs in some important aspects with methods reported to date. Approach. We optimize stimulus pattern of dense arrays with fixed electrode placement to maximize the current density in a particular direction in the ROI. We impose a flexible set of safety constraints on the current power in the brain, individual electrode currents, and total injected current, to protect subject safety. The proposed optimization problem is convex and thus efficiently solved using existing optimization software to find unique and globally optimal electrode stimulus patterns. Main results. Solutions for four anatomical ROIs based on a realistic head model are shown as exemplary results. To illustrate the differences between our approach and previously introduced methods, we compare our method with two of the other leading methods in the literature. We also report on extensive simulations that show the effect of the values chosen for each proposed safety constraint bound on the optimized stimulus patterns. Significance. The proposed optimization approach employs volume based ROIs, easily adapts to different sets of safety constraints, and takes negligible time to compute. An in-depth comparison study gives

  15. Structural optimization of 3D porous electrodes for high-rate performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchao; Baumgaertel, Andreas C; Wang, Y Morris; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M

    2015-02-24

    Much progress has recently been made in the development of active materials, electrode morphologies and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Well-defined studies on size effects of the three-dimensional (3D) electrode architecture, however, remain to be rare due to the lack of suitable material platforms where the critical length scales (such as pore size and thickness of the active material) can be freely and deterministically adjusted over a wide range without affecting the overall 3D morphology of the electrode. Here, we report on a systematic study on length scale effects on the electrochemical performance of model 3D np-Au/TiO2 core/shell electrodes. Bulk nanoporous gold provides deterministic control over the pore size and is used as a monolithic metallic scaffold and current collector. Extremely uniform and conformal TiO2 films of controlled thickness were deposited on the current collector by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our experiments demonstrate profound performance improvements by matching the Li(+) diffusivity in the electrolyte and the solid state through adjusting pore size and thickness of the active coating which, for 200 μm thick porous electrodes, requires the presence of 100 nm pores. Decreasing the thickness of the TiO2 coating generally improves the power performance of the electrode by reducing the Li(+) diffusion pathway, enhancing the Li(+) solid solubility, and minimizing the voltage drop across the electrode/electrolyte interface. With the use of the optimized electrode morphology, supercapacitor-like power performance with lithium-ion-battery energy densities was realized. Our results provide the much-needed fundamental insight for the rational design of the 3D architecture of lithium ion battery electrodes with improved power performance.

  16. Optimizing clinical performance and geometrical robustness of a new electrode device for intracranial tumor electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Gehl, Julie

    2011-01-01

    and genes to intracranial tumors in humans, and demonstrate a method to optimize the design (i.e. geometry) of the electrode device prototype to improve both clinical performance and geometrical tolerance (robustness). We have employed a semiempirical objective function based on constraints similar to those...

  17. Optimizing clinical performance and geometrical robustness of a new electrode device for intracranial tumor electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Gehl, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Current technology has limited applicability for electroporation based treatment of deep-seated tumors, and is in general, not optimized in terms of compliance with clinically relevant parameters. Here we present a novel electrode device developed for electrotransfer of antineoplastic drugs...

  18. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2015-09-18

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. As layout we consider a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important for digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate the layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm to automatically detect constraints. In our results, we evaluate the proposed framework on a variety of input layouts from different applications, which demonstrates our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  19. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  20. Transparent electrode designs based on optimal nano-patterning of metallic films

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.

    2010-09-10

    Transparent conductive electrodes are critical to the operation of optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes. Effective electrodes need to combine excellent electrical and optical properties. Metal oxides, such as indium tin oxide, are commonly used. There is substantial interest in replacing them, however, motivated by practical problems and recent discoveries regarding the optics of nano-patterned metals. When designing nano-patterned metallic films for use as electrodes, one needs to account for both optical and electrical properties. In general, it is insufficient to optimize nano-structured films based upon optical properties alone, since structural variations will also affect the electrical properties. In this work, we investigate the need for simultaneous optical and electrical performance by analyzing the optical properties of a class of nano-patterned metallic electrodes that is obtained by a constant-sheet-resistance transformation. Within such a class the electrical and optical properties can be separated, i.e., the sheet resistance can be kept constant and the transmittance can be optimized independently. For simple one-dimensional periodic patterns with constant sheet-resistance, we find a transmission maximum (polarization-averaged) when the metal sections are narrow (< 40 nm, ~ 10% metal fill-factor) and tall (> 100 nm). Our design carries over to more complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns. This is significant as there are no previous reports regarding numerical studies on the optical and electrical properties of 2D nano-patterns in the context of electrode design.

  1. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  2. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  3. Innervation zones location and optimal electrodes position of obliquus internus and obliquus externus abdominis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    The assessment of abdominal muscles has became popular in recent years because the study of "core muscles" is now considered a pivotal approach for a number of fields. The purpose of this study was to describe the innervation zone (IZ) locations and optimal electrode sites in two core muscles: the obliquus externus (OE) and the obliquus internus (OI) abdominis muscles. Twenty healthy male subjects were recruited and the IZ location was studied during a submaximal isometric contraction using multichannel surface EMG. The optimal electrode position for OI was found to be 2cm lower the most prominent point of the anterior superior iliac spine, just medial and superior to the inguinal ligament. The optimal electrode position for OE was found to be 14cm from the median line, lower the level of 1cm above umbilicus, parallel to the line extending from the most inferior point of the costal margin to the opposite pubic tubercle (almost 45° with respect to the median line). Findings showed that for OI and OE muscles it is possible to provide indications for a muscle belly area suited for proper positioning of at least an electrode pair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays for impedance based evaluation of Hs 578T cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frank, Jr.; Price, Dorielle T.; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the effect of electrode width and spacing of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for impedance-based cancer detection and characterization. IDEs are desired for bioimpedance measurements because their fabrication process is simple and inexpensive, and the geometry presents a potential for improved sensitivity over other microelectrode designs. Optimizing the geometry will eliminate this problem and increase the sensitivity of these devices for bioimpedance measurement applications. This paper evaluates the effect of IDE geometry on the sensitivity of breast cancer cell impedance measurements. Equivalent circuit data analysis was conducted to quantify and characterize the cells.

  5. 基于SLP的舰船膳食系统布置优化研究%Optimization research of dietary system facility layout of ship based on SLP method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥瑞

    2015-01-01

     为降低舰船膳食系统作业成本,提高作业效率,文章以物料移动距离最小为目标,利用系统设计布置法(SLP)优化舰船膳食系统布置。通过分析系统内部各个作业单位间的物流与非物流相关关系,得到最优布置方案,并用Flexsim仿真软件对该方案进行仿真评价,验证其实用性及有效性。结果表明,该布置方案能有效降低物流成本,提高作业效率。%To decrease the operation cost of dietary system of ship and increase operation effciency, systematic layout planning method was used to optimize the dietary system facility layout aiming at achieving the least transport amount. Integrating the logistic and non-logistic relationships of the operation unit, an optimal project of facility layout was obtained. And then Flexsim simulation model was used to check the practicality and effciency of the project. The result indicated that the optimal project can decrease logistic cost validly and increase operation effciency obviously.

  6. Approach to Double-row Facility Layout Optimization Problems by Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的多目标双行车间布局改善方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛占文; 刘晗

    2014-01-01

    在原有布局的基础之上,对双行布局车间进行布局改善。建模过程中,以物料搬运成本、改善过程中产生的设备移动成本,以及基于生产节拍的效率成本作为目标,同时考虑到了车间中的通道和各设备的搬运出入点,应用遗传算法进行求解,并进行了适应度函数的尺度变换以避免早熟。通过实例演示了该布局方法的操作过程及有效性。%The double-row facility layout was optimized on the basis of the original layout of the plant .The objects of the optimization problem contained the costs of material handling , facility re-location and the efficiency based on the Tact Time . The aisle and the pick-up and drop-off locations were considered in the modeling process .The genetic algorithm was applied in the optimization and the scaling of the fitness function was transformed in avoiding the premature convergence .A real produc-tion instance was calculated by this facility layout method and the efficiency of the method was proved .

  7. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broncová, Gabriela; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Krondak, Martin; Volf, Radko; Král, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements with citrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal background electrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodes described here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with a low detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid and acetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of citrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes are presented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillary electrophoresis. PMID:27879724

  8. Ni/YSZ electrodes structures optimized for increased electrolysis performance and durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Brodersen, Karen; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    ) the three phases (Ni, YSZ and pore phase) shall be size-matched and well-dispersed. Applying such microstructure optimized Ni/YSZ electrode we show SOEC test results with long-term degradation rate as low as 0.3-0.4%/kh at - 1 A/cm2, 800 °C and inlet gas mixture of p(H2O)/p(H2):90/10. This enables SOEC...... and the resulting electrochemical performance both initially and during long-term electrolysis testing at high current density and high p(H2O) inlet. Especially, this work focuses on microstructure optimization to hinder Ni mobility and migration during long-term operation and illustrates the key-role of electrode...... over-potential on the degradation of the Ni/YSZ electrodes in SOEC. We find that for long-term stability for electrolysis at high current densities and high p(H2O) the as-produced NiO/YSZ precursor electrode should be: 1) As dense as possible, 2) as fine particle and pore sized as possible and 3...

  9. Electrode optimization for bulk acoustic wave resonators based on ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, Gerardo Francisco [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Electrical Engineering Department, Avenida IPN No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Morales-Acevedo, Arturo, E-mail: amorales@solar.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Electrical Engineering Department, Avenida IPN No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    In this study we have employed a one-dimensional transfer matrix method to obtain the input electrical impedance (Z{sub in}) for a four layer (metal/piezoelectric/metal/substrate) thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR). The input electrical impedance was calculated taking into account the electromechanical properties of the ZnO thin films, the metal used for the contacts and the silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) supporting layer in order to calculate the electromechanical effective coupling coefficient k{sub eff} and the quality factor of the device (Q{sub D}). We use a figure of merit (FOM) defined as the product of k{sub eff}{sup 2}xQ{sub D} to optimize both parameters simultaneously for their use in microwave band-pass filters. In this analysis, several metals were employed as electrodes in the FBAR device, and we have found that for gold we obtain a higher value for the FOM than for aluminum, copper or silver. In this case, the optimal metal thickness is around 0.15 {mu}m. In addition, the calculated values show that for copper and silver electrodes the FOM is smaller but close to that obtained for gold. Then, copper or electrodes can substitute aluminum electrodes for achieving low cost filters with good electrical performance.

  10. Layout optimization for wireless sensor network based on chaotic fruit fly algorithm%基于混沌果蝇算法的 WSN 优化布局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐跃州; 张欣

    2015-01-01

    For the low coverage of intelligent algorithm in wireless sensor network and the high algorithm complexity,a simple and efficient algorithm of chaotic fruit fly was proposed.The optimization of fruit fly algorithm was used to guide node layout for sensor network,a chaotic disturbance factor was randomly generated based on the ergodicity of chaotic search,and chaotic per-turbations were used before every time fruit flies group evolved to make fruit flies group quickly jump out of local optimization to do global search.Results of analysis and simulation show that the complexity,the convergence rate,and the convergence preci-sion of the chaotic fruit fly algorithm are far superior to leapfrog and virtual force algorithm.It has better network coverage and it is more close to the theory of extreme value.%针对无线传感器网络智能算法覆盖率低、算法复杂度高的问题,提出一种简单、高效的混沌果蝇算法。根据果蝇算法的寻优性,指导传感器网络节点布局,利用混沌优化的遍历性,随机生成一个混沌扰动因子,在每次果蝇群进化前进行混沌扰动,使果蝇群能迅速跳出局部寻优,进行全局搜索。分析和仿真结果表明,混沌果蝇算法的复杂度、收敛速度和收敛精度远优于蛙跳和虚拟力算法,具有更好的网络覆盖率,接近于理论极值。

  11. Influence and optimization of the electrodes position in a piezoelectric energy harvesting flag

    CERN Document Server

    Piñeirua, Miguel; Michelin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Fluttering piezoelectric plates may harvest energy from a fluid flow by converting the plate's mechanical deformation into electric energy in an output circuit. This work focuses on the influence of the arrangement of the piezoelectric electrodes along the plate's surface on the energy harvesting efficiency of the system, using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations. A weakly non-linear model of a plate in axial flow, equipped with a discrete number of piezoelectric patches is derived and confronted to experimental results. Numerical simulations are then used to optimize the position and dimensions of the piezoelectric electrodes. These optimal configurations can be understood physically in the limit of small and large electromechanical coupling.

  12. Vibration optimization of ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes is presented in this paper to demonstrate the existence of a nearly uniform displacement distribution at the central part of this typical resonator. The variational formulation based on two-dimensional scalar differential equations provides a theoretical foundation for the Ritz method adopted in our analysis. The resonant frequencies and vibration distributions for the thickness-extensional modes of this ring electrode resonator are obtained. The structural parameters are optimized to achieve a more uniform displacement distribution and therefore a uniform mass sensitivity, which guarantee the high accuracy and repeatable measurement for sensor detection in an air or a liquid environment. These results provide a fundamental reference for the design and optimization of the high quality sensor.

  13. Rotating disk potentiometry for inner solution optimization of low-detection-limit ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Aleksandar; Telting-Diaz, Martin; Bakker, Eric

    2003-12-15

    The extent of optimization of the lower detection limit of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) can be assessed with an elegant new method. At the detection limit (i.e., in the absence of primary ions in the sample), one can observe a reproducible change in the membrane potential upon alteration of the aqueous diffusion layer thickness. This stir effect is predicted to depend on the composition of the inner solution, which is known to influence the lower detection limit of the potentiometric sensor dramatically. For an optimized electrode, the stir effect is calculated to be exactly one-half the value of the case when substantial coextraction occurs at the inner membrane side. In contrast, there is no stir effect when substantial ion exchange occurs at the inner membrane side. Consequently, this experimental method can be used to determine how well the inner filling solution has been optimized. A rotating disk electrode was used in this study because it provides adequate control of the aqueous diffusion layer thickness. Various ion-selective membranes with a variety of inner solutions that gave different calculated concentrations of the complex at the inner membrane side were studied to evaluate this principle. They contained the well-examined silver ionophore O,O' '-bis[2-(methylthio)ethyl]-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, the potassium ionophore valinomycin, or the iodide carrier [9]mercuracarborand-3. Stir effects were determined in different background solutions and compared to theoretical expectations. Correlations were good, and the results encourage the use of such stir-effect measurements to optimize ISE compositions for real-world applications. The technique was also found to be useful in estimating the level of primary ion impurities in the sample. For an iodide-selective electrode measured in phosphoric acid, for example, apparent iodide impurity levels were calculated as 5 x 10(-10) M.

  14. A REDESIGN LAYOUT TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentia Kitriastika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This project is conducted in Company X, a passenger cars wheel producing company located in Sunter, North Jakarta. With a view of increasing the productivity of the company, the focus of this project will be redesigned the layout of the factory. The main problem encountered is that the goods are not produced in single location, causing a considerable hindrance in terms of time and distance, and hence efficiency. The redesigning layout process will use SLP method and flow analysis while supported by analysis of assembly line balancing to optimize the layout. Regarding the evaluation process, ARENA software will be used to simulate and identify the bottleneck in the production process, and comparing the layout alternatives to decide the best layout. The best chosen layout according to the simulation and SLP method that supported with flow analysis and assembly line balancing will be used as the master draft layout that will be proposed to Company X.

  15. Research on Optimization of Warehouse Layout Based on SLP Method:A Case Study of Warehouse Management Optimization of Company A%基于SLP方法的仓库布局优化研究--以A公司仓储管理优化为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊立华; 徐嘉

    2016-01-01

    In the case of warehouse management optimization of company A, this paper uses the SLP method to optimize the warehouse layout, optimal moving path, and shorten the transportation distance.%以A公司仓储部为例,运用SLP方法对仓库布局进行优化,优化搬运路径,缩短发货时的搬运距离。

  16. Design and Development on Intelligent Layout System of Stamping Blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjuan Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal layout of stamping blanks is a complicated problem under the control of multi-circumstances, and it cannot be best solved by any single algorithm. In order to solve this problem, the paper proposed a new kind of algorithm combining CHNN and genetic algorithm. It set up models for irregular parts, and these irregular parts were processed by using the surrounding rectangle methods and graphic composition. The paper used AutoCAD as a develop studio, and discussed CHNN and its mapping to layout and optimize the weight of CHNN by genetic algorithm. The kernel program adopted VB program language and developed the intelligent layout system. With the input of layout parts graphics and layout parameter, the system preprocessed graphics and gave layout results automatically. Sample analysis showed the results that the system had good man-machine interfaces, interactive features, high speed and quality retention of solution.

  17. Calculating and optimizing inter-electrode capacitances of charge division microchannel plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: chenb@ciomp.ac.cn [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang, Hong-Ji; Wang, Hai-Feng; He, Ling-Ping [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Jin, Fang-Yuan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Based on the principle of charge division microchannel plate detectors, the inter-electrode capacitances of charge division anodes which are related to electronic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier and crosstalk effect of the anode are presented. Under all the requirements of charge division microchannel plate detectors such as the imaging linearity and spatial resolution, decreasing the inter-electrode capacitances is one way to improve the imaging performance. In this paper, we illustrate the simulation process of calculating the inter-electrode capacitances. Moreover, a Wedge and Strip (WSZ) anode is fabricated with the picosecond laser micromachining process. Comparing the simulated capacitances and measured capacitances, the three-dimensional finite element method is proved to be valid. Furthermore, by adjusting the design parameters of the anode, the effects of the substrate permittivity, insulation width and the size of pitch on the inter-electrode capacitances have been analysed. The structure of the charge division anode has been optimized based on the simulation data.

  18. Creation of Warehouse Models for Different Layout Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Mirko; Lukić, Ivica; Nenadić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Warehouse is one of the most important components in logistics of the supply chain network. Efficiency of warehouse operations is influenced by many different factors. One of the key factors is the racks layout configuration. A warehouse with good racks layout may significantly reduce the cost of warehouse servicing. The objective of this paper is to give a scheme for building warehouses models with one-block and two-block layout for future research in warehouse optimization. An algorithm ...

  19. 基于LINGO软件的医院科室布局优化方法探讨%Discussion on the Optimizing Method of the Hospital Department Layout Based on LINGO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓华; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨医院科室合理布局的方法,重新调整各业务科室用房布局。方法将医院科室布局规划问题作为二次指派问题进行研究,使用LINGO软件进行科室布局优化求解并进行结果分析。结果按照优化求解进行布局重新分配后,医院科室配置效率得到提高。结论合理规划医院科室布局,有利于为患者提供更加便利和安全的服务,从整体上提高医院的运行效率。%Objective To discuss rational distribution methods of hospital departments, and re-adjust the layout of each department. Methods Studied on the hospital departments layout planning problem as the quadratic assignment problem, and analyzed the results for layout optimization using the LINGO software. Results After re-distribution of hospital departments, the hospital department allocation efficiency was improved. Conclusion Rational distribution of hospital departments is beneifcial to provide convenient and safe service to patients, and improve the operation efifciency of the hospital.

  20. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis.

  1. Fabrication and Optimization of a Nanoporous Platinum Electrode and a Non-enzymatic Glucose Micro-sensor on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghun Kim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal conditions for fabrication of nanoporous platinum (Pt were investigated in order to use it as a sensitive sensing electrode for silicon CMOS integrable non-enzymatic glucose micro-sensor applications. Applied charges, voltages, and temperatures were varied during the electroplating of Pt into the formed nonionic surfactant C16EO8 nano-scaled molds in order to fabricate nanoporous Pt electrodes with large surface roughness factor (RF, uniformity, and reproducibility. The fabricated nanoporous Pt electrodes were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM and electrochemical cyclic voltammograms. Optimal electroplating conditions were determined to be an applied charge of 35 mC/mm2, a voltage of -0.12 V, and a temperature of 25 °C, respectively. The optimized nanoporous Pt electrode had an electrochemical RF of 375 and excellent reproducibility. The optimized nanoporous Pt electrode was applied to fabricate non-enzymatic glucose micro-sensor with three electrode systems. The fabricated sensor had a size of 3 mm x 3 mm, air gap of 10 µm, working electrode (WE area of 4.4 mm2, and sensitivity of 37.5 µA•L/mmol•cm2. In addition, it showed large detection range from 0.05 to 30 mmolL-1 and stable recovery responsive to the step changes in glucose concentration.

  2. 制造业半成品备料区布局与物流优化研究%Manufacturing Semi-finished Product Preparation Area Layout and Logistics Optimization Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 张易涛

    2013-01-01

      要:以卡莱公司为例,针对该企业半成品备料区的布局状况,指出生产物流存在的问题,提出具体优化布局策略。利用工业工程改善工具对备料区域的布局与物流路线进行优化,通过对比改善前后的物料搬运距离、费用、耗用工时等相关指标发现,此次改善有效地解决了半成品备料布置问题,提高了生产效率,优化了生产流程,节约了成本。%In order to Carlisle company as an example, for the semi-finished material staging area situation, point out production logistics problems, put forward specific optimization layout strategy. Use of industrial engineering to improve the tools on the preparation area distribution and logistics route optimization, by comparing the improved material handling distance, cost, consumption of time related indexes were found, the improvement can effectively solve the semi-finished stock layout problem, improves the production efficiency, optimize the production process, saving the cost.

  3. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kjær, Daniel; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2017-01-01

    to the pilot production phase. This will require an improvement in the repeatability of the CIPT metrology technique. Here, we present an analytical model that can be used to simulate numerically the repeatability of a CIPT measurement for an arbitrary MTJ stack prior to any CIPT measurement. The model...... describes mathematically the main sources of error arising when a micro multi-electrode probe is used to perform a CIPT measurement. The numerically simulated repeatability values obtained on four different MTJ stacks are verified by experimental data and the model is used to optimize the choice...

  4. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, A.; Kjær, D.; Østerberg, F. W.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, P. F.; Petersen, D. H.

    2017-02-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for magnetic random access memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from the R&D phase to the pilot production phase. This will require an improvement in the repeatability of the CIPT metrology technique. Here, we present an analytical model that can be used to simulate numerically the repeatability of a CIPT measurement for an arbitrary MTJ stack prior to any CIPT measurement. The model describes mathematically the main sources of error arising when a micro multi-electrode probe is used to perform a CIPT measurement. The numerically simulated repeatability values obtained on four different MTJ stacks are verified by experimental data and the model is used to optimize the choice of electrodes on a multi-electrode probe to reach up to 36% improvement on the repeatability for the resistance area product and the tunneling magnetoresistance measurement, without any hardware modification.

  5. Economics of wind farm layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, A.C. [Wind Energy Resource Specialist, Oakland, CA (United States); Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The life cycle cost of energy (COE) is the primary determinant of the economic viability of a wind energy generation facility. The cost of wind turbines and associated hardware is counterbalanced by the energy which can be generated. This paper focuses on the turbine layout design process, considering the cost and energy capture implications of potential spacing options from the viewpoint of a practicing project designer. It is argued that lateral spacings in the range of 1.5 to 5 diameters are all potentially optimal, but only when matched to wind resource characteristics and machine design limits. The effect of wakes on energy capture is quantified while the effect on turbine life and maintenance cost is discussed qualitatively. Careful optimization can lower COE and project designers are encouraged to integrate the concepts in project designs.

  6. Layout optimization of rural settlements based on point-axis theory%基于点轴理论的农村居民点布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雪松; 金璐璐; 郄昱; 张怡然; 徐媛

    2014-01-01

    为合理确定农村居民点整治范围和布局优化方向,揭示农村居民点布局的点-轴空间作用机制。该文系统分析了村镇增长极点(城镇、中心村和基层村)与发展轴(道路)对农村居民点规划布局的空间作用机制,引入空间引力修正模型,测算村镇之间的相互作用值,采用加权Voronoi图划分各增长极点空间作用范围,结合道路与地形对农村居民点的综合作用,构建面向点-轴空间作用的农村居民点布局优化体系。研究以大冶市大箕铺镇为例进行实证研究,通过点-轴空间综合作用分析与测算,将大箕铺镇农村居民点用地空间划分为城镇化型、内部改造型、迁村并点型(包括中心村建设、村中心建设)3种模式;通过不同优化模式的空间引导与整合,实现村镇层次农村居民点科学规划与合理布局。%A rural settlement, with the spatial characteristics of point distribution and axis development, is an important land-use type that refers to construction in rural areas in China. Growth points (including town, key village and basic-level village) and development axis (including roads and river systems) play an important role in spatial optimization of rural settlements. To study the effects of point-axis on arranging the spatial layout of rural settlements, this paper analyzed the spatial action of point-axis on rural settlements using an improved gravity model. Three indexes, including population, gross domestic product, and development index of enterprise, were selected to calculate the gravity values among villages. The weights for population, gross domestic product, and development index of enterprise in the gravity model are 0.297, 0.540, and 0.163, respectively. The spatial gravity matrix of the villages was acquired using the gravity model. Five village groups were constructed and a key town, four key villages, and nineteen basic-level villages were

  7. Optimization of electrode geometry and piezoelectric layer thickness of a deformable mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nováková Kateřina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deformable mirrors are the most commonly used wavefront correctors in adaptive optics systems. Nowadays, many applications of adaptive optics to astronomical telescopes, high power laser systems, and similar fast response optical devices require large diameter deformable mirrors with a fast response time and high actuator stroke. In order to satisfy such requirements, deformable mirrors based on piezoelectric layer composite structures have become a subject of intense scientific research during last two decades. In this paper, we present an optimization of several geometric parameters of a deformable mirror that consists of a nickel reflective layer deposited on top of a thin lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoelectric disk. Honeycomb structure of gold electrodes is deposited on the bottom of the PZT layer. The analysis of the optimal thickness ratio between the PZT and nickel layers is performed to get the maximum actuator stroke using the finite element method. The effect of inter-electrode distance on the actuator stroke and influence function is investigated. Applicability and manufacturing issues are discussed.

  8. 城市轨道交通物资总库布点优化平台研究%Study on Platform for Material Warehouses Layout Optimization in Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小华

    2015-01-01

    根据城市轨道交通物资配送的特点,研究建立了城市轨道交通物资总库布点优化计算平台系统,平台通过对百度地图A P I(应用程序接口)二次开发进行配送路径的规划,结合层次聚类算法能够快速地进行物资总库布局的优化计算,实践证明该平台具有良好的适应性和应用推广价值。%According to the characteristics of urban rail transit materials supply and distribution, the paper studies and sets up the layout optimization and calculation platform system for urban rail transit materials warehouses. The platform makes further secondary development of Baidu map API (Application Programming Interface) for the distribution path planning, and the hierarchical clustering algorithm can quickly compute total material warehouses layout optimization. The practice proves that the platform has good adaptability and application value.

  9. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-12-19

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  10. 改进PSO的飞机驾驶舱组合排序人机布局优化%Airplane cockpit ergonomic layout optimization based on improved PSO algorithm combining grouping and ranking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕; 余隋怀; 初建杰; 姚澜; 张婉玉; 赵明磊

    2015-01-01

    The process of the airplane cockpit ergonomic layout optimization has particularity and complexity, it is necessary to propose a proper method to optimize and to improve efficiency. Based on the principle of grouping and ranking as well as the multi-objective optimization method, to find the optimal values of highly nonlinear functions and to avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions only, the particle swarm optimization and the improved are adapted at the first time to develop the new method of the ergonomic layout optimization in three-dimension which is suitable for our country pilots. Firstly, since the number of facilities to be arranged is large, based on Kendall’s W, the groups and sequences of them are deter-mined approximately. Secondly, the optimal values are found by sequence to set up the most optimal scheme by compromise. The improved particle swarm optimization is compared with some typical optimization methods, such as the basic one. Lastly, the computer simulation is used, and the optimized solution is analyzed and compared to the original one by JACK. The results indicate that the airplane cockpit ergonomic layout optimization method is feasible and effective.%飞机驾驶舱在人机布局优化过程中具有显著的特殊性和较高的复杂性,因而有必要采取合适的优化程序和优化方法以提高优化效率。利用组合排序方法,结合多目标优化问题的求解思路,建立了高度非线性的目标函数,为避免陷入局部最优,将粒子群算法首次引入飞机驾驶舱的三维布局分析中,并引用改进粒子群算法,提出了适合我国飞行员标准的人机布局优化新方法。由于待布物数量较多,基于Kendall’s W确定了待布物的大致组合排序;利用改进粒子群算法依次求得待布物的最优解,彼此协调后,获得了优化布局新方案,并与基本粒子群算法等现有典型优化算法的优化效果进行了对比;对布局方案

  11. The Analysis of Tourism Transportation Network Layout and Optimizing Countermeasures in Yunnan Province%云南旅游交通网络空间布局与优化对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢晓峰; 梁斐雯; 陈方

    2012-01-01

    With the fast development of regional tourism rational network layout of tourism transportation has been considered as a support of quickly congregating and evacuating tourists and increase tourists' satisfaction. Based on analyzed connotation and present situation of tourism transportation network, the spatial layout characters of three kinds of tourism transportation network (aviation, highway and railway) have been exposed. Expatiated on the quantitative analysis of tourism transportation network accessibility form three accepts-distance, time and cost, specific spatial layout optimization methods of tourism transportation network have been put forward.%区域旅游产业的快速发展必然以交通作为支撑,合理的旅游交通网络布局能够快速集散客流并提高游客满意度。在分析旅游交通网络内涵的基础上,以云南省为例,对其旅游交通网络现状进行分析,揭示了现有航空、公路及铁路三种旅游交通网络的空间布局特征。从行程距离、时间和费用三个方面分别对云南省旅游交通网络可达性进行量化分析,并提出了具体的旅游交通网络空间布局优化方法。

  12. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-19

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  13. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  14. Electromagnetic analysis of optimal pumping of a microdisk laser with a ring electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhina, Anna S.; Spiridonov, Alexander O.; Karchevskii, Evgenii M.; Nosich, Alexander I.

    2017-01-01

    We study the lasing modes of microdisk lasers with ring-like electrodes or active regions, in two-dimensional (2-D) formulation. The considered eigenvalue problem is adapted to the extraction of both modal spectra and thresholds from the Maxwell equations with exact boundary conditions. We reduce it to a transcendental equation and solve it numerically. The obtained lasing frequencies and the associated values of threshold material gain of the ring-pumped laser are compared with similar quantities of the fully active microdisk. This comparison shows that the optimal position of the active ring is shifted inward from the disk rim. Its location and width can be used as an engineering instrument to manipulate the thresholds. This effect is explained using the optical theorem and overlap coefficients.

  15. Active Block Layout: A High Performance Block Layout Mechanism%Active Block Layout:一种高性能磁盘布局机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 卢显良; 罗光春; 韩宏; 魏青松

    2003-01-01

    The access frequency of different files in file system is dissimilar. If file system can optimize the block lay-out of these hot files which are frequently accessed,the performance of file system will be improved. This paper pre-sents a high performance block layout mechanism: Active Block Layout (ABL). ABL can record the access frequencyof every file in file system and actively optimize the block layout of these hot files by block duplicating. The duplicatedblocks can be placed in the special zone of track,which is called "Cooling Zone". ABL can automatically determine theplacing position and the copy count of the blocks which need to be duplicated. In order to reduce the overhead of blockduplication,this paper also presents a mechanism which uses the potential disk bandwidth to realize the block duplica-tion,and does not obviously degrade the performance of file system.

  16. Enhanced power generation in annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell via optimization of electrode spacing using chocolate industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Parisa; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2016-05-01

    Development and practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is restricted because of the limitations such as low power output. To overcome low power limitation, the optimization of specific parameters including electrode materials and surface area, electrode spacing, and MFC's cell shape was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation has been reported in the literature to implement an annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) using chocolate industry wastewater. ASCMFC was fabricated via optimization of the stated parameters. The aspects of ASCMFC were comprehensively examined. In this study, the optimization of electrode spacing and its impact on performance of the ASCMFC were conducted. Reduction of electrode spacing by 46.15% (1.3-0.7 cm) resulted in a decrease in internal resistance from 100 to 50 Ω, which enhanced the power density and current output to 22.898 W/m(3) and 6.42 mA, respectively. An optimum electrode spacing of 0.7 cm was determined. Through this paper, the effects of these parameters and the performance of ASCMFC are also evaluated. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Otimização do layout de marcenarias no sul do espírito santo baseado em parâmetros ergonômicos e de produtividade Layout optimization of joineries in southern espirito santo state based on ergonomic and productivity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado em três marcenarias no sul do Estado do Espírito Santo, com o objetivo de analisar o layout e propor mudanças que otimizem o funcionamento harmônico entre o local de trabalho e o trabalhador, considerando-se fatores ergonômicos, fluxo de produção e produtividade. A coleta de dados foi feita analisando-se as condições do ambiente de trabalho (clima, ruído, iluminação e aplicando uma entrevista para avaliar as condições gerais e de segurança no trabalho. O layout foi avaliado por medições, observação da sequência de trabalho nas máquinas e aplicação do software AutoCAD 2000. Os resultados indicaram que o Índice de Bulbo Úmido e o Termômetro de Globo estavam de acordo com a Norma Regulamentadora nº 15 (atividade moderada, sendo de 26,38 ºC, em média. Os níveis médios de ruído foram de 87,48 dB (A, acima do permitido para uma jornada de 8 h diárias (NR 15. A luminosidade média, encontrada em duas marcenarias, ficou acima da faixa de iluminação mínima recomendada para esse trabalho de maquinarias (NBR 5413/92. Todas as marcenarias tinham disposição desordenada do maquinário em razão da sequência lógica de trabalho, presença de pilastras e resíduos na área útil e de passagem, piso desnivelado, falta de rampas para acesso aos galpões, manutenção de máquinas e equipamentos de forma incorreta, falhas no telhado e ausência de bancadas para facilitar a adoção de uma melhor postura durante o manuseio das peças.This research was carried out in three joineries in southern Espírito Santo State to analyze their layout and consider changes to optimize the harmonious functioning between workplace and worker, considering ergonomic factors, production flow and productivity. Data bases were analyzed taking into account the work environment (climate, noise, illumination, through interviews to evaluate general and work safety conditions. The layout was evaluated by measurements, machine

  18. Analysis on the Optimized Layout Arrangement of Large-scale Pithead Power Plant%大型坑口电厂厂区总平面优化布置案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炯

    2015-01-01

    通过对某大型坑口电厂的厂区总平面优化布置进行分析后,认为应综合考虑煤矿井田位置、来煤方向、出线方向、规划容量、厂区地形地貌、地质条件等各种因素,做到经济、合理、安全、清洁生产。%According to the analysis of optimized layout arrangement of large-scale pithead power plant,it is proposed to take into account the factors including the minefield location,coal conveying line,outgoing direction,planned capacity and the land form to work economically,reasonably,safely and environmental-friendly.

  19. 面向装备健康状态监测的传感器布置优化研究%Study on layout optimization of sensor for equipment health condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    To improve the equipment health management level, layout optimization of condition monitoring sensor is studied. On the basis of analyzing main influencing factors, optimizes average comprehensive sensitivity of fault condition using sensor. Considering cost, fault rate and missed detection risk as constraint conditions, the ant colony algorithm is used to calculate the optimal solution. Optimization of type quantity and placement of sensor is realized, reliability of condition monitoring is improved, which lay a foundation for health management of equipment.%为了更好地对装备进行健康管理,从状态监测传感器布置优化的角度开展研究,在分析主要影响因素的基础上,利用传感器对故障状态的平均综合敏感度进行优化,同时考虑成本、故障率和漏检危害性作为约束条件,利用蚁群算法进行最优解的计算,实现传感器类型、数量和布点位置的优化,提高状态监测的可靠性,为装备健康管理奠定基础.

  20. Application of Spatial Optimization for the Layout of Villages: A Case Study of Three Villages in Tianliu Town%田柳镇三村村庄布局优化实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春德; 翟荣新; 朱晓伟; 平宗莉; 董涛

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:从村镇规划角度探索村庄布局优化的途径与模式。研究方法:理论分析与实践探索结合。研究结果:村庄布局优化既是土地利用结构和布局调整的重要组成部分,也是村镇体系规划和新农村建设规划的有机整体。研究区原有村庄闲置地、废弃地较多,亟需从空间上对村庄布局进行优化,确保用地集约高效。研究结论:实施三村并点,制定合理的拆迁安置办法,加强权属管理,加大资金扶持力度,以人为本充分考虑未来发展,为其他地区村庄布局优化提供了可供借鉴的范例。%The purpose of this study is to explore the measures context of village-level planning. Methods of theoretical analysis indicated that the spatial layout optimization of villages was not for the spatial optimization of villages" layout in the and practical application were integrated. The results only an important part of the adjustment of land use structure and layout, but also the essential component of the urban and village integrated planning as well as the planning for new-countryside development. There were many idle land and brown field in the case study areas. Therefore it is necessary to readjust the land use structure and reallocate the villages for intensive land use purpose. The paper concluded with some policy recommendation for the village relocation in the case study area, such as to design proper rules for the resettlement of farmers, to strengthen the management of property rights, to increase the budget support, to make a future development plan taking into account the human factors. It then may serve as a good reference for other areas.

  1. Layout and composition for animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghertner, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This essential, hands-on guide is filled with examples of what a composition should look like and example of poorly designed layouts. Spot potential problems before they cost time and money, and adapt creative solutions for your own projects with this invaluable resource for beginner and intermediate artists.  With Beauty and the Beast examples and Simpson character layouts, readers will learn how to develop character layout and background layout as well as strengthen composition  styles with a creative toolset of trick shot examples and inspirational case studies. A companion website will

  2. Out-Patient Clinical Laboratory Layout Design and Process Optimization%门诊临床实验室平面布局设计与流程优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 汪玉龙; 郝维敏; 杨晓春; 许婉秋; 蔡莉莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the layout design of out-patient clinical laboratory and the process optimization of chemical examination,and to improve our service capability and patient satisfaction. Methods Based on sector standards,studying the design of internal and abroad advanced experience of clinical laboratory ,meeting the need of out-patient clinical laboratory s function, to make patient more comfortable and thoroughly to embody the concept,that is the people-oriented,barrier-free communication, equal service,we make a design of the out-patient clinical laboratory layout and process. Results We have changed the situation in the past, that is unreasonable layout, unscientific window set, unsmooth process, crowded patient and low satisfaction. Moreover,a completely new out-patient clinical laboratory was designed which has scientific layout,smooth process,spacious and comfortable room and humanization. We also reach the goal of controlling bio-safety through scientific partition,safe and effective spatial isolation and the application of relevant bio-security facility. Conclusion As an important window to communicate doctors and patients,the scientific design of out-patient clinical laboratory layout and process directly determines its service capability and patients' reception.%目的 探讨科学合理的设计门诊临床实验室的平面布局及患者检验流程优化,以提高其服务能力和患者的满意度.方法 依据行业相关标准,学习国内外临床实验室设计先进经验,按照门诊实验室的功能需求,从改善患者就诊舒适度的角度,充分体现以人为本、沟通无障碍平等式服务的设计理念对门诊实验室的平面布局与流程进行设计.结果 改变过去平面布局不合理、窗口设置不科学、流程不顺畅、患者拥挤和满意度低的局面,规划设计了布局科学、流程顺畅、宽敞舒适、人性化的门诊实验室;并且通过科学分区、安全有效的空间隔离

  3. High Luminosity LHC matching section layout vs crab cavity voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Chance, A; De Maria, R; Fartoukh, S

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the HiLumi-LHC project we present a new possible variant for the layout of the LHC matching section located in the high luminosity insertions. This layout is optimized to reduce the demand on the voltage of the crab cavities, while substantially improving the optics squeeze-ability, both in ATS [1] and non-ATS mode. This new layout will be described in details together with its performance figures in terms of mechanical acceptance, chromatic properties and optics flexibility.

  4. 多式综合公交系统线网布局优化模型及仿真%Network layout optimization model of multi-modal comprehensive public transit system and simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周高卫; 罗霞

    2013-01-01

    结合综合公交中各式公交的适应性和服务阈值,兼顾出行者不同出行目的时间价值敏感性,建立了综合公交系统线网布局双层优化模型,上层是O-1数学规划模型,下层是用户平衡分配模型.同时,基于改进的IOA进行优化求解,克服了传统单式线网优化层次化不显著的缺陷,提高了布局优化过程求解效率.算例仿真结果表明:综合公交系统需求多样性在客观上决定综合公交系统线网的多元性和层次性,线网布局优化需考虑不同出行目的的时间价值特性,以提升系统速度和能力的连续性.同时,基于改进的IOA在多式综合公交系统线网布局优化的巨大搜索空间中可靠便捷地找到近似最优解,提高了计算效率.%In combination of the different transit mode' s adaptability and service threshold of the multi-modal comprehensive public transit system,this paper established the layout bi-level optimization model of comprehensive transit system, giving attention to the time value sensitivity of different trip purposes. The upper model was 0-1 mathematics programming model, while the lower model was the user equilibrium assignment model. Besides, this paper proposed solving algorithm based on the improved IOA, it adopted above algorithm to find solution of model which overcame the defects of lack of significant hierarchy and the consubstantial trend of traditional single mode network optimization and it improved the solving effect as well. Example simulation result shows that the diversity of comprehensive transit system demand objectively determines its network hierarchy and pluralism and the network layout optimization should consider different time value to improve the system speed and capacity continuity. The improved IOA can find the approximate best result in the huge search space of optimization, while greatly increases the computational efficiency.

  5. 风力机齿轮箱布局的多目标可靠性优化设计%Multi-objective reliability optimization design for wind turbine gear box layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗万兴; 潘柏松; 郑立君

    2012-01-01

    针对风力机齿轮箱布局设计中存在的问题,采用多目标可靠性优化设计方法,以风力机齿轮箱的箱体体积和齿轮体积最小化为设计目标,建立了风力机齿轮箱布局的多目标可靠性优化设计模型,分析比较了3种常见传动方案对风力机齿轮箱布局的影响,以某型号1.5MW风力机齿轮箱为例进行了优化分析.研究结果表明,采用该设计方法得到的齿轮箱箱体体积和齿轮体积加权和值比以齿轮体积为目标的单目标设计方法更低.同时,分析结果表明,提高输入转速可大大降低齿轮箱成本.%Aiming at the existing problem on layout design of wind turbine gear box, the multi-objective reliability optimization design method was used, the case size of wind turbine gear box and the volume of gears were regarded as objects, the model for wind turbine gear box layout design was established. The influence of three common transmission scheme in layout design of the wind turbine gear box was analyzed and compared. A 1.5 MW wind turbine gear box was performed as an example. The results indicate that the weight sum for the case size of wind turbine gear box and the volume of gears is lower than that under the design method of single object as gears volume. The analysis results show that increasing the rotate speed can reduce the cost of gear box significantly.

  6. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    The research and development carried out in this Ph.D. study focusses on two key areas of the design flow for analogue and mixed-signal integrated circuit design, the mixed-signal floorplanning and the analogue layout generation.A novel approach to floorplanning is presented which provides true...... flow.A new design flow for automated layout generation of general analogue integrated circuits is presented. The design flow provides an automated design path from a sized circuit schematic to the final layout containing the placed, but unrouted, devices of the circuit. The analogue circuit layout...... interactive floorplanning capabilities due to a new implementation variant of a Genetic Algorithm. True interactive floorplanning allows the designer to communicate with existing floorplans during optimization. By entering the "ideas" and expertise of the designer into the optimization algorithm the automated...

  7. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  8. SVM based layout retargeting for fast and regularized inverse lithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-sheng LUO; Zheng SHI; Xiao-lang YAN; Zhen GENG

    2014-01-01

    Inverse lithography technology (ILT), also known as pixel-based optical proximity correction (PB-OPC), has shown promising capability in pushing the current 193 nm lithography to its limit. By treating the mask optimization process as an inverse problem in lithography, ILT provides a more complete exploration of the solution space and better pattern fidelity than the tradi-tional edge-based OPC. However, the existing methods of ILT are extremely time-consuming due to the slow convergence of the optimization process. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a support vector machine (SVM) based layout retargeting method for ILT, which is designed to generate a good initial input mask for the optimization process and promote the convergence speed. Supervised by optimized masks of training layouts generated by conventional ILT, SVM models are learned and used to predict the initial pixel values in the‘undefined areas’ of the new layout. By this process, an initial input mask close to the final optimized mask of the new layout is generated, which reduces iterations needed in the following optimization process. Manu-facturability is another critical issue in ILT;however, the mask generated by our layout retargeting method is quite irregular due to the prediction inaccuracy of the SVM models. To compensate for this drawback, a spatial filter is employed to regularize the retargeted mask for complexity reduction. We implemented our layout retargeting method with a regularized level-set based ILT (LSB-ILT) algorithm under partially coherent illumination conditions. Experimental results show that with an initial input mask generated by our layout retargeting method, the number of iterations needed in the optimization process and runtime of the whole process in ILT are reduced by 70.8%and 69.0%, respectively.

  9. 基于景观安全格局的农村居民点用地布局优化%Layout optimization of rural residential land based on theory of landscape security pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文博; 刘友兆; 夏敏

    2014-01-01

    农村居民点用地布局优化不仅是农村土地整治的基础,也是新农村建设和实现美丽乡村的重要路径。该文以江苏省宜兴市为例,根据其经济发达、生态环境优越以及风景名胜众多的特点以及农村居民点用地特征,运用景观安全格局理论和最小累积阻力模型相结合的方法,分别从水土保持、生物多样性保护和风景名胜保护三方面构建单一景观安全格局,进而建立宜兴市农村居民点用地布局综合景观安全格局。通过与宜兴市农村居民点用地的叠加分析,针对不同景观安全水平的农村居民点提出不同的布局优化方向,将宜兴市农村居民点用地划分为优先整治型、限制扩展型、适度建设型、重点发展型4种类型,分析各类型现状特征并提出优化方案。研究结果强调农村居民点用地布局工作中生态环境和景观保护优先的思想,不仅为当地新农村建设提供理论支撑,而且为相关规划制定提供参考。%Rural residential land layout optimization not only provides a foundation for rural land consolidation, but also plays an important role in the New Countryside Construction and Beautiful Village programs. As an important land use type, rural residential land accounts for a large proportion of construction land in China. Numerous studies have shown that the layout of rural residential land is influenced by physical, economic and social factors, whose impacts vary across different regions. Yixing city, located in the developed southern region of Jiangsu province is chosen as the study area. As economic factors are no longer the dominant factors limiting rural residential land layout in Yixing city, other factors such as ecological preservation and scenic resources conservation exert more influence instead. According to the theory of landscape security pattern, some point elements, linear elements and surface elements in space play

  10. 高铁车站接触网景观结构优化布局%Optimal Layout of Landscape Structure of Overhead Contact System in Station of High-speed Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:高速铁路客运专线车站多采用大跨度、钢结构无站台柱雨棚及高架站房结构,接触网系统作为车站建筑结构的重要组成部分,其支持悬挂结构直接影响站房景观的整体协调、美观性,需充分分析其结构受力和牵引供电需求,并结合现场实际进行优化布局.研究结论:通过对已建高铁车站接触网景观结构布局分析,可以得出:在确保安全、可靠性的前提下,从其系统的轻型化、局部屏蔽化、与建筑结构一体化等方面着手,可以通过接触网支持结构优化、附加导线设置、补偿及附属设施选型、站房接口布局、中心锚结优化,及其结构色彩搭配等关键控制点的方案优选,有效改善车站的整体景观效果,使其与周围环境有机融合,为铁路客站接触网结构优化设计提供借鉴依据.%Research purposes: The big span steel structure non-platform-column canopy and elevated station building structure are often used for the most stations- of high-speed railway. The overhead contact system is an important part of the building structure of the station, and its suspended structure directly influences the overall coordination and aesthetics of the landscape of the station building. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the layout of the overhead contact system according to the load bearing condition of the structure, the need of traction power supply and the real on-site situation. Research conclusions: Based on the analysis of the layout of the landscape structure of the overhead contact system in the station of the high-speed railway and on the precise of ensuring the safety and reliability, the optimal schemes for the optimal support structure for the overhead contact system, installation of additional wire, selection of the compensation device and itssubsidiary facilities, interface layout of station building, optimization of the central anchor and color matching of the structure are

  11. Evolutionary approach for spatial architecture layout design enhanced by an agent-based topology finding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the automatic generation of a spatial architectural layout from a user-specified architectural program. The proposed approach binds a multi-agent topology finding system and an evolutionary optimization process. The former generates topology satisfied layouts for further optimization, while the latter focuses on refining the layouts to achieve predefined architectural criteria. The topology finding process narrows the search space and increases the performance in subsequent optimization. Results imply that the spatial layout modeling and the multi-floor topology are handled.

  12. Pure JavaScript Storyline Layout Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-02

    This is a JavaScript library for a storyline layout algorithm. Storylines are adept at communicating complex change by encoding time on the x-axis and using the proximity of lines in the y direction to represent interaction between entities. The library in this disclosure takes as input a list of objects containing an id, time, and state. The output is a data structure that can be used to conveniently render a storyline visualization. Most importantly, the library computes the y-coordinate of the entities over time that decreases layout artifacts including crossings, wiggles, and whitespace. This is accomplished through multi-objective, multi-stage optimization problem, where the output of one stage produces input and constraints for the next stage.

  13. Complexity optimization and high-throughput low-latency hardware implementation of a multi-electrode spike-sorting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragas, Jelena; Jackel, David; Hierlemann, Andreas; Franke, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Reliable real-time low-latency spike sorting with large data throughput is essential for studies of neural network dynamics and for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), in which the stimulation of neural networks is based on the networks' most recent activity. However, the majority of existing multi-electrode spike-sorting algorithms are unsuited for processing high quantities of simultaneously recorded data. Recording from large neuronal networks using large high-density electrode sets (thousands of electrodes) imposes high demands on the data-processing hardware regarding computational complexity and data transmission bandwidth; this, in turn, entails demanding requirements in terms of chip area, memory resources and processing latency. This paper presents computational complexity optimization techniques, which facilitate the use of spike-sorting algorithms in large multi-electrode-based recording systems. The techniques are then applied to a previously published algorithm, on its own, unsuited for large electrode set recordings. Further, a real-time low-latency high-performance VLSI hardware architecture of the modified algorithm is presented, featuring a folded structure capable of processing the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously. The hardware is reconfigurable “on-the-fly” and adaptable to the nonstationarities of neuronal recordings. By transmitting exclusively spike time stamps and/or spike waveforms, its real-time processing offers the possibility of data bandwidth and data storage reduction.

  14. What is the optimal anodal electrode position for inducing corticomotor excitability changes in transcranial direct current stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minji; Kim, Yun-Hee; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Chang-hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ahee

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) non-invasively modulates brain function by inducing neuronal excitability. The conventional hot spot for inducing the highest current density in the hand motor area may not be the optimal site for effective stimulation. In this study, we investigated the influence of the center position of the anodal electrode on changes in motor cortical excitability. We considered three tDCS conditions in 16 healthy subjects: (i) real stimulation with the anodal electrode located at the conventional hand motor hot spot determined by motor evoked potentials (MEPs); (ii) real stimulation with the anodal electrode located at the point with the highest current density in the hand motor area as determined by electric current simulation; and (iii) sham stimulation. Motor cortical excitability as measured by MEP amplitude increased after both real stimulation conditions, but not after sham stimulation. Stimulation using the simulation-derived anodal electrode position, which was found to be posterior to the MEP hot spot for all subjects, induced higher motor cortical excitability. Individual positioning of the anodal electrode, based on the consideration of anatomical differences between subjects, appears to be important for maximizing the effects of tDCS.

  15. Line Based on the Dynamic Analysis of a Supermarket Warehouse General Layout Optimization Research%基于动线分析法的超市仓库总平面优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟苹

    2015-01-01

    通过分析某仓库在仓储中所存在的问题,运用动线分析法重新规划仓库布局并提出相应的优化方案及策略模型。以拣货距离最短为优化目标,根据超市内不同货物捡取频率的不同对货物的摆放位置做了重新排列,达到提高仓储拣货速度、节约时间、降低人员物流成本提高企业整体核心竞争力的目标。%Through the analysis of some problems existing in the warehousing,this paper suggests a dynamic analysis method to plan warehouse layout and puts forward the corresponding optimization plan and strategy model.Taking the shortest picking distance as the optimization goal,based on the different frequency of the picking of different cargos in a supermarket,the locations of cargos are rearranged in order to improve warehouse picking speed,save time and lowering logistics costs therefore the overall goal of enhancing the core competitiveness of enterprises can be achieved.

  16. PXIE Optics and Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V A; Ostiguy, J -F; Shemyakin, A V; Shteynas, B G; Solyak, N; Solyak, N

    2013-01-01

    The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) will serve as a prototype for the Project X front end. The aim is to validate the Project-X design and to decrease technical risks, known to be mainly related to the front end. PXIE will accelerate a 1 mA CW beam to about 25 MeV. It will consist of an ion source, LEBT, CW RFQ, MEBT, two SC cryomodules, a diagnostic section and a beam dump. A bunch-by-bunch chopper located in the MEBT section will allow formation of an arbitrary bunch structure. PXIE deviates somewhat from the current Project-X front end concept in that it provides additional instrumentation and relies on a reduced number of kickers for bunch chopping; the diagnostic section also include an RF separator to allow studying extinction of removed bunches. The paper discusses the main requirements and constraints motivating the facility layout and optics. Final adjustments to the Project X front end design, if needed, will be based on operational experience gained with PXIE.

  17. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  18. Optimization of parameters of a surface-electrode ion trap and experimental study of influences of surface on ion lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, BaoQuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, XinFang; Xie, Yi; Chen, Ting; Wu, ChunWang; Wu, Wei; Chen, PingXing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the optimal design and fabrication of a gold-on-silica linear segmented surface-electrode ion trap. By optimizing the thickness and width of the electrodes, we improved the trapping ability and trap scalability. By using some practical experimental operation methods, we successfully minimized the trap heating rate. Consequently, we could trap a string of up to 38 ions, and a zigzag structure with 24 ions, and transport two trapped ions to different zones. We also studied the influences of the ion chip surface on the ion lifetime. The excellent trapping ability and flexibility of operation of the planar ion trap shows that it has high feasibility for application in the development a practical quantum information processor or quantum simulator.

  19. Regulating a benzodifuran single molecule redox switch via electrochemical gating and optimization of molecule/electrode coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihai; Li, Hui; Chen, Songjie; Froehlich, Toni; Yi, Chenyi; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia; Borguet, Eric

    2014-06-25

    We report a novel strategy for the regulation of charge transport through single molecule junctions via the combination of external stimuli of electrode potential, internal modulation of molecular structures, and optimization of anchoring groups. We have designed redox-active benzodifuran (BDF) compounds as functional electronic units to fabricate metal-molecule-metal (m-M-m) junction devices by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ). The conductance of thiol-terminated BDF can be tuned by changing the electrode potentials showing clearly an off/on/off single molecule redox switching effect. To optimize the response, a BDF molecule tailored with carbodithioate (-CS2(-)) anchoring groups was synthesized. Our studies show that replacement of thiol by carbodithioate not only enhances the junction conductance but also substantially improves the switching effect by enhancing the on/off ratio from 2.5 to 8.

  20. Geometry optimization of tubular dielectric elastomer actuators with anisotropic metallic electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechenbach, Björn; Willatzen, Morten; Sarban, R.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimentally verified static three-dimensional model for core free tubular dielectric elastomer actuators with anisotropic compliant metal electrodes. Due to the anisotropy of the electrodes, the performance (force versus voltage, force versus stroke, and stroke versus vo...

  1. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  2. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan

    2014-07-27

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  3. Numerical Analysis and Optimization on Piezoelectric Properties of 0–3 Type Piezoelectric Cement-Based Materials with Interdigitated Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The health conditions of complicated concrete structures require intrinsic cement-based sensors with a fast sensing response and high accuracy. In this paper, static, modal, harmonic, and transient dynamic analyses for the 0–3 type piezoelectric cement-based material with interdigitated electrodes (IEPCM wafer were investigated using the ANSYS finite element numerical approach. Optimal design of the IEPCM was further implemented with electrode distance (P, electrode width (W, and wafer density (H as the main parameters. Analysis results show that the maximum stress and strain in the x-polarization direction of the IEPCM are 2.6 and 3.19 times higher than that in the y-direction, respectively; there exists no repetition frequency phenomenon for the IEPCM. These indicate 0–3 type IEPCM possesses good orthotropic features, and lateral driving capacity notwithstanding, a hysteresis effect exists. Allowing for the wafer width (Wp of 1 mm, the optimal design of the IEPCM wafer arrives at the best physical values of H, W and P are 6.2, 0.73 and 1.02 mm respectively, whereas the corresponding optimal volume is 10.9 mm3.

  4. Several key problems in automatic layout design of spacecraft modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhiguo; TENG Hongfei; LIU Zhanwei

    2003-01-01

    Computer-aided layout design of spacecraft modules, such as satellite modules and manned spaceship modules, is of great significance and egregious complexity. It is known as a combinatorial optimization and NPC problem in mathematics, a conceptual design and complex system in engineering. The main difficulties include representation and formulation of the problem in mathematics and the solution strategy and pragmatic approaches in engineering practice. After a brief survey of the state-of-the-art in relevant fields, this paper summarizes the research work of the authors' group on automatic layout design of spacecraft modules in the last 15 years, mainly focusing on 5 key problems. They are modeling and problem-solving algorithms, interference calculation, theory and applications of layout topological pattern, decision-making in layout design, and their pragmatic approaches in engineering practice.

  5. Novel architecture of composite electrode for optimization of lithium battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, D.; Lestriez, B.; Gaudefroy, V.; Guyomard, D. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, CNRS, Universite de Nantes, B.P. 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Bouchet, R. [Laboratoire Madirel, Universite de Marseille, Centre Sr Jerome, Av. Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2006-06-19

    We show that the polymeric binder of the composite electrode may have an important role on the lithium trivanadate Li{sub 1.2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} electrode performance. We describe a new tailored polymeric binder combination with controlled polymer-filler (carbon black) interactions that allows the preparation of new and more efficient electrode architecture. Using this polymeric binder, composite electrodes based on Li{sub 1.2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} display a room temperature cycling capacity of 280mAhg{sup -1} (C/5 rate, 3.3-2V) instead of 150mAhg{sup -1} using a standard-type (poly(vinylidene fluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) binder) composite electrode. We have coupled scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to define and understand the impact of the microstructure of the composite electrode on its electrochemical performance. Derived from these studies, the main key factors that provide efficient charge carrier collection within the composite electrode complex medium are discussed. (author)

  6. Optimization of NiFe2O4/rGO composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xia; Li, Shandong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changkun; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    The combination of carbon compositing and the proper choice of binders in one system offer an effective strategy for improving electrode performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we focus on the optimization of reduced graphene oxide content in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (abbreviated to NiFe2O4/rGO) composites and the proper choice of binders to enhance the cycling stability of the NiFe2O4 electrode. The NiFe2O4/rGO composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal-annealing method, in which the mean size of spinel NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was approximately 20 nm. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, the NiFe2O4/rGO electrodes with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binder exhibited excellent lithium-storage performance including high reversible capacity, good cycling durability and high-rate capability. The capacity could be retained as high as 1105 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 for over 50 cycles, even cycled at higher current density of 1000 mA g-1, a capacity of 800 mAh g-1can be obtained, whereas the electrode with the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder suffered from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions. As a result, the NiFe2O4/rGO composites with CMC binder electrode in this work are promising as anodes for high-performance LIBs, resulting from the synergistic effect of optimal graphene content and proper choice of binder.

  7. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface.

  8. The improved output performance of a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with an optimized electrode diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xing; Ning Yong-Qiang; Qin Li; Tong Cun-Zhu; Liu Yun; Wang Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The output performance of a 980-nm broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is improved by optimizing the p-electrode diameter in this study.Based on a three-dimensional finite-element method,the current density distribution within the active region of the VCSEL is optimized through the appropriate adjustment of the p-electrode diameter,and uniform current-density distribution is achieved.Then,the effects of this optimization are studied experimentally.The L-I-V characteristics under different temperatures of the VCSELs with different p-electrode diameters are investigated,and better temperature stability is demonstrated in the VCSEL with an optimized p-electrode diameter.The far-field measurements show that with an injected current of 2 A,the far-field divergence angle of the VCSEL with an optimized p-electrode diameter is 9°,which is much lower than the far-field angle of the VCSEL without this optimization.Also the VCSEL with an optimized p-electrode diameter shows a better near-field distribution.

  9. 基于Google Earth的无人机中继布局优化软件%Software of UAV relay layout optimization based on Google Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍文; 霍帅珂; 陈伟桢; 朱秋明; 李浩; 蒋志成

    2014-01-01

    A communication network system which is relayed by UAV was established. A geometric modeling for the trunk links and aerological relay coverage areas was made. The signal coverage areas where the UAV flies at a certain height were ob-tained. Furthermore,a visual network optimization software for the UAV relay system was developed based on Google Earth and Visual C++ 6.0. The testing results indicate that the software has the advantages of easy operating and stable running,and can realize statically optimal placement and dynamic flying path planning of UAV. Therefore,it is of great project application value in solving the problem of network interruption caused by the high-speed and large-scale moving of network nodes.%建立了一个无人机作为中继的通信网络系统,并通过对中继链路和高空中继覆盖区域进行几何建模,推导获得了无人机在一定飞行高度的信号覆盖区域。在此基础上,基于Google Earth和Visual C++6.0软件平台,开发了一套无人机中继系统可视化网络优化软件。测试结果表明,该软件操作简便且运行稳定,能够实现无人机的静态最优布置与动态飞行路径规划,对于解决网络节点高速和大范围移动导致的网络中断问题,具有重要的工程应用价值。

  10. Powerhouse Layout and Design Optimization of Djiploho Hydropower Station%吉布洛水电站厂房布置及设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟旭央

    2013-01-01

    ∶赤道几内亚吉布洛水电站为我国援非工程之一,属于赤道几内亚国家电网的骨干电源,电站为低坝引水式电站,总装机容量为120 MW,装机4台,单机容量30 MW。电站结构为半地下式厂房,为大跨度、高边墙结构。设计采用外排水、设置后浇补偿收缩混凝土等优化措施,优化了电站结构,通过这些优化措施,降低了工程造价、保证了施工进度,为水电站的设计提供了良好的工程实践经验。%Djiploho hydropower station of Equatorial Guinea is one of the Chinese-aid-to-Africa projects,which is the core power source of state power grid of Equatorial Guinea. The station is a low dam diversion-type station, with a total installed capacity of 120MW(4 units in total with the single capacity of 30MW). It has semi-underground pow-erhouse, great span and high side-wall structure. The structure of powerhouse is optimized by the exterior drainage design,post-pouring of compensated shrinkage concrete and other optimization measures,which greatly reduce the project cost and guarantee the construction schedule,and can be well referenced by similar projects.

  11. On the Layout and Optimization of Zhejiang’s Seaside Leisure Sports Service Products%浙江滨海休闲体育服务产品供给布局与优化对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕飞

    2013-01-01

      运用文献资料及实地考察等方法,对浙江滨海休闲体育服务产品的供给现状、资源布局以及供给主体结构等进行分析。在此基础上,提出了浙江滨海休闲体育服务产品与休闲渔业、游艇经济等相结合的优化对策,以完善滨海休闲体育服务产品体系,提高供给能力。%With a review of related literature and on-the-spot observations, this article analyzes several aspects of Zhejiang’s seaside leisure sports service products including the current situation, the layout of the resources and the main structure of the suppliers. With this analysis, this article puts forward strategies on the optimization of the integration of the seaside leisure sports service products with leisure fishery and yacht economy for the purpose of improving the system of the seaside leisure sports service products and the supplying capacity.

  12. Optimization of prediction layout parameters of real seismic tomography imaging%地震波真反射层析成像超前预报布置参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇锋; 马海涛

    2013-01-01

    By real seismic tomography imaging technique, a prediction was made for the deep mine engineering of Xishimen Iron Mine. The influence of seismic wave amplitude variation on prediction accuracy of tunnel geology was investigated. An improvement and innovation research on the layout parameters of TRT system was performed. The optimal parameters of seismic focus, minimal row spacing and shot interval were obtained. The research provides reliable basis for prevention of major water inrush, and the mine development of the iron mine.%利用地震波真反射层析成像技术对西石门铁矿深部开拓工程进行了超前预报,分析了各种不利因素引起的地震波振幅变化对井巷地质超前预报效果带来的影响.对TRT地质超前预报系统布置参数进行了改进与创新研究,得出了震源、最小偏移距和炮间距最优参数.防止了重大突水事故的发生,为西石门铁矿后期进行的开拓工程提供了可靠的依据.

  13. 中原城市群城镇布局结构的分形与优化%The Fractal and Optimization of the Town Layout Structure of Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜汜敏; 苗长虹

    2012-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the fractal dimension, the author finds the aggregation dimension is 2.016 and the information dimension is 1.281. It shows Zhengzhou in Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration is not quite outstanding and the distribution of Urban Spatial in Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration is linear. This article analyses the problem and reason of the town layout structure of Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration and proposes corresponding optimization strategies.%通过对中原城市群城镇布局结构分形维数的计算和分析,发现其聚集维数为2.016,信息维数为1.281,表明郑州在中原城市群中的中心地位不太突出,城镇空间分布呈线状;并分析了中原城市群城镇布局结构存在的问题及成因,提出了相应的优化对策.

  14. Optimized electrode arrangement and activation of bioelectrodes activity by carbon nanoparticles for efficient ethanol microfluidic biofuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selloum, D.; Tingry, S.; Techer, V.; Renaud, L.; Innocent, C.; Zouaoui, A.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents the construction of an ethanol microfluidic biofuel cell based on a biocathode and a bioanode, and operating in a Y-shaped microfluidic channel. At the anode, ethanol was oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase, whereas at the cathode, the oxygen was reduced by laccase. Fuel and oxidant streams moved in parallel laminar flow without turbulent mixing into a microchannel fabricated using soft lithography methods. The enzymes were immobilized in the presence of reactive species at gold electrode surfaces. Bioelectrocatalytic processes were enhanced by combination of enzymes and carbon nanoparticles, attributed to appropriate electron transport and high amount enzyme loading. The benefit of the nanoparticles with higher surface porosity was explained by the high porous structure that offered a closer proximity to the reactive species and improved diffusion of the substrates within the enzyme films. The microfluidic BFC was optimized as function of electrode patterns, showing that higher current and power densities were achieved for shorter and wider electrodes that allow for thinner boundary layer depletion at the electrodes surface resulting in efficient catalytic consumption of fuel and oxidant. This miniaturized device generated maximum power density of 90 μW cm-2 at 0.6 V for a flow rate 16 μL min-1.

  15. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  16. The Information Optimized Methods of Promoting the Chinese Characteristics Socialism Overall Layout%信息优化方法在中国特色社会主义总布局中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红太

    2016-01-01

    中国特色社会主义社会是一个有机的社会系统,社会主义建设要求系统各方面的建设必须协调推进、协调发展、整体发展. 实现这个目标,需要收集社会各方面建设的实际情况信息,通过实施有效的信息反馈控制机制,优化中国特色社会主义总体布局. 信息反馈方法包括正反馈和负反馈,当事物在数量和强度方面弱于目标值时,要不断加大正反馈;当事物在数量和强度方面强于目标值时,要不断实施负反馈. 正反馈和负反馈是辩证统一的,在中国特色社会主义总布局中要适时应用正反馈和负反馈,对社会各方面建设进行控制,以达到预期目的.%The Chinese characteristic Socialism is an organic system.Socialist construction system must coordinate all aspects of the construction and the developments must be harmonized and integrated.In order to achieve this goal ,we must collect the construction information from the various social aspects of the actual situation,optimize the social systems by effective information feedback control,and we can achieve the success of the overall layout finally. Information feedback methods include positive feedback and negative feedback,when the things are weak in quantity and intensity of targets,the positive feedback must be constantly increased;when they are surpassed in quantity and intensity of targets,the negative feedback must be constantly increased.In fact,the positive and negative feedback are dialectical unification.In the process of pushing Chinese characteristics socialism overall layout,we should apply positive feedback and negative feedback timely,and we should control the social various aspects of constructions in order to achieve the desired purpose.

  17. 基于GIS的安庆市应急避难场所空间布局特征分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Space Layout Characteristics of Anqing City Emergency Shelters Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼鹏; 刘启蒙; 孙娇娇

    2012-01-01

    With the acceleration of urban development, man - made catastrophic incidents such as fire,explosion,public health accidents, construction accidents, and natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and typhoons, frequently happen, which has caused enormous loss of life and properly of residents. Due lo the size of the cities and growth of the population, the city emergency shelter in urban planning has become more important. According to the urban population distribution and urban space layout,the paper takes Anqing city as an example to analyze the characteristics of emergency shelter and its urban adaptation degree. By using GIS spatial queries, network analysis, analysis on the best paths, and other functions, the rationality of the city's emergency shelters is tested and the city emergency shelter program is thus optimized to minimize the problems concerning the space layout. The result will serve as the reference in the urban olanning of emergency shelters of Anting.%随着城市发展步伐的加快,火灾、爆炸、公共卫生事故、工程事故等人为灾害性事件频发,洪水、地震、台风等自然灾害也给城市居民的生命和财产安全造成了极大损失。由于城市规模和人口数量将越来越大,城市应急避难场所在城市规划中就显得更加重要。本文以安庆城区为例,根据城市人口分布状况以及城市总体的空间布局,分析应急避难场所的特征及其与城市的适应程度。采用GIS的空间查询、网络分析、最佳路径分析等功能,检验该市应急避难场所的合理性。针对城市规划中应急避难场所空间布局上不合理的问题,进行方案优化。研究结果将给安庆市应急避难场所的空间布局带来一定的借鉴作用。

  18. 黄淮海平原县域农村居民点布局优化及其整治策略%Layout optimization for county rural residents in Huang-Huai-Hai plain area and its remediation strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 郝晋珉; 孟鹏; 陈丽; 洪舒蔓; 穆哈拜提·帕热提

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the guidance for migration and combination in land consolidation and new rural construction, this paper analyzed layout optimization scheme of rural residential patches in Quzhou county, both in terms of rural residential patches’ development conditions and of spatial interaction between adjacent patches. Centrality index from Christaller’s Central Place Theory was employed to quantitatively calculate development conditions of rural residential patches. To achieve this, an evaluation index system which fitted the characteristics of Huang-Huai-Hai plain was built. The paper obtained the centrality indices of 247 main residential patches in Quzhou county using comprehensive judgment method of various factors, which derived from 342 administrative villages and consisted of 242 rural residential patches and 5 urban residential patches. The paper regarded the rural residential patches as the study units and merged the adjacent rural residents belonging to different administrative villages.. Then, field-strength was used to recognize the rural residential patches greatly influenced by cities and towns, and the improved gravity model was employed to find out the spatial interaction between rural residential patches. The 242 main rural residential patches were divided into 4 levels according to the values of centrality index, and most of high-level patches were located along arterial traffic and towns. Based on the higher value of field strength given by 5 urban residential patches, 21 rural residential patches were defined as urbanization-oriented type. In these rural residential patches, the second and third industry developed rapidly and employment structure changed gradually. The paper drew the largest gravity connection line between the patches, based on which the 59 consolidation units were confirmed and spatial interaction relationship was known. According to the characteristics of spatial organization between the patches in one unit, the

  19. DESIGN OF KEYBOARD LAYOUT USING CADWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udosen, U. J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CADWORK has been employed for the design of a keyboard layout and compared with QWERTY keyboard layout evaluated by CADWORK heuristics. The time simulated by CADWORK to type a document supplied as data using the QWERTY layout was 647.79 TMU while that obtained when using the layout designed by CADWORK was 604.69 TMU. From the standpoint of ergonomic considerations, a keyboard layout which permits the operator to type more efficiently is to be preferred in order to reduce the medical problem of cumulative trauma disorders. A test set up to determine the acceptability of the CADWORK layout using participants drawn from experienced keyboard layout users indicated a bias towards the QWERTY layout. After a third trial, some participants were found to type faster with the CADWORK layout than others using the QWERTY layout.

  20. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  1. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  2. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Kevin G.; Trask, Stephen E.; Bauer, Christoph; Woehrle, Thomas; Lux, Simon; Tschech, Matthias; Polzin, Bryant J.; Ha, Seungbum; Long, Brandon R.; Wu, Qingliu; Lu, Wenquan; Dees, Dennis W.; Jansen, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is one possible means to increase pack level energy density while simultaneously lowering cost. The physics that limit use of high areal capacity as a function of battery power to energy ratio are poorly understood and thus most currently produced automotive lithium ion cells utilize modest loadings to ensure long life over the vehicle battery operation. Here we show electrolyte transport limits the utilization of the positive electrode at critical C-rates during discharge; whereas, a combination of electrolyte transport and polarization lead to lithium plating in the graphite electrode during charge. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical predictions based on concentrated solution and porous electrode theories. An analytical expression is derived to provide design criteria for long lived operation based on the physical properties of the electrode and electrolyte. Finally, a guideline is proposed that graphite cells should avoid charge current densities near or above 4 mA/cm2 unless additional precautions have been made to avoid deleterious side reaction.

  3. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  4. Analysis and optimization of surface plasmon-enhanced organic solar cells with a metallic crossed grating electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungkyu; Kim, Changsoon

    2012-09-10

    We perform a systematic analysis of enhanced short-circuit current density (J(sc) in organic solar cells (OSCs) where one metallic electrode is optically thick and the other consists of a two-dimensional metallic crossed grating. By examining a model device representative of such surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced OSCs by the Fourier modal and finite-element methods for electromagnetic and exciton diffusion calculations, respectively, we provide general guidelines to maximize J(sc) of the SP-enhanced OSCs. Based on this study, we optimize the performance of a small-molecule OSC employing a copper phthalocyanine-fullerene donor-acceptor pair, demonstrating that the optimized SP-enhanced device has J(sc) that is 75 % larger than that of the optimized device with an ITO-based conventional structure.

  5. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surfacetreatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, Sergey Viktorovich

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the r...

  6. Thermal Performance for Wet Cooling Tower with Different Layout Patterns of Fillings under Typical Crosswind Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing a uniform layout pattern and one kind of optimal non-uniform layout pattern when the environmental crosswind speed is 0 m/s and 0.4 m/s. The experimental results proved that under windless conditions, the heat transfer coefficient and total heat rejection of circulating water for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern can enhance by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with the uniform layout pattern. It was also discovered that the optimal non-uniform pattern can dramatically relieve the influence of crosswind on the thermal performance of the tower when the crosswind speed is equal to 0.4 m/s. For the uniform layout pattern, the heat transfer coefficient under 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions decreased by 9.5% compared with the windless conditions, while that value lowered only by 2.0% for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern. It has been demonstrated that the optimal non-uniform layout pattern has the better thermal performance under 0.4 m/s crosswind condition.

  7. Optimization of LiMn2O4 electrode properties in a gradient- and surrogate-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenbo; Xue, Nansi; Gupta, Amit; Sastry, Ann M.; Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Shyy, Wei

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the effects of discharge rate and LiMn2O4 cathode properties (thickness, porosity, particle size, and solid-state diffusivity and conductivity) on the gravimetric energy and power density of a lithium-ion battery cell are analyzed simultaneously using a cell-level model. Surrogate-based analysis tools are applied to simulation data to construct educed-order models, which are in turn used to perform global sensitivity analysis to compare the relative importance of cathode properties. Based on these results, the cell is then optimized for several distinct physical scenarios using gradient-based methods. The complementary nature of the gradient- and surrogate-based tools is demonstrated by establishing proper bounds and constraints with the surrogate model, and then obtaining accurate optimized solutions with the gradient-based optimizer. These optimal solutions enable the quantification of the tradeoffs between energy and power density, and the effect of optimizing the electrode thickness and porosity. In conjunction with known guidelines, the numerical optimization framework developed herein can be applied directly to cell and pack design.

  8. Investigation And Optimization Of EDM Process Of AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Using Various Tool Electrodes: A Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Lal ,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to determine the optimized settings of key machining factors like pulse on time, discharge current and duty cycle for AISI 4140 alloy steel using various tool electrodes. The output responses will be measured are material removal rate (MRR,surface roughness(SR and tool wear rate(TWR. Mathematical models are proposed for the above are L27 orthogonal array. The micro structural changes in the work piece after machining process will also be examined by the use of SEM.

  9. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  10. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference.

  11. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    A major cost in semiconductor manufacturing is the generation of photo masks which are used to produce the dies. When producing smaller series of chips it can be advantageous to build a shuttle mask (or multi-project wafer) to share the startup costs by placing different dies on the same mask...

  12. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  13. An integrated approach for the cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, Babak; Jolai, Fariborz; Slomp, Jannes; Rabbani, Masoud; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive model is presented for cell formation and layout design in cellular manufacturing systems (CMS). The proposed model incorporates an extensive coverage of important operational features and especially layout design aspects to determine optimal cell configuration and Int

  14. IPSEP-COLA: an incremental procedure for separation constraint layout of graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Koren, Yehuda; Marriott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    We extend the popular force-directed approach to network (or graph) layout to allow separation constraints, which enforce a minimum horizontal or vertical separation between selected pairs of nodes. This simple class of linear constraints is expressive enough to satisfy a wide variety of application-specific layout requirements, including: layout of directed graphs to better show flow; layout with non-overlapping node labels; and layout of graphs with grouped nodes (called clusters). In the stress majorization force-directed layout process, separation constraints can be treated as a quadratic programming problem. We give an incremental algorithm based on gradient projection for efficiently solving this problem. The algorithm is considerably faster than using generic constraint optimization techniques and is comparable in speed to unconstrained stress majorization. We demonstrate the utility of our technique with sample data from a number of practical applications including gene-activation networks, terrorist networks and visualization of high-dimensional data.

  15. Basic types of plant layout

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Basic formats plant layout shown, considering the criteria to be taken into account in each of the formats.  Se muestra los formatos básicos de la distribución de planta, considerando los criterios que se deben tomar en cuenta en cada uno de los formatos.

  16. 基于非负矩阵分解的机场噪声监测点优化布局%Optimal Locating Method for the Layout of Airport Noise Monitoring Sites Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华; 唐先超

    2014-01-01

    近年来国内民航迅速发展,机场的新建、扩建和航空运输量的持续增长使得机场噪声污染事件不仅持续上升,而且噪声污染程度也日益加重,因而强化机场附近噪声污染的监测对机场建设及其环境评估十分重要。针对机场噪声污染监测问题,提出一种基于非负矩阵分解(NMF)方法对机场噪声监测点布局问题进行优化求解。该方法以大量网格点作为候选监测点,对单个飞机噪声事件候选监测点的噪声值所形成的矩阵按非负矩阵分解进行区域划分,得到噪声影响子区域。进一步以各子区域的中心点作为该区域的噪声影响代表点,以此确定机场噪声监测点数目和位置。研究结果表明所获得的解比贪心算法得到的解更优,需要的监测点更少。%With the rapid development of domestic civil aviation in recent years, noise pollution of airports is becoming a serious problem. Thus, strengthening the noise monitoring in the airport vicinity is very important for airport construction and environmental evaluation. Aiming at the monitoring of airport noise pollution, an optimization method based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is put forward to optimize the layout of the noise monitoring sites. In this method, large number of the grid nodes is employed as the candidate monitoring points, and the non-negative matrix composed of the noise values from single flight event at the candidate monitoring points is formed. Then, the non-negative matrix is factorized to obtain the effective subdivision of noise. Furthermore, the location and number of the noise monitoring sites are determined by the representative central point of the effective subdivisions. It is shown that this method needs fewer monitoring locating sites and can get better results than the greedy algorithm.

  17. Preliminary Design Through Graphs: A Tool for Automatic Layout Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Biagini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams are essential in the preliminary stages of design for understanding distributive aspects and assisting the decision-making process. By drawing a schematic graph, designers can visualize in a synthetic way the relationships between many aspects: functions and spaces, distribution of layouts, space adjacency, influence of traffic flows within a facility layout, and so on. This process can be automated through the use of modern Information and Communication Technologies tools (ICT that allow the designers to manage a large quantity of information. The work that we will present is part of an on-going research project into how modern parametric software influences decision-making on the basis of automatic and optimized layout distribution. The method involves two phases: the first aims to define the ontological relation between spaces, with particular reference to a specific building typology (rules of aggregation of spaces; the second entails the implementation of these rules through the use of specialist software. The generation of ontological relations begins with the collection of data from historical manuals and analyses of case studies. These analyses aim to generate a “relationship matrix” based on preferences of space adjacency. The phase of implementing the previously defined rules is based on the use of Grasshopper to analyse and visualize different layout configurations. The layout is generated by simulating a process involving the collision of spheres, which represents specific functions of the design program. The spheres are attracted or rejected as a function of the relationships matrix, as defined above. The layout thus obtained will remain in a sort of abstract state independent of information about the exterior form, but will still provide a useful tool for the decision-making process. In addition, preliminary results gathered through the analysis of case studies will be presented. These results provide a good variety

  18. Optimisation of Offshore Wind Farm Cable Connection Layout Considering Levelised Production Cost Using Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The approach in this paper hads been developed to optimize the cable connection layout of large scale offshore wind farms. The objective is to minimize the Levelised Production Cost (LPC) og an offshore wind farm by optimizing the cable connection configuration. Based on the minimum spanning tree...... and the results are compared with the layout obtained by a traditional MST algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed method is an effective way for offshore wind farm collection system layout design....

  19. Optimisation for offshore wind farm cable connection layout using adaptive particle swarm optimisation minimum spanning tree method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    operational requirement and this constraint should be considered during the MST formulation process. Hence, traditional MST algorithm cannot ensure a minimal cable investment layout. In this paper, a new method to optimize the offshore wind farm cable connection layout is presented. The algorithm...... with the optimized cable connection layout. The proposed method is compared with the MST and Dynamic MST (DMST) methods and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  20. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  1. A Simple Tubesheet Layout Program for Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tubesheet layout program for shell and tube heat exchangers is presented in this study. Program is written in AutoLISP language, which provides standard tubesheet layout drawing as per standard codes and non standard tubsheet in AutoCAD Environment. The program computes the optimal number of tube count and lays out drawing with respecting constraints, including the shell ID, number of passes, center to center distance of tubes and tube outer diameter. Tubesheet layout drawing can be used as template for actual tubesheet. Furthermore the program is validated with open literature and shown good agreement with it. Besides the tubesheet for Heat exchangers this method can be extended to the tube counts of sheave plates and perforated plates of distillation column and Cooling Towers.

  2. Optimization of the use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE for electrochemical study of the chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G. Horta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE of mineral sulfides can be useful for electrochemical studies to overcome problems by using massive ones. Using CPE-chalcopyrite some variables were electrochemically evaluated. These variables were: (i the atmosphere of preparation (air or argon of CPE and elapsed time till its use; (ii scan rate for voltammetric measurements and (iii chalcopyrite concentration in the CPE. Based on cyclic voltammetry, open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance results the recommendations are: oxygen-free atmosphere to prepare and kept the CPE until around two ours, scan rates from 10 to 40 mV s-1, and chalcopyrite concentrations > 20%.

  3. Computational Design of Urban Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wonka, Peter

    2015-10-07

    A fundamental challenge in computational design is to compute layouts by arranging a set of shapes. In this talk I will present recent urban modeling projects with applications in computer graphics, urban planning, and architecture. The talk will look at different scales of urban modeling (streets, floorplans, parcels). A common challenge in all these modeling problems are functional and aesthetic constraints that should be respected. The talk also highlights interesting links to geometry processing problems, such as field design and quad meshing.

  4. Optimization of Electrode Material for EDM Die-sinking of Titanium Alloy Grade 5 - Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeth Suresh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloy grade 5, Ti6Al4V, is extensively gaining importance in the industrial environment, specifically in aerospace, medical and automotive domains, mainly due to its exceptional blend of mechanical properties like high hardness which is further heat treatable, high strength-to-weight ratio which makes it light, high corrosion and temperature resistance etc. However, the same properties undervalue Ti6Al4V as a conventionally difficult-to-machine material. Rapid tool wear, excessive heat generation, dimensional instability and loss of surface integrity are the issues that plague the conventional machining of Ti6Al4V.  In view of these facts, non-traditional machining processes like electron discharge machining (EDM - die sinking and wire cut prove to be a substitute for the conventional machining. In this study, an experimental optimization of EDM die-sinking electrode materials among copper, brass and graphite, is carried out. Experimental design is created using a statistical tool and actual machining is carried out to record the surface roughness, variations on the surface hardness and dimensional stability. Quality evaluation and statistical analysis substantiates graphite electrodes to produce better surface finish-Ra 2.05microns with minimal dimensional variation-less than 10%-when operated at minimum spark gaps. It is inferred that graphite electrodes exhibit higher resistivity towards current than its counterparts thus passing minimum spark energy preventing excessive self-wear and a dimensionally accurate workpiece. The depth of machining highly impacts the variations on the surface hardness post machining.

  5. Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

  6. Optical coupling optimization in a novel metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetector based on semicircular Schottky electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bin; Yang Yintang; Chai Changchun; Wang Ning; Ma Zhenyang; Xie Xuanrong

    2012-01-01

    A novel semicircular electrode metal-semiconductor-metal (SEMSM) ultraviolet detector is modeled,investigated and characterized with a self-consistent numerical calculation method.For the purpose of model and performance verification,a comprehensive comparison of the SEMSM detector and a conventional electrode MSM detector is carried out with experimental data.The results indicate that the physical models are able to predict the enhanced device features.Moreover,the structural parameters have been adjusted appropriately to optimize the SEMSM detector.The findings show that a device with a 2/μm finger radius and 3 μm spacing exhibits outstanding characteristics in terms of a peak responsivity of 0.177 A/W at 290 nm,a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 75%,and a comparable normalized photocurrent to dark current ratio of 1.192 × 1011 W-1 at 0.3 V bias.These results demonstrate that the SEMSM detector has excellent performance for optoelectronic integrated circuit applications.

  7. Interdigitated-electrode-based MEMS-scale piezoelectric energy harvester modeling and optimization using finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Alperen; Tigli, Onur

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel optimization method for interdigitated electrode (IDE)-based, cantilever-type piezoelectric energy harvesters at microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scale. A new two-stage approach based on the finite element method is proposed to examine the performance of such devices. First, detailed electrostatic poling simulations are presented. The results of these poling orientation simulations are used while calculating electrical energy and conversion efficiency in response to a constant external force. The proposed approach is used to find the optimum piezoelectric material thickness and IDE geometry for a cantilever beam which is constructed on top of a 4-μm Si structural layer and a 1-μm SiO2 isolation layer. Cantilever and IDE lengths are fixed at 320 μm and 240 μm, respectively, whereas the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thickness, IDE finger widths, and number of finger pairs are varied. Maximum output energy of 0.37 pJ for a 15-μN force is obtained at a PZT thickness of 0.6 μm and an IDE consisting of 12 finger pairs. This energy is reduced to 1.5 fJ for 5 μm PZT thickness with 2 electrode finger pairs, which shows that device geometry has a significant impact on device performance. The proposed method presents an accurate framework for the rapid design and performance prediction of novel piezoelectric energy harvester structures.

  8. Optimization model of highway network layout considering different requirement of connectivity between pairs of nodes%考虑节点间不同连通性要求的公路交通网布局优化模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊巧

    2015-01-01

    To determine the layout of highway network more scientifically and rationally,based on the existing calculation methods of connectivity,this paper presented to consider the connection importance between pairs of nodes as influencing factor of connection reliability so to optimize the highway network layout.With the weighted connectivity of network as one of the ob-jectives,at the same time considering the connection efficiency and cost,it constructed a multiple objectives programming mod-el,and design the solution algorithm.It determined the optimum scheme by comparing the objective function values of random generating layout schemes conforming to connection demand.Through an example to illustrate the highway network layout plan on the basis of connection importance between pairs of nodes distinguishes the different nodes requirements for reliable network connection,which can form more rational network topological structure.The programming model and layout method can provide certain decision-making reference for highway network layout.%为了更加科学合理地确定公路网络的布局,在现有连通性计算方法的基础上,提出考虑节点对间连接的重要性不同作为节点及网络可靠连接的影响因素对公路交通网络布局进行优化。以网络加权连通度为目标,并考虑连接效率及连线成本等,构建多目标规划模型,并进行了求解算法设计,比较随机产生的满足连线要求的布局方案的目标函数值确定较优方案。通过算例说明了以节点间连接重要度为基础进行网络布局,区分了不同节点之间对网络可靠连接的不同要求,可以使网络布局结构更加完善合理,构建的模型可以为公路网的布局提供一定的决策参考。

  9. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  10. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovskis, Johanna K.; Prestel, Cathrin; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  11. Optimized spherical manganese oxide-ferroferric oxide-tin oxide ternary composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2015-09-18

    Inexpensive MnO2 is a promising material for supercapacitors (SCs), but its application is limited by poor electrical conductivity and low specific surface area. We design and fabricate hierarchical MnO2-based ternary composite nanostructures showing superior electrochemical performance via doping with electrochemically active Fe3O4 in the interior and electrically conductive SnO2 nanoparticles in the surface layer. Optimization composition results in a MnO2-Fe3O4-SnO2 composite electrode material with 5.9 wt.% Fe3O4 and 5.3 wt.% SnO2, leading to a high specific areal capacitance of 1.12 F cm(-2) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). This is two to three times the values for MnO2-based binary nanostructures at the same scan rate. The low amount of SnO2 almost doubles the capacitance of porous MnO2-Fe3O4 (before SnO2 addition), which is attributed to an improved conductivity and remaining porosity. In addition, the optimal ternary composite has a good rate capability and an excellent cycling performance with stable capacitance retention of ~90% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at 7.5 mA cm(-2). All-solid-state SCs are assembled with such electrodes using polyvinyl alcohol/Na2SO4 electrolyte. An integrated device made by connecting two identical SCs in series can power a light-emitting diode indicator for more than 10 min.

  12. Electrode Response in Seismo-Electric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M.; Devi, M. S.; Cougoulat, G.; Garambois, S.

    2014-12-01

    Seismo-electric measurements consist in recording the transient electric fields generated by seismic waves propagating in fluid-filled porous or fractured media. These electric fields are usually measured by voltage differences between two electrodes. Unfortunately, the electrode spacing and their locations on the ground surface have a direct influence on the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements, on the recorded waveforms and on their arrival times. Using a filter theory approach and full waveform numerical simulations of the coupled seismic and electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in porous media, we show that the co-seismic electric arrivals and the small-amplitude EM interface response can be severely distorted and/or attenuated by conventional surface electrode layouts. To this end, we have computed synthetic electrograms providing the electric potential, to allow us to determine voltage differences between two arbitrary locations of electrodes. Unlike the low-pass filter obtained by connecting two geophones in series, the filter associated with a voltage difference is shown to be a band-pass filter. As a result, not only horizontally and obliquely propagating waves but also vertically propagating waves undergo selective frequency attenuation in the 0-150 Hz frequency band used in field measurements. It also turns out that electrode spacing cannot be optimized to enhance the electric signature of typical seismic reflections and EM interface response, neither with horizontal dipoles nor with reasonably sized vertical dipoles. To circumvent this problem, we consider arrangements of 3 and 5 electrodes analogous to multilayer capacitors in electronics. We show that such arrangements are ideally described by low-pass filters preserving the quasi-plane waves corresponding to the EM interface response. However, in reality, these benefits are challenged by the imperfect coupling between the electrodes and the ground, represented by an electrode contact resistance

  13. High-performance membrane-electrode assembly with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene content for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gisu; Kim, MinJoong; Han, Junyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Shul, Yong-Gun; Cho, EunAe

    2016-08-01

    Although high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have a high carbon monoxide tolerance and allow for efficient water management, their practical applications are limited due to their lower performance than conventional low-temperature PEMFCs. Herein, we present a high-performance membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content for HT-PEMFCs. Low or excess PTFE content in the electrode leads to an inefficient electrolyte distribution or severe catalyst agglomeration, respectively, which hinder the formation of triple phase boundaries in the electrodes and result in low performance. MEAs with PTFE content of 20 wt% have an optimal pore structure for the efficient formation of electrolyte/catalyst interfaces and gas channels, which leads to high cell performance of approximately 0.5 A cm-2 at 0.6 V.

  14. Optimized Synthesis of Carbon Aerogels via Ambient Pressure Drying Process as Electrode for Supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Lei; CHANG Lijuan; FU Zhibing; YANG Xi; JIAO Xingli; TANG Yongjian; LIU Xichuan; WANG Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogels were synthesized via ambient pressure drying process using resorcinol-formaldehyde as precursor and P123 to strengthen their skeletons. CO2 activation technology was implemented to improve surface areas and adjust pore size distribution. The synthesis process was optimized, and the morphology, structure, adsorption properties and electrochemical behavior of different samples were characterized. The CO2-activated samples achieved a high specific capacitance of 129.2 F/g in 6 M KOH electrolytes at the current density of 1 mA/cm2 within the voltage range of 0-0.8 V. The optimized activation temperature and duration were determined to be 950℃and 4 h, respectively.

  15. Key technologies of layout design of recycling plants of waste refrigerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yi; LIU Zhi-feng; WANG Shu-wang; QI Yun-hui

    2005-01-01

    The present situations of waste refrigerators recycling and disposing were analyzed. Three key technologies of layout design of recycling plants of waste refrigerators were presented as follows: 1) establishment of recycling process of waste refrigerators; 2) the general plane layout of recycling plants; 3) the detailed layout of workshops of recycling plants. The focus of the three key technologies is to tackle the problem of the detailed layout ofworkshops of the recycling plants. By adopting Petri net, the model of logistics system of workshops was established and then optimized, and finally the detailed layout chart of recycling plants was gained. By adopting E-factory, the recycling plants were simulated. The results show that the method mentioned is effective.

  16. A New Layout for English Letters on the Keyboard Using Evolutionary Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Poorhajikazam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the keyboard is the primary device of entering text into a computer, a keyboard with letters on the proper layout of high performance is essential. Obtaining a suitable arrangements for the letters on the keyboard is an optimization problem which different methods have been proposed to solve it and its answer is the most appropriate permutation for letters on the keyboard which is 26 letters for English keyboard. In this paper, a new English keyboard layout has been proposed using evolutionary strategy which aims to increase typing speed and rectify some problems of current layout. To this end, a fitness function is used which includes parameters such as keys distance, fingers switch, frequency of use of both hands and etc. Different experiments have been conducted to evaluate the proposed approach and the results indicate that the obtained layout acts better than the current and other proposed layouts in the literature.

  17. Preparation and optimization of a molybdenum electrode for CIGS solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jingxue

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo films were deposited by radio frequency (RF, direct current (DC and mixed magnetron sputtering, respectively. With changing the deposition parameters including deposition pressure and power, the films show different surface morphology and crystallinity. Lower resistivity of the films is obtained in the DC mode and better reflectivity of the films is obtained in the RF mode. It is shown that the crystallinity increases when the deposition pressure decreases. The crystallinity and the grain size both increase as the deposition power increasing. The lowest resistivity of the single Mo film is 34×10-6 Ω·cm when the deposition pressure is 0.1 Pa and the deposition power is 300 W in the DC mode. In order to obtain lower resistivity, better adhesion and better reflectivity, bilayer films and tri-layer films were both deposited in different mode. They all show good adhesion and low resistivity. The Mo films deposited in mixed mode show better reflectivity. It is demonstrated that the resistivity of about 65×10-6 Ω·cm is achieved in DC/RF mode and the resistivity of about 61×10-6 Ω·cm is achieved in RF/DC/RF mode. And the tri-layer films achieved in RF/DC/RF mode have better reflectivity than bilayer films achieved in DC/RF mode. The tri-layer films achieved in RF/DC/RF mode is appropriate for using as the electrode of CIGS solar cells.

  18. Generating and exploring good building layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-07-01

    Good building layouts are required to conform to regulatory guidelines, while meeting certain quality measures. While different methods can sample the space of such good layouts, there exists little support for a user to understand and systematically explore the samples. Starting from a discrete set of good layouts, we analytically characterize the local shape space of good layouts around each initial layout, compactly encode these spaces, and link them to support transitions across the different local spaces. We represent such transitions in the form of a portal graph. The user can then use the portal graph, along with the family of local shape spaces, to globally and locally explore the space of good building layouts. We use our framework on a variety of different test scenarios to showcase an intuitive design, navigation, and exploration interface. Copyright © ACM. Copyright © ACM 2013.

  19. Layout optimization of gathering systems in CBM fields considering three dimensional terrains and obstacles%考虑三维地形及障碍的煤层气田集输系统布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国玺; 梁永图; 方利民; 任玉鸿; 肖俏

    2016-01-01

    With the progressive development of CBM fields,the complexity of pipeline networks is increasing dramatically.The design of pipeline network should take environmental factors and reliability into account,since pipeline direction and site selection may be influenced by the terrain reflief and obstacles.In this paper,the optimization of CBM pipeline network was discussed under the conditions of three dimensional terrain with obstacles,depending on the features of "multipoint connection,flexible gathering" and "multiple branches" technologies,and the reliablity of the optimized pipeline network was calculated.Terrains were simulated by means of cubic B spline curve interpolation and obstacle function superposition.The dendritic and radial network connection modes were discussed with the economy of pipeline networks as the objective function and the related gathering conditions as the constraints.Then,four pipeline network layout modes which were established by crossing the two connection modes were compared for their economic feasibility.The reliability of pipeline network was solved after being converted into the reliability of tree network.It is shown that the optimized obstacleavoiding path in three dimensional terrain can shorten the distance,and also reduce the relief of the path,which is essentially different from the obstacle-avoiding path in two dimensional plane that could only increase the distance.The dendritic connection mode is the best in economic feasibility,the radial connection mode is the best in reliablity,and the "radial +dendritic" mode is the best when the ratio of total cost to reliability is taken as an evaluation indicator.Compared with the original modes,the optimized "dendritic + dendritic" mode and "radial + dendritic" mode both are 30% less in construction cost and "dendritic + dendritic" mode is about 29% longer than "radial + dendritic" mode in total pipeline length,verifying the rationality and advantage of the model.%随着煤层

  20. Non-Invasive Fetal Monitoring: A Maternal Surface ECG Electrode Placement-Based Novel Approach for Optimization of Adaptive Filter Control Parameters Using the LMS and RLS Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, Radek; Kahankova, Radana; Nazeran, Homer; Konecny, Jaromir; Jezewski, Janusz; Janku, Petr; Bilik, Petr; Zidek, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel

    2017-05-19

    This paper is focused on the design, implementation and verification of a novel method for the optimization of the control parameters (such as step size μ and filter order N) of LMS and RLS adaptive filters used for noninvasive fetal monitoring. The optimization algorithm is driven by considering the ECG electrode positions on the maternal body surface in improving the performance of these adaptive filters. The main criterion for optimal parameter selection was the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). We conducted experiments using signals supplied by the latest version of our LabVIEW-Based Multi-Channel Non-Invasive Abdominal Maternal-Fetal Electrocardiogram Signal Generator, which provides the flexibility and capability of modeling the principal distribution of maternal/fetal ECGs in the human body. Our novel algorithm enabled us to find the optimal settings of the adaptive filters based on maternal surface ECG electrode placements. The experimental results further confirmed the theoretical assumption that the optimal settings of these adaptive filters are dependent on the ECG electrode positions on the maternal body, and therefore, we were able to achieve far better results than without the use of optimization. These improvements in turn could lead to a more accurate detection of fetal hypoxia. Consequently, our approach could offer the potential to be used in clinical practice to establish recommendations for standard electrode placement and find the optimal adaptive filter settings for extracting high quality fetal ECG signals for further processing. Ultimately, diagnostic-grade fetal ECG signals would ensure the reliable detection of fetal hypoxia.

  1. An experimental design approach to optimize an amperometric immunoassay on a screen printed electrode for Clostridium tetani antibody determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Stéphanie; Vandeput, Marie; Kenfack, Gersonie Momo; Mertens, Dominique; Dejaegher, Bieke; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-15

    An immunoassay for the determination of anti-tetani antibodies has been developed using a screen printed electrode (SPE) as solid support for toxoid (antigen) immobilization. The assay was performed in guinea pig serum. The immunoreaction and the subsequent amperometric detection occurred directly onto the SPE surface. The assay consisted of spiking the anti-tetani sample directly onto the toxoid modified SPE, and then a second antibody, i.e. a HRP-labeled anti-immunoglobulin G, was deposited onto the biosensor. Subsequent amperometric detection was realized by spiking 10 µL of a hydroquinone (HQ) solution into 40 µL of buffer solution containing hydrogen peroxide. An experimental design approach was implemented for the optimization of the immunoassay. The variables of interest, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentration, incubation times and labeled antibody dilution, were optimized with the aid of the response surface methodology using a circumscribed central composite design (CCCD). It was observed that two factors exhibited the greatest impact on the response, i.e. the anti-tetani incubation time and the dilution factor of the labeled antibody. It was discovered that in order to maximize the response, the dilution factor should be small, while the anti-tetani antibody incubation time should be long. The BSA concentration and the HRP-anti-IgG incubation had very limited influence. Under the optimized conditions, the immunoassay had a limit of detection of 0.011 IU/mL and a limit of quantification of 0.012 IU/mL. These values were below the protective human antibody limit of 0.06 IU/mL.

  2. Movement layout and adjustment for a specialized video measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinbo; Wang, Zhong; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Jin

    2012-08-01

    Specialized video measuring system (SVMS) is a kind of instruments diagnosing only one special type of part with high performance. In the design of a SVMS, it is necessary to consider the special requirements during the inspection of the parts. We take the video-based inspecting instrument for watch escapement (VIIWE) as an example of SVMS. A method based on least interferences is proposed to determine an optimized movement layout. The quality of image taken by an imaging lens with a limited depth of field (100 μm) may be degraded by two parameters, i.e., the perpendicularity of optical axis to workbench and the parallelism of probe movement plane to workbench. To optimize the two parameters, we calibrate the perpendicularity with a definition function, measure the parallelism with a dial indicator, and develop a mechanism of adjustment. The scheme about movement layout and adjustment has been successfully applied in the VIIWE.

  3. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Rapid graph layout using space filling curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelder, Chris; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    Network data frequently arises in a wide variety of fields, and node-link diagrams are a very natural and intuitive representation of such data. In order for a node-link diagram to be effective, the nodes must be arranged well on the screen. While many graph layout algorithms exist for this purpose, they often have limitations such as high computational complexity or node colocation. This paper proposes a new approach to graph layout through the use of space filling curves which is very fast and guarantees that there will be no nodes that are colocated. The resulting layout is also aesthetic and satisfies several criteria for graph layout effectiveness.

  5. Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.

    2017-03-01

    Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.

  6. Performance Analysis of Intelligent Robust Facility Layout Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemipour, G.; Lee, T. S.; Loong, Y. T.

    2017-03-01

    Design of a robust production facility layout with minimum handling cost (MHC) presents an appropriate approach to tackle facility layout problems in a dynamic volatile environment, in which product demands randomly change in each planning period. The objective of the design is to find the robust facility layout with minimum total material handling cost over the entire multi-period planning horizon. This paper proposes a new mathematical model for designing robust machine layout in the stochastic dynamic environment of manufacturing systems using quadratic assignment problem (QAP) formulation. In this investigation, product demands are assumed to be normally distributed random variables with known expected value, variance, and covariance that randomly change from period to period. The proposed model was verified and validated using randomly generated numerical data and benchmark examples. The effect of dependent product demands and varying interest rate on the total cost function of the proposed model has also been investigated. Sensitivity analysis on the proposed model has been performed. Dynamic programming and simulated annealing optimization algorithms were used in solving the modeled example problems.

  7. Analysis and optimal design of Si microstrip detector with overhanging metal electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2001-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment to be encountered at LHC (large hadron collider) and RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) poses a challenging task for the fabrication of Si microstrip detectors. Due to high luminosities, detectors are required to sustain very high voltage operation well exceeding the bias voltage needed to fully deplete them. The "overhanging" metal contact is now a well established technique for improving the breakdown performance of the Si microstrip detector. Based on computer simulation, the influence of various physical and geometrical parameters on the electrical breakdown of the Si detectors equipped with metal overhangs is extensively analysed. Furthermore, optimization of design parameters is performed to achieve breakdown voltages close to maximum realizable values. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. (17 refs).

  8. Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2} electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Dae; Pfadler, Thomas; Zimmermann, Eugen; Feng, Yuyi; Weickert, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.weickert@uni-konstanz.de; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box 680, 78467 Constance (Germany); Dorman, James A. [Louisiana State University, Chemical Engineering Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    An electrode structured with a TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2} (TAT) multilayer as indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement with a superior thermal stability has been successfully fabricated. This electrode allows to directly tune the optical cavity mode towards maximized photocurrent generation by varying the thickness of the layers in the sandwich structure. This enables tailored optimization of the transparent electrode for different organic thin film photovoltaics without alteration of their electro-optical properties. Organic photovoltaic featuring our TAT multilayer shows an improvement of ∼12% over the ITO reference and allows power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 8.7% in PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  9. Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO2/Ag/TiO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Dae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An electrode structured with a TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAT multilayer as indium tin oxide (ITO replacement with a superior thermal stability has been successfully fabricated. This electrode allows to directly tune the optical cavity mode towards maximized photocurrent generation by varying the thickness of the layers in the sandwich structure. This enables tailored optimization of the transparent electrode for different organic thin film photovoltaics without alteration of their electro-optical properties. Organic photovoltaic featuring our TAT multilayer shows an improvement of ∼12% over the ITO reference and allows power conversion efficiencies (PCEs up to 8.7% in PTB7:PC71BM devices.

  10. Improvement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrical performance by optimization of operating parameters and electrodes preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadjo, A.J.-J.; Garnier, J.-P.; Martemianov, S. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR6608, ESIP-Universite de Poitiers, CNRS, Poitiers F-86022 (France); Brault, P.; Caillard, A. [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans, CNRS Polytech' Orleans BP6744, F-45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Coutanceau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR6503 Universite de Poitiers, CNRS, Poitiers F-86022 (France)

    2007-10-25

    The effect of operating parameters (cell temperature, humidifiers temperature, gases flows and pressures) on the performance of a 25 cm{sup 2} surface area fuel cell is performed. After optimization, a homemade MEA fitted with electrodes prepared via the colloidal route leads to achieve reproducibly maximum power densities higher than 1.2 W cm{sup -2} with a total catalyst loading of 0.7 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to 1.7kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). This electrical performance is higher to that obtained with a commercial MEA provided by fuel cell store (total platinum loading of 1.2 mg cm{sup -2} and power density close to 1 W cm{sup -2}, corresponding to 0.75kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). Based on this experience, two different homemade MEAs are tested under optimal operating conditions and compared to the commercial one. The final goal is to decrease significantly the platinum loading preserving at least equivalent PEMFC electrical performance. The method of catalyst deposition by plasma sputtering is used to further decrease the total catalyst loading down to 0.45 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2}. Very interesting performances (close to 0.7 W cm{sup -2}) were obtained with this low-platinum loading MEA (corresponding to 1.6kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). However, it was shown that the decrease of the platinum loading in the cathode from 0.35 to 0.1 mg cm{sup -2} affects the kinetics of oxygen reduction (exchange current density j{sub 0} and Tafel slope b) and the resistance of the cell R, and hence the cell electrical performance. (author)

  11. Impact of the layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided silicon 3D sensors fabricated at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Mattedi, F.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy)

    2013-01-21

    We report on experimental results and TCAD simulations addressing the impact of layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided 3D diodes fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. Simulations are found to accurately reproduce the device characteristics, thus explaining the basic mechanisms governing the breakdown behavior and capacitance of different devices and providing useful hints for layout optimization.

  12. Optimizing Logistics Node Layout in Wuhan with AHP and Cluster Analysis%基于AHP和聚类分析的武汉市物流节点优化布局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应丹丰; 马士华; 关旭

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen logistics nodes in Wuhan, including twelve logistics nodes determined in The Eleventh Five-year Plan for Modern Logistics Industry Development in Wuhan and the emerging logistics node North of Hankou are assessed and classified. Through qualitative analysis, Yangluo and Duoluokou are classed as Logistics Parks. Based on AHP, reasonable weight is assigned to each factor having influence on logistics nodes layout. After that, cluster analysis for the rest eleven logistics nodes is Hone, by which, a new layout scheme is obtained, which is valuable to promoting the development of modern logistics industry in Wuhan.%将《武汉市现代物流业发展十一五规划》中确定的12个物流节点和新兴的汉口北专业市场群进行了归类.通过定性分析确定了阳逻和舵落口的物流园区地位,然后采用层次分析法对影响城市物流节点布局的因素进行了权重确定,最后对剩下的11个物流节点进行了加权聚类分析.在此基础上得到了新的布局方案,对促进武汉市现代物流业的发展具有借鉴意义.

  13. A Cadence layout wrapper for MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirepli, Ismini

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the focus is on creating a wrapper between MATLAB and the Cadence Virtuoso design environment. The central idea is to use the wrapper and write the code for an entire analog layout as scripts in MATLAB. Basically, we will implement a set of necessary commands for performing the most fundamental tasks in layout generation from within MATLAB.

  14. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  15. Staking Terraces Online: A Terrace Layout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrace construction in Missouri exceeded 3 million feet at a cost of over $8 million in 2008. Up to 50 % of the total construction and design time is spent on the terrace layout itself. A web-based computer program, MOTERR, has been developed to design terrace layouts. The program utilizes digital ...

  16. INTEGRATION OF CELL FORMATION AND LAYOUT DESIGN IN THE UNIDIRECTIONAL LOOP MATERIAL HANDLING ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Deming; Wu Zhiming

    2005-01-01

    A two-phase approach is proposed to deal with the integration problem in the loop layout.Tabu search is applied to cell construction in phase 1 to minimize the inter-cell flow, and the heuristic for layout design is used as phase 2 to optimize the sum ofintra-cell and inter-cell transportation cost.The final computational results demonstrate the validation of the two-phase approach.

  17. Clamping Sequence, Fixture Layout and Clamping Force on Machining Deformation and Synchronous Optimization Analysis%夹紧顺序、夹具布局和夹紧力对装夹变形影响与同步优化分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓宇; 赵晓慈

    2016-01-01

    为减小工件装夹变形,提高薄壁件加工精度,以薄壁零件装夹变形最小化为目标函数,通过遗传算法和有限元方法相结合,提出夹紧顺序、装夹布局和夹紧力同步分析方法。用该方法对一航空薄壁零件装夹进行优化分析,优化结果与经验设计及传统分析结果进行对比,有效地降低了工件因装夹不当引起的变形,验证了夹紧顺序、夹具布局和夹紧力同步优化方法的有效性。%In order to minimize the clamping deformation and improve the machining accuracy of thin-walled parts, a synchronous optimization method of clamping sequences, fixture layout and clamping forces was presented with the objective function of minimizing the deformation and through the combination of genetic algorithm and finite element method. An aviation thin-walled work piece was optimized by this method, and compared the optimization results with the experience empirical design and the traditional analysis results. This method can effectively reduce the work piece deformation due to improper clamping and improve the machining accuracy. The result proved the veracity of the synchronous optimization method of clamping sequences, fixture layout and clamping forces.

  18. The Most Advantageous Bangla Keyboard Layout Using Data Mining Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Bangla alphabet has a large number of letters, for this it is complicated to type faster using Bangla keyboard. The proposed keyboard will maximize the speed of operator as they can type with both hands parallel. Association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the keyboard is used here. The frequencies of data consisting of monograph, digraph and trigraph are analyzed, which are derived from data wire-house, and then used association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the layout. Experimental results on several data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach with better performance. This paper presents an optimal Bangla Keyboard Layout, which distributes the load equally on both hands so that maximizing the ease and minimizing the effort.

  19. Unified HMM-based layout analysis framework and algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 丁晓青; 吴佑寿

    2003-01-01

    To manipulate the layout analysis problem for complex or irregular document image, a Unified HMM-based Layout Analysis Framework is presented in this paper. Based on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis results of the document image, we use HMM method in both inner-scale image model and trans-scale context model to classify the pixel region properties, such as text, picture or background. In each scale, a HMM direct segmentation method is used to get better inner-scale classification result. Then another HMM method is used to fuse the inner-scale result in each scale and then get better final seg- mentation result. The optimized algorithm uses a stop rule in the coarse to fine multi-scale segmentation process, so the speed is improved remarkably. Experiments prove the efficiency of proposed algorithm.

  20. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inoue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  1. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  2. A simple multiforce layout for multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fatemi, Zahra; Magnani, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce multiforce, a force-directed layout for multiplex networks, where the nodes of the network are organized into multiple layers and both in-layer and inter-layer relationships among nodes are used to compute node coordinates. The proposed approach generalizes existing work, providing a range of intermediate layouts in-between the ones produced by known methods. Our experiments on real data show that multiforce can keep nodes reasonably aligned across different layers without significantly affecting the internal layout of each layer.

  3. Hi-trees and their layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Kim; Sbarski, Peter; van Gelder, Tim; Prager, Daniel; Bulka, Andy

    2011-03-01

    We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.

  4. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  5. COMPUTER AIDED SELECTION OF PLANT LAYOUT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had to be given to the process of obtaining a good ... 1960's with the development by industrial engineers and operational researchers of optimisation .... diagram. The search phase is the phase in which alternative layouts are developed by ...

  6. 泛网格化机场噪声感知节点布局优化研究%Optimization research on the layout of extensive noise perceptual node at airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚正; 肖骁; 丁伟杰; 王兴虎

    2016-01-01

    传统的机场噪声感知存在成本高、环境要求高、稳定性差、维护成本高,系统可扩展性差等问题,为此提出了一种基于ZigBee的新型机场噪声感知模式。该模式将成本低廉的传感器节点按密集非均匀的泛网格状布置于机场内部及围界,提出了一种适用于新型机场噪声感知模式的泛网格化感知节点布局优化方法,并通过一系列实验分析确定了新型机场噪声感知模式中 ZigBee 感知节点布局方案。并将得到的布局优化方案应用于天津滨海国际机场,实地验证的结果证实了新型感知模式和泛网格化布局方法的实用。%In this paper,we present an improved,ZigBee-based,grid-enabled airport noise monitoring method,as original airport noise monitoring method is not very suitable to airport noise monitoring.The proposed method widely deploy sensor nodes in the airport and its surrounding areas as grid,.The improved method has huge number of sensor nodes which are intensive and cheap,so the method can apply to airport noise monitoring business such as noise monitoring,flight track reconstruction,noise counter map portrayal.Through a series of simulation we proposed a layout method of sensor nodes in grid-enabled airport noise monitoring.Finally we implement this grid-enabled airport noise monitoring method and nodes layout method in Tianjin Binhai International Airport and evaluate the performance.

  7. Arrayed-Waveguide Layout for AWG Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The key issue of the complex geometry for arrayed-waveguide grating(AWG)is the design of length difference.Conventional-type scheme and improved-type scheme of the ar-rayed -waveguide layout are proposed.For each scheme,the layout rules were given and one ex-ample was presented. At last ,the two schemes were compared with each other.

  8. CiSE: a circular spring embedder layout algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrusoz, Ugur; Belviranli, Mehmet E; Dilek, Alptug

    2013-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic layout of clustered graphs using a circular style. The algorithm tries to determine optimal location and orientation of individual clusters intrinsically within a modified spring embedder. Heuristics such as reversal of the order of nodes in a cluster and swap of neighboring node pairs in the same cluster are employed intermittently to further relax the spring embedder system, resulting in reduced inter-cluster edge crossings. Unlike other algorithms generating circular drawings, our algorithm does not require the quotient graph to be acyclic, nor does it sacrifice the edge crossing number of individual clusters to improve respective positioning of the clusters. Moreover, it reduces the total area required by a cluster by using the space inside the associated circle. Experimental results show that the execution time and quality of the produced drawings with respect to commonly accepted layout criteria are quite satisfactory, surpassing previous algorithms. The algorithm has also been successfully implemented and made publicly available as part of a compound and clustered graph editing and layout tool named CHISIO.

  9. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  12. Automatic layout and visualization of biclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufti Adeel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biclustering has emerged as a powerful algorithmic tool for analyzing measurements of gene expression. A number of different methods have emerged for computing biclusters in gene expression data. Many of these algorithms may output a very large number of biclusters with varying degrees of overlap. There are no systematic methods that create a two-dimensional layout of the computed biclusters and display overlaps between them. Results We develop a novel algorithm for laying out biclusters in a two-dimensional matrix whose rows (respectively, columns are rows (respectively, columns of the original dataset. We display each bicluster as a contiguous submatrix in the layout. We allow the layout to have repeated rows and/or columns from the original matrix as required, but we seek a layout of the smallest size. We also develop a web-based search interface for the user to query the genes and samples of interest and visualise the layout of biclusters matching the queries. Conclusion We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach on gene expression data for two types of leukaemia and on protein-DNA binding data for two growth conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The software implementing the layout algorithm is available at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/~murali/papers/bivoc.

  13. Automatic layout of structured hierarchical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Eirik; Karger, David R; Miller, Robert C

    2013-12-01

    Domain-specific database applications tend to contain a sizable number of table-, form-, and report-style views that must each be designed and maintained by a software developer. A significant part of this job is the necessary tweaking of low-level presentation details such as label placements, text field dimensions, list or table styles, and so on. In this paper, we present a horizontally constrained layout management algorithm that automates the display of structured hierarchical data using the traditional visual idioms of hand-designed database UIs: tables, multi-column forms, and outline-style indented lists. We compare our system with pure outline and nested table layouts with respect to space efficiency and readability, the latter with an online user study on 27 subjects. Our layouts are 3.9 and 1.6 times more compact on average than outline layouts and horizontally unconstrained table layouts, respectively, and are as readable as table layouts even for large datasets.

  14. Efficiency improvement of GaN-on-silicon thin-film light-emitting diodes with optimized via-like n-electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Deng, Biao; Fu, Yi; Liu, Le Gong; Li, Zeng Cheng; Feng, Mei Xin; Zhao, Han Min; Sun, Qian

    2017-07-01

    This work reports a significant improvement in efficiency by optimizing the via-like n-electrode architecture design of a GaN-based thin-film LED grown on a 6-inch silicon substrate. The external quantum efficiency of the as-fabricated 1.1 mm × 1.1 mm via-thin-film LED chip at 350 mA was increased by 11.3% compared to that of a vertical thin-film LED chip with a conventional finger-like n-electrode. Detailed analysis of encapsulation gain and false color emission patterns illustrated that the significantly improved LED performance was due to enhanced light extraction efficiency and more uniform current spreading, both of which can be attributed to the optimized via-thin-film chip structure. Minimizing the light loss at the periphery of the Ag mirror was demonstrated to be a critical factor for improving light extraction, rather than simply replacing the finger-like n-electrodes with via-like ones. After encapsulation, the median blue lamp power and the wall-plug efficiency of the via-thin-film LED at 350 mA reached 659 mW and 63.7%, respectively.

  15. ECG-Based Detection of Early Myocardial Ischemia in a Computational Model: Impact of Additional Electrodes, Optimal Placement, and a New Feature for ST Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Axel; Schulze, Walther H W; Jiang, Yuan; Wilhelms, Mathias; Luik, Armin; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG), however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs). Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2-11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold.

  16. ECG-Based Detection of Early Myocardial Ischemia in a Computational Model: Impact of Additional Electrodes, Optimal Placement, and a New Feature for ST Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Loewe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG, however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs. Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2–11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold.

  17. Study of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Scanning Electron Micrograph Observation and Thickness Optimization of Porous TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoenergy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, it is important to optimize their porous TiO2 electrodes. This paper examines the surface and cross-sectional views of the electrodes using scanning electron micrography. Two types of samples for cross-sectional viewing were prepared by mechanically breaking the substrate and by using an Ar-ion etching beam. The former displays the surface of the TiO2 particles and the latter shows the cross-section of the TiO2 particles. We found interesting surface and cross-sectional structures in the scattering layer containing the 400 nm diameter particles, which have an angular and horned shape. The influence of TiO2 particle size and the thickness of the nanocrystalline-TiO2 electrode in DSCs using four kinds of sensitizing dyes (D149, K19, N719 and Z907 and two kinds of electrolytes (acetonitrile-based and ionic-liquid electrolytes are discussed in regards to conversion efficiency, which this paper aims to optimize.

  18. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Najafi, Mojgan

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine.

  19. 纳子峡面板砂砾石坝排水体布置方案优化计算分析%Optimization of Layout Scheme of Drainage System for Nazixia Concrete Face Sand-gravel Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾罡宇; 沈振中; 赵斌; 吕生玺

    2011-01-01

    Based on topographical and geological conditions of the Nazixia concrete face sand-gravel dam, the 3-D FEM is applied to establish 3-D finite element model of the dam site. And the seepage field of the dam site is analyzed.Then the influence of different layout schemes of the drainage body on seepage field is studied. The results show that the E-type horizontal drainage body can meet requirement of the dam seepage drainage and reduction of the engineering quantity of drainage body. Meanwhile, it is suggested that the original design elevation of the drainage body should be reduced 7.8m.%根据纳子峡水电站面板砂砾石坝的地形地质条件,应用三维有限元法建立了坝址区的三维有限元模型,计算分析了坝址区的渗流场,并研究了坝体排水体不同布置方案对坝体渗流的影响.计算结果表明,水平排水体按"E"型布置即可满足坝体排渗要求、减少排水体工程量,并建议在原设计基础上排水体可降低高程7.8 m.

  20. The optimization of Ag/Ag2S electrode using carrier electroplating of nano silver particles and its preliminary application to offshore Kueishan Tao, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qian; Pan, Yi-wen; Huang, Yuan-feng; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication-induced ocean acidification is causing a dramatic ecologic change in the coastal ocean. A more acidic ocean would lead to more volatile H2S in the coastal ocean, especially in the area where shallow hydrothermal vents exist. Therefore, the early detection of H2S and its associates is needed. In this study, the preparation method for and the detection limit of an Ag/Ag2S electrode were optimized by coating the electrode with micro-scale to nano-scale silver particles. The size of the silver particles was dependent on the electroplating power used to produce them: (1) direct current power made micrometer scale silver particles, and (2) direct current carrier power made nano-scale silver particles. As a result, the detection limits of [S2-] of the Ag/Ag2S electrode made using direct current and direct carrier current were improved to 1×10-5 mol L-1 and 1×10-7 mol L-1, respectively. Such improvements were mostly due to the fact that nano silver particles have larger surface area and higher surface energy. The Ag/Ag2S electrode made by direct carrier current method was then mounted to a multi-parameter sensor (including a pH and an Eh electrode) used to search of new hydrothermal vents near the Kueishan Tao in May, 2011. A new hydrothermal vent was discovered based on pH, Eh and H2S anomalies at three depths. A clear [S2-] signal anomaly was observed from the top sensor indicating the dispersive pattern of the hot fluid near this shallow vent site. This could also provide additional information on the dispersion pattern of anthropogenic pollutants in the coastal ocean.

  1. 新常态下农村居民点布局优化探讨与实践--以上海市金山区为例%Research and Practice on Layout Optimization of Rural Settlements under New Normal:A Case Study of Jinshan District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁印龙; 田莉

    2016-01-01

    随着我国经济社会发展进入新常态,城镇化发展进入后半程,城乡建设空间模式逐渐从“城市增量扩张、农村减量收缩”走向“城市存量提升、农村优化调整”,农村居民点布局也将迎来新一轮的优化调整。相较于前一阶段,这一轮农村居民点布局优化将更加“温和”,摒弃大拆大建,在规划目的、原则、方法和成果上都需要进行相应的优化调整。选取上海市远郊金山区为例,在总结传统农村居民点布局规划建设困境的基础上,以问题为导向,提出了“原则调整、方法创新、内容深化”的优化策略,并基于GIS平台,探索出了一套方法更为合理、内容更加全面的农村居民点优化布局规划,对下一层面的乡村规划建设产生了更强的指导作用,取得了较好成效。%As China's economic and social development has entered the New Normal, the process of urbanization has entered the second half. The spatial mode of urban and rural construction land has gradually changed from a previous state of “the urban construction land expands incrementally while the rural reduces to shrink” to a new state of “the urban starts to enhance the existing land instead of expanding outward and the rural construction land starts to optimize”. Under the influence of such changes, rural settlements layout will also face to a new stage of optimization. Compared to the previous stage, the current rural settlements layout optimization will be more “moderate” and the planning purpose, principle, method and result all need adjustment accordingly. Taking Jinshan District, suburban of Shanghai, as an example, after analyzing dilemma in the traditional rural settlements layout planning and construction, this paper comes up with a problem-oriented approach and proposes an optimization strategy ,which consists of three parts, adjusting planning principle, using innovative planning method

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work...

  3. INTEGRATED LAYOUT DESIGN OF CELLS AND FLOW PATHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhihua; Zhong Yifang; Zhou Ji

    2003-01-01

    The integrated layout problem in manufacturing systems is investigated. An integrated model for concurrent layout design of cells and flow paths is formulated. A hybrid approach combined an enhanced branch-and-bound algorithm with a simulated annealing scheme is proposed to solve this problem. The integrated layout method is applied to re-layout the gear pump shop of a medium-size manufacturer of hydraulic pieces. Results show that the proposed layout method can concurrently provide good solutions of the cell layouts and the flow path layouts.

  4. User-friendly design approach for analog layout design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Lee, Zhao Chuan; Tripathi, Vikas; Perez, Valerio; Ong, Yoong Seang; Hui, Chiu Wing

    2017-03-01

    Analog circuits are sensitives to the changes in the layout environment conditions, manufacturing processes, and variations. This paper presents analog verification flow with five types of analogfocused layout constraint checks to assist engineers in identifying any potential device mismatch and layout drawing mistakes. Compared to several solutions, our approach only requires layout design, which is sufficient to recognize all the matched devices. Our approach simplifies the data preparation and allows seamless integration into the layout environment with minimum disruption to the custom layout flow. Our user-friendly analog verification flow provides the engineer with more confident with their layouts quality.

  5. Application of a concept development process to evaluate process layout designs using value stream mapping and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and demonstrate a concept development process (CDP as a framework to solve a value stream mapping (VSM related process layout design optimization problem.Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of CDP framework in a portable fire extinguisher manufacturing company. To facilitate the CDP application, we proposed the system coupling level index (SCLI and simulation to evaluate the process layout design concepts.Findings: As part of the CDP framework application, three process layout design concepts - current layout (CL, express lane layout (ELL and independent zone layout (IZL - were generated. Then, the SCLI excluded CL and simulation selected IZL as the best concept. The simulation was also applied to optimize the performance of IZL in terms of the number of pallets. Based on this case study, we concluded that CDP framework worked well.Research limitations/implications: The process layout design optimization issue has not been well addressed in the VSM literature. We believe that this paper initiated the relevant discussion by showing the feasibility of CDP as a framework in this issue.Practical implications: The CDP and SCLI are very practice-oriented approaches in the sense that they do not require any complex analytical knowledge.Originality/value: We discussed a not well-addressed issue with a systematic framework. In addition, the SCLI presented was also unique.

  6. 主通道位置不固定的设施布局问题多目标优化模型及算法%Multi-objective Optimization Model on Facility Layout Problem with Uncertain Aisles and its Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金淳; 邰世文; 高鹏; 付明珠; 蒙秋男

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization model of facility layout problem with the unfixed location of the entrance , exit and the main aisle and designs its improved genetic algorithm for the facility layout problem of logistics centers .First, the mathematical programming model is established with the multi-objective concerning minimizing the material handling costs , maximizing the degree of activity relation and maximizing area utilization requirements with the unfixed position of the entrance , exit and the I-type main aisle .Then an improved genetic algorithm is put forward which includes improved coding and decoding , modification operation , and design on the fitness function in penalty function strategy .Finally, an actual experiment is illustrated to verify the efficient and stable performance of the proposed algorithm .The result has shown that the solution has a satisfactory , stable and compact layout .%以物流中心设施布局问题为对象,提出了考虑出入口及主通道位置不固定情况下的设施布局问题的多目标优化模型并设计了其改进的遗传算法。首先,以物料搬运成本最小、活动关系密切度最大和面积利用率最大为目标,构建了考虑出入口位置不固定条件下的具有I型主通道的设施布局多目标优化数学模型。然后,设计了一种改进的遗传算法,包括:改进的编码、解码方法,追加了解码修正操作,基于惩罚函数策略的适应度函数等。实例测试表明,本算法的执行效率高而且结果稳定,优化效果好,布局结果紧凑适用。

  7. Methodology for bus layout for topological quantum error correcting codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitzka, Martin; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.; DiVincenzo, David P. [RWTH Aachen University, JARA Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Most quantum computing architectures can be realized as two-dimensional lattices of qubits that interact with each other. We take transmon qubits and transmission line resonators as promising candidates for qubits and couplers; we use them as basic building elements of a quantum code. We then propose a simple framework to determine the optimal experimental layout to realize quantum codes. We show that this engineering optimization problem can be reduced to the solution of standard binary linear programs. While solving such programs is a NP-hard problem, we propose a way to find scalable optimal architectures that require solving the linear program for a restricted number of qubits and couplers. We apply our methods to two celebrated quantum codes, namely the surface code and the Fibonacci code. (orig.)

  8. Towards optimal multi-channel EMG electrode configurations in muscle force estimation: a high density EMG study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudenmann, D.; Kingma, I.; Stegeman, D.F.; Dieen, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Surface EMG is an important tool in biomechanics, kinesiology and neurophysiology. In neurophysiology the concept of high-density EMG (HD-EMG), using two dimensional electrode grids, was developed for the measurement of spatiotemporal activation patterns of the underlying muscle and its motor units

  9. Towards optimal multi-channel EMG electrode configurations in muscle force estimation: a high density EMG study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudenmann, D.; Kingma, I.; Stegeman, D.F.; Dieen, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Surface EMG is an important tool in biomechanics, kinesiology and neurophysiology. In neurophysiology the concept of high-density EMG (HD-EMG), using two dimensional electrode grids, was developed for the measurement of spatiotemporal activation patterns of the underlying muscle and its motor units

  10. Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Adam Johan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation

  11. CMOS Leakage and Power Reduction in Transistors and Circuits: Process and Layout Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan N. Shauly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Power reduction in CMOS platforms is essential for any application technology. This is a direct result of both lateral scaling—smaller features at higher density, and vertical scaling—shallower junctions and thinner layers. For achieving this power reduction, solutions based on process-device and process-integration improvements, on careful layout modification as well as on circuit design are in use. However, the drawbacks of these solutions, in terms of greater manufacturing complexity (and higher cost and speed degradation, call for “optimized” solutions. This paper reviews the issues associated with transistor scaling and related solutions for leakage and power reduction in terms of topological design rules and layout optimization for digital and analog transistors. For standard cells and SRAMs cells, leakage aware layout optimization techniques considering transistor configuration, stressors, line-edge-roughness and more are presented. Finally, different techniques for leakage and power reduction at the circuit level are discussed.

  12. Model-based strategy for cell culture seed train layout verified at lab scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Simon; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Pörtner, Ralf; Frahm, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Cell culture seed trains-the generation of a sufficient viable cell number for the inoculation of the production scale bioreactor, starting from incubator scale-are time- and cost-intensive. Accordingly, a seed train offers potential for optimization regarding its layout and the corresponding proceedings. A tool has been developed to determine the optimal points in time for cell passaging from one scale into the next and it has been applied to two different cell lines at lab scale, AGE1.HN AAT and CHO-K1. For evaluation, experimental seed train realization has been evaluated in comparison to its layout. In case of the AGE1.HN AAT cell line, the results have also been compared to the formerly manually designed seed train. The tool provides the same seed train layout based on the data of only two batches.

  13. Leaching of electrodic powders from lithium ion batteries: Optimization of operating conditions and effect of physical pretreatment for waste fraction retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Moscardini, Emanuela; Altimari, Pietro; Abo Atia, Thomas; Toro, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Experimental results of leaching tests using waste fractions obtained by mechanical pretreatment of lithium ion batteries (LIB) were reported. Two physical pretreatments were performed at pilot scale in order to recover electrodic powders: the first including crushing, milling, and sieving and the second granulation, and sieving. Recovery yield of electrodic powder was significantly influenced by the type of pretreatment. About 50% of initial LIB wastes was recovered by the first treatment (as electrodic powder with size size 99%) of Co and Li from Sample 1 are 1/10g/mL as solid/liquid ratio and +50% stoichiometric excess of acid (1.1M). Using the same solid/liquid ratio, +100% acid excess (1.2M) is necessary to extract 96% of Co and 86% of Li from Sample 2. Best conditions for leaching of Sample 2 using glucose are +200% acid excess (1.7M) and 0.05M glucose concentration. Optimized conditions found in this work are among the most effective reported in the literature in term of Co extraction and reagent consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The logic layout of the TOL network of Pseudomonas putida pWW0 plasmid stems from a metabolic amplifier motif (MAM that optimizes biodegradation of m-xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Rocha Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for catabolism of m-xylene is an archetypal model for environmental biodegradation of aromatic pollutants. Although nearly every metabolic and transcriptional component of this regulatory system is known to an extraordinary molecular detail, the complexity of its architecture is still perplexing. To gain an insight into the inner layout of this network a logic model of the TOL system was implemented, simulated and experimentally validated. This analysis made sense of the specific regulatory topology out on the basis of an unprecedented network motif around which the entire genetic circuit for m-xylene catabolism gravitates. Results The most salient feature of the whole TOL regulatory network is the control exerted by two distinct but still intertwined regulators (XylR and XylS on expression of two separated catabolic operons (upper and lower for catabolism of m-xylene. Following model reduction, a minimal modular circuit composed by five basic variables appeared to suffice for fully describing the operation of the entire system. In silico simulation of the effect of various perturbations were compared with experimental data in which specific portions of the network were activated with selected inducers: m-xylene, o-xylene, 3-methylbenzylalcohol and 3-methylbenzoate. The results accredited the ability of the model to faithfully describe network dynamics. This analysis revealed that the entire regulatory structure of the TOL system enables the action an unprecedented metabolic amplifier motif (MAM. This motif synchronizes expression of the upper and lower portions of a very long metabolic system when cells face the head pathway substrate, m-xylene. Conclusion Logic modeling of the TOL circuit accounted for the intricate regulatory topology of this otherwise simple metabolic device. The found MAM appears to ensure a simultaneous expression

  15. Metal mining stage to open up the chute wear pulse spacing and mining area layout optimization%金属矿山阶段开拓穿脉间距及采区溜井布置优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建珍

    2013-01-01

    地下开采阶段开拓设计在矿山生产中占有非常重要的地位,尤其是阶段开拓中穿脉间距与采区溜井的布置,对矿山企业的工程投资和运营成本影响很大.本文根据采场穿脉运输工程、采区溜井工程投资与采场运矿成本之和最小的原理和采场运输功最小的原理,分别建立了阶段开拓运输穿脉间距、采场溜井间距数学模型,并应用于杏山铁矿-330m阶段开拓设计中,计算出穿脉间距100m,溜井间距67.5m,为今后类似矿山合理确定穿脉、溜井间距参数提供参考.%Underground mining phase pioneering design in mine production occupies a very important position,especially the layout of the stage to open up to wear pulse spacing and mining areas in the chute,a great influence on project investment and operating costs of mining enterprises. In this paper, according to stope wearing veins transport engineering, mining district the minimum chute engineering investment and mining field DSO cost of and the minimum principle and mining field transport function principle the establishment of a stage to develop transport wear pulse spacing, stope slipped well spacing mathematical model the Xingshan iron ore-330m stage pioneering design and used to calculate the wear pulse spacing 100m,chute pitch 67. 5m wear veins,chute spacing parameters to provide a reference for future similar mines reasonably determine.

  16. Design and Improvement of Plant Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram D. Vaidya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve the plant layout of pipe shell and travelling roller manufacturing industry to make optimum space utilization, eliminate obstructions in material flow and thus obtain maximum productivity. The present layout and operation process of each section (i.e. material storage, cutting, welding, machining shop , fabrication shop, assembly and inspection section and finish product storage have been investigated. The problem in the space utilization and material flow pattern was identified. The result showed that raw material section, cutting section and fabrication shops should be allocated to make the good material flow. The suitable of new plant layout can decrease the distance of material flow, which rises production.

  17. Extrapolating spatial layout in scene representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Can the visual system extrapolate spatial layout of a scene to new viewpoints after a single view? In the present study, we examined this question by investigating the priming of spatial layout across depth rotations of the same scene (Sanocki & Epstein, 1997). Participants had to indicate which of two dots superimposed on objects in the target scene appeared closer to them in space. There was as much priming from a prime with a viewpoint that was 10° different from the test image as from a prime that was identical to the target; however, there was no reliable priming from larger differences in viewpoint. These results suggest that a scene's spatial layout can be extrapolated, but only to a limited extent.

  18. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  19. Unified layout analysis and text localization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2017-01-01

    A technique appropriate for extracting textual information from documents with complex layouts, such as newspapers and journals, is presented. It is a combination of a foreground analysis and a text localization method. The first one is used to segment the page in text and nontext blocks, whereas the second one is used to detect text that may be embedded inside images, charts, diagrams, tables, etc. Detailed experiments on two public databases showed that mixing layout analysis and text localization techniques can lead to improved page segmentation and text extraction results.

  20. LithoScope: Simulation Based Mask Layout Verification with Physical Resist Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qi-De

    2002-12-01

    Simulation based mask layout verification and optimization is a cost effective way to ensure high mask performance in wafer lithography. Because mask layout verification serves as a gateway to the expensive manufacturing process, the model used for verification must have superior accuracy than models used upstream. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a software system for mask layout verification and optical proximity correction that employs a physical resist development model. The new system, LithoScope, predicts wafer patterning by solving optical and resist processing equations on a scale that is until recently considered unpractical. Leveraging the predictive capability of the physical model, LithoScope can perform mask layout verification and optical proximity correction under a wide range of processing conditions and for any reticle enhancement technology without the need for multiple model development. We show the ability for physical resist model to change iso-focal bias by optimizing resist parameters, which is critical for matching the experimental process window. We present line width variation statistics and chip level process window predictions using a practical cell layout. We show that LithoScope model can accurately describe the resist-intensive poly gate layer patterning. This system can be used to pre-screen mask data problems before manufacturing to reduce the overall cost of the mask and the product.

  1. 生态文明视角下的“多规”空间优化布局研究-以泰州市姜堰区为例%Research on the Spatial Layout Optimization of “Multiple Plans” Based on the Perspective of Ecological Civilization:Taking an Example of Jiangyan District in Taizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席广亮; 许振东; 葛文才; 甄峰; 席晓东

    2016-01-01

    本文结合国家新型城镇化、生态文明建设战略,从生态文明的视角探讨“多规合一”的空间优化布局体系。在分析生态文明与“多规合一”关系、姜堰区城乡空间发展现状与存在问题的基础上,从发展与保护协调、布局与功能配套、集约与生态并重等方面指出生态文明对“多规”空间布局的要求,进而提出生态导向的“多规合一”空间布局的总体思路,从资源环境承载力、社会经济发展评价、发展趋势与区域协调等方面分析空间发展条件,进而确定空间管控分区和要素布局体系,以及其他规划与“多规合一”空间的衔接。以姜堰区为例,探索可持续的城乡空间格局构建、城镇建设用地集约利用、生态底线控制等具体策略。%Combining with the national new urbanization and the ecological civilization construction strategy, this paper explored the spatial layout optimization system of “the multiple planning integration” from the angle of ecological civilization. Based on the analysis of the relationship between ecological civilization and “the multiple planning integration”, urban and rural spatial development status and existing problems of Jiangyan district, we pointed out the requirements of ecological civilization to spatial layout of “the multiple planning integration” from the perspective of coordination between development and protection, making balance between layout and function, as well as emphasizing the intensive land use and ecological development. Firstly, we analyzed spatial development conditions from the view of resource and environment carrying capacity, social and economic development evaluation, development trend, regional coordination and then brought the system of space control partition and layout elements, the spatial cohesion rules between “the multiple planning integration” and other plans. Taking Jiangyan district as example, we

  2. RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ≥ 4 for each PD, in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ≥ 7 for each PD. Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume.

  3. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis; Cathrin Prestel; Anders E. C. Palmqvist

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate...

  4. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  5. Virtual Facility Layout Design Using Virtual Reality Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi-hua; Zhong Yi-fang

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing facility layout design has long been recognized as one of the most critical and difficult design tasks in manufacturing industries. Traditional layout methods can not fully solve this complex spatial layout problem. Virtual reality (VR) is a new form of human-computer interaction, which has the potential to support a range of engineering applications. This paper discusses the reasons why manufacturing facility layout design is considered to be an appropriate new area of VR utilization. A VR-based layout design framework is proposed. The virtual environment construction issues are discussed. An example of the immersive VR application of facility layout is examined.

  6. Virtual Facility Layout Design Using Virtual Reality Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Zhi-Hua; Zhong; Yi-fang

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing facility layout design has long been recognized as one of the most critical and difficult design tasks in manufacturing industries. Traditional layout methods can not fully solve this complex spatial layout problem. Virtual reality (VR) is a new form of human-computer interaction,which has the potential to support a range of engineering applications. This paper discusses the reasons why manufacturing facility layout design is considered to be an appropriate new area of VR utilization. A VR-based layout design framework is proposed. Th virtual environment construction issues are discussed. An example of the immersive VR application of facility layout is examined.

  7. Final Report: ATLAS Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade Layout Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Hessey, N; Mättig, P; Styles, N; Wells, P; Burdin, S; Cornelissen, T; Todorov, T; Vankov, P; Watson, I; Wenig, S

    2012-01-01

    he mandate of the Upgrade Layout Task Force was to develop a benchmark layout proposal for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade Letter of Intent (LOI), due in late 2012. The work described in this note has evolved from simulation and design studies made using an earlier "UTOPIA" upgrade tracker layout, and experience gained from the current ATLAS Inner Detector during the first years of data taking. The layout described in this document, called the LoI-layout, will be used as a benchmark layout for the LoI and will be used for simulation and engineering studies described in the LoI.

  8. Layout and Routing Methods for Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Roodbergen (Kees-Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractLayout and Routing Methods for Warehouses discusses aspects of order picking in warehouses. Order picking is the process by which products are retrieved from storage to meet customer demand. Various new routing methods are introduced to determine efficient sequences in which products hav

  9. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  10. You Be the Judge: Newspaper Advertising Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The learning package is designed to provide the marketing educator with a culminating activity for an instructional unit focusing on advertising layout principles and procedures. It is to be used in conjunction with 35mm slides of newspaper advertisements, which the student views and rates in comparison with the ratings of a panel of experts. A…

  11. The generation of possible space layouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2014-01-01

    The general scope of this paper is to present the development of an approach for the generation of possible space layouts in the early stages of design. The approach sets out to bridge the gap between the free form brainstorming of the sketching designer and the deterministic parametric model...

  12. Spherical Layout Implementation using Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations

    CERN Document Server

    Larrea, Martin; Martig, Sergio; Castro, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The 3D tree visualization faces multiple challenges: the election of an appropriate layout, the use of the interactions that make the data exploration easier and a metaphor that helps in the process of information understanding. A good combination of these elements will result in a visualization that effectively conveys the key features of a complex structure or system to a wide range of users and permits the analytical reasoning process. In previous works we presented the Spherical Layout, a technique for 3D tree visualization that provides an excellent base to achieve those key features. The layout was implemented using the TriSphere algorithm, a method that discretized the spheres's surfaces with triangles to achieve a uniform distribution of the nodes. The goal of this work was centered in a new algorithm for the implementation of the Spherical layout; we called it the Weighted Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations (WSCVT). In this paper we present a detailed description of this new implementation an...

  13. Customisation of Indico pages - Layout and Menus

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to customize the layout of your Indico pages (for example you can change the color of the background images or change the logo) and the menus on your Indico pages  (for example you can add or hide certain blocks, or change their name and order).  

  14. Generating Analog IC Layouts with LAYGEN II

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo M F; Horta, Nuno C G

    2013-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for the automatic generation of analog integrated circuits (ICs) layout, based on template descriptions and on evolutionary computational techniques. A design automation tool, LAYGEN II, was implemented to validate the proposed approach giving special emphasis to reusability of expert design knowledge and to efficiency on retargeting operations.

  15. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  16. Key techniques and applications of adaptive growth method for stiffener layout design of plates and shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaohong; Ji, Xuerong; Ma, Man; Hou, Jianyun

    2013-11-01

    The application of the adaptive growth method is limited because several key techniques during the design process need manual intervention of designers. Key techniques of the method including the ground structure construction and seed selection are studied, so as to make it possible to improve the effectiveness and applicability of the adaptive growth method in stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Three schemes of ground structures, which are comprised by different shell elements and beam elements, are proposed. It is found that the main stiffener layouts resulted from different ground structures are almost the same, but the ground structure comprised by 8-nodes shell elements and both 3-nodes and 2-nodes beam elements can result in clearest stiffener layout, and has good adaptability and low computational cost. An automatic seed selection approach is proposed, which is based on such selection rules that the seeds should be positioned on where the structural strain energy is great for the minimum compliance problem, and satisfy the dispersancy requirement. The adaptive growth method with the suggested key techniques is integrated into an ANSYS-based program, which provides a design tool for the stiffener layout design optimization of plates and shells. Typical design examples, including plate and shell structures to achieve minimum compliance and maximum bulking stability are illustrated. In addition, as a practical mechanical structural design example, the stiffener layout of an inlet structure for a large-scale electrostatic precipitator is also demonstrated. The design results show that the adaptive growth method integrated with the suggested key techniques can effectively and flexibly deal with stiffener layout design problem for plates and shells with complex geometrical shape and loading conditions to achieve various design objectives, thus it provides a new solution method for engineering structural topology design optimization.

  17. Optimized Extraction of H– by Three-Electrode Faraday Cup System in Magnetized Sheet Plasma Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Fernandez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A locally designed rectangular parallelepiped, three-electrode Faraday cup system has been developed.Its design incorporates the capability of simultaneous extraction and deposition of the H– ions on substrates.The device functions to attain prescribed selectivity conditions of extracted ions, with controlled energies,for deposition or adsorption. It has been proven to detect the ions at filter bias voltage of 13.61 V with acurrent density of 5.3 A/m2 that is relatively higher than reported (Abate & Ramos, 2000.

  18. 电动汽车充电站规划布局与选址方案的优化方法%An Optimization Approach for the Layout and Location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 冯亮; 刘洪; 王龙

    2012-01-01

    With consideration of the interests of both charging station operators and users, an optimization model for electric vehicle charging station planning which is based on the minimum cost of the whole society is presented. An optimization method for locating and sizing of charging stations is proposed with the consideration of the road network, the traffic flow and the users' loss on the way to the charging station. The traffic flow of each intersection node is used to represent the road network traffic. The weights are used to reflect the impact of traffic density on the charging station service area. The users' minimum loss on the way to the charging station is chosen as the objective function for locating the charging station. And the weighted Voronoi diagram is used to partition the service areas of charging stations. Finally, the optimal scheme of charging stations is selected to minimize the cost of the whole society. The example proves that the methods and models proposed in this paper are feasible and reasonable for the charging station optimization planning in the city area.%在兼顾充电站运营者和电动汽车用户双方利益的前提下,提出了一种基于全社会成本最小化的充电站规划布局的优选模型.在充分考虑路网结构、车流信息和用户路程损耗等影响因素的情况下,提出了充电站选址定容的优化方法.该方法以路口节点的交通流量来表示路网中的车流情况,以权重来反映车流密度对充电站服务范围的影响,以用户在充电路程中的损耗成本最小为目标进行选址,并利用加权Voronoi图来实现充电站服务范围的自动划分.最后,以全社会成本最小为目标从多种规划方案中选择最优方案作为规划区充电站最终的规划方案.算例表明,所提出的方法和模型对于城市区域电动汽车充电站的优化规划具有一定的可行性和合理性.

  19. A controllable stitch layout strategy for random needle embroidery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zheng-xing SUN; Ke-wei YANG

    2014-01-01

    Random needle embroidery (RNE) is a graceful art enrolled in the world intangible cultural heritage. In this paper, we study the stitch layout problem and propose a controllable stitch layout strategy for RNE. Using our method, a user can easily change the layout styles by adjusting several high-level layout parameters. This approach has three main features:firstly, a stitch layout rule containing low-level stitch attributes and high-level layout parameters is designed;secondly, a stitch neighborhood graph is built for each region to model the spatial relationship among stitches;thirdly, different stitch attributes (orientations, lengths, and colors) are controlled using different reaction-diffusion processes based on a stitch neighborhood graph. Moreover, our method supports the user in changing the stitch orientation layout by drawing guide curves interactively. The experimental results show its capability for reflecting various stitch layout styles and flexibility for user interaction.

  20. The Use of Festive Colors In Display Layout Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊旭

    2011-01-01

    In display layout design, Because colour performance for human psychology has a direct impact, therefore correctly apply colors bring to people's these emotional factors to determine the color display layout, prompting the audience a profound visual impre

  1. Topological material layout in plates for vibration suppression and wave propagation control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Laksafoss, B.; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin pl...... effectively suppress the overall vibration level or alternatively transport energy in predefined paths in the plates, including the realization of a ring wave device.......We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin...

  2. Enforcement of Mask Rule Compliance in Model-Based OPC'ed Layouts during Data Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk H.; Vuletic, Radovan; Seidl, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    Currently available commercial model-based OPC tools do not always generate layouts which are mask rule compliant. Additional processing is required to remove mask rule violations, which are often too numerous for manual patching. Although physical verification tools can be used to remove simple mask rule violations, the results are often unsatisfactory for more complicated geometrical configurations. The subject of this paper is the development and application of a geometrical processing engine that automatically enforces mask rule compliance of the OPC'ed layout. It is designed as an add-on to a physical verification tool. The engine constructs patches, which remove mask rule violations such as notches or width violations. By employing a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization method, the edges of each patch are placed in a way that avoids secondary violations while modifying the OPC'ed layout as little as possible. A sequence of enforcement steps is applied to the layout to remove all types of mask rule violations. This approach of locally confined minimal layout modifications retains OPC corrections to a maximum amount. This method has been used successfully in production on a variety of DRAM designs for the non-array regions.

  3. BFL: a node and edge betweenness based fast layout algorithm for large scale networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojima Kaname

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Network visualization would serve as a useful first step for analysis. However, current graph layout algorithms for biological pathways are insensitive to biologically important information, e.g. subcellular localization, biological node and graph attributes, or/and not available for large scale networks, e.g. more than 10000 elements. Results To overcome these problems, we propose the use of a biologically important graph metric, betweenness, a measure of network flow. This metric is highly correlated with many biological phenomena such as lethality and clusters. We devise a new fast parallel algorithm calculating betweenness to minimize the preprocessing cost. Using this metric, we also invent a node and edge betweenness based fast layout algorithm (BFL. BFL places the high-betweenness nodes to optimal positions and allows the low-betweenness nodes to reach suboptimal positions. Furthermore, BFL reduces the runtime by combining a sequential insertion algorim with betweenness. For a graph with n nodes, this approach reduces the expected runtime of the algorithm to O(n2 when considering edge crossings, and to O(n log n when considering only density and edge lengths. Conclusion Our BFL algorithm is compared against fast graph layout algorithms and approaches requiring intensive optimizations. For gene networks, we show that our algorithm is faster than all layout algorithms tested while providing readability on par with intensive optimization algorithms. We achieve a 1.4 second runtime for a graph with 4000 nodes and 12000 edges on a standard desktop computer.

  4. Simplify to survive: prescriptive layouts ensure profitable scaling to 32nm and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars; Pileggi, Larry; Hibbeler, Jason; Rovner, Vyacheslav; Jhaveri, Tejas; Northrop, Greg

    2009-03-01

    The time-to-market driven need to maintain concurrent process-design co-development, even in spite of discontinuous patterning, process, and device innovation is reiterated. The escalating design rule complexity resulting from increasing layout sensitivities in physical and electrical yield and the resulting risk to profitable technology scaling is reviewed. Shortcomings in traditional Design for Manufacturability (DfM) solutions are identified and contrasted to the highly successful integrated design-technology co-optimization used for SRAM and other memory arrays. The feasibility of extending memory-style design-technology co-optimization, based on a highly simplified layout environment, to logic chips is demonstrated. Layout density benefits, modeled patterning and electrical yield improvements, as well as substantially improved layout simplicity are quantified in a conventional versus template-based design comparison on a 65nm IBM PowerPC 405 microprocessor core. The adaptability of this highly regularized template-based design solution to different yield concerns and design styles is shown in the extension of this work to 32nm with an increased focus on interconnect redundancy. In closing, the work not covered in this paper, focused on the process side of the integrated process-design co-optimization, is introduced.

  5. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts...

  6. 基于成本最优的重点物流中心的选定与布局——以福建烟草物流网络为例%Based on the Cost of the Optimal Focus Logistics Center Selection and Layout ——Fujian tobacco logistics network for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2012-01-01

    Logistics network system structure clear, related to modern logistics operation efficiency and cost. Regional logistics center to have pri- mary and secondary and hierarchical structure, according to the distribution of scale and efficiency need, need to choose from among several key lo- gistics Center as the key node distribution network construction. In order to realize the key center the optimal coverage, network layout optimiza- tion and the play of function of center.%物流网络体系结构的明晰,关乎现代物流运作的效率和成本。区域内的物流中心要有主次和层级之分,根据配送规模和效率的需要,需从中选出若干重点物流中心作为整个配送物流网络的关键节点来建设。以期实现重点中·心的最优覆盖率、网络的布局优化和中心功能的发挥。

  7. CdS and CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode: Quantum dot distribution, thickness optimization, and the enhanced photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimao; Dong, Weiwei; Fang, Xiaodong; Wu, Suzhen; Tao, Ruhua; Deng, Zanhong; Shao, Jingzhen; Hu, Linhua; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The anatase TiO2 nanoparticle films with different thicknesses have been fabricated through screen printing method, and CdS and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been deposited on TiO2 films in turn through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. It has been found that the amount of QDs decreases significantly and the size of QDs increases obviously with the depth increasing in TiO2 nanoparticle films, and the size distribution of QDs shifts to large-size direction with the TiO2 film thickness increasing. Furthermore, a qualitative model of CdS/CdSe quantum dot distribution in TiO2 nanoparticle films has been obtained. After optimizing the TiO2 film thickness, the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) with about 10 μm thick nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes and Pt counter electrodes have reached relatively high power conversion efficiencies of 3.26 ± 0.10% under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5 G).

  8. Optimization of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers as a transparent composite electrode deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪涛; 王小平; 寇志起; 王丽军; 王金烨; 孙义清

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent indium-free composite electrodes of TiO2/Cu/TiO2 are deposited by electron-beam evaporation at room temperature. The effects of Cu thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer film are investigated. The critical thickness of Cu mid-layer to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 11 nm. The multilayer with a mid-Cu thickness of 11 nm is optimized to obtain a resistivity of 7.4×10−5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 86%in the visible spectral range. The figure of merit of the TiO2/Cu(11 nm)/TiO2 multilayer annealed at 150 ◦C reaches a minimum resistivity of 5.9×10−5 Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance of 88%in the visible spectral range. The experimental results indicate that TiO2/Cu/TiO2 multilayers can be used as a transparent electrode for solar cell and other display applications.

  9. Optimization of sodium extraction from soil by using a central composite design (CCD and determination of soil sodium content by ion selective electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Karadağ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of sodium (Na ions in soil samples using ion selective electrodes (ISE was investigated in this study. The compatibility of ISEs with soil extraction solution is a challenging subject as various effects such as pH, ionic strength and other interferences have to be considered as well as efficiency of the extraction solution. Because almost every type of sodium salt is soluble in water, and the pH of water is suitable for ISE studies, it was chosen as the soil extractant. Firstly, the extraction parameters were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD, secondly thirty agricultural soil samples were extracted with water and the extracts were measured by Na-ISE in a previously developed flow system. The results were compared with ion chromatography (IC as the reference method, and the regression analysis between IC and ISE results yielded a high correlation (R² = 0.9408. It was concluded that, ion selective electrodes can be used with water as an extraction solution for rapid determination of sodium in soil samples.

  10. The generation of possible space layouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2014-01-01

    The general scope of this paper is to present the development of an approach for the generation of possible space layouts in the early stages of design. The approach sets out to bridge the gap between the free form brainstorming of the sketching designer and the deterministic parametric model......, through springs that connects everything to everything and allows topology to change, opposed to the strict hierarchy and constraints of traditional parametric design. Thus instead of the topology being determined by initial constraints, the layout will be generated by probabilities of spaces to connect...... of the computational designer. A new responsive design tool is developed; applying physical based modelling techniques to a computational environment. Springs and particles automates the initial placement and sizing of the spaces, and allows continuous user and software interaction. Keeping the design process alive...

  11. Visual Similarity Based Document Layout Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wen; Xiao-Qing Ding

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a visual similarity based document layout analysis (DLA) scheme is proposed, which by using clustering strategy can adaptively deal with documents in different languages, with different layout structures and skew angles. Aiming at a robust and adaptive DLA approach, the authors first manage to find a set of representative filters and statistics to characterize typical texture patterns in document images, which is through a visual similarity testing process.Texture features are then extracted from these filters and passed into a dynamic clustering procedure, which is called visual similarity clustering. Finally, text contents are located from the clustered results. Benefit from this scheme, the algorithm demonstrates strong robustness and adaptability in a wide variety of documents, which previous traditional DLA approaches do not possess.

  12. Performance enhancement of Pt/TiO2/Si UV-photodetector by optimizing light trapping capability and interdigitated electrodes geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencherif, H.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach based on an analytical and metaheuristic investigation to study the impact of the interdigitated electrodes engineering on both speed and optical performance of an Interdigitated Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetector (IMSM-UV-PD). In this context, analytical models regarding the speed and optical performance have been developed and validated by experimental results, where a good agreement has been recorded. Moreover, the developed analytical models have been used as objective functions to determine the optimized design parameters, including the interdigit configuration effect, via a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA). The ultimate goal of the proposed hybrid approach is to identify the optimal design parameters associated with the maximum of electrical and optical device performance. The optimized IMSM-PD not only reveals superior performance in terms of photocurrent and response time, but also illustrates higher optical reliability against the optical losses due to the active area shadowing effects. The advantages offered by the proposed design methodology suggest the possibility to overcome the most challenging problem with the communication speed and power requirements of the UV optical interconnect: high derived current and commutation speed in the UV receiver.

  13. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang

    2014-07-27

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  14. Recursive Array Layouts and Fast Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    specialized not only for a specific memory architecture but also for a specific matrix size. The ATLAS project generates code for BLAS 3 routines based on...parallel, rely on good spa- tial and temporal locality of reference for their performance. Matrix multiplication (the BLAS 3 [14] dgemm routine) is a key...multiprocessors with multi-level memory hierarchies, the column-major layout assumed in the BLAS 3 library can produce unfavorable access patterns in the memory

  15. Perceptions of Building-layout Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Ruth; Wilbertz, Gregor; Hoelscher, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    This poster presents an experiment on judgments of design\\ud complexity, based on two modes of stimuli: the layouts of corridor systems in buildings shown in plan view and movies of simulated walkthroughs. Randomly selected stimuli were presented to 166 subjects: ‘experts’ (architects or students currently enrolled on an architectural course) and ‘lay people’ (all others). The aims were to investigate whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of their judgments of build...

  16. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  17. V3 CMS tracker layout Detector Break-up

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, Alessandra

    1996-01-01

    This note reports on the detector and channel break-up of the CMS V3 tracker layout. A compilation of alternative layouts is also tabulated to allow for cost estimates as a function of layout configurations. The information is organized in a modular fashion: for each configuration, the break-up of 25 cm ( 'one wheel') of barrel is reported. The forward detectors ( 'disks') are described individually as a function of equipped annuli. The total number of channels, the area and the bare cost of the provisional V3 layout are estimated. This note will be updated as the V3 layout evolves.

  18. 中心城市产业布局调整与优化研究——以广州市为例%Central city industry layout adjustment and optimization research——take Guangzhou as example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧江波

    2012-01-01

    广州市作为华南地区的中心城市和特大型城市,产业结构正于转型升级的关键时期。通过对当前广州市产业空间结构的特征及存在问题分析研究,在工业化和城市化进程加速推进的背景下,提出了产业空间结构调整与优化的基本思路,以保证广州可持续发展。%As a large central city of South-China,Guangzhou is in the key period of industrial transformation.Firstly,this paper deals with the spatial structure of Guangzhou' industries,and puts forward that the spatial structure has gone through four stages in different historical periods;Secondly,it analyzes the spatial structure characteristics of Guangzhou' industries,and points out that the industries are in circle structures of distribution as a whole,through spatial expansion;Finally,it gives out the basic strategies of regulating and optimizing spatial structure under the background of accelerating industrialization and urbanization,.i e.in accordance with demanding as a modern international large city,Changchun should break through the existing mode of industrial spaces,adopt the pattern of park agglomeration according to organic dispersing principle,form a new industrial spatial allocation in which the main city,sub-city,groups,and key central towns are relatively independent orderly ranked,stressing on main points,in order to assure Guangzhou' sustainable development.

  19. Effects of Optical Loss Factors on Heliostat Field Layout for Beam-Down Solar Concentrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamura, Motoaki; Takamatsu, Tadahiko; Yuasa, Minoru; Kajita, Rina; Yamamoto, Takashi

    A methodology to give an optimal layout of a group of heliostats has been developed for beam-down concentrating solar tower systems. Given the maximum solar power together with optical parameters, the method determines an optimal configuration of a heliostat field around a tower. Various optical losses such as cosine factor, shadowing and blocking at heliostats are considered in the calculation. Furthermore, spillage at the receiver is taken into account due to the spread of light caused by the effects of a finite solar disk, flat facet and various stochastic errors in optical hardware and control. It is found the effect of spillage becomes significant at heliostats from the tower at the distance farther than four times of upper focus height of the reflector when receiver diameter is one fifteenth of the height and dominates the configuration of the optimal heliostat layout.

  20. Multi-Criteria Layout Synthesis of MEMS Devices Using Memetic Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), has been applied to find multiple trade-off solutions followed by a gradient-based local search, i.e. sequential quadratic programming (SQP), to improve the convergence of the obtained Pareto-optimal front. In order to reduce the number of function evaluations......This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization approach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. simultaneous...... minimization of size and power input of a MEMS device, while investigating optimum geometrical configuration as the main concern. The major contribution of this paper is the application of memetic computing in MEMS design. An evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) technique, in particular nondominated...

  1. 煤层瓦斯抽采爆破卸压的钻孔布置优化分析及应用%OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS OF DRILLING LAYOUT BASED ON BLASTING RELEASING PRESSURE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周声才; 李栋; 张凤舞; 沈大富; 周东平; 郭臣业

    2013-01-01

    To resolve the problems of low gas draining rate in soft coal seam with low permeability,a new technology of improving seam permeability by pre-splitting blasting on floor rock is proposed.The process of increasing permeability is divided into two stages:firstly forms penetrative cranny area in the interaction of blasting stress wave and detonation gas; secondly forms releasing pressure area by coal-rock caving at the top of the blast cavity.Dynamic variation of blasting stress wave of different drilling intervals was researched by numerical simulation; and it is found that the influence sphere of the pre-splitting blasting is divided into smash area and penetrative cranny area.The smash area is 6 times of the diameter of blast hole; and the tensile wave caused by large diameter pores reflection plays the major role to connect fissures.The optimal space of forming unicom fissures and keeping same high destruction scope with the control hole is 0.9 meter,which is applied to gas pre-drainage engineering in a bottom road of a Chongqing coal mine.The application result shows that the gas drainage flow is 2.8 times of the original,and the gas drainage efficiency is improved by 3.75 times of the original.Besides,it is obvious that the much better results was achieved 20-30 days after blasting.%为解决重庆地区低透气性松软煤层瓦斯抽采率低的难题,提出煤层底板预裂爆破卸压增透新技术,指出其增透过程分为爆破应力波与爆生气体共同作用形成裂隙贯通区和爆破空腔顶部煤岩体垮落形成卸压带2个阶段.借助数值模拟对不同孔距爆破应力波的动态演变规律进行研究,发现预裂爆破影响范围分为粉碎区和贯通区,其中粉碎区范围约为爆破孔直径的6倍,而贯通区的形成则主要受大直径控制孔反射形成的拉伸波作用,最终得到预裂爆破形成贯穿裂隙且保持与控制孔同高破坏区间的最优孔距为0.9 m,并将该

  2. Highly effective nickel sulfide counter electrode catalyst prepared by optimal hydrothermal treatment for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-02-01

    Nickel sulfide (NiS) thin film has been deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by a hydrothermal method using 3-mercaptopropionic acid and used as an efficient counter electrode (CE) for polysulfide redox reactions in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). NiS has low toxicity and environmental compatibility. In the present study, the size of the NiS nanoparticle increases with the hydrothermal deposition time. The performance of the QDSSCs is examined in detail using polysulfide electrolyte with the NiS CE. A TiO2/CdS/CdSe/ZnS-based QDSSC using the NiS CE shows enhanced photovoltaic performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.03%, which is superior to that of a cell with Pt CE (PCE 2.20%) under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved photovoltaic performance of the NiS-based QDSSC may be attributed to a low charge transfer resistance (5.08 Ω) for the reduction of polysulfide on the CE, indicating greater electrocatalytic activity of the NiS. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and Tafel-polarization measurements were used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of the NiS and Pt CEs.

  3. Spatial layout optimization for ecological land based on minimum cumulative resistance model%基于最小累计阻力模型的生态用地空间布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程迎轩; 王红梅; 刘光盛; 郑标; 王海云; 刘翠霞

    2016-01-01

    , ecological transition zone, and ecological footprint zone. Optimization suggestions were proposed for different zones. Results showed that the core ecological land area in Gaoming District was estimated to be around 301.83 km2, accounting for 32.17% of the study area and 41.33% of the whole ecological land. The zoning result integrating the ecological security pattern, economic potential and farmland protection corresponded to the actual situation and planning objectives in space or time. By analyzing the zoning areas, it could be seen that the area proportions of ecological core zone, ecological control zone, ecological transition zone, and ecological footprint zone were 35.29%, 17.40%, 23.74% and 23.58% respectively. The ecological core zone mainly including rivers and mountains was consistent with the natural and cultural heritage protection area, scenic area, and the planned ecological security control area. The ecological control zone was near the ecological core zone. The ecological footprint zone was mainly distributed in the urban areas in Hecheng Street, Mingcheng Town and a small part of present farmland in Genghe Town. Cultivated land was more than construction land in the ecological transition zone. It is concluded that the ecological core zone and control zone provide important basis for the implementation of ecological space protection. In addition, the ecological transition zone and ecological footprint zone can be used to provide development space for urban expansion and farmland reclamation reasonably.%综合分析生态用地保护重要性与建设用地扩张的经济潜力、耕地保护的政策约束,协调社会经济发展与生态保护的矛盾。运用景观安全格局分析方法,结合最小累计阻力模型,从水资源安全、生物多样性保护、灾害防护和景观游憩4个层面,采用累计修正求和的方式构成高明区重要生态用地空间。其次,以核心型生态用地为生态保护的源,以生态系统

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  5. 面向结构形状控制的压电纤维复合薄膜驱动器布局方式与控制参数协同优化设计%Integrated Design Optimization of MFC-layout Form and Control Parameters for Morphing Structural Shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仁璟; 张莹; 赵剑; 陈文炯; 刘书田; 仝立勇

    2016-01-01

    One of the key objectives in the structural design of aircraft and spacecraft is the capability of accurate shape morphing that can meet various operational and environmental requirements for enhanced performance of the flight vehicles. The key to realize such capability could be dependent on the research into the design methods for finding the optimum layout of actuators and the associated controlling parameters. An integrated design optimization method for morphing a thin plate was presented with the shape like an aircraft wing via a concurrent design of the layout for given number of macro fiber composite (MFC)actuators and their relevant controlling parameters without the consideration of the external loads. An integrated optimization model is developed with the goal of minimizing the deviation between a required shape and an actual one through optimizing actuator locations, angles, layer number, symmetry and control voltages subject to the constraints, such as the breakdown voltage of the MFC and the geometrical limit of MFC-actuators. In the numerical examples, considered are three desired shapes of a thin plate with the shape like an aircraft wing, namely, bending, twisting and bending-twisting shapes. A total of 81 uniformly distributed observation points are used to implement shape morphing via evaluating the standard deviation between a desired shape and an actuated one. The optimal standard deviations for the bending, twisting, and bending-twisting shapes are 9.977×10–5, 4.394×10–4 and 5.308×10–4, respectively, which indicate a good accuracy for these multi-parameter shape morphing. Test panels of idealized control surfaces were prepared and experimental setup was constructed. The test results show a good correlation between the desired shape and the actuated one by using the present MFC-layout and controlling parameters, which in turn validates the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.%能够根据工作环境改变翼面形状

  6. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-02-27

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond.

  7. ATLAS ITk Layout Design and Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Calace, Noemi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Detector design studies are a very crucial activity for the ATLAS Collaboration, in preparation for the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) planned to start in 2026. One of the key activities is the design and prototyping of a new Inner Tracker (ITk), fully made of silicon, able to meet the requirements HL-LHC environment assuring at the same time very high tracking performance. A dedicated design process started from Letter of Intent (LoI) layouts is still ongoing to establish the design ATLAS ITk tracker.

  8. Optimization of operation of a three-electrode gyrotron with the use of a flow-type calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchev, Nikolay K.; Batanov, German M.; Kolik, Leonid V.; Malakhov, Dmitrii V.; Petrov, Aleksandr Ye.; Sarksyan, Karen A.; Skvortsova, Nina N.; Stepakhin, Vladimir D. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova ul. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vladimir I. [Institute of Applied Physics, Ul' yanova ul. 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Malygin, Sergei A.; Tai, Yevgenii M. [GYCOM Company, Ul' yanova ul. 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603155 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15

    Results are presented for measurements of microwave power of the Borets-75/0.8 gyrotron with recovery of residual electron energy, which were performed by a flow-type calorimeter. This gyrotron is a part of the ECR plasma heating complex put into operation in 2010 at the L-2M stellarator. The new calorimeter is capable of measuring microwave power up to 0.5 MW. Monitoring of the microwave power makes it possible to control the parameters of the gyrotron power supply unit (its voltage and current) and the magnetic field of the cryomagnet in order to optimize the gyrotron operation and arrive at maximum efficiency.

  9. tkLayout: a design tool for innovative silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new CMS tracker is scheduled to become operational for the LHC Phase 2 upgrade in the early 2020's. tkLayout is a software package developed to create 3d models for the design of the CMS tracker and to evaluate its fundamental performance figures. The new tracker will have to cope with much higher luminosity conditions, resulting in increased track density, harsher radiation exposure and, especially, much higher data acquisition bandwidth, such that equipping the tracker with triggering capabilities is envisaged. The design of an innovative detector involves deciding on an architecture offering the best trade-off among many figures of merit, such as tracking resolution, power dissipation, bandwidth, cost and so on. Quantitatively evaluating these figures of merit as early as possible in the design phase is of capital importance and it is best done with the aid of software models. tkLayout is a flexible modeling tool: new performance estimates and support for different detector geometries can be quickly added, thanks to its modular structure. Besides, the software executes very quickly (about two minutes), so that many possible architectural variations can be rapidly modeled and compared, to help in the choice of a viable detector layout and then to optimize it. A tracker geometry is generated from simple configuration files, defining the module types, layout and materials. Support structures are automatically added and services routed to provide a realistic tracker description. The tracker geometries thus generated can be exported to the standard CMS simulation framework (CMSSW) for full Monte Carlo studies. tkLayout has proven essential in giving guidance to CMS in studying different detector layouts and exploring the feasibility of innovative solutions for tracking detectors, in terms of design, performance and projected costs. This tool has been one of the keys to making important design decisions for over five years now and has also enabled project engineers

  10. A fast and efficient method for device level layout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YaoQi; Zou, Elaine; Pang, Jenny; Huang, Lucas; Yang, Legender; Zhang, Chunlei; Du, Chunshan; Hu, Xinyi; Wan, Qijian

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for device level layout analysis, especially as technology advances. The analysis is to study standard cells by extracting and classifying critical dimension parameters. There are couples of parameters to extract, like channel width, length, gate to active distance, and active to adjacent active distance, etc. for 14nm technology, there are some other parameters that are cared about. On the one hand, these parameters are very important for studying standard cell structures and spice model development with the goal of improving standard cell manufacturing yield and optimizing circuit performance; on the other hand, a full chip device statistics analysis can provide useful information to diagnose the yield issue. Device analysis is essential for standard cell customization and enhancements and manufacturability failure diagnosis. Traditional parasitic parameters extraction tool like Calibre xRC is powerful but it is not sufficient for this device level layout analysis application as engineers would like to review, classify and filter out the data more easily. This paper presents a fast and efficient method based on Calibre equation-based DRC (eqDRC). Equation-based DRC extends the traditional DRC technology to provide a flexible programmable modeling engine which allows the end user to define grouped multi-dimensional feature measurements using flexible mathematical expressions. This paper demonstrates how such an engine and its programming language can be used to implement critical device parameter extraction. The device parameters are extracted and stored in a DFM database which can be processed by Calibre YieldServer. YieldServer is data processing software that lets engineers query, manipulate, modify, and create data in a DFM database. These parameters, known as properties in eqDRC language, can be annotated back to the layout for easily review. Calibre DesignRev can create a HTML formatted report of the results displayed in Calibre

  11. Flexural Behavior of Posttensioned Flat Plates Depending on Tendon Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural behavior and deflections of posttensioned concrete flat plates depending on tendon layout. One reinforced concrete flat plate and two posttensioned concrete flat plates were manufactured and tested. One-way posttensioning layout and two-way posttensioning layout were considered in this paper. The load-deflection behavior and modes of crack are presented from the test results. Posttension systems effectively controlled crack and deflection. One-way and two-way posttensioning layouts both showed similar maximum load. However, serviceability improved with two-way posttensioning layout compared to one-way posttensioning layout. Also, the yield-line theory was applied to predict the ultimate load for the posttensioned flat plates. The comparison between the test results and estimation by yield-line analysis generally showed good agreement.

  12. A mathematical model for optimal tower crane layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tower cranes, on today’s typical building construction sites, are the centerpiece of production, hoisting and transporting of a variety of loads. Due to a simple crane limited capacity; there is an urgent need to use high capacity cranes such as tower cranes. However, we have to select an appropriate type of cranes to be utilized to reduce the associated coste as much as possible. In this research, we propose a method to select the suitable type of crane and locate the best place for crane erection based on a minimum radius for requested crane and minimum cost. To fulfill the target, a computer program is designed to numerate these problems, demonstrating an example explaining how to apply the program and the results are discussed.

  13. Layout design optimization of dynamic environment flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Abu Qudeiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper positioning of machine tools in flexible manufacturing system is one of the factors that lead to increase in production efficiency. Choosing the optimum position of machine tools curtails the total part handling cost between machine tools within the flexible manufacturing system. In this article, a two-stage approach is presented to investigate the best locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system. The location of each machine tool is selected from the available specific and fixed locations in such a way that it will result in best throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the first stage of the two-stage approach, the throughput of randomly selected locations of the machine tool in flexible manufacturing system is computed by proposing a production simulation system. The production simulation system utilizes genetic algorithms to find the locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system that achieve the maximum throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the second stage, the generated locations are fed into artificial neural network to find a relation between a machine tool’s location and the throughput that can be used to predict the throughput for any other set of locations. Artificial neural network will result in mitigating the computational time.

  14. Experimental Study on Optimal Layout of Grid Desilting Gallery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaozhe; WANG Jingchang; CHANG Zhichao; ZHANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the desilting research of one scheduling project in the southwest of China, the method of setting grid desilting gallcry before the desilting tunnel is put forward to expand the scope of the scouring funnel before the dam and solve the problem of sediment deposition at the power station water intake. The experimental results show that, in the design of a grid desilting gallery, the width of the grid gallery should not be smaller than that of the desilting bottom in-take, the size of the grid orifice should be in the range of 1.5 m-2.0 m along the flow direction, and the grid spacing should be 3-5 times the size of the grid orifice. The discharging ability of the desilting bottom intake will decrease after the grid desilting gallery is added. The average of the decrease rates is about 5%-10%. The scouring funnel draws in the longitudinal direction before the dam obviously after the construction of the grid desilting gallery.

  15. Topology and layout optimization of discrete and continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    The basic features of the ground structure method for truss structure an continuum problems are described. Problems with a large number of potential structural elements are considered using the compliance of the structure as the objective function. The design problem is the minimization of compliance for a given structural weight, and the design variables for truss problems are the cross-sectional areas of the individual truss members, while for continuum problems they are the variable densities of material in each of the elements of the FEM discretization. It is shown how homogenization theory can be applied to provide a relation between material density and the effective material properties of a periodic medium with a known microstructure of material and voids.

  16. ZECOMIX: Performance of alternative lay-outs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeno, G.; Spazzafumo, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    ZECOMIX is a plant for hydrogen production and power generation using coal as a primary energy source and with nearly zero emissions. The global lay-out can be divided in 5 sectors: coal gasification, O{sub 2} production, CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} sequestration, power generation. Coal is hydro gasified using a stream of hydrogen internally recycled. The syngas, mainly methane, is then reformed with steam and CaO in such a way to obtain a gaseous stream of hydrogen and steam separated from CaCO{sub 3} which is solid. CaO is then regenerated inside a calciner which produce also a gaseous stream of CO{sub 2} which has to be stored. The stream of hydrogen is burned with stoichiometric O{sub 2} and the resulting steam is expanded in a steam power plant. After having focused our efforts on the coal gasification and CO{sub 2} capture, we selected a layout for these sections and analysed the possibility to cogenerate hydrogen and power. The results confirmed that cogeneration is the most efficient solution and ZECOMIX seems to be an interesting option. (author)

  17. CNGS layout and systems: a progress report

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Elsener, K; Gaillard, H; López-Hernandez, L A; Maugain, J M; Meddahi, M; Rangod, Stephane; Spinks, Alan; Stevenson, G R; Wilhelmsson, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    The CNGS (CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) project was described in a conceptual technical design report in 1998 (the project was then called NGS, cf. report CERN 98-02 / INFN-AE/98-05). An addendum to that report was published in 1999, describing the improvements on the design and performance, in particular in view of the nt appearance experiments to be performed with the CNGS beam (cf. report CERN-SL/99-034(DI) / INFN/AE-99-05). In the time since the publishing of these two reports, the CNGS project was approved by CERN Council and construction work started in September 2000. A further note (SL-Note-2002-012) - written on the occasion of the first CNGS External Review in February 2002 - provided an update concerning changes to the overall layout of the CNGS facility. The present paper describes further layout changes and the modifications to the design of various systems and equipment. This work has been done in preparation of the second CNGS Review, held in April 2003.

  18. Assessment of controls layout of Indian tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adarsh; Bhaskar, Gaikwad; Singh, J K

    2009-01-01

    Tractors in low-income countries are used both for farm and non-farm activities. Most of the tractors being manufactured in India are products of collaboration with other countries. The design of tractors manufactured in India has not changed much in the past five decades especially from an ergonomics point of view, because of economic considerations. This paper describes a tractor control layout assessment with respect to the Indian population and compares the location of controls with workspace envelopes and the IS12343 standard for commonly used tractors on Indian farms. Controls like steering, foot clutch, foot brake, foot accelerator are located in areas defined by IS12343 standard in some tractors but these are not placed in the workspace envelopes of the Indian population. This results in a mismatch between the workspace envelope and location of controls as defined by the standard. The controls need a complete change in their layout to be in the workspace envelopes, as this cannot be achieved by providing seat movement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the present tractor design.

  19. Lossless compression of VLSI layout image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Vito; Zakhor, Avideh

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel lossless compression algorithm called Context Copy Combinatorial Code (C4), which integrates the advantages of two very disparate compression techniques: context-based modeling and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) style copying. While the algorithm can be applied to many lossless compression applications, such as document image compression, our primary target application has been lossless compression of integrated circuit layout image data. These images contain a heterogeneous mix of data: dense repetitive data better suited to LZ-style coding, and less dense structured data, better suited to context-based encoding. As part of C4, we have developed a novel binary entropy coding technique called combinatorial coding which is simultaneously as efficient as arithmetic coding, and as fast as Huffman coding. Compression results show C4 outperforms JBIG, ZIP, BZIP2, and two-dimensional LZ, and achieves lossless compression ratios greater than 22 for binary layout image data, and greater than 14 for gray-pixel image data.

  20. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

  1. ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF FUEL CELL ELECTRODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    optimization of fuel cell electrodes. Hydrogen oxidation and reduction, the reduction of oxygen, and the oxidation of formic acid, a soluble organic...substance, were selected for these studiees because of their relevance to fuel cell systems and because of their relative simplicity. The electrodes

  2. Using Genetic Algorithms on Manufacturing Facilities Layout Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克胜; EspenGunnarsen; 袁庆丰

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the objective of a manufacturing facility layout problem is to minimize the material handling cost of the manufacturing systems. Because of the combination of the facility layout problems, the genetic algorithms (GA) technique is the most promising approach for solving practical layout problems. Much of the previous work has been done for identical problems, where all departments are equal in area. In this paper, non-identical problems are dealt with. A new coding approach - the Comer Attachmer Structure (CAS) is introduced.

  3. Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Layout of Fixture Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦黎; 孙厚芳

    2003-01-01

    Automation in the layout of fixture components is important to achieve efficiency and flexibility in computer aided fixture design. Based on basic genetic algorithm and particulars of different fixture components, a method of layout space division is presented. Such techniques as suitable crossover rate, mutation rate and selection arithmetic element are adopted in the genetic operation. The results show that genetic algorithm can effectively be applied in the automatic layout of fixture components.

  4. STORE LAYOUT FOR VIRTUAL RETAILING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Masudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The progress of online shopping worldwide has impacted significantly to business processes as well as customers’ behavior in shopping. Thus, research in online retailing especially in virtual store layout has been made by researchers in numerous numbers. This article attempts to explore prior research in virtual layout retails to identify the research in virtual retailing in term of the variables involved in designing the virtual store layout.

  5. Multi-Criteria Layout Synthesis of MEMS Devices Using Memetic Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Fan, Zhun

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-objective optimization approach for layout synthesis of MEMS components. A case study of layout synthesis of a comb-driven micro-resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results accommodating two design objectives, i.e. simultaneous...... sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), has been applied to find multiple trade-off solutions followed by a gradient-based local search, i.e. sequential quadratic programming (SQP), to improve the convergence of the obtained Pareto-optimal front. In order to reduce the number of function evaluations...... in the local search procedure, the obtained non-dominated solutions are clustered in the objective space and consequently, a postoptimality study is manually performed to find out some common design principles among those solutions. Finally, two reasonable design choices have been offered based...

  6. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  7. A new method for the design of the heliostat field layout for solar tower power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiudong; Lu, Zhenwu; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Hongxing [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang, Zhifeng; Yao, Zhihao [The Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A new method for the design of the heliostat field layout for solar tower power plant is proposed. In the new method, the heliostat boundary is constrained by the receiver geometrical aperture and the efficiency factor which is the product of the annual cosine efficiency and the annual atmospheric transmission efficiency of heliostat. With the new method, the annual interception efficiency does not need to be calculated when places the heliostats, therefore the total time of design and optimization is saved significantly. Based on the new method, a new code for heliostat field layout design (HFLD) has been developed and a new heliostat field layout for the PS10 plant at the PS10 location has been designed by using the new code. Compared with current PS10 layout, the new designed heliostats have the same optical efficiency but with a faster response speed. In addition, to evaluate the feasibility of crops growth on the field land under heliostats, a new calculation method for the annual sunshine duration on the land surface is proposed as well. (author)

  8. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su

    2016-07-01

    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.

  9. Numerical Study of the Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Four-Electrode Rectangular Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhanyu; Agafonov, Vadim; Rice, Catherine; Bindler, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulation is done on the buoyancy-driven flow in a four-electrode rectangular electrochemical cell. Two kinds of electrode layouts, the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) and the cathode-anode-anode-cathode (CAAC) layouts, are studied. In the ACCA layout, the two anodes are placed close to the channel outlets while the two cathodes are located between the two anodes. The CAAC layout can be converted from the ACCA layout by applying higher electric potential on the two middle electrodes. Density gradient was generated by the electrodic reaction I3^-+2e^- =3I^-. When the electrochemical cell is accelerated axially, buoyancy-driven flow occurs. In our model, electro-neutrality is assumed except at the electrodes. The Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and the Nernst-Planck equations are employed to model the momentum and mass transports, respectively. It is found that under a given axial acceleration, the electrolyte density between the two middle electrodes determines the bulk flow through the electrochemical cell. The cathodic current difference is found to be able to measure the applied acceleration. Other important electro-hydrodynamic characteristics are also discussed.

  10. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  11. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  12. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  13. CMOS VLSI Layout and Verification of a SIMD Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianqing

    1996-01-01

    A CMOS VLSI layout and verification of a 3 x 3 processor parallel computer has been completed. The layout was done using the MAGIC tool and the verification using HSPICE. Suggestions for expanding the computer into a million processor network are presented. Many problems that might be encountered when implementing a massively parallel computer are discussed.

  14. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  15. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica"…

  16. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  17. FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION ON INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Doudkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy neural network model based on neocognitron is proposed to identify layout objects on images of topological layers of integrated circuits. Testing of the model on images of real chip layouts was showed a highеr degree of identification of the proposed neural network in comparison to base neocognitron.

  18. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  19. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  20. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  1. New layout concepts in MW-scale IGBT modules for higher robustness during normal and abnormal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents six different layout designs for MW-level Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules. The aim is to optimize the normal switching and abnormal short circuit performances of IGBT modules in terms of stray inductance reduction and inductance coupling cancellation. Using...

  2. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming approach to wind farm layout and inter-array cable routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Leth, John-Josef; Borchersen, Anders Bech

    2015-01-01

    A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach is proposed to optimize the turbine allocation and inter-array offshore cable routing. The two problems are considered with a two steps strategy, solving the layout problem first and then the cable problem. We give an introduction to both problem...

  3. Research on the Layout of National Economic Mobilization Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhou Tang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the layout of NEMLC (National Economic Mobilization Logistics Center is one of the most important long-term decision-making issues. The result of NEMLC’s layout directly impacts many aspects of mobilization, such as time, reliability, quality, efficiency, cost, and so on, consequently affects the effect of the mobilization. Reasonable NEMLC layout can bring people convenience in the daily life, reduce costs, and improve service efficiency and competitiveness. Poor NEMLC layout often brings a great deal of inconvenience and loss, and even leads to mobilization failure. Under the restriction of mobilization time, the paper establishes the layout model that one or more mobilization logistics centers provide the material to the mobilization demanding place. The mobilization goods or service can reach the demanding place to carry into mobilization execution within the given time, and the number of the built NEMLCs is the least.

  4. Layout Design for CMOS Analog Circuit%CMOS模拟集成电路版图设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解放; 罗闯

    2012-01-01

    由于模拟集成电路的性能与版图设计密切相关,着重介绍了CMOS模拟电路版图设计的一般思路,优化器件结构和平面布局使寄生效应对电路性能的影响降至最低.%Because the performance of analog circuit have great relationship with layout design, commonconsideration about layout design of CMOS analog circuit is introduced. Optimization of device structure and plane floorplan degrade the effect of parasitical to the minimum for circuit performance.

  5. TOPFARM – A Tool for Wind Farm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    TOPFARM takes the investors perspective and performs an economical optimization of a wind farm layout throughout the lifetime of the wind farm. The economical optimization approach of wind farm layout differs significantly from the traditional power output optimization. The major differences...

  6. Towards a more accurate extraction of the SPICE netlist from MAGIC based layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronimo, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    The extraction of the SPICE netlist form MAGIC based layouts is investigated. It is assumed that the layout is fully coherent with the corresponding mask representation. The process of the extraction can be made in three steps: (1) extraction of .EXT file from layout, through MAGIC command extract; (2) extraction of the netlist from .EXT file through ext2spice extractor; and (3) correction of the netlist through ext2spice.corr program. Each of these steps introduces some approximations, most of which can be optimized, and some errors, most of which can be corrected. Aim of this work is the description of each step, of the approximations and errors on each step, and of the corresponding optimizations and corrections to be made in order to improve the accuracy of the extraction. The HP AMOS14TB 0.5 {micro}m process with linear capacitor and silicide block options and the corresponding SCN3MLC{_}SUBM.30.tech27 technology file will be used in the following examples.

  7. The constraints satisfaction problem approach in the design of an architectural functional layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawidzki, Machi; Tateyama, Kazuyoshi; Nishikawa, Ikuko

    2011-09-01

    A design support system with a new strategy for finding the optimal functional configurations of rooms for architectural layouts is presented. A set of configurations satisfying given constraints is generated and ranked according to multiple objectives. The method can be applied to problems in architectural practice, urban or graphic design-wherever allocation of related geometrical elements of known shape is optimized. Although the methodology is shown using simplified examples-a single story residential building with two apartments each having two rooms-the results resemble realistic functional layouts. One example of a practical size problem of a layout of three apartments with a total of 20 rooms is demonstrated, where the generated solution can be used as a base for a realistic architectural blueprint. The discretization of design space is discussed, followed by application of a backtrack search algorithm used for generating a set of potentially 'good' room configurations. Next the solutions are classified by a machine learning method (FFN) as 'proper' or 'improper' according to the internal communication criteria. Examples of interactive ranking of the 'proper' configurations according to multiple criteria and choosing 'the best' ones are presented. The proposed framework is general and universal-the criteria, parameters and weights can be individually defined by a user and the search algorithm can be adjusted to a specific problem.

  8. 水利工程施工布置特点及总体布置措施%Layout Characteristics and Layout Measures of the Construction of Water Conservancy Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃旭; 杜江涛

    2014-01-01

    水利施工中的布置特点及总体布置措施在施工组织设计中占有重要地位。因此,应加强对水利工程施工总体布置特点的理解,使得水利工程施工布置的合理性显著提高,完善施工布置,并使其达到最优,以保障水利工程的质量。%The layout characteristics and the overal layout measures of water conservancy construction occupy an impor-tant position in the design of construction and organization. Therefore, we should strengthen the understanding of the ge-neral layout characteristics of the construction of water cons-ervancy engineering to improve significantly the layout ration-ality of the construction of water conservancy engineering, pe-rfect the construction layout, and make it optimal to guarantee the quality of the water conservancy project.

  9. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  10. Layout parameter analysis in Shannon expansion theorem based on 32 bit adder circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Senthilpari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 1-bit adder circuits are schematized using pass transistor logic (PTL technique, that’s optimized by the Shannon expansion theorem. The proposed 32 bit carry increment adder (CIA circuit is designed by bit slice method. The CIA adder layout gives tremendous change compared to existing author results. The proposed circuit achieved better performance on power consumption, speed, throughput, and area. The 32-bit adder circuits are implemented in various types of 1-bit adder cells, such as Shannon, Mixed-Shannon and MCIT-7T. Furthermore, the 32-bit CIA adder layout is furtherly investigated for RLC interconnect parameter such as capacitive impedance, inductive impedance, power factor sin ϕ, tan ϕ for applying frequency. The 32 bit adder circuit acts in a better way than existing circuits in terms of power dissipation, delay, throughput, latency, power factor, sin ϕ and tan ϕ.

  11. Improvement of in-hospital telemetry monitoring in coronary care units: an intervention study for achieving optimal electrode placement and attachment, hygiene and delivery of critical information to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Trond R; Fålun, Nina; Norekvål, Tone M

    2014-12-01

    In-hospital telemetry monitoring is important for diagnosis and treatment of patients at risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias. It is widely used in critical and non-critical care wards. Nurses are responsible for correct electrode placement, thus ensuring optimal quality of the monitoring. The aims of this study were to determine whether a complex educational intervention improves (a) optimal electrode placement, (b) hygiene, and (c) delivery of critical information to patients (reason for monitoring, limitations in cellular phone use, and not to leave the ward without informing a member of staff). A prospective interventional study design was used, with data collection occurring over two six-week periods: before implementation of the intervention (n=201) and after the intervention (n=165). Standard abstraction forms were used to obtain data on patients' clinical characteristics, and 10 variables related to electrode placement and attachment, hygiene and delivery of critical information. At pre-intervention registration, 26% of the electrodes were misplaced. Twelve per cent of the patients received information about limiting their cellular phone use while monitored, 70% were informed of the purpose of monitoring, and 71% used a protective cover for their unit. Post-intervention, outcome measures for the three variables improved significantly: use of protective cover (p<0.001), information about the purpose of monitoring (p=0.005) and information about limitations in cellular phone use (p=0.003). Nonetheless, 23% of the electrodes were still misplaced. The study highlights the need for better, continued education for in-hospital telemetry monitoring in coronary care units, and other units that monitor patients with telemetry. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  12. Topology optimization of viscoelastic rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Szabo, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the design of microfluidic viscoelastic rectifiers is presented based on a combination of a viscoelastic model and the method of topology optimization. This presumption free approach yields a material layout topologically different from experimentally realized rectifiers...

  13. Planejamento sistemático de layout com apoio de análise de decisão multicritério Systematic layout planning aided by multicriteria decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. Tortorella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A correta utilização do espaço físico de uma fábrica é fator importante para o seu bom funcionamento, já que estabelece a sua organização fundamental, bem como os padrões de fluxo de materiais e informações, com efeitos que se farão presentes no longo prazo. A fim de sistematizar um adequado planejamento de layout, métodos para planejamento do macroespaço, como o SLP (Systematic Layout Planning - Planejamento Sistemático de Layout, podem auxiliar no desenvolvimento de alternativas de layout. Contudo, devido à geração de soluções subótimas com benefícios e desvantagens distintos, o processo decisório da melhor alternativa de layout torna-se crítico para garantir a eficiência e flexibilidade de empresas frente aos diferentes cenários de mercado. Este artigo propõe a utilização de ferramentas de apoio à decisão multicritério em sistemáticas de planejamento de layout, refinando a fase de Seleção do método SLP. A sistemática proposta foi colocada em prática na seleção de alternativas de layout em uma empresa do ramo automotivo, que necessita ampliar seu parque fabril de modo a possibilitar a incorporação de novos equipamentos e otimização do fluxo de materiais. Nove alternativas de macro-layout foram geradas no caso apresentado, sendo avaliada a melhor alternativa geral em relação a sete critérios de avaliação.The proper use of physical space in a factory is an important operational factor since it establishes its primary organization as well as the material and information flow patterns, with long run impacts. In order to systematize an adequate plant layout, methods for macro-space planning such as SLP (Systematic Layout Planning have been proposed to support the development of layout alternatives. However, due to the generation of sub-optimal solutions with different pros and cons, the process of determining the best layout alternative becomes critical to assure the company's efficiency and

  14. A generic algorithm for layout of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Tim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological networks are widely used to represent processes in biological systems and to capture interactions and dependencies between biological entities. Their size and complexity is steadily increasing due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life sciences. To aid understanding of biological networks several algorithms for laying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore different algorithms are required for each kind of network and/or style of layout. This increases implementation effort and means that new algorithms must be developed for new layout styles. Furthermore, additional effort is necessary to compose different layout conventions in the same diagram. Also the user cannot usually customize the placement of nodes to tailor the layout to their particular need or task and there is little support for interactive network exploration. Results We present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome. Our method is based on constrained graph layout and we demonstrate how it can handle the drawing conventions used in biological networks. Conclusion The presented algorithm offers the ability to produce many of the fundamental popular drawing styles while allowing the exibility of constraints to further tailor these layouts.

  15. Task-specific performance effects with different numeric keypad layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Jenny T; Redick, Thomas S; Poulsen, Joan R

    2014-07-01

    Two commonly used keypad arrangements are the telephone and calculator layouts. The purpose of this study was to determine if entering different types of numeric information was quicker and more accurate with the telephone or the calculator layout on a computer keyboard numeric keypad. Fifty-seven participants saw a 10-digit numeric stimulus to type with a computer number keypad as quickly and as accurately as possible. Stimuli were presented in either a numerical [1,234,567,890] or phone [(123) 456-7890] format. The results indicated that participants' memory of the layout for the arrangement of keys on a telephone was significantly better than the layout of a calculator. In addition, the results showed that participants were more accurate when entering stimuli using the calculator keypad layout. Critically, participants' response times showed an interaction of stimulus format and keypad layout: participants were specifically slowed when entering numeric stimuli using a telephone keypad layout. Responses made using the middle row of keys were faster and more accurate than responses using the top and bottom row of keys. Implications for keypad design and cell phone usage are discussed.

  16. Uuden layout-suunnitelman kehittäminen kohdeyritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Janne

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda uusi toimiva layout-suunnitelma Constructor Finland Oy:lle. Constructor Finland Oy on Lohjalla sijaitseva yritys, joka kehittää, valmistaa ja markkinoi tuotteita ja palveluja varasto-, arkisto-, toimisto- ja myymäläsovelluksiin sekä materiaalinkäsittelyyn. Yrityksellä on Lohjalla kaksi tehdasrakennusta ja uusi layout kehitetään toisen tehtaan valmistuotevarastolle. Nykyinen layout on luontaisen kehityksen myötä jäänyt tehottomaksi, eikä se kykene ...

  17. An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.

  18. Anodes - Materials for negative electrodes in electrochemical energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holze, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    The basic concepts of electrodes and electrochemical cells (including both galvanic and electrolytic ones) are introduced and illustrated with practical examples. Particular attention is paid to negative electrodes in primary and secondary cells, fuel cell electrodes and electrodes in redox flow batteries. General features and arguments pertaining to selection, optimization and further development are highlighted.

  19. Self-Organization applied to Dynamic Network Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Geipel, Markus M

    2007-01-01

    As networks and their structure have become a major field of research, a strong demand to visualize these networks has emerged. We address this challenge by formalizing the well established spring layout in terms of dynamic equations. We thus opening up the design space for new algorithms. Drawing from the knowledge of systems design, we derive a layout algorithm that remedies several drawbacks of the original spring layout. This new algorithm relies on the balancing of two antagonistic forces. We thus call it {\\em arf} for ``attractive and repulsive forces''. It is, as we claim, particularly suited for dynamic layout of smaller networks ($n < 10^3$). We back this claim with several application examples from ongoing complex systems research.

  20. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  1. KBS-3H layout adaptation 2007 for the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Erik; Hagros, Annika; Autio, Jorma; Kirkkomaeki, Timo (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    As part of the KBS-3H design an Olkiluoto-specific layout of a KBS-3H repository has been produced based on the latest Olkiluoto data and the bedrock model. One of the main goals of this work was to support the evaluation of the feasibility of the one layer KBS-3H concept and to compare the layouts based on the KBS-3H and KBS-3V disposal concepts. The layout presented in this work can be considered only preliminary and involves a number of uncertainties. The percentage of unusable host rock was assumed to be 25% in this work but can change due to the further design of the different components of the KBS-3H disposal system and further development of the host rock criteria. The layout is also significantly affected by the layout-determining fracture zones. In this work 11 major (highly transmissive) fracture zones interpreted to intersect the -420 m level were considered deterministically. The KBS-3H layout requires a larger area than the KBS-3V repository and takes up most of the available area between the major fracture zones HZ20 and HZ21. This is mainly due to the long drift sections occupied by the compartment plugs (30 m) and the bentonite blocks in the blank zones (10 m), which reduces the usability of the host rock and results in larger canister spacings than in the KBS-3V concept, where the positioning of the deposition holes is very flexible and narrow zones with a moderate transmissivity usually have only a minor effect on the locations of the canisters. According to the results, there is enough bedrock in the current investigation area at central Olkiluoto for KBS-3H layout in one layer. However the layout takes up nearly all of the potential bedrock resource and therefore the result is quite sensitive to possible changes in the design bases

  2. REPOSITORY LAYOUT SUPPORTING DESIGN FEATURE #13- WASTE PACKAGE SELF SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Owen

    1999-04-09

    The objective of this analysis is to develop a repository layout, for Feature No. 13, that will accommodate self-shielding waste packages (WP) with an areal mass loading of 25 metric tons of uranium per acre (MTU/acre). The scope of this analysis includes determination of the number of emplacement drifts, amount of emplacement drift excavation required, and a preliminary layout for illustrative purposes.

  3. Constraint-aware interior layout exploration for pre-cast concrete-based buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han

    2013-05-03

    Creating desirable layouts of building interiors is a complex task as designers have to manually adhere to various local and global considerations arising from competing practical and design considerations. In this work, we present an interactive design tool to create desirable floorplans by computationally conforming to such design constraints. Specifically, we support three types of constraints: (i) functional constraints such as number of rooms, connectivity among the rooms, target room areas, etc.; (ii) design considerations such as user modifications and preferences, and (iii) fabrication constraints such as cost and convenience of manufacturing. Based on user specifications, our system automatically generates multiple floor layouts with associated 3D geometry that all satisfy the design specifications and constraints, thus exposing only the desirable family of interior layouts to the user. In this work, we focus on pre-cast concrete-based constructions, which lead to interesting discrete and continuous optimization possibilities. We test our framework on a range of complex real-world specifications and demonstrate the control and expressiveness of the exposed design space relieving the users of the task of manually adhering to non-local functional and fabrication constraints. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Layout design of user interface components with multiple objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-goal layout problem may be formulated as a Quadratic Assignment model, considering multiple goals (or factors, both qualitative and quantitative in the objective function. The facilities layout problem, in general, varies from the location and layout of facilities in manufacturing plant to the location and layout of textual and graphical user interface components in the human–computer interface. In this paper, we propose two alternate mathematical approaches to the single-objective layout model. The first one presents a multi-goal user interface component layout problem, considering the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of closeness relationships and the interactions. The second one considers the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of normalized weighted closeness relationships and normalized weighted interactions. The results of first approach are compared with that of an existing single objective model for example task under consideration. Then, the results of first approach and second approach of the proposed model are compared for the example task under consideration.

  5. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  7. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  8. Uniform thin film electrode made of low-temperature-sinterable silver nanoparticles: optimized extent of ligand exchange from oleylamine to acrylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Jong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2017-02-01

    Lowering the sintering temperature of nanoparticles in the electrode deposition process holds both academic and industrial interest because of the potential applications of such electrodes in polymer devices and flexible electronics. In addition, achieving uniform electrode formation after ligand exchange is equally important as lowering the sintering temperature. Here, we report a simple chemical treatment by the addition of ligand-exchanging interfaces to lower the sintering temperature; we also determine the optimum extent of ligand exchange for crack-free electrode formation. First, we investigated the structural change of Ag thin films with respect to the concentration of acrylic acid (AA) solutions. Second, we used thermal analysis to evaluate the effects of changes in the sintering temperature. We observed that the resulting conductivity of the Ag patterns was only one order of magnitude lower than that of bulk Ag when the patterns were sintered at 150 °C. The simple chemical treatment developed in this work for solution-processed Ag electrode formation can be adopted for flexible electronics, which would eliminate the need for vacuum and high-temperature processes.

  9. Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  10. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  11. A Study on Efficiency Improvement and Optimization of Operating Characteristics of Pulsed Co{sub 2} Laser System using 3 Electrode-type and Ring Blower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Chung, H. J.; Park, S. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. S. [Pusan National University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, it is purpose to develop a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with stable output at pulse repetition rate range of 2 khz. We used a IGBT as a switching device. The laser cavity was fabricated as an axial and water cooled type. It was used a ring blower to increase a cooling effect. The laser performance characteristics as parameters, such as pulse repetition rate, gas pressure have been investigated. The experiment was done under 3 electrode-type instead of 2 electrode-type. To achieve 3 electrode-type, we used two pulse-transformers which is operated parallel. As a result, the maximum output was about 28 W at the total pressure of 20 Torr(the gas mixture CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:He=1:9:15 and the pulse repetition rate of 1300 Hz). (author). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  13. Microvoltammetric Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-25

    Microvoltammetric Electrodes, J. 0. Howell, R. M. Wightman, Anal. Chem., 56, 524-529 (1984). 2. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill...Electroanal. Chem., 182, 113-122 (1985). C. List of all publications 1. Flow Rate Independent Amperometric Cell , W. L. Caudill, J. 0. Howell, R. M

  14. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for...

  15. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamaka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Wang, Z. X.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Li, G. S.; Zhu, X.; Lan, T.

    2014-11-01

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ˜20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  16. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q., E-mail: hqliu@ipp.ac.cn; Jie, Y. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Li, G. S.; Zhu, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Lan, T. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ∼20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  17. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Wang, Z X; Shen, J S; An, Z H; Yang, Y; Zeng, L; Wei, X C; Li, G S; Zhu, X; Lan, T

    2014-11-01

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ∼20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  18. Facility layout planning for educational systems: An application of fuzzy GIS and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrhaimzadeh Asmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in urban planning programs is to allocate necessary spaces for educational applications. Selecting appropriate locations for training centers increases students' mental capabilities. Suitable location for the establishment of educational facilities is the first fundamental step for development of educational systems. The selection of optimal sites for educational facilities involves numerous parameters and it is essential to use multiple criteria decision making approaches to make wise decisions. This paper presents an empirical investigation on facility layout planning for educational systems in city of Birjand, Iran. Using fuzzy GIS as well as analytical hierarchy process (AHP, the study determines the most appropriate candidates for training centers.

  19. SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SMALL SIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong reduction of new aircraft design period using new technology based on artificial intelligence is the key problem mentioned in forecasts of leading aerospace industry research centers. This article covers the approach to devel- opment of quick aerodynamic design methods based on artificial intelligence neural system. The problem is being solved for the classical scheme of small sized unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. The principal parts of the method are the mathe- matical model of layout, layout generator of this type of aircraft is built on aircraft neural networks, automatic selection module for cleaning variety of layouts generated in automatic mode, robust direct computational fluid dynamics method, aerodynamic characteristics approximators on artificial neural networks.Methods based on artificial neural networks have intermediate position between computational fluid dynamics methods or experiments and simplified engineering approaches. The use of ANN for estimating aerodynamic characteris-tics put limitations on input data. For this task the layout must be presented as a vector with dimension not exceeding sev-eral hundred. Vector components must include all main parameters conventionally used for layouts description and com- pletely replicate the most important aerodynamics and structural properties.The first stage of the work is presented in the paper. Simplified mathematical model of small sized UAV was developed. To estimate the range of geometrical parameters of layouts the review of existing vehicle was done. The result of the work is the algorithm and computer software for generating the layouts based on ANN technolo-gy. 10000 samples were generated and the dataset containig geometrical and aerodynamic characteristics of layoutwas created.

  20. Rapid Design Methodology of Layout Euler Path for Integrated Circuits%集成电路版图欧拉路径的快速判寻方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 陈海洋; 蓝海萌

    2011-01-01

    Euler path of layout is a common methodology used to minimize layout area of integrated circuits. Relationship between Euler path of layout and Boolean expression was discussed, and a fast design methodology to decide if there is an Euler path of layout and search for it was proposed. Using this method, Euler path of layout for a number of typical circuits were designed, one of which was designed with IC design software. The optimized layout area was greatly reduced. The proposed methodology is rapid, accurate, convenient, and has broad potential applications.%版图欧拉路径法是实现集成电路版图面积最小化的常用方法.讨论了版图欧拉路径与布尔表达式的关系,提出一种版图欧拉路径快速判寻方法.利用该方法,设计了几种典型电路的版图欧拉路径,并运用集成电路设计软件设计其中一种电路,经过优化后的版图面积明显减小.该方法快速、准确、方便,具有广阔的应用前景.

  1. Conceptual layout design of CFETR Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng, E-mail: gongz@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Qi, Minzhong, E-mail: qiminzhong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This article proposed a conceptual layout design for CFETR. • The design principles are to support efficient maintenance to ensure the realization of high duty time. • The preliminary maintenance process and logistics are described in detail. • Life cycle management, maneuverability, risk and safety are in the consideration of design. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is new generation of Tokomak device beyond EAST in China. An overview of hot cell layout design for CFETR has been proposed by ASIPP&USTC. Hot Cell, as major auxiliary facility, not only plays a pivotal role in supporting maintenance to meet the requirements of high duty time 0.3–0.5 but also supports installation and decommissioning. Almost all of the Tokomak devices are lateral handling internal components like ITER and JET, but CFETR maintain the blanket module from 4 vertical ports, which is quite a big challenge for the hot cell layout design. The activated in-vessel components and several diagnosis instruments will be repaired and refurbished in the Hot Cell Facility, so the appropriate layout is very important to the Hot Cell Facility to ensure the high duty time, it is divided into different parts equipped with a variety of RH equipment and diagnosis devices based on the functional requirements. The layout of the Hot Cell Facility should make maintenance process more efficient and reliable, and easy to service and rescue when a sudden events taking place, that is the capital importance issue considered in design.

  2. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user.

  3. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...

  4. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jing

    2017-09-12

    We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

  5. Graphic composite segmentation for PDF documents with complex layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Shi, Cao

    2013-01-01

    Converting the PDF books to re-flowable format has recently attracted various interests in the area of e-book reading. Robust graphic segmentation is highly desired for increasing the practicability of PDF converters. To cope with various layouts, a multi-layer concept is introduced to segment graphic composites including photographic images, drawings with text insets or surrounded with text elements. Both image based analysis and inherent digital born document advantages are exploited in this multi-layer based layout analysis method. By combining low-level page elements clustering applied on PDF documents and connected component analysis on synthetically generated PNG image document, graphic composites can be segmented for PDF documents with complex layouts. The experimental results on graphic composite segmentation of PDF document pages have shown satisfactory performance.

  6. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  7. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  8. Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements.

  9. Simulation of Variable Air Volume System with Different Duct Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua(陈华); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); FRANCIS W H Yik

    2004-01-01

    The duct static pressure reset (DSPR) control method is a popular modern control method widely applied to variable air volume (VAV) systems of commercial buildings. In this paper, a VAV system simulation program was used to predict the system performance and zone air temperature of two kinds of layouts that were applied to a typical floor of an existing building office in Hong Kong. The position where the static pressure sensor was placed should affect the zones temperature and energy consumption. The comparison of predictions of the two kinds of layouts indicates that with the same DSPR control method the layout of the air duct might influence the fan control result and energy savings.

  10. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM-5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  11. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  12. Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Juye; Huang, Feng; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Among new flexible transparent conductive electrode (TCE) candidates, ultrathin Ag film (UTAF) is attractive for its extremely low resistance and relatively high transparency. However, the performances of UTAF based TCEs critically depend on the threshold thickness for growth of continuous Ag films and the film morphologies. Here, we demonstrate that these two parameters could be strongly altered through the modulation of substrate surface energy. By minimizing the surface energy difference between the Ag film and substrate, a 9 nm UTAF with a sheet resistance down to 6.9 Ω sq−1 can be obtained using an electron-beam evaporation process. The resultant UTAF is completely continuous and exhibits smoother morphologies and smaller optical absorbances in comparison to the counterpart of granular-type Ag film at the same thickness without surface modulation. Template-stripping procedure is further developed to transfer the UTAFs to flexible polymer matrixes and construct Al2O3/Ag/MoOx (AAM) electrodes with excellent surface morphology as well as optical and electronic characteristics, including a root-mean-square roughness below 0.21 nm, a transparency up to 93.85% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance as low as 7.39 Ω sq−1. These AAM based electrodes also show superiority in mechanical robustness, thermal oxidation stability and shape memory property. PMID:28291229

  13. Optimizing ultrathin Ag films for high performance oxide-metal-oxide flexible transparent electrodes through surface energy modulation and template-stripping procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Juye; Huang, Feng; Ye, Jichun

    2017-03-01

    Among new flexible transparent conductive electrode (TCE) candidates, ultrathin Ag film (UTAF) is attractive for its extremely low resistance and relatively high transparency. However, the performances of UTAF based TCEs critically depend on the threshold thickness for growth of continuous Ag films and the film morphologies. Here, we demonstrate that these two parameters could be strongly altered through the modulation of substrate surface energy. By minimizing the surface energy difference between the Ag film and substrate, a 9 nm UTAF with a sheet resistance down to 6.9 Ω sq‑1 can be obtained using an electron-beam evaporation process. The resultant UTAF is completely continuous and exhibits smoother morphologies and smaller optical absorbances in comparison to the counterpart of granular-type Ag film at the same thickness without surface modulation. Template-stripping procedure is further developed to transfer the UTAFs to flexible polymer matrixes and construct Al2O3/Ag/MoOx (AAM) electrodes with excellent surface morphology as well as optical and electronic characteristics, including a root-mean-square roughness below 0.21 nm, a transparency up to 93.85% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance as low as 7.39 Ω sq‑1. These AAM based electrodes also show superiority in mechanical robustness, thermal oxidation stability and shape memory property.

  14. Optimization of simultaneous electrochemical determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) at carbon nanotube-modified graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikna, L'ubomír; Heželová, Mária; Kováčová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.

  15. An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonators subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained optimisation problem after certain...... assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...... sensitive to geometric uncertainties than typical designs...

  16. Facility Layout Based on Sequence Analysis: Design of Flowshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin; WU Zhi-ming

    2009-01-01

    A computer-aided method to design a hybrid layout-tree-shape planar flowlines is presented. In new-type flowshop layout, the common machines shared by several flowlines could be located together in functional sections. The approach combines traditional cell formation techniques with sequence alignment algorithms. Firstly, a sequence analysis based cell formation procedure is adopted; then the operation sequences for parts are aligned to maximize machines adjacency in hyperedge representations; finally a tree-shape planar flowline will be obtained for each part family. With the help of a sample of operation sequences obtained from industry, this algorithm is illustrated.

  17. The New Layout of the LHC Cleaning Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Chemli, S; Gasser, D; Jeanneret, J B; Jiménez, J M; Kain, V; Métral, Elias; Peón-Hernández, G; Ramberger, S; Rathjen, C; Risselada, Thys; Ruggiero, F; Vos, L; Kaltchev, D I

    2004-01-01

    The improved LHC collimation system required significant changes in the layout and design of the warm insertions. Requirements for collimation, optics, impedance, vacuum, and additional infrastructure are described and the adopted layout is presented. Various design principles have been explored during the re-design. Magnet positions and collimators were moved significantly, such that a good cleaning efficiency was maintained while impedance was reduced by almost a factor of two. Space for upgrades of the collimation system was reserved (metallic phase 2 collimators would allow for a better efficiency than originally achievable). Scrapers were allocated for beam shaping and diagnostics. The required infrastructure was specified, including a powerful cooling system for the collimators.

  18. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  19. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  20. AN ALGORITHM FOR ASSEMBLING A COMMON IMAGE OF VLSI LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Lankevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider problem of assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Common image is composedof frames obtained by electron microscope photographing. Many frames require a lot of computation for positioning each frame inside the common image. Employing graphics processing units enables acceleration of computations. We realize algorithms and programs for assembling a common image of VLSI layout. Specificity of this work is to use abilities of CUDA to reduce computation time. Experimental results show efficiency of the proposed programs.

  1. Powder processing of hybrid titanium neural electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Luis, Jr.

    A preliminary investigation into the powder production of a novel hybrid titanium neural electrode for EEG is presented. The rheological behavior of titanium powder suspensions using sodium alginate as a dispersant are examined for optimal slip casting conditions. Electrodes were slip cast and sintered at 950°C for 1 hr, 1000°C for 1, 3, and 6 hrs, and 1050°C for 1 hr. Residual porosities from sintering are characterized using Archimedes' technique and image analysis. The pore network is gel impregnated by submerging the electrodes in electrically conductive gel and placing them in a chamber under vacuum. Gel evaporation of the impregnated electrodes is examined. Electrodes are characterized in the dry and gelled states using impedance spectrometry and compared to a standard silver- silver chloride electrode. Power spectral densities for the sensors in the dry and gelled state are also compared. Residual porosities for the sintered specimens were between 50.59% and 44.81%. Gel evaporation tests show most of the impregnated gel evaporating within 20 min of exposure to atmospheric conditions with prolonged evaporation times for electrodes with higher impregnated gel mass. Impedance measurements of the produced electrodes indicate the low impedance of the hybrid electrodes are due to the increased contact area of the porous electrode. Power spectral densities of the titanium electrode behave similar to a standard silver-silver chloride electrode. Tests suggest the powder processed hybrid titanium electrode's performance is better than current dry contact electrodes and comparable to standard gelled silver-silver chloride electrodes.

  2. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are perfec

  3. Positioning automated guided vehicles in a loop layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademann, Noud; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    We address the problem of determining the home positions for m automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in a loop layout where n pickup points are positioned along the circumference (m

  4. On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Practical experience suggests that use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. However, existing experimental evidence for this effect is been weak and inconclusive. In this paper, we explore two explanations. Firstly, we observe that the visual...

  5. Integrated quadratic assignment and continuous facility layout problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated layout model has been considered to incorporate intra and inter-department layout. In the proposed model, the arrangement of facilities within the departments is obtained through the QAP and from the other side the continuous layout problem is implemented to find the position and orientation of rectangular shape departments on the planar area. First, a modified version of QAP with fewer binary variables is presented. Afterward the integrated model is formulated based on the developed QAP. In order to evaluate material handling cost precisely, the actual position of machines within the departments (instead of center of departments is considered. Moreover, other design factors such as aisle distance, single or multi row intra-department layout and orientation of departments have been considered. The mathematical model is formulated as mixed-integer programming (MIP to minimize total material handling cost. Also due to the complexity of integrated model a heuristic method has been developed to solve large scale problems in a reasonable computational time. Finally, several illustrative numerical examples are selected from the literature to test the model and evaluate the heuristic.

  6. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  7. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  8. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    2000-01-01

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included labo

  9. Capturing the Design Space of Sequential Space-Filling Layouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudel, Thomas; Broeksema, Bertjan

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the design space of the algorithms that sequentially tile a rectangular area with smaller, fixed-surface, rectangles. This space consist of five independent dimensions: Order, Size, Score, Recurse and Phrase. Each of these dimensions describe a particular aspect of such layout tasks.

  10. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  11. The Offshore Wind Farm Array Cable Layout Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Joanna; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane. For this p...

  12. How to Choose the Network Layout That's Right for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines major network structures and provides criteria for selecting the best layout. Describes daisy-chain, star, bus, tree, ring, and token ring topologies. Discusses factors to consider when connecting computers, including user needs, printing demands, modem and file sharing, user grouping, the physical plant, and connective equipment. (AEF)

  13. The Influence of Facility Layout on Operations Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E.; Mobach, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of an office canteen layout on operations, specifically on customer behaviour before checkout, waiting times, and congestion. Design/methodology/approach – The current study was made in the context of discovery and exemplification. The

  14. Genetic algorithms for construction site layout in project planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, Michael J.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Yang, Hongbo

    2002-01-01

    Construction site layout is concerned with the existence, positioning, and timing of the temporary facilities that are used to carry out a construction project. Typically these problems are very complicated to formulate and difficult to solve. They are, however, very important to virtually any

  15. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  16. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong

    2009-01-01

    r of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level.Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented.

  17. Why should we pay more for layout designers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samee U.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Passive Optical Network (PON) deployment on an arbitrary grid with guarenteed p-1 equipment failure. We show that this problem in general is NP-hard. We propose an algorithm, which guarantees a solution of 4-approximation to the optimal deployment, and further argue that this is the best lower bound achievable in our case.A basic architecture of PON is shown in figure 1.The main component of PON is an optical splitter device. Depending on which direction the light is travelling, it splits the incoming light and distributes it to multiple fibers towards Optical Network Termination (ONT), or combines it into one towards Optical Line Terminal (OLT). The PON technology uses a double-star architecture. The first star topology centers at the OLT, and the second at the optical splitter. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION: We can formulate the problem of optimal p-1 fault-tolerent PON Network Layout (PNL)as a graph theoretical problem. Consider a graph G(V,E), such that V represent the physical locations of the subscriber's, CO, and another location acquired by the CO to expand its network, and E represent the communication lines between two Vi's. If there is no direct communication line c(i,j) between Vi and Vj, we consider the shortest path between them measured in terms of simple distance or cost constraints. Without the loss of generality we assume that c(i,j)=c(j,i). For simplicity we do not further sub-divide V into the obvious categories that represent the locations of OLT, ONT, CO, optical splitters and the subscribers. We can now formulate the PNL problem as follows: "Given an undirected graph G, find the locations of ONTs and splitters such that the cost of the equipment is minimized and for QoS the maximum distance from an ONT to the pth splitter and from a splitter to the pth OLT is minimized". We assume that the OLT is residing inside the CO. The problem definition does not consider the optimization of ONT to the customer premises. This is due

  18. Mining-Induced Coal Permeability Change Under Different Mining Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zetian; Zhang, Ru; Xie, Heping; Gao, Mingzhong; Xie, Jing

    2016-09-01

    To comprehensively understand the mining-induced coal permeability change, a series of laboratory unloading experiments are conducted based on a simplifying assumption of the actual mining-induced stress evolution processes of three typical longwall mining layouts in China, i.e., non-pillar mining (NM), top-coal caving mining (TCM) and protective coal-seam mining (PCM). A theoretical expression of the mining-induced permeability change ratio (MPCR) is derived and validated by laboratory experiments and in situ observations. The mining-induced coal permeability variation under the three typical mining layouts is quantitatively analyzed using the MPCR based on the test results. The experimental results show that the mining-induced stress evolution processes of different mining layouts do have an influence on the mechanical behavior and evolution of MPCR of coal. The coal mass in the PCM simulation has the lowest stress concentration but the highest peak MPCR (approximately 4000 %), whereas the opposite trends are observed for the coal mass under NM. The results of the coal mass under TCM fall between those for PCM and NM. The evolution of the MPCR of coal under different layouts can be divided into three sections, i.e., stable increasing section, accelerated increasing section and reducing section, but the evolution processes are slightly different for the different mining layouts. A coal bed gas intensive extraction region is recommended based on the MPCR distribution of coal seams obtained by simplifying assumptions and the laboratory testing results. The presented results are also compared with existing conventional triaxial compression test results to fully comprehend the effect of actual mining-induced stress evolution on coal property tests.

  19. Dairy donkey: an alternative building layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bibbiani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants. The use of donkey milk is not limited to the paediatric field, being used in geriatric nutrition and in the cosmetic industry. In 2010, the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, was involved in a project supported by the Tuscany Region Rural Development Fund 2007- 2013 dealing with the creation of a donkey milk productive chain. The project has as its main partner the Bandite di Scarlino, an agro-forestry complex of considerable size. It covers approximately 9000 hectares, which fall in Scarlino, Castiglione della Pescaia, Follonica and Gavorrano municipalities, under Tuscany regional control. The so-called FILAMI project (Filiera Latte Asino Amiatino, acronym of the goal of the project in Italian had among its goals helping preserve an indigenous breed of donkeys called Amiatina. Salimei (2011 assessed that the presence of the foal during milking does not affect milk ejection in jennies (the female donkey adapted to the milking procedure, but when foals are not present the milking routine is more manageable for the animals and for optimal milk harvest; in accordance, in the present farming system the jenny has been kept separately from the foal during the milking session. To this purpose, the stable, the milking parlour and the paddocks must be well organised with a proper milking routine. Milking facilities must be designed for the milk treatment and storage at low temperature or for freezing. Currently, the milk undergoes a pasteurisation cycle for human consumption, or directed to the cosmetic industry. Moreover, the milking facilities should fulfil the creation of a milk collection centre in order to play an important role between the dairy donkey farms and the dairy industry. In this paper, the technical and technological aspects of the donkey stable, paddocks, milking parlour, mobile milking unit, and processing

  20. Methodology for generation of heliostat field layout in central receiver systems based on yearly normalized energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marcelino; Romero, Manuel [DER-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The heliostat field layout is an essential task for any solar tower plant optimization process. Radially staggered and other distributions are usually optimised by computer codes using different approaches. In most of those cases, due to the CPU time required, the heliostat field layout is optimised by several mathematical models and simplifications. With today's computers, it is possible to calculate the yearly energy available at any point in a site for a given tower height, the yearly normalized energy surface (YNES). Yearly efficiency maps can be generated based on the cosine factor, the spillage factor and the atmospheric attenuation coefficient of the site using real Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) data, within a reasonable computing time. It is therefore easy to find the place where the yearly energy available is the highest for location of the first heliostat. It is also possible to calculate the effect of shadowing and blocking by this heliostat on the YNES, so YNES can be re-calculated and the best position for the next heliostat can be found. Although this iterative method is time-consuming, it is worthwhile if either the efficiency of the solar plant can be increased or the capital cost reduced. This YNES-based layout generation method enables better flexibility than pre-determined gridding strategies such as used in DELSOL. The paper includes a description of the optimization procedure. (author)