WorldWideScience

Sample records for optimal elastic flagellum

  1. Numerical Analysis of Small Deformation of Flexible Helical Flagellum of Swimming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yasunari; Goto, Tomonobu

    Formulations are conducted to numerically analyze the effect of flexible flagellum of swimming bacteria. In the present model, a single-flagellate bacterium is assumed to consist of a rigid cell body of the prolate spheroidal shape and a flexible flagellum of the helical form. The resistive force theory is applied to estimate the force exerted on the flagellum. The torsional as well as the bending moments determine the curvature and the torsion of the deformed flagellum according to the Kirchhoff model for an elastic rod. The unit tangential vector along the deformed flagellum is calculated by applying evolution equations for space curves, and also a deformed shape of the flagellum is obtained.

  2. Optimization of directional elastic energy propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Chang, Hannah R.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how topology optimization can be used to design a periodically perforated plate, in order to obtain a tailored anisotropic group velocity profile. The main method is demonstrated on both low and high frequency bending wave propagation in an aluminum plate......, but is general in the sense that it could be used to design periodic structures with frequency dependent group velocity profiles for any kind of elastic wave propagation. With the proposed method the resulting design is manufacturable. Measurements on an optimized design compare excellently with the numerical...

  3. Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, LW

    2003-01-01

    In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it

  4. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legramandi, Mario A; Schepens, Bénédicte; Cavagna, Giovanni A

    2013-01-01

    In an ideal elastic bounce of the body, the time during which mechanical energy is released during the push equals the time during which mechanical energy is absorbed during the brake, and the maximal upward velocity attained by the center of mass equals the maximal downward velocity. Deviations from this ideal model, prolonged push duration and lower upward velocity, have found to be greater in older than in younger adult humans. However it is not known how similarity to the elastic bounce changes during growth and whether an optimal elastic bounce is attained at some age. Here we show that similarity with the elastic bounce is minimal at 2 years and increases with age attaining a maximum at 13-16 years, concomitant with a mirror sixfold decrease of the impact deceleration peak following collision of the foot with the ground. These trends slowly reverse during the course of the lifespan.

  5. To optimal elasticity of adhesives mimicking gecko foot-hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.E.; Popov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial structure of a plate with elastic fibers interacting with rough fractal surface by Van der Waals forces is simulated numerically to find an optimal relation between the system parameters. The force balance equations are solved numerically for different values of elastic constant and variable surface roughness. An optimal elasticity is found to provide maximum cohesion force between the plate and surface. It is shown that high flexibility of the fibers is not always good to efficiency of the system, artificial adhesives must be made from stiff enough polymers. If the ellasticity is close to an optimum, the force is almost constant at a wide interval of the surface roughness. It is desirable to make system adaptive to wide spectrum of applications

  6. Bifurcations in the optimal elastic foundation for a buckling column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayneau-Kirkhope, Daniel; Farr, Robert; Ding, K.; Mao, Yong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the buckling under compression of a slender beam with a distributed lateral elastic support, for which there is an associated cost. For a given cost, we study the optimal choice of support to protect against Euler buckling. We show that with only weak lateral support, the optimum distribution is a delta-function at the centre of the beam. When more support is allowed, we find numerically that the optimal distribution undergoes a series of bifurcations. We obtain analytical expressions for the buckling load around the first bifurcation point and corresponding expansions for the optimal position of support. Our theoretical predictions, including the critical exponent of the bifurcation, are confirmed by computer simulations.

  7. Bifurcations in the optimal elastic foundation for a buckling column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayneau-Kirkhope, Daniel, E-mail: ppxdr@nottingham.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Farr, Robert [Unilever R and D, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT3133, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); London Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 22 South Audley Street, Mayfair, London (United Kingdom); Ding, K. [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Mao, Yong [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the buckling under compression of a slender beam with a distributed lateral elastic support, for which there is an associated cost. For a given cost, we study the optimal choice of support to protect against Euler buckling. We show that with only weak lateral support, the optimum distribution is a delta-function at the centre of the beam. When more support is allowed, we find numerically that the optimal distribution undergoes a series of bifurcations. We obtain analytical expressions for the buckling load around the first bifurcation point and corresponding expansions for the optimal position of support. Our theoretical predictions, including the critical exponent of the bifurcation, are confirmed by computer simulations.

  8. Cost Optimal Elastic Auto-Scaling in Cloud Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Sidhanta, S.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Today, elastic scaling is critical part of leveraging cloud. Elastic scaling refers to adding resources only when it is needed and deleting resources when not in use. Elastic scaling ensures compute/server resources are not over provisioned. Today, Amazon and Windows Azure are the only two platform provider that allow auto-scaling of cloud resources where servers are automatically added and deleted. However, these solution falls short of following key features: A) Requires explicit policy definition such server load and therefore lacks any predictive intelligence to make optimal decision; B) Does not decide on the right size of resource and thereby does not result in cost optimal resource pool. In a typical cloud deployment model, we consider two types of application scenario: A. Batch processing jobs → Hadoop/Big Data case B. Transactional applications → Any application that process continuous transactions (Requests/response) In reference of classical queuing model, we are trying to model a scenario where servers have a price and capacity (size) and system can add delete servers to maintain a certain queue length. Classical queueing models applies to scenario where number of servers are constant. So we cannot apply stationary system analysis in this case. We investigate the following questions 1. Can we define Job queue and use the metric to define such a queue to predict the resource requirement in a quasi-stationary way? Can we map that into an optimal sizing problem? 2. Do we need to get into a level of load (CPU/Data) on server level to characterize the size requirement? How do we learn that based on Job type?

  9. Independent Analysis of the Flagellum Surface and Matrix Proteomes Provides Insight into Flagellum Signaling in Mammalian-infectious Trypanosoma brucei*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Michael; Langousis, Gerasimos; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Saada, Edwin A.; Shimogawa, Michelle M.; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Nguyen, Steven M.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    The flagellum of African trypanosomes is an essential and multifunctional organelle that functions in motility, cell morphogenesis, and host-parasite interaction. Previous studies of the trypanosome flagellum have been limited by the inability to purify flagella without first removing the flagellar membrane. This limitation is particularly relevant in the context of studying flagellum signaling, as signaling requires surface-exposed proteins in the flagellar membrane and soluble signaling proteins in the flagellar matrix. Here we employ a combination of genetic and mechanical approaches to purify intact flagella from the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, in its mammalian-infectious stage. We combined flagellum purification with affinity-purification of surface-exposed proteins to conduct independent proteomic analyses of the flagellum surface and matrix fractions. The proteins identified encompass a broad range of molecular functionalities, including many predicted to function in signaling. Immunofluorescence and RNA interference studies demonstrate flagellum localization and function for proteins identified and provide insight into mechanisms of flagellum attachment and motility. The flagellum surface proteome includes many T. brucei-specific proteins and is enriched for proteins up-regulated in the mammalian-infectious stage of the parasite life-cycle. The combined results indicate that the flagellum surface presents a diverse and dynamic host-parasite interface that is well-suited for host-parasite signaling. PMID:21685506

  10. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens

    OpenAIRE

    Legramandi, Mario A.; Schepens, B?n?dicte; Cavagna, Giovanni A.

    2013-01-01

    In an ideal elastic bounce of the body, the time during which mechanical energy is released during the push equals the time during which mechanical energy is absorbed during the brake, and the maximal upward velocity attained by the center of mass equals the maximal downward velocity. Deviations from this ideal model, prolonged push duration and lower upward velocity, have found to be greater in older than in younger adult humans. However it is not known how similarity to the elastic bounce c...

  11. Matrix elasticity regulates the optimal cardiac myocyte shape for contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Megan L.; Yuan, Hongyan; Pasqualini, Francesco S.; Campbell, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Concentric hypertrophy is characterized by ventricular wall thickening, fibrosis, and decreased myocyte length-to-width aspect ratio. Ventricular thickening is considered compensatory because it reduces wall stress, but the functional consequences of cell shape remodeling in this pathological setting are unknown. We hypothesized that decreases in myocyte aspect ratio allow myocytes to maximize contractility when the extracellular matrix becomes stiffer due to conditions such as fibrosis. To test this, we engineered neonatal rat ventricular myocytes into rectangles mimicking the 2-D profiles of healthy and hypertrophied myocytes on hydrogels with moderate (13 kPa) and high (90 kPa) elastic moduli. Actin alignment was unaffected by matrix elasticity, but sarcomere content was typically higher on stiff gels. Microtubule polymerization was higher on stiff gels, implying increased intracellular elastic modulus. On moderate gels, myocytes with moderate aspect ratios (∼7:1) generated the most peak systolic work compared with other cell shapes. However, on stiffer gels, low aspect ratios (∼2:1) generated the most peak systolic work. To compare the relative contributions of intracellular vs. extracellular elasticity to contractility, we developed an analytical model and used our experimental data to fit unknown parameters. Our model predicted that matrix elasticity dominates over intracellular elasticity, suggesting that the extracellular matrix may potentially be a more effective therapeutic target than microtubules. Our data and model suggest that myocytes with lower aspect ratios have a functional advantage when the elasticity of the extracellular matrix decreases due to conditions such as fibrosis, highlighting the role of the extracellular matrix in cardiac disease. PMID:24682394

  12. MAXIMIZING OPTO-ELASTIC INTERACTION USING TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    . Secondly, there is the photo-elastic effect which changes the refractive index through Pockel's coefficients as the material is strained. For the case of transverse electric modes, we study how the two effects change the material distribution which maximizes the change in the optical transmission...

  13. Building a flagellum in biological outer space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis D. B. Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagella, the rotary propellers on the surface of bacteria, present a paradigm for how cells build and operate complex molecular ‘nanomachines’. Flagella grow at a constant rate to extend several times the length of the cell, and this is achieved by thousands of secreted structural subunits transiting through a central channel in the lengthening flagellum to incorporate into the nascent structure at the distant extending tip. A great mystery has been how flagella can assemble far outside the cell where there is no conventional energy supply to fuel their growth. Recent work published by Evans et al.[Nature (2013 504: 287-290], has gone some way towards solving this puzzle, presenting a simple and elegant transit mechanism in which growth is powered by the subunits themselves as they link head-to-tail in a chain that is pulled through the length of the growing structure to the tip. This new mechanism answers an old question and may have resonance in other assembly processes.

  14. Mechanical properties of two-way grid shells optimized considering roundness and elastic stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toshiyuki; Yuta, Nishikawa; Rie, Tateishi; Ohsaki, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    A single-layer two-way grid shell defined by Bezier surface is optimized by coordinates of the control points as design variables. The purpose of this paper is to find optimal shapes considering roundness and elastic stiffness, and to investigate their mechanical properties. The distance of the center of curvature from the specified point is used for formulating the objective function for generating a round shape. Consider next a problem of minimizing the compliance as mechanical performance measure. The compliance is defined by the external work against the static loads applied to the nodes. The mechanically optimal shape is different from the round shape. Therefore, the multi objective optimization problem is formulated for optimizing the two objectives, which are roundness and the elastic stiffness defined by using the compliance. The constraint method is used for obtaining Pareto optimal solutions between the two objectives. We optimize single-layer two-way grid shells with square and rectangle plans. Mechanical properties of the optimal shapes are investigated by compliance and the distributions of axial force and bending moment. The round shape is significantly dominated by the bending moment and its compliance is large. The bending moment of the mechanically optimal shape is not very large, and the latticed shell has large stiffness through axial deformation. A trade-off shape is round enough, and the influence of the bending moment is smaller than that of the optimal round shape and the elastic stiffness is moderately large

  15. Aero-Elastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Verelst, David Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a multi-disciplinary optimization and analysis tool for wind turbines that is based on the open-source framework OpenMDAO. Interfaces to several simulation codes have been implemented which allows for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models....... In this article concurrent aeroelastic optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out with respect to material distribution distribution and planform. The optimizations achieve up to 13% mass reduction while maintaining the same power production compared to the baseline DTU 10MW RWT....

  16. Optimal synthesis of tunable elastic wave-guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Rupp, Cory J.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Topology optimization, or control in the coefficients of partial differential equations, has been successfully utilized for designing wave-guides with precisely tailored functionalities. For many applications it would be desirable to have the possibility of drastically altering the wave...

  17. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    harmonic sources at a frequency in a given range, a uniform reduction of the response over a frequency range is pursued. The minimal insertion loss over the frequency range of interest is maximized. The resulting design contains features at depth leading to a reduction of the insertion loss at the lowest...... frequencies and features close to the surface leading to a reduction at the highest frequencies. For broadband sources, the average insertion loss in a frequency range is optimized. This leads to designs that especially reduce the response at high frequencies. The designs optimized for the frequency averaged...

  18. Hydro-elastic analysis and optimization of a composite marine propeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Berggreen, Christian; Andersen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the design and optimization of a flexible composite marine propeller. The aim is to tailor the laminate to control the deformed shape of the blade and consequently the developed thrust. The development of a hydro-elastic model is presented, and the laminate lay-up which...

  19. Hydro-Elastic Tailoring and Optimization of a Composite Marine Propeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Berggreen, Christian; Andersen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    The following paper deals with the design and optimization of a flexible composite marine propeller. The blade shape is obtained from an existing high skew metal propeller. The aim is to tailor the laminate to control the elastic couplings and therefore the deformed shape of the blade. The develo...

  20. Unimodal optimal passive electromechanical damping of elastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mekki, O; Bourquin, F; Merliot, E; Maceri, F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new electromechanical damper is presented and used, made of a pendulum oscillating around an alternator axis and connected by a gear to the vibrating structure. In this way, the mechanical energy of the oscillating mass can be transformed into electrical energy to be dissipated when the alternator is branched on a resistor. This damping device is intrinsically non-linear, and the problem of the optimal parameters and of the best placement of this damper on the structure is studied. The optimality criterion chosen here is the maximum exponential time decay rate (ETDR) of the structural response. This criterion leads to new design formulas. The case of a bridge under construction is considered and the analytical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained on a mock-up made of a vertical tower connected to a free-end horizontal beam, to simulate the behavior of a cable-stayed bridge during the erection phase. Up to three electromechanical dampers are placed in order to study the multi-modal damping. The satisfactory agreement between the theoretical model and the experiments suggests that a multi-modal passive damping of electromagnetic type could be effective on lightweight flexible structures, when dampers are suitably placed. (paper)

  1. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the ...

  2. [Medical image elastic registration smoothed by unconstrained optimized thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuxiang; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Zhexing

    2003-12-01

    Elastic registration of medical image is an important subject in medical image processing. Previous work has concentrated on selecting the corresponding landmarks manually and then using thin-plate spline interpolating to gain the elastic transformation. However, the landmarks extraction is always prone to error, which will influence the registration results. Localizing the landmarks manually is also difficult and time-consuming. We the optimization theory to improve the thin-plate spline interpolation, and based on it, used an automatic method to extract the landmarks. Combining these two steps, we have proposed an automatic, exact and robust registration method and have gained satisfactory registration results.

  3. Topology optimization for elastic base under rectangular plate subjected to moving load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilavyan Samvel H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution optimization of elastic material under elastic isotropic rectangular thin plate subjected to concentrated moving load is investigated in the present paper. The aim of optimization is to damp its vibrations in finite (fixed time. Accepting Kirchhoff hypothesis with respect to the plate and Winkler hypothesis with respect to the base, the mathematical model of the problem is constructed as two-dimensional bilinear equation, i.e. linear in state and control function. The maximal quantity of the base material is taken as optimality criterion to be minimized. The Fourier distributional transform and the Bubnov-Galerkin procedures are used to reduce the problem to integral equality type constraints. The explicit solution in terms of two- dimensional Heaviside‘s function is obtained, describing piecewise-continuous distribution of the material. The determination of the switching points is reduced to a problem of nonlinear programming. Data from numerical analysis are presented.

  4. Optimization of elastic elements of a damping devices for cylindrical hinges in crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of designing an original damping devices worn for cylindrical hinges in crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines. These devices can significantly reduce the additional impact load on a steel structure manipulators due to the presence of increased gaps in the hinges. Formulated the general formulation of nonlinear constrained optimization of the sizes of the elastic elements of the damping devices. Considered a promising design variants of elastic elements. For circular and arc elastic elements with circular and rectangular cross-section for-mulated the problems of optimal design including criterion functions and systems of geometric, technological, stiffness and strength penalty constraints. Analysis of the impact of various operating and design parameters on the results of optimal design of elastic elements was performed. Were set to the recommended the use of the constructive types of elastic elements to generate the required stiffness of the damper devices.

  5. Sperm flagellum volume determines freezability in red deer spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ros-Santaella

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the inter-individual differences in sperm freezability is a major line of research in spermatology. Poor sperm freezability is mainly characterised by a low sperm velocity, which in turn is associated with low fertility rates in most animal species. Studies concerning the implications of sperm morphometry on freezability are quite limited, and most of them are based on sperm head size regardless of the structural parts of the flagellum, which provides sperm motility. Here, for the first time, we determined the volumes of the flagellum structures in fresh epididymal red deer spermatozoa using a stereological method under phase contrast microscopy. Sperm samples from thirty-three stags were frozen and classified as good freezers (GF or bad freezers (BF at two hours post-thawing using three sperm kinetic parameters which are strongly correlated with fertility in this species. Fourteen stags were clearly identified as GF, whereas nineteen were BF. No significant difference in sperm head size between the two groups was found. On the contrary, the GF exhibited a lower principal piece volume than the BF (6.13 µm3 vs 6.61 µm3, respectively, p = 0.006. The volume of the flagellum structures showed a strong negative relationship with post-thawing sperm velocity. For instance, the volume of the sperm principal piece was negatively correlated with sperm velocity at two hours post-thawing (r = -0.60; p<0.001. Our results clearly show that a higher volume of the sperm principal piece results in poor freezability, and highlights the key role of flagellum size in sperm cryopreservation success.

  6. Optimal determination of the elastic constants of composite materials from ultrasonic wave-speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnède, Bernard; Jenkins, James T.; Sachse, Wolfgang; Baste, Stéphane

    1990-03-01

    A method is described to optimally determine the elastic constants of anisotropic solids from wave-speeds measurements in arbitrary nonprincipal planes. For such a problem, the characteristic equation is a degree-three polynomial which generally does not factorize. By developing and rearranging this polynomial, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained. The elastic constants are then recovered by minimizing a functional derived from this overdetermined system of equations. Calculations of the functional are given for two specific cases, i.e., the orthorhombic and the hexagonal symmetries. Some numerical results showing the efficiency of the algorithm are presented. A numerical method is also described for the recovery of the orientation of the principal acoustical axes. This problem is solved through a double-iterative numerical scheme. Numerical as well as experimental results are presented for a unidirectional composite material.

  7. Optimal elastic coupling in form of one mechanical spring to improve energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Fabian; Römer, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.roemer@kit.edu; Fidlin, Alexander; Seemann, Wolfgang [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a method to optimize the energy efficiency of walking bipedal robots by more than 80 % in a speed range from 0.3 to 2.3 m/s using elastic couplings—mechanical springs with movement speed independent parameters. The considered planar robot consists of a trunk, two two-segmented legs, two actuators in the hip joints, two actuators in the knee joints and an elastic coupling between the shanks. It is modeled as underactuated system to make use of its natural dynamics and feedback controlled via input–output linearization. A numerical optimization of the joint angle trajectories as well as the elastic couplings is performed to minimize the average energy expenditure over the whole speed range. The elastic couplings increase the swing leg motion’s natural frequency thus making smaller steps more efficient which reduce the impact loss at the touchdown of the swing leg. The process of energy turnover is investigated in detail for the robot with and without elastic coupling between the shanks. Furthermore, the influences of the elastic couplings’ topology and of joint friction are analyzed. It is shown that the optimization of the robot’s motion and elastic coupling towards energy efficiency leads to a slightly slower convergence rate of the controller, yet no loss of stability, but a lower sensitivity with respect to disturbances. The optimal elastic coupling discovered via numerical optimization is a linear torsion spring with transmissions between the shanks. A design proposal for this elastic coupling—which does not affect the robot’s trunk and parallel shank motion and can be used to enhance an existing robot—is given for planar as well as spatial robots.

  8. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  9. Thermostructural characterization and structural elastic property optimization of novel high luminosity LHC collimation materials at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Gradassi, P.; Guardia-Valenzuela, J.; Guinchard, M.; Izquierdo, G. Arnau; Mollicone, P.; Sacristan-de-Frutos, O.; Sammut, N.

    2018-03-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being upgraded to operate at a stored beam energy of 680 MJ through the High Luminosity upgrade. The LHC performance is dependent on the functionality of beam collimation systems, essential for safe beam cleaning and machine protection. A dedicated beam experiment at the CERN High Radiation to Materials facility is created under the HRMT-23 experimental campaign. This experiment investigates the behavior of three collimation jaws having novel composite absorbers made of copper diamond, molybdenum carbide graphite, and carbon fiber carbon, experiencing accidental scenarios involving the direct beam impact on the material. Material characterization is imperative for the design, execution, and analysis of such experiments. This paper presents new data and analysis of the thermostructural characteristics of some of the absorber materials commissioned within CERN facilities. In turn, characterized elastic properties are optimized through the development and implementation of a mixed numerical-experimental optimization technique.

  10. Thermostructural characterization and structural elastic property optimization of novel high luminosity LHC collimation materials at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being upgraded to operate at a stored beam energy of 680 MJ through the High Luminosity upgrade. The LHC performance is dependent on the functionality of beam collimation systems, essential for safe beam cleaning and machine protection. A dedicated beam experiment at the CERN High Radiation to Materials facility is created under the HRMT-23 experimental campaign. This experiment investigates the behavior of three collimation jaws having novel composite absorbers made of copper diamond, molybdenum carbide graphite, and carbon fiber carbon, experiencing accidental scenarios involving the direct beam impact on the material. Material characterization is imperative for the design, execution, and analysis of such experiments. This paper presents new data and analysis of the thermostructural characteristics of some of the absorber materials commissioned within CERN facilities. In turn, characterized elastic properties are optimized through the development and implementation of a mixed numerical-experimental optimization technique.

  11. Topology optimization using the improved element-free Galerkin method for elasticity*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yi; Ma Yong-Qi; Feng Wei; Cheng Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    The improved element-free Galerkin (IEFG) method of elasticity is used to solve the topology optimization problems. In this method, the improved moving least-squares approximation is used to form the shape function. In a topology optimization process, the entire structure volume is considered as the constraint. From the solid isotropic microstructures with penalization, we select relative node density as a design variable. Then we choose the minimization of compliance to be an objective function, and compute its sensitivity with the adjoint method. The IEFG method in this paper can overcome the disadvantages of the singular matrices that sometimes appear in conventional element-free Galerkin (EFG) method. The central processing unit (CPU) time of each example is given to show that the IEFG method is more efficient than the EFG method under the same precision, and the advantage that the IEFG method does not form singular matrices is also shown. (paper)

  12. Optimizing Tube Precurvature to Enhance Elastic Stability of Concentric Tube Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Junhyoung; Park, Frank C; Dupont, Pierre E

    2017-02-01

    Robotic instruments based on concentric tube technology are well suited to minimally invasive surgery since they are slender, can navigate inside small cavities and can reach around sensitive tissues by taking on shapes of varying curvature. Elastic instabilities can arise, however, when rotating one precurved tube inside another. In contrast to prior work that considered only tubes of piecewise constant precurvature, we allow precurvature to vary along the tube's arc length. Stability conditions for a planar tube pair are derived and used to formulate an optimal design problem. An analytic formulation of the optimal precurvature function is derived that achieves a desired tip orientation range while maximizing stability and respecting bending strain limits. This formulation also includes straight transmission segments at the proximal ends of the tubes. The result, confirmed by both numerical and physical experiment, enables designs with enhanced stability in comparison to designs of constant precurvature.

  13. Iqcg is essential for sperm flagellum formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Ke Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis comprises three successive phases: mitosis phase, meiosis phase, and spermiogenesis. During spermiogenesis, round spermatid undergoes dramatic morphogenesis to give rise to mature spermatozoon, including the condensation and elongation of nucleus, development of acrosome, formation of flagellum, and removal of excessive cytoplasm. Although these transformations are well defined at the morphological level, the mechanisms underlying these intricate processes are largely unknown. Here, we report that Iqcg, which was previously characterized to be involved in a chromosome translocation of human leukemia, is highly expressed in the spermatogenesis of mice and localized to the manchette in developing spermatids. Iqcg knockout causes male infertility, due to severe defects of spermiogenesis and resultant total immobility of spermatozoa. The axoneme in the Iqcg knockout sperm flagellum is disorganized and hardly any typical ("9+2" pattern of microtubule arrangement could be found in Iqcg knockout spermatids. Iqcg interacts with calmodulin in a calcium dependent manner in the testis, suggesting that Iqcg may play a role through calcium signaling. Furthermore, cilia structures in the trachea and oviduct, as well as histological appearances of other major tissues, remain unchanged in the Iqcg knockout mice, suggesting that Iqcg is specifically required for spermiogenesis in mammals. These results might also provide new insights into the genetic causes of human infertility.

  14. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  15. The flagellum of Trypanosoma brucei: new tricks from an old dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Katherine S.; Hill, Kent L.

    2010-01-01

    African trypanosomes, i.e. Trypanosoma brucei and related sub-species, are devastating human and animal pathogens that cause significant human mortality and limit sustained economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosoma brucei is a highly motile protozoan parasite and coordinated motility is central to both disease pathogenesis in the mammalian host and parasite development in the tsetse fly vector. Since motility is critical for parasite development and pathogenesis, understanding unique aspects of the T. brucei flagellum may uncover novel targets for therapeutic intervention in African sleeping sickness. Moreover, studies of conserved features of the T. brucei flagellum are directly relevant to understanding fundamental aspects of flagellum and cilium function in other eukaryotes, making T. brucei an important model system. The T. brucei flagellum contains a canonical 9 + 2 axoneme, together with additional features that are unique to kinetoplastids and a few closely-related organisms. Until recently, much of our knowledge of the structure and function of the trypanosome flagellum was based on analogy and inference from other organisms. There has been an explosion in functional studies in T. brucei in recent years, revealing conserved as well as novel and unexpected structural and functional features of the flagellum. Most notably, the flagellum has been found to be an essential organelle, with critical roles in parasite motility, morphogenesis, cell division and immune evasion. This review highlights recent discoveries on the T. brucei flagellum. PMID:18472102

  16. Coupled electrostatic-elastic analysis for topology optimization using material interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwan, A; Ananthasuresh, G K

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel analytical formulation for the coupled partial differential equations governing electrostatically actuated constrained elastic structures of inhomogeneous material composition. We also present a computationally efficient numerical framework for solving the coupled equations over a reference domain with a fixed finiteelement mesh. This serves two purposes: (i) a series of problems with varying geometries and piece-wise homogeneous and/or inhomogeneous material distribution can be solved with a single pre-processing step (ii) topology optimization methods can be easily implemented by interpolating the material at each point in the reference domain from a void to a dielectric or a conductor. This is attained by considering the steady-state electrical current conduction equation with a 'leaky capacitor' model instead of the usual electrostatic equation. This formulation is amenable for both static and transient problems in the elastic domain coupled with the quasi-electrostatic electric field. The procedure is numerically implemented on the COMSOL Multiphysics (registered) platform using the weak variational form of the governing equations. Examples have been presented to show the accuracy and versatility of the scheme. The accuracy of the scheme is validated for the special case of piece-wise homogeneous material in the limit of the leaky-capacitor model approaching the ideal case

  17. Target Registration Error minimization involving deformable organs using elastic body splines and Particle Swarm Optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinczyk, Dominik; Fabian, Sylwester

    2017-12-01

    In minimally invasive surgery one of the main challenges is the precise location of the target during the intervention. The aim of the study is to present usability of elastic body splines (EBS) to minimize TRE error. The method to find the desired EBS parameters values is presented with usage of Particle Swarm optimization approach. This ability of TRE minimization has been achieved for the respiratory phases corresponding to minimum FRE for abdominal (especially liver) surgery. The proposed methodology was verified during experiments conducted on 21 patients diagnosed with liver tumors. This method has been developed to perform operations in real-time on a standard workstation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An optimization method of VON mapping for energy efficiency and routing in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Xiong, Cuilian; Chen, Yong; Li, Changping; Chen, Derun

    2018-03-01

    To improve resources utilization efficiency, network virtualization in elastic optical networks has been developed by sharing the same physical network for difference users and applications. In the process of virtual nodes mapping, longer paths between physical nodes will consume more spectrum resources and energy. To address the problem, we propose a virtual optical network mapping algorithm called genetic multi-objective optimize virtual optical network mapping algorithm (GM-OVONM-AL), which jointly optimizes the energy consumption and spectrum resources consumption in the process of virtual optical network mapping. Firstly, a vector function is proposed to balance the energy consumption and spectrum resources by optimizing population classification and crowding distance sorting. Then, an adaptive crossover operator based on hierarchical comparison is proposed to improve search ability and convergence speed. In addition, the principle of the survival of the fittest is introduced to select better individual according to the relationship of domination rank. Compared with the spectrum consecutiveness-opaque virtual optical network mapping-algorithm and baseline-opaque virtual optical network mapping algorithm, simulation results show the proposed GM-OVONM-AL can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking probability and save the energy consumption.

  19. Optimal determination of the elastic constants of woven 2D SiC/SiC composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouchtachi, A; Guerjouma, R El; Baboux, J C; Rouby, D; Bouami, D

    2004-01-01

    For homogeneous materials, the ultrasonic immersion method, associated with a numerical optimization process mostly based on Newton's algorithm, allows the determination of elastic constants for various synthetic and natural composite materials. Nevertheless, a principal limitation of the existing optimization procedure occurs when the considered material is at the limit of the homogeneous hypothesis. Such is the case of the woven bidirectional SiC matrix and SiC fibre composite material. In this study, we have developed two numerical methods for the determination of the elastic constants of the 2D SiC/SiC composite material (2D SiC/SiC). The first one is based on Newton's algorithm: the elastic constants are obtained by minimizing the square deviation between experimental and calculated velocities. The second method is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We show that these algorithms give the same results in the case of homogeneous anisotropic composite materials. For the 2D SiC/SiC composite material, the two methods, using the same measured velocities, give different sets of elastic constants. We then note that the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm enables a better convergence towards a global set of elastic constants in good agreement with the elastic properties, which can be measured using classical quasi-static methods

  20. Shape optimization of 3D curved slots and its application to the squirrel-cage elastic support design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Weihong; Wang, Zhenpei; Zhu, Jihong

    2010-10-01

    The squirrel-cage elastic support is one of the most important components of an aero-engine rotor system. A proper structural design will favor the static and dynamic performances of the system. In view of the deficiency of the current shape optimization techniques, a new mapping approach is proposed to define shape design variables based on the parametric equations of 3D curves and surfaces. It is then applied for the slot shape optimization of a squirrel-cage elastic support. To this end, an automatic design procedure that integrates the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to solve the problem. Two typical examples with different shape constraints are considered. Numerical results provide reasonable optimum designs for the improvement of stiffness and strength of the squirrel-cage elastic support.

  1. Optimal Electricity Charge Strategy Based on Price Elasticity of Demand for Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xu, Daidai; Zang, Chuanzhi

    The price elasticity is very important for the prediction of electricity demand. This paper mainly establishes the price elasticity coefficient for electricity in single period and inter-temporal. Then, a charging strategy is established based on these coefficients. To evaluate the strategy proposed, simulations of the two elastic coefficients are carried out based on the history data of a certain region.

  2. Optimizing Thermal-Elastic Properties of C/C–SiC Composites Using a Hybrid Approach and PSO Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Gao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced multi-layered pyrocarbon–silicon carbide matrix (C/C–SiC) composites are widely used in aerospace structures. The complicated spatial architecture and material heterogeneity of C/C–SiC composites constitute the challenge for tailoring their properties. Thus, discovering the intrinsic relations between the properties and the microstructures and sequentially optimizing the microstructures to obtain composites with the best performances becomes the key for practical applications. The objective of this work is to optimize the thermal-elastic properties of unidirectional C/C–SiC composites by controlling the multi-layered matrix thicknesses. A hybrid approach based on micromechanical modeling and back propagation (BP) neural network is proposed to predict the thermal-elastic properties of composites. Then, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is interfaced with this hybrid model to achieve the optimal design for minimizing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites with the constraint of elastic modulus. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model and optimization method. PMID:28773343

  3. Dynamic instability in the hook-flagellum system that triggers bacterial flicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry Chien

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical bending, buckling, and polymorphic transformations of the flagellum are known to affect bacterial motility, but run-reverse-flick motility of monotrichous bacteria also involves the even more flexible hook connecting the flagellum to its rotary motor. Although flick initiation has been hypothesized to involve either static Euler buckling or dynamic bending of the hook, the precise mechanism of flick initiation remains unknown. Here, we find that flicks initiate via a dynamic instability requiring flexibility in both the hook and flagellum. We obtain accurate estimates of forces and torques on the hook that suggest that flicks occur for stresses below the (static) Euler buckling criterion, then provide a mechanistic model for flick initiation that requires combined bending of the hook and flagellum. We calculate the triggering torque-stiffness ratio and find that our predicted onset of dynamic instability corresponds well with experimental observations.

  4. The dynamic instability in the hook/flagellum system that triggers bacterial flicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry

    2017-11-01

    Dynamical bending, buckling, and polymorphic transformations of the flagellum are known to affect bacterial motility, but run-reverse-flick motility of monotrichous bacteria also involves the even more flexible hook, which connects the flagellum to the cell body. Here, we identify the dynamic buckling mechanism that produces flicks in Vibrio alginolyticus. Estimates of forces and torques on the hook from experimental observations suggest that flicks are triggered at stresses below the hook's static Euler buckling criterion. Using an accurate linearization of the Kirchoff rod model for the hook in a model of a swimming bacterium with rigid flagellum, we show that as hook stiffness decreases there is a transition from on-axis flagellar rotation with small hook deflections to flagellar precession with large deflections. When flagellum flexibility is incorporated, the precession is disrupted by significant flagellar bending - i.e., incipient flicks. The predicted onset of dynamic instabilities corresponds well with experimentally observed flick events.

  5. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  6. Optimal Full Waveform Inversion Strategy in Azimuthally Rotated Elastic Orthorhombic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    The elastic orthorhombic assumption is one of the most practical Earth models that takes into account the horizontal anisotropic layering and vertical fracture network. In this model, the rotation angle of the vertical planes of symmetry is a

  7. Slutsky Equation and Negative Elasticity of Labor Supply: Behavioral Bias or Optimal Consumption-Leisure Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of the prospect theory is the behavioral phenomenon of the negative elasticity of the individual labor supply. This paper argues that the negative elasticity of labor supply can be understood better with the help of the interpretation of the Slutsky equation with regard to the common consumption-leisure choice. The interpretation of the Slutsky equation corresponds to the empirical evidence that leisure is a net complement for an important part of consumption.

  8. Modal Damping Ratio and Optimal Elastic Moduli of Human Body Segments for Anthropometric Vibratory Model of Standing Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Gupta, T C

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to accurately estimate inertial, physical, and dynamic parameters of human body vibratory model consistent with physical structure of the human body that also replicates its dynamic response. A 13 degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped parameter model for standing person subjected to support excitation is established. Model parameters are determined from anthropometric measurements, uniform mass density, elastic modulus of individual body segments, and modal damping ratios. Elastic moduli of ellipsoidal body segments are initially estimated by comparing stiffness of spring elements, calculated from a detailed scheme, and values available in literature for same. These values are further optimized by minimizing difference between theoretically calculated platform-to-head transmissibility ratio (TR) and experimental measurements. Modal damping ratios are estimated from experimental transmissibility response using two dominant peaks in the frequency range of 0-25 Hz. From comparison between dynamic response determined form modal analysis and experimental results, a set of elastic moduli for different segments of human body and a novel scheme to determine modal damping ratios from TR plots, are established. Acceptable match between transmissibility values calculated from the vibratory model and experimental measurements for 50th percentile U.S. male, except at very low frequencies, establishes the human body model developed. Also, reasonable agreement obtained between theoretical response curve and experimental response envelop for average Indian male, affirms the technique used for constructing vibratory model of a standing person. Present work attempts to develop effective technique for constructing subject specific damped vibratory model based on its physical measurements.

  9. Resource Elasticity of Offspring Survival and the Optimal Evolution of Sex Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Wang, Ya-Qiang; He, Jun-Zhou; Li, Yao-Tang

    2013-01-01

    The fitness of any organisms includes the survival and reproductive rate of adults and the survival of their offspring. Environmental selection pressures might not affect these two aspects of an organism equally. Assuming that an organism first allocates its limited resources to maintain its survival under environmental selection pressure, our model, based on the evolutionarily stable strategy theory, surprisingly shows that the sex ratio is greatly affected by the environmental pressure intensity and by the reproductive resource elasticity of offspring survival. Moreover, the concept of the resource elasticity of offspring survival intrinsically integrates the ecological concepts of K selection and r selection. The model shows that in a species with reproductive strategy K, increased environmental selection pressure will reduce resource allocation to the male function. By contrast, in a species with reproductive strategy r, harsher environmental selection pressure will increase allocation to the male function. The elasticity of offspring survival might vary not only across species, but also across many other factors affecting the same species (e.g., age structure, spatial heterogeneity), which explains sex ratio differences across species or age structures and spatial heterogeneity in the same species. PMID:23468826

  10. The Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions in minimum weight design of elastic rotating disks with variable thickness and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Jafari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotating discs work mostly at high angular velocity. High speed results in large centrifugal forces in discs and induces large stresses and deformations. Minimizing weight of such disks yields various benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. In order to attain a certain and reliable analysis, disk with variable thickness and density is considered. Semi-analytical solutions for the elastic stress distribution in rotating annular disks with uniform and variable thicknesses and densities are obtained under plane stress assumption by authors in previous works. The optimum disk profile for minimum weight design is achieved by the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. Inequality constrain equation is used in optimization to make sure that maximum von Mises stress is always less than yielding strength of the material of the disk.

  11. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Spatial ecology of the coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum (Squamata: Colubridae), in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Johnson; Robert R. Fleet; Michael B. Keck; D. Craig Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked nine Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhips) to determine home range, habitat use, and movements in eastern Texas from April to October 2000. Home ranges of Coachwhips contained more oak savanna macrohabitat than early-successional pine plantation or forested seep, based on the availability of these three macrohabitats in the study area....

  13. Flagellum density regulates Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell motility in viscous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Copeland, Matthew F; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming--increases in cell length and flagellum density--and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ∼5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD(4)C(2), the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters.

  14. Optimization of micro and nanoimprint de-embossing by elastic fracture modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, Tobias; Spearing, Simon Mark

    2013-01-01

    A semi-analytical model is presented for the de-embossing phase of the nanoimprint patterning process. The model is based on established principles of elastic fracture mechanics as developed for fibre-bridged cracking in composites. De-embossing is idealized as a steady-state fracture process, which enables the energy change to be considered by reference to a unit cell of a cylindrical polymer post, de-embossing from an axisymmetric stamp. The model provides predictions of the achievable limi...

  15. Classical and modern optimization methods in minimum weight design of elastic rotating disk with variable thickness and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.; Hojjati, M.H.; Fathi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rotating disks work mostly at high angular velocity and this results a large centrifugal force and consequently induce large stresses and deformations. Minimizing weight of such disks yields to benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. This paper aims at finding an optimal disk profiles for minimum weight design using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker method (KKT) as a classical optimization method, simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) as two modern optimization techniques. Some semi-analytical solutions for the elastic stress distribution in a rotating annular disk with uniform and variable thickness and density proposed by the authors in the previous works have been used. The von Mises failure criterion of optimum disk is used as an inequality constraint to make sure that the rotating disk does not fail. The results show that the minimum weight obtained for all three methods is almost identical. The KKT method gives a profile with slightly less weight (6% less than SA and 1% less than PSO) while the implementation of PSO and SA methods are easier and provide more flexibility compared with those of the KKT method. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization methods is shown. - Highlights: ► Karush-Kuhn-Tucker, simulated annealing and particle swarm methods are used. ► The KKT gives slightly less weight (6% less than SA and 1% less than PSO). ► Implementation of PSO and SA methods are easier and provide more flexibility. ► The effectiveness of the proposed optimization methods is shown.

  16. Classical and modern optimization methods in minimum weight design of elastic rotating disk with variable thickness and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hojjati, M.H., E-mail: Hojjati@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Rotating disks work mostly at high angular velocity and this results a large centrifugal force and consequently induce large stresses and deformations. Minimizing weight of such disks yields to benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. This paper aims at finding an optimal disk profiles for minimum weight design using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker method (KKT) as a classical optimization method, simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) as two modern optimization techniques. Some semi-analytical solutions for the elastic stress distribution in a rotating annular disk with uniform and variable thickness and density proposed by the authors in the previous works have been used. The von Mises failure criterion of optimum disk is used as an inequality constraint to make sure that the rotating disk does not fail. The results show that the minimum weight obtained for all three methods is almost identical. The KKT method gives a profile with slightly less weight (6% less than SA and 1% less than PSO) while the implementation of PSO and SA methods are easier and provide more flexibility compared with those of the KKT method. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization methods is shown. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Karush-Kuhn-Tucker, simulated annealing and particle swarm methods are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KKT gives slightly less weight (6% less than SA and 1% less than PSO). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of PSO and SA methods are easier and provide more flexibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of the proposed optimization methods is shown.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE OPTIMAL DIMENSIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRUCTURE OF BEECH WOOD PARQUET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental research concerning the modulus of elasticity and the average value of the bending strength in case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. wood. The investigations were performed according to SR EN 408-2004. The results of the research have been analysed in order to establish the variable parameters to be considered for the final experimental research focused on beech wood floor structures that meet the necessary requirements for the sports halls applications. The research presented in the paper is a part of the study theme of the Ph. D. thesis, which investigates the flooring structures able to support the requirements of sports halls activities, different from one sport to another.

  18. Reliability analysis for cementless hip prosthesis using a new optimized formulation of yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharmanda, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy

  19. Shape optimization of a Timoshenko beam together with an elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machalová J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are going first to aim at the variational ormulation of the bending problem for the Timoshenko beam model. Afterwards we will extend this problem to the Timoshenko beam resting on the Winkler foundation, which is firmly connected with the beam. Hereafter a shape optimization for the aforementioned problems is presented. The state problem is here represented by the system of two ordinary differential equations of the second order. The optimization problem is given as a minimization of the so-called compliance functional on the set of all admissible design variables. For our purpose as the design variable we will select the beam thickness. Shape optimization problems have attracted the interest of many applied mathematicians and engineers. The objective of this article is to present a solution method for one of these problems and its demonstration by examples.

  20. Optimal Full Waveform Inversion Strategy in Azimuthally Rotated Elastic Orthorhombic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2017-05-26

    The elastic orthorhombic assumption is one of the most practical Earth models that takes into account the horizontal anisotropic layering and vertical fracture network. In this model, the rotation angle of the vertical planes of symmetry is a crucial parameter needed to increase the convergence of an anisotropic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as to provide the fracture geometry along azimuthal direction. As an initial step, we investigate the possibility of recovering the azimuth angle via FWI, which may offer high-resolution information. We first utilize our new parameterization with deviation parameters, which provides the opportunity for multi-stage FWI. Based on the radiation patterns and gradient directions of each parameter, we show that the azimuth angle mainly affects the parameters that have azimuth-dependent radiation patterns, so that we can hierarchically build up the subsurface model from isotropic to VTI to azimuthally rotated orthorhombic models with less trade-offs. From the numerical example for a synthetic 3D model, we expect that both a deviation parameter and the azimuth angle can be recovered in the last stage of FWI with minimum trade-offs.

  1. Path Planning of Mobile Elastic Robotic Arms by Indirect Approach of Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharam Habibnejad Korayem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding optimal trajectory is critical in several applications of robot manipulators. This paper is applied the open-loop optimal control approach for generating the optimal trajectory of the flexible mobile manipulators in point-to-point motion. This method is based on the Pontryagin-s minimum principle that by providing a two-point boundary value problem is solved the problem. This problem is known to be complex in particular when combined motion of the base and manipulator, non-holonomic constraint of the base and highly non-linear and complicated dynamic equations as a result of flexible nature of links are taken into account. The study emphasizes on modeling of the complete optimal control problem by remaining all nonlinear state and costate variables as well as control constraints. In this method, designer can compromise between different objectives by considering the proper penalty matrices and it yields to choose the proper trajectory among the various paths. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed approach are demonstrated through simulation studies. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the simulation results obtained from the model are compared with the results of those available in the literature.

  2. Parasites in motion: flagellum-driven cell motility in African trypanosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Motility of the sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, impacts disease transmission and pathogenesis. Trypanosome motility is driven by a flagellum that harbors a canonical 9 + 2 axoneme, together with trypanosome-specific elaborations. Trypanosome flagellum biology and motility have been the object of intense research over the last two years. These studies have led to the discovery of a novel form of motility, termed social motility, and provided revision of long-standing models for cell propulsion. Recent work has also uncovered novel structural features and motor proteins associated with the flagellar apparatus and has identified candidate signaling molecules that are predicted to regulate flagellar motility. Together with earlier inventories of flagellar proteins from proteomic and genomic studies, the stage is now set to move forward with functional studies to elucidate molecular mechanisms and investigate parasite motility in the context of host-parasite interactions. PMID:20591724

  3. Heuristic algorithms for joint optimization of unicast and anycast traffic in elastic optical network–based large–scale computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elastic optical networks have been perceived as a prospective choice for future optical networks due to better adjustment and utilization of optical resources than is the case with traditional wavelength division multiplexing networks. In the paper we investigate the elastic architecture as the communication network for distributed data centers. We address the problems of optimization of routing and spectrum assignment for large-scale computing systems based on an elastic optical architecture; particularly, we concentrate on anycast user to data center traffic optimization. We assume that computational resources of data centers are limited. For this offline problems we formulate the integer linear programming model and propose a few heuristics, including a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a tabu search method. We report computational results, presenting the quality of approximate solutions and efficiency of the proposed heuristics, and we also analyze and compare some data center allocation scenarios.

  4. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  5. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, ISOLATION, AND COMPOSITION OF THE TUBULAR MASTIGONEMES OF THE OCHROMONAS FLAGELLUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G. Benjamin

    1971-01-01

    The structure, assembly, and composition of the extracellular hairs (mastigonemes) of Ochromonas are detailed in this report. These mastigonemes form two lateral unbalanced rows, each row on opposite sides of the long anterior flagellum. Each mastigoneme consists of lateral filaments of two distinct sizes attached to a tubular shaft. The shaft is further differentiated into a basal region at one end and a group of from one to three terminal filaments at the free end. Mastigoneme ontogeny as revealed especially in deflagellated and regenerating cells appears to begin by assembly of the basal region and shaft within the perinuclear continuum. However, addition of lateral filaments to the shaft and extrusion of the mastigonemes to the cell surface is mediated by the Golgi complex. The ultimate distribution of mastigonemes on the flagellar surface seems to be the result of extrusion of mastigonemes near the base of the flagellum, and it is suggested that mastigonemes are then pulled up the flagellum as the axoneme elongates. Efforts to characterize mastigonemes biochemically after isolation and purification on cesium chloride (CsCl) followed by electrophoresis on acrylamide gels have demonstrated what appear to be a single major polypeptide and several differentially migrating carbohydrates. The polypeptide is not homologous with microtuble protein. The functionally anomalous role of mastigonemes in reversing flagellar thrust is discussed in relation to their distribution relative to flagellar anatomy and to the plane of flagellar undulations. PMID:5123323

  6. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  7. Assembly and loss of the polar flagellum in plant-associated methylobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerges, L.; Kutschera, U.

    2014-04-01

    On the leaf surfaces of numerous plant species, inclusive of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), pink-pigmented, methanol-consuming, phytohormone-secreting prokaryotes of the genus Methylobacterium have been detected. However, neither the roles, nor the exact mode of colonization of these epiphytic microbes have been explored in detail. Using germ-free sunflower seeds, we document that, during the first days of seedling development, methylobacteria exert no promotive effect on organ growth. Since the microbes are evenly distributed over the outer surface of the above-ground phytosphere, we analyzed the behavior of populations taken from two bacterial strains that were cultivated as solid, biofilm-like clones on agar plates in different aqueous environments ( Methylobacterium mesophilicum and M. marchantiae, respectively). After transfer into liquid medium, the rod-shaped, immobile methylobacteria assembled a flagellum and developed into planktonic microbes that were motile. During the linear phase of microbial growth in liquid cultures, the percentage of swimming, flagellated bacteria reached a maximum, and thereafter declined. In stationary populations, living, immotile bacteria, and isolated flagella were observed. Hence, methylobacteria that live in a biofilm, transferred into aqueous environments, assemble a flagellum that is lost when cell density has reached a maximum. This swimming motility, which appeared during ontogenetic development within growing microbial populations, may be a means to colonize the moist outer surfaces of leaves.

  8. Identification of capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili in Vibrio mimicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero-Alburo, J J; González-Márquez, H; Bonilla-González, E; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio mimicus is a bacterium that causes gastroenteritis; it is closely related to Vibrio cholerae, and can cause acute diarrhea like cholera- or dysentery-type diarrhea. It is distributed worldwide. Factors associated with virulence (such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, phospholipases, aerobactin, and hemagglutinin) have been identified; however, its pathogenicity mechanism is still unknown. In pathogenic Vibrio species such as V. cholerae, Vibrio. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, capsule, biofilms, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili are structures described as essential for pathogenicity. These structures had not been described in V. mimicus until this work. We used 20 V. mimicus strains isolated from water (6), oyster (9), and fish (5) samples and we were able to identify the capsule, biofilm, lateral flagellum, and type IV pili through phenotypic tests, electron microscopy, PCR, and sequencing. In all tested strains, we observed and identified the presence of capsular exopolysaccharide, biofilm formation in an in vitro model, as well as swarming, multiple flagellation, and pili. In addition, we identified homologous genes to those described in other bacteria of the genus in which these structures have been found. Identification of these structures in V. mimicus is a contribution to the biology of this organism and can help to reveal its pathogenic behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of an O-linked repetitive glycan chain of the polar flagellum flagellin of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, Alexei Ye; Burygin, Gennady L; Arbatsky, Nikolai P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Selivanov, Nikolai Yu; Matora, Larisa Yu; Knirel, Yuriy A; Shchyogolev, Sergei Yu

    2012-11-01

    This is the first report to have identified an O-linked repetitive glycan in bacterial flagellin, a structural protein of the flagellum. Studies by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry showed that the glycan chains of the polar flagellum flagellin of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 are represented by a polysaccharide with a molecular mass of 7.7 kDa, which has a branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the following structure: Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  11. Three-dimensional structure of the Trypanosome flagellum suggests that the paraflagellar rod functions as a biomechanical spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C Hughes

    Full Text Available Flagellum motility is critical for normal human development and for transmission of pathogenic protozoa that cause tremendous human suffering worldwide. Biophysical principles underlying motility of eukaryotic flagella are conserved from protists to vertebrates. However, individual cells exhibit diverse waveforms that depend on cell-specific elaborations on basic flagellum architecture. Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protozoan parasite that causes African sleeping sickness. The T. brucei flagellum is comprised of a 9+2 axoneme and an extra-axonemal paraflagellar rod (PFR, but the three-dimensional (3D arrangement of the underlying structural units is poorly defined. Here, we use dual-axis electron tomography to determine the 3D architecture of the T. brucei flagellum. We define the T. brucei axonemal repeating unit. We observe direct connections between the PFR and axonemal dyneins, suggesting a mechanism by which mechanochemical signals may be transmitted from the PFR to axonemal dyneins. We find that the PFR itself is comprised of overlapping laths organized into distinct zones that are connected through twisting elements at the zonal interfaces. The overall structure has an underlying 57 nm repeating unit. Biomechanical properties inferred from PFR structure lead us to propose that the PFR functions as a biomechanical spring that may store and transmit energy derived from axonemal beating. These findings provide insight into the structural foundations that underlie the distinctive flagellar waveform that is a hallmark of T. brucei cell motility.

  12. Cardiomyocytes from late embryos and neonates do optimal work and striate best on substrates with tissue-level elasticity: metrics and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, Stephanie F; Discher, Dennis E

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we discuss recent studies on the mechanosensitive morphology and function of cardiomyocytes derived from embryos and neonates. For early cardiomyocytes cultured on substrates of various stiffnesses, contractile function as measured by force production, work output and calcium handling is optimized when the culture substrate stiffness mimics that of the tissue from which the cells were obtained. This optimal contractile function corresponds to changes in sarcomeric protein conformation and organization that promote contractile ability. In light of current models for myofibillogenesis, a recent mathematical model of striation and alignment on elastic substrates helps to illuminate how substrate stiffness modulates early myofibril formation and organization. During embryonic heart formation and maturation, cardiac tissue mechanics change dynamically. Experiments and models highlighted here have important implications for understanding cardiomyocyte differentiation and function in development and perhaps in regeneration processes.

  13. An optimal implicit staggered-grid finite-difference scheme based on the modified Taylor-series expansion with minimax approximation method for elastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Yan, Hongyong; Liu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Implicit staggered-grid finite-difference (ISFD) scheme is competitive for its great accuracy and stability, whereas its coefficients are conventionally determined by the Taylor-series expansion (TE) method, leading to a loss in numerical precision. In this paper, we modify the TE method using the minimax approximation (MA), and propose a new optimal ISFD scheme based on the modified TE (MTE) with MA method. The new ISFD scheme takes the advantage of the TE method that guarantees great accuracy at small wavenumbers, and keeps the property of the MA method that keeps the numerical errors within a limited bound at the same time. Thus, it leads to great accuracy for numerical solution of the wave equations. We derive the optimal ISFD coefficients by applying the new method to the construction of the objective function, and using a Remez algorithm to minimize its maximum. Numerical analysis is made in comparison with the conventional TE-based ISFD scheme, indicating that the MTE-based ISFD scheme with appropriate parameters can widen the wavenumber range with high accuracy, and achieve greater precision than the conventional ISFD scheme. The numerical modeling results also demonstrate that the MTE-based ISFD scheme performs well in elastic wave simulation, and is more efficient than the conventional ISFD scheme for elastic modeling.

  14. Development of a Tomography Technique for Assessment of the Material Condition of Concrete Using Optimized Elastic Wave Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Kian Chai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most ubiquitous construction material. Apart from the fresh and early age properties of concrete material, its condition during the structure life span affects the overall structural performance. Therefore, development of techniques such as non-destructive testing which enable the investigation of the material condition, are in great demand. Tomography technique has become an increasingly popular non-destructive evaluation technique for civil engineers to assess the condition of concrete structures. In the present study, this technique is investigated by developing reconstruction procedures utilizing different parameters of elastic waves, namely the travel time, wave amplitude, wave frequency, and Q-value. In the development of algorithms, a ray tracing feature was adopted to take into account the actual non-linear propagation of elastic waves in concrete containing defects. Numerical simulation accompanied by experimental verifications of wave motion were conducted to obtain wave propagation profiles in concrete containing honeycomb as a defect and in assessing the tendon duct filling of pre-stressed concrete (PC elements. The detection of defects by the developed tomography reconstruction procedures was evaluated and discussed.

  15. Modulation of flagellum attachment zone protein FLAM3 and regulation of the cell shape in Trypanosoma brucei life cycle transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunter, J.C.; Benz, C.; Andre, L.; Whipple, S.; McKean, P.G.; Gull, K.; Ginger, M. L.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 16 (2015), s. 3117-3130 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk LH12104 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Morphogenesis * Flagellum attachment zone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2015

  16. The Morishima Gross elasticity of substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Blackorby, Charles; Primont, Daniel; Russell, R. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Hotelling-Lau elasticity of substitution, an extension of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity to allow for optimal output-quantity (or utility) responses to changes in factor prices, inherits all of the failings of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity identified by Blackorby and Russell [1989 AER]. An analogous extension of the Morishima elasticity of substitution to allow for output quantity changes preserves the salient properties of the original Hicksian notion of elasticity of substitution.

  17. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  18. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  19. Investigation of the optimal elastic and weight properties of passive morphing skins for camber-morphing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previtali, Francesco; Arrieta, Andres F; Ermanni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of wing structures is directly related to their external geometry. The idea of seamless shape adaptation of the wing geometry (or morphing) has emerged to provide the capability of operating optimally in a wide range of conditions. Of particular importance to realize the potential of morphing is the ability of the wing skin to conform to the different geometrical contours. Several concepts for morphing skins have been presented to address this design challenge, each presenting peculiar strengths and weaknesses depending on the chosen combination of material and structural arrangement. This paper investigates the generic structural properties of a passive morphing skin design to allow for optimal shape adaptation through cambering. The properties of the morphing skin are included among the design variables to identify their optimal value; multi-objective optimizations are used to obtain parametric results. The results indicate the need for a high anisotropy, both between membrane and bending properties and between the skin’s principal directions. The impact of the skin weight on the wing design is also shown. (paper)

  20. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  1. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  2. Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Kang, Hyeonbae; Lee, Hyundae; Wahab, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic...

  3. Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha

    2014-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were

  4. Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment based on multilayer virtual topology and ant colony optimization in elastic software-defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Rao, Lan; Xin, Xiangjun

    2017-07-01

    Elastic software-defined optical networks greatly improve the flexibility of the optical switching network while it has brought challenges to the routing and spectrum assignment (RSA). A multilayer virtual topology model is proposed to solve RSA problems. Two RSA algorithms based on the virtual topology are proposed, which are the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm of minimum consecutiveness loss and the ACO algorithm of maximum spectrum consecutiveness. Due to the computing power of the control layer in the software-defined network, the routing algorithm avoids the frequent link-state information between routers. Based on the effect of the spectrum consecutiveness loss on the pheromone in the ACO, the path and spectrum of the minimal impact on the network are selected for the service request. The proposed algorithms have been compared with other algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the blocking rate by at least 5% and perform better in spectrum efficiency. Moreover, the proposed algorithms can effectively decrease spectrum fragmentation and enhance available spectrum consecutiveness.

  5. Large magnetic coils-design accompanying calculation and optimization. Regarding orthotropic interlayers, temperature and elastic supports-derivation of a special finite element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, J.F.; Sievers, A.; Welzel, R.

    1976-10-01

    This paper deals with finite element calculations of large coils as they are used as main coils in Tokamaks. They consist of copper layers with glass fibre reinforced resin interlayers inbedded in a strong steel ring. In a first analysis model the several epoxy layers are condensed to only one the tickness of which is equal to the sum of the single sizes. This fictitious layer is assumed to lie in the middle of the copper and is treated as an orthotropic material. In a following changed model the epoxy layer is situated between the steel ring and the copper. In this location the epoxy was suspected to suffer from the highest shear stresses. Both models employ springy trusses as supporting features which simulate the real elastic behaviour of a sustaining vault. Special attentions are given a) to the shear stresses in the epoxy, b) to the hot and cold states of the coils, and c) to the forces transferred from the coils to the sustaining vault. An optimal structure design is carried out concerning the steel ring. (orig./GG) [de

  6. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  7. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of efficacies of bovine immune colostral antibody and each immunoglobulin class against verotoxin 2, flagellum and somatic cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, Tetsurou; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Honjo, Toshio; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of bovine immune colostral (colostral) antibodies against verotoxin (VT) 2, flagellum and somatic cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in mice was determined. Three major immunoglobulin (Ig) classes were isolated from the colostral antibody against VT2 by affinity chromatography and were used for estimation. Mice inoculated with VT2 were administered each Ig class from the colostral antibody, colostral antibody (colostral whey containing antibody) or serum antibody against VT2 at 1 hour after VT2 inoculation. All control mice (20/20) died after administration of sterilized saline instead of the colostral antibody. The survival rate was 93.3% (14/15) after administration of S-IgA or IgM antibody, or colostral antibody. Survival rates for IgG antibody and serum antibody administration were 80% (12/15) and 60% (9/15), respectively. Serum concentrations of VT2, which was absorbed from the small intestine in mice after administration of VT2 and colostral antibody, were measured by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). Serum concentrations of VT2 after administration of colostral antibody were lower than those after administration of sterilized saline. Mice inoculated with VT2-producing E. coli 157:H7 were administered anti-flagellum or anti-somatic colostral antibodies. Survival rates for E. coli O157:H7-infected mice administered the anti-flagellum and anti-somatic colostral antibodies were 52.4% (11/21) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively. Furthermore, survival rates increased to 89.5% (17/19) with combined administration of anti-flagellum and anti-VT2 colostral antibodies. These results suggest that colostral antibodies against VT2, flagellum and somatic cells are effective against E. coli O157:H7 infection. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  10. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  11. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Rupcic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF or (as established more recently brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion’s Mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre. While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF, which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  12. Two New Cyathane Diterpenoids from Mycelial Cultures of the Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus and the Rare Species, Hericium flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupcic, Zeljka; Rascher, Monique; Kanaki, Sae; Köster, Reinhard W; Stadler, Marc; Wittstein, Kathrin

    2018-03-06

    Basidiomycetes of the genus Hericium are among the most praised medicinal and edible mushrooms, which are known to produce secondary metabolites with the potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. This activity has been attributed to the discovery of various terpenoids that can stimulate the production of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) or (as established more recently) brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) in cell-based bioassays. The present study reports on the metabolite profiles of a Lion's Mane mushroom ( Hericium erinaceus ) strain and a strain of the rare species, Hericium flagellum (synonym H. alpestre ). While we observed highly similar metabolite profiles between the two strains that were examined, we isolated two previously undescribed metabolites, given the trivial names erinacines Z1 and Z2. Their chemical structures were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Along with six further, previously identified cyathane diterpenes, the novel erinacines were tested for neurotrophin inducing effects. We found that erinacines act on BDNF , which is a neurotrophic factor that has been reported recently by us to be induced by the corallocins, but as well on NGF expression, which is consistent with the literature.

  13. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects

  14. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  15. The non-flagellar type III secretion system evolved from the bacterial flagellum and diversified into host-cell adapted systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S Abby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs are essential components of two complex bacterial machineries: the flagellum, which drives cell motility, and the non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS, which delivers effectors into eukaryotic cells. Yet the origin, specialization, and diversification of these machineries remained unclear. We developed computational tools to identify homologous components of the two systems and to discriminate between them. Our analysis of >1,000 genomes identified 921 T3SSs, including 222 NF-T3SSs. Phylogenomic and comparative analyses of these systems argue that the NF-T3SS arose from an exaptation of the flagellum, i.e. the recruitment of part of the flagellum structure for the evolution of the new protein delivery function. This reconstructed chronology of the exaptation process proceeded in at least two steps. An intermediate ancestral form of NF-T3SS, whose descendants still exist in Myxococcales, lacked elements that are essential for motility and included a subset of NF-T3SS features. We argue that this ancestral version was involved in protein translocation. A second major step in the evolution of NF-T3SSs occurred via recruitment of secretins to the NF-T3SS, an event that occurred at least three times from different systems. In rhizobiales, a partial homologous gene replacement of the secretin resulted in two genes of complementary function. Acquisition of a secretin was followed by the rapid adaptation of the resulting NF-T3SSs to multiple, distinct eukaryotic cell envelopes where they became key in parasitic and mutualistic associations between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our work elucidates major steps of the evolutionary scenario leading to extant NF-T3SSs. It demonstrates how molecular evolution can convert one complex molecular machine into a second, equally complex machine by successive deletions, innovations, and recruitment from other molecular systems.

  16. Turning off flagellum rotation requires the pleiotropic gene pleD: pleA, pleC, and pleD define two morphogenic pathways in Caulobacter crescentus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, J M; Newton, A

    1989-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three pleiotropic genes, pleA, pleC, and pleD, that are required for differentiation in Caulobacter crescentus. pleA and pleC mutants were isolated in an extensive screen for strains defective in both motility and adsorption of polar bacteriophage phi CbK; using temperature-sensitive alleles, we determined the time at which the two genes act. pleA was required for a short period at 0.7 of the swarmer cell cycle for flagellum biosynthesis, whereas pleC was requi...

  17. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  18. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of Kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodson Matthew C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, there is not a widely accepted consensus view regarding the phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi although two major phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are clearly delineated. Regarding the lower fungi, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota, a variety of proposals have been advanced. Microsporidia may or may not be fungi; the Glomales (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may or may not constitute a fifth fungal phylum, and the loss of the flagellum may have occurred either once or multiple times during fungal evolution. All of these issues are capable of being resolved by a molecular phylogenetic analysis which achieves strong statistical support for major branches. To date, no fungal phylogeny based upon molecular characters has satisfied this criterion. Results Using the translated amino acid sequences of the RPB1 and RPB2 genes, we have inferred a fungal phylogeny that consists largely of well-supported monophyletic phyla. Our major results, each with significant statistical support, are: (1 Microsporidia are sister to kingdom Fungi and are not members of Zygomycota; that is, Microsporidia and fungi originated from a common ancestor. (2 Chytridiomycota, the only fungal phylum having a developmental stage with a flagellum, is paraphyletic and is the basal lineage. (3 Zygomycota is monophyletic based upon sampling of Trichomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Glomales. (4 Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota form a monophyletic group separate from Chytridiomycota. (5 Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are monophyletic sister groups. Conclusion In general, this paper highlights the evolutionary position and significance of the lower fungi (Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. Our results suggest that loss of the flagellum happened only once during early stages of fungal evolution; consequently, the majority of fungi, unlike plants and animals, are nonflagellated. The phylogeny we infer from gene sequences is the first one that is

  19. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajuan J; Hodson, Matthew C; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-09-29

    At present, there is not a widely accepted consensus view regarding the phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi although two major phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are clearly delineated. Regarding the lower fungi, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota, a variety of proposals have been advanced. Microsporidia may or may not be fungi; the Glomales (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) may or may not constitute a fifth fungal phylum, and the loss of the flagellum may have occurred either once or multiple times during fungal evolution. All of these issues are capable of being resolved by a molecular phylogenetic analysis which achieves strong statistical support for major branches. To date, no fungal phylogeny based upon molecular characters has satisfied this criterion. Using the translated amino acid sequences of the RPB1 and RPB2 genes, we have inferred a fungal phylogeny that consists largely of well-supported monophyletic phyla. Our major results, each with significant statistical support, are: (1) Microsporidia are sister to kingdom Fungi and are not members of Zygomycota; that is, Microsporidia and fungi originated from a common ancestor. (2) Chytridiomycota, the only fungal phylum having a developmental stage with a flagellum, is paraphyletic and is the basal lineage. (3) Zygomycota is monophyletic based upon sampling of Trichomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Glomales. (4) Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota form a monophyletic group separate from Chytridiomycota. (5) Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are monophyletic sister groups. In general, this paper highlights the evolutionary position and significance of the lower fungi (Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota). Our results suggest that loss of the flagellum happened only once during early stages of fungal evolution; consequently, the majority of fungi, unlike plants and animals, are nonflagellated. The phylogeny we infer from gene sequences is the first one that is congruent with the widely accepted morphology

  20. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  1. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  2. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  3. Elasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...

  4. Pricing perpetual American options under multiscale stochastic elasticity of variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the effects of the stochastic elasticity of variance on perpetual American option. • Our SEV model consists of a fast mean-reverting factor and a slow mean-revering factor. • A slow scale factor has a very significant impact on the option price. • We analyze option price structures through the market prices of elasticity risk. - Abstract: This paper studies pricing the perpetual American options under a constant elasticity of variance type of underlying asset price model where the constant elasticity is replaced by a fast mean-reverting Ornstein–Ulenbeck process and a slowly varying diffusion process. By using a multiscale asymptotic analysis, we find the impact of the stochastic elasticity of variance on the option prices and the optimal exercise prices with respect to model parameters. Our results enhance the existing option price structures in view of flexibility and applicability through the market prices of elasticity risk

  5. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  6. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  7. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  8. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  9. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  11. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  12. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  13. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  14. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  15. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  18. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  19. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  20. Chromosomal flhB1 gene of the alphaproteobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 is essential for correct assembly of both constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip'echeva, Yulia; Shelud'ko, Andrei; Prilipov, Alexei; Telesheva, Elizaveta; Mokeev, Dmitry; Burov, Andrei; Petrova, Lilia; Katsy, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has the ability of swimming and swarming motility owing to the work of a constitutive polar flagellum and inducible lateral flagella, respectively. The interplay between these flagellar systems is poorly understood. One of the key elements of the flagellar export apparatus is the protein FlhB. Two predicted flhB genes are present in the genome of A. brasilense Sp245 (accession nos. HE577327-HE577333). Experimental evidence obtained here indicates that the chromosomal coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_150177 (flhB1) of Sp245 is essential for the production of both types of flagella. In an flhB1:: Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1063, defects in polar and lateral flagellar assembly and motility were complemented by expressing the wild-type flhB1 gene from plasmid pRK415. It was found that Sp245.1063 lost the capacity for slight but statistically significant decrease in mean cell length in response to transfer from solid to liquid media, and vice versa; in the complemented mutant, this capacity was restored. It was also shown that after the acquisition of the pRK415-harbored downstream CDS AZOBR_150176, cells of Sp245 and Sp245.1063 ceased to elongate on solid media. These initial data suggest that the AZOBR_150176-encoded putative multisensory hybrid sensor histidine kinase-response regulator, in concert with FlhB1, plays a role in morphological response of azospirilla to changes in the hardness of a milieu.

  1. Fracton-Elasticity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by recent studies of fractons, we demonstrate that elasticity theory of a two-dimensional quantum crystal is dual to a fracton tensor gauge theory, providing a concrete manifestation of the fracton phenomenon in an ordinary solid. The topological defects of elasticity theory map onto charges of the tensor gauge theory, with disclinations and dislocations corresponding to fractons and dipoles, respectively. The transverse and longitudinal phonons of crystals map onto the two gapless gauge modes of the gauge theory. The restricted dynamics of fractons matches with constraints on the mobility of lattice defects. The duality leads to numerous predictions for phases and phase transitions of the fracton system, such as the existence of gauge theory counterparts to the (commensurate) crystal, supersolid, hexatic, and isotropic fluid phases of elasticity theory. Extensions of this duality to generalized elasticity theories provide a route to the discovery of new fracton models. As a further consequence, the duality implies that fracton phases are relevant to the study of interacting topological crystalline insulators.

  2. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  3. Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...

  4. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  5. Rationalization in architecture with surfaces foliated by elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    analytic form using elliptic functions. We use a gradient-driven optimization to approximate arbitrary planar curves by planar elastic curves. The method depends on an explicit parameterization of the space of elastic curves and on a method for finding a good initial guess for the optimization. We......We develop methods for rationalization of CAD surfaces using elastic curves, aiming at a costeffective fabrication method for architectural designs of complex shapes. By moving a heated flexible metal rod though a block of expanded polystyrene, it is possible to produce shapes with both positive...... and negative Gaussian curvature, either for direct use or for use as moulds for concrete casting. If we can control the shape of the rod, while moving, we can produce prescribed shapes. The flexible rod assumes at all times the shape of an Euler elastica (or elastic curve). The elastica are given in closed...

  6. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  7. Measurement of Conjectural Variations Elasticity in an Oligopoly Structure (Using Iwata Approach for Iranians Food and Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahyakitash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate Conjectural Variations elasticity in Iranians Food and Beverage industry using Iwata approach, The conjectural variation function is extracted from demand and supply information also optimization process on producers’ behavior. The experimental estimates of conjectural variation elasticities were obtained based on price elasticity of demand, cost elasticity and marginal cost elasticity for the selected industries. In this research demand function AIDS was used to obtain the price elasticity. The AIDS function was estimated using SUR and the demand price elasticity is calculated by calfent. The results show that "Vegetable oils and animal" industry with 19.37 have the most conjectural variation elasticity among the selected industries (The more divergent the conjectural variation elasticity is from zero the more likely the monopoly exists. In addition, dairy, sugar and malt industries have the most conjectural variation elasticity with 18.01, 17.18, and 10.51 respectively.

  8. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  9. Zirconium elasticity modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, G.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr

  10. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  11. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  12. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  13. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  14. Elastic and viscoplastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review crystal elasticity and plasticity-based self-consistent theories and apply them to the determination of the effective response of polycrystalline aggregates. These mean-field formulations, which enable the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline aggregates based on the heterogeneous and/or directional properties of their constituent single crystal grains and phases, are ideal tools to establish relationships between microstructure and properties of these materials, ubiquitous among fuels and structural materials for nuclear systems. (author)

  15. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  16. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  17. Design guidance for elastic followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naugle, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed

  18. Income Elasticity of Environmental Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Miles; Andrés Pereyra; Máximo Rossi

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the estimation of income elasticities of environmental amenities. The novelty is the application of econometric methods that take into account the problem of measurement errors when estimating these elasticities, which are common in microeconomic data and are not usually considered in the applied literature related with this issue. Our aim is to discuss whether the measurement error has signi…cant e¤ects on the elasticities. Data from the Expenditure Budget...

  19. Downlink User Selection and Resource Allocation for Semi-Elastic Flows in an OFDM Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chao; Jordan, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We are concerned with user selection and resource allocation in wireless networks for semi-elastic applications such as video conferencing. While many packet scheduling algorithms have been proposed for elastic applications, and many user selection algorithms have been proposed for inelastic applications, little is known about optimal user selection and resource allocation for semi-elastic applications in wireless networks. We consider user selection and allocation of downlink transmission po...

  20. Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....

  1. Inverse problemfor an inhomogeneous elastic beam at a combined strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Vladimir Igorevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors describe a method of optimizing the stress state of an elastic beam, subject to the simultaneous action of the central concentrated force and bending moment. The optimization method is based on solving the inverse problem of the strength of materials, consisting in defining the law of changing in elasticity modulus with beam cross-section altitude. With this changing the stress state will be preset. Most problems of the elasticity theory of inhomogeneous bodies are solved in direct formulation, the essence of which is to determine the stress-strain state of a body at the known dependences of the material elastic characteristics from the coordinates. There are also some solutions of the inverse problems of the elasticity theory, in which the dependences of the mechanical characteristics from the coordinates, at which the stress state of a body is preset, are determined. In the paper the authors solve the problem of finding a dependence modulus of elasticity, where the stresses will be constant over the beam’s cross section. We will solve the problem of combined strength (in the case of the central stretching and bending. We will use an iterative method. As the initial solution, we take the solution for a homogeneous material. As the first approximation, we consider the stress state of a beam, when the modulus of elasticity varies linearly. According to the results, it can be stated that three approximations are sufficient in the considered problem. The obtained results allow us to use them in assessing the strength of a beam and its optimization.

  2. The role of series ankle elasticity in bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Huang, Tzu-Wei P; Adamczyk, Peter G; Kuo, Arthur D

    2014-04-07

    The elastic stretch-shortening cycle of the Achilles tendon during walking can reduce the active work demands on the plantarflexor muscles in series. However, this does not explain why or when this ankle work, whether by muscle or tendon, needs to be performed during gait. We therefore employ a simple bipedal walking model to investigate how ankle work and series elasticity impact economical locomotion. Our model shows that ankle elasticity can use passive dynamics to aid push-off late in single support, redirecting the body's center-of-mass (COM) motion upward. An appropriately timed, elastic push-off helps to reduce dissipative collision losses at contralateral heelstrike, and therefore the positive work needed to offset those losses and power steady walking. Thus, the model demonstrates how elastic ankle work can reduce the total energetic demands of walking, including work required from more proximal knee and hip muscles. We found that the key requirement for using ankle elasticity to achieve economical gait is the proper ratio of ankle stiffness to foot length. Optimal combination of these parameters ensures proper timing of elastic energy release prior to contralateral heelstrike, and sufficient energy storage to redirect the COM velocity. In fact, there exist parameter combinations that theoretically yield collision-free walking, thus requiring zero active work, albeit with relatively high ankle torques. Ankle elasticity also allows the hip to power economical walking by contributing indirectly to push-off. Whether walking is powered by the ankle or hip, ankle elasticity may aid walking economy by reducing collision losses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  4. Identification of elastic properties of composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalovs, A; Rucevskis, S

    2011-01-01

    Composite laminates are used extensively in the aerospace industry, especially for the fabrication of high-performance structures. The determination of stiffness parameters for complex materials, such as fibre-reinforced composites, is much more complicated than for isotropic materials. A conventional way is testing the coupon specimens, which are manufactured by technology similar to that used for the real, large structures. When such a method is used, the question arises of whether the material properties obtained from the coupon tests are the same as those in the large structure. Therefore, the determination of actual material properties for composite laminates using non-destructive evaluation techniques has been widely investigated. A number of various non-destructive evaluation techniques have been proposed for determining the material properties of composite laminates. In the present study, attention is focused on the identification of the elastic properties of laminated plate using vibration test data. The problem associated with vibration testing is converting the measured modal frequencies to elastic constants. A standard method for solving this problem is the use of a numerical-experimental model and optimization techniques. The identification functional represents the gap between the numerical model response and the experimental one. This gap should be minimized, taking into account the side constraints on the design variables (elastic constants). The minimization problem is solved by using non-linear mathematical programming techniques and sensitivity analysis. The results obtained were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies with the numerical ones obtained by FEM at the point of optima

  5. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  6. Elasticity theory of ultrathin nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiangang; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B; Yao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    A self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elastic behavior of ultrathin nanofilms (UTNFs) was proposed. Taking into account the lower symmetry of an UTNF compared to its bulk counterpart, additional elastic and magnetoelastic parameters were introduced to model the elasticity rigorously. The applications of current theory to several elastic and magnetoelastic systems gave excellent agreement with experiments. More importantly, the surface elastic and magnetoelastic parameters used to fit the experimental results are physically reasonable and in close agreement with those obtained from experiment and simulation. This fact suggests that the additional elastic (magnetoelastic) constants due to symmetry breaking are of great importance in theoretical description of the mechanical properties of UTNFs. And we proved that the elasticity of UTNFs should be described by a three-dimensional model just including the intrinsic surface and bulk parameters, but not the effective surface parameters. It is believed that the theory reported here is a universal strategy for elasticity and magnetoelasticity of ultrathin films. (paper)

  7. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  8. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  9. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  10. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    of these effects when estimating the shear elasticity. This new approach simulates shear wave particle velocities using a Green's function-based approach for the Voigt model, where the shear elasticity and viscosity values are estimated using an optimization-based approach that compares measured shear wave particle velocities with simulated shear wave particle velocities in the time-domain. The results are evaluated on a point-by-point basis to generate images. There is good agreement between the simulated and measured shear wave particle velocities, where the new approach yields much better images of the shear elasticity and shear viscosity than the TOF method. The new estimation approach is accelerated with an approximate viscoelastic Green's function model that is evaluated with shear wave data obtained from in vivo human livers. Instead of calculating shear waves with combinations of different shear elasticities and shear viscosities, shear waves are calculated with different shear elasticities on the GPU and then convolved with a viscous loss model, which accelerates the calculation dramatically. The shear elasticity and shear viscosity values are then estimated using an optimization-based approach by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated shear wave particle velocities. Shear elasticity and shear viscosity images are generated at every spatial point in a two-dimensional (2D) field-of-view (FOV). The new approach is applied to measured shear wave data obtained from in vivo human livers, and the results show that this new approach successfully generates shear elasticity and shear viscosity images from this data. The results also indicate that the shear elasticity values estimated with this approach are significantly smaller than the values estimated with the conventional TOF method and that the new approach demonstrates more consistent values for these estimates compared with the TOF method. This experience suggests that the new method is an

  11. Density functional calculations of elastic properties of portlandite, Ca(OH)(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2005-01-01

    The elastic constants of portlandite, Ca(OH)(2), are calculated by use of density functional theory. A lattice optimization of an infinite (periodic boundary conditions) lattice is performed on which strains are applied. The elastic constants are extracted by minimizing Hooke's law of linear...

  12. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  13. Structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of bi-alkali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structural parameters, elastic constants, electronic and optical properties of the bi-alkali ... and efficient method for the calculation of the ground-state ... Figure 2. Optimization curve (E–V) of the bi-alkali antimonides: (a) Na2KSb, (b) Na2RbSb, (c) Na2CsSb, .... ical shape of the charge distributions in the contour plots.

  14. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  15. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  16. Dynamic stability of a cantilevered Timoshenko beam on partial elastic foundations subjected to a follower force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Bong Jo; Shin, Kwang Bok; Yim, Kyung Bin; Yoon, Young Sik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic stability of a cantilevered Timoshenko beam with a concentrated mass, partially attached to elastic foundations, and subjected to a follower force. Governing equations are derived from the extended Hamilton's principle, and FEM is applied to solve the discretized equation. The influence of some parameters such as the elastic foundation parameter, the positions of partial elastic foundations, shear deformations, the rotary inertia of the beam, and the mass and the rotary inertia of the concentrated mass on the critical flutter load is investigated. Finally, the optimal attachment ratio of partial elastic foundation that maximizes the critical flutter load is presented

  17. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2, 3DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ENUGU STATE. ... theory of elasticity and in the case of vertical applied loads, was first ... partial differential equations in bodies having cylindrical symmetry.

  18. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  19. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  20. CONCERNING THE ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC MODEL APPLIED TO WOOD ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Mascia,Nilson

    2003-01-01

    Among the construction materials, wood reveals an orthotropic pattern, because of unique characteristics in its internal structure with three axes of wood biological directions (longitudinal, tangential and radial). elastic symmetry: longitudinal, tangential and radial, reveals an orthotropic pattern. The effect of grain angle orientation onin the elastic modulus constitutes the fundamental cause forof wood anisotropy. It is responsible for the greatest changes in the values of the constituti...

  1. Spectral dimension of elastic Sierpinski gaskets with general elastic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectral dimension is calculated for a Sierpinski gasket with the most general elastic restoring forces allowed by symmetry. The elastic forces consist of bond-stretching and angle-bending components. The spectral dimension is the same as that for the bond-stretching-force (central-force) model. This demonstrates that on the Sierpinski gasket the two types of forces belong to the same universality class

  2. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  3. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  4. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  5. On asymptotic analysis of spectral problems in elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nazarov

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional spectral elasticity problem is studied in an anisotropic and inhomogeneous solid with small defects, i.e., inclusions, voids, and microcracks. Asymptotics of eigenfrequencies and the corresponding elastic eigenmodes are constructed and justified. New technicalities of the asymptotic analysis are related to variable coefficients of differential operators, vectorial setting of the problem, and usage of intrinsic integral characteristics of defects. The asymptotic formulae are developed in a form convenient for application in shape optimization and inverse problems.

  6. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  7. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  8. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  9. In Situ elastic property sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, D.; Hirschfeld, T.; Kishiyama, K.; Steinhaus, R.

    1987-01-01

    Elasticity is an important property of many materials. Loss of elasticity can have serious consequences, such as when a gasket deteriorates and permits leakage of an expensive or hazardous material, or when a damping system begins to go awry. Loss of elasticity can also provide information related to an ancillary activity such as degradation of electrical insulation, loss of plasticizer in a plastic, or changes in permeability of a thin film. In fact, the mechanical properties of most organic compounds are altered when the compound degrades. Thus, a sensor for the mechanical properties can be used to monitor associated characteristics as well. A piezoelectric material in contact with an elastomer forms an oscillating system that can provide real-time elasticity monitoring. This combination constitutes a forced harmonic oscillator with damping provided by the elastomer. A ceramic oscillator with a total volume of a few mm 3 was used as an elasticity sensor. It was placed in intimate contact with an elastomer and then monitored remotely with a simple oscillator circuit and standard frequency counting electronics. Resonant frequency shifts and changes in Q value were observed corresponding to changes in ambient temperature and/or changes in pressure applied to the sample. Elastomer samples pretreated with ozone (to simulate aging) showed changes in Q value and frequency response, even though there were no visible changes in the elastic samples

  10. Time-Space Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    A method for space-time topology optimization is outlined. The space-time optimization strategy produces structures with optimized material distributions that vary in space and in time. The method is demonstrated for one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic bar that has a time-dependent Young......’s modulus and is subjected to a transient load. In the example an optimized dynamic structure is demonstrated that compresses a propagating Gauss pulse....

  11. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  12. Slope constrained Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, J.; Sigmund, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The problem of minimum compliance topology optimization of an elastic continuum is considered. A general continuous density-energy relation is assumed, including variable thickness sheet models and artificial power laws. To ensure existence of solutions, the design set is restricted by enforcing...

  13. Phason elasticity and surface roughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Leihan; Jaric, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phason elasticity of two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium quasicrystals is discussed in analogy with surface roughening phenomena. Taking a Penrose tiling model as an example, we show that the phason elastic energy is linear in the phason strain at zero temperature (T = 0), but becomes quadratic at any T > 0 and sufficiently small strain. Heuristic and real-space renormalization group arguments are given for the thermal roughening of the hyper-surface which represents quasicrystal tiling. Monte Carlo method is applied to illustrate the logarithmically diverging phason fluctuations and power-law diffraction intensities at T > 0. For three-dimensional systems, we present arguments which suggest a finite temperature transition between two quasicrystal phases, characterized by linear and quadratic phason elastic energy, respectively. (author). 17 refs, 12 figs

  14. Appraisal of elastic follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide indications to choose what fraction of a self limiting stress can be considered as secondary. At first, considerations are given to a simple structure which could be called ''creep relaxation tensile test''. A bar (with constant cross section) is loaded by an elastic spring in order to obtain a given elongation of the assembly. The stress evolution is studied. Then the creep damage is computed, and compared to the damage corresponding to the elastic computed stress. This comparison gives the fraction of the self limiting stress which must be considered as primary. This involve the structural parameter 0 which is the initial value of the ratio of elastic energy to dissipating power. Extension of the rule is made with the help of KACHANOV approximation. As a conclusion a procedure is described which determines what fraction of a self limiting stress must be considered as primary

  15. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  16. Macroscopic modelization of the cloud elasticity*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etancelin J.-M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve its promise of providing information technologies (IT on demand, cloud computing needs to rely on a mathematical model capable of directing IT on and off according to a demand pattern to provide a true elasticity. This article provides a first method to reach this goal using a “fluid type” partial differential equations model. On the one hand it examines the question of service time optimization for the simultaneous satisfaction of the cloud consumer and provider. On the other hand it tries to model a way to deliver resources according to the real time capacity of the cloud that depends on parameters such as burst requests and application timeouts. All these questions are illustrated via an implicit finite volume scheme.

  17. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  18. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  19. Elastic stability of cylindrical shells with soft elastic cores: Biomimicking natural tubular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gebran Nizar

    1994-01-01

    Thin walled cylindrical shell structures are widespread in nature: examples include plant stems, porcupine quills, and hedgehog spines. All have an outer shell of almost fully dense material supported by a low density, cellular core. In nature, all are loaded in combination of axial compression and bending: failure is typically by buckling. Natural structures are often optimized. Here we have analyzed the elastic buckling of a thin cylindrical shell supported by an elastic core to show that this structural configuration achieves significant weight saving over a hollow cylinder. The results of the analysis are compared with data from an extensive experimental program on uniaxial compression and four point bending tests on silicone rubber shells with and without compliant foam cores. The analysis describes the results of the mechanical tests well. Characterization of the microstructures of several natural tubular structures with foamlike cores (plant stems, quills, and spines) revealed them to be close to the optimal configurations predicted by the analytical model. Biomimicking of natural cylindrical shell structures and evolutionary design processes may offer the potential to increase the mechanical efficiency of engineering cylindrical shells.

  20. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  1. Manufacture of conical springs with elastic medium technology improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurguzov, S. A.; Mikhailova, U. V.; Kalugina, O. B.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the manufacturing technology improvement by using an elastic medium in the stamping tool forming space to improve the conical springs performance characteristics and reduce the costs of their production. Estimation technique of disk spring operational properties is developed by mathematical modeling of the compression process during the operation of a spring. A technique for optimizing the design parameters of a conical spring is developed, which ensures a minimum voltage value when operated in the edge of the spring opening.

  2. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  3. Effect of price elasticity of demand in monopolies with gradient adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A monopoly with isoelastic demand function is studied. •Reduced rationality monopolist uses gradient adjustment. •If marginal cost is small, increasing elasticity leads to stable dynamics. •For large marginal cost, dynamic can be unstable for both small and large elasticity. -- Abstract: We study a monopolistic market characterized by a constant elasticity demand function, in which the firm technology is described by a linear total cost function. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to follow a gradient rule to adjust the production level in order to optimize its profit. We focus on what happens on varying the price elasticity of demand, studying the effect on the equilibrium stability. We prove that, depending on the relation between the market size and the marginal cost, two different scenarios are possible, in which elasticity has either a stabilizing or a mixed stabilizing/destabilizing effect

  4. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  5. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  6. Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms ... The main results in terms of elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms are then reported ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  7. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  8. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2016-09-06

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  9. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  10. On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elasticity measurement. In this paper, we present a new definition of elasticity measurement and propose a quantifying and measuring method using a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC model, which is easy to use for precise calculation of elasticity value of a cloud computing platform. Our numerical results demonstrate the basic parameters affecting elasticity as measured by the proposed measurement approach. Furthermore, our simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed measurement approach is not only correct but also robust and is effective in computing and comparing the elasticity of cloud platforms. Our research in this paper makes significant contribution to quantitative measurement of elasticity in cloud computing.

  11. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  12. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  13. An H(∞) approach for elasticity properties reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huafeng; Hu, Hongjie; Sinusas, Albert J; Shi, Pengcheng

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of object elasticity properties has significant technical implications as well as important practical applications, such as medical disease diagnosis. In general, given noisy measurements on the kinematic states of the objects from imaging data, the aim is to recover the elasticity parameters for assumed material constitutive models of the objects. The implementation is complicated caused by the large dimensionality of the parameters. Various versions of the least-square (LS) methods have been widely used, which, however, do not perform well under reasonably realistic levels of disturbances. Another popular strategy, based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF), is also far from optimal and subject to divergence if either the initializations are poor or the noises are not Gaussian. In this paper, the authors propose a robust system identification paradigm for the quantitative analysis of object elasticity. It is derived and extended from the H(∞) filtering principles and is particularly powerful for real-world situations where the types and levels of the disturbances are unknown. Using synthetic data, the authors investigate the sensitivity of the strategies toward different types (Gaussian and Poisson) and levels of noises, as well as various initializations. The experimental results show consistently superior performance of the proposed method over the LS and EKF algorithms in reliably identifying object elastic modulus distributions. Results from phase contrast imaging data of canine hearts and human MRI data are also presented, which demonstrate the power of the framework.

  14. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  15. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  16. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  17. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  18. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  19. Elastic scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, Jan; Deile, M

    The seemingly simple elastic scattering of protons still presents a challenge for the theory. In this thesis we discuss the elastic scattering from theoretical as well as experimental point of view. In the theory part, we present several models and their predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the Coulomb-hadronic interference, where we present a new eikonal calculation to all orders of alpha, the fine-structure constant. In the experimental part we introduce the TOTEM experiment which is dedicated, among other subjects, to the measurement of the elastic scattering at the LHC. This measurement is performed primarily with the Roman Pot (RP) detectors - movable beam-pipe insertions hundreds of meters from the interaction point, that can detect protons scattered to very small angles. We discuss some aspects of the RP simulation and reconstruction software. A central point is devoted to the techniques of RP alignment - determining the RP sensor positions relative to each other and to the beam. At the end we pres...

  20. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  1. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  2. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling and Intelligent Control of an Elastic Link Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Loudini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, precise control of the end-point position of a planar single-link elastic manipulator robot is discussed. The Timoshenko beam theory (TBT has been used to characterize the structural link elasticity including important damping mechanisms. A suitable nonlinear model is derived based on the Lagrangian assumed modes method. Elastic link manipulators are classified as systems possessing highly complex dynamics. In addition, the environment in which they operate may have a lot of disturbances. These give rise to special problems that may be solved using intelligent control techniques. The application of two advanced control strategies based on fuzzy set theory is investigated. The first closed-loop control scheme to be applied is the standard Proportional-Derivative (PD type fuzzy logic controller (FLC, also known as PD-type Mamdani's FLC (MPDFLC. Then, a genetic algorithm (GA is used to optimize the MPDFLC parameters with innovative tuning procedures. Both the MPDFLC and the GA optimized FLC (GAOFLC are implemented and tested to achieve a precise control of the manipulator end-point. The performances of the adopted closed-loop intelligent control strategies are examined via simulation experiments.

  4. Comparison of matrix methods for elastic wave scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, S.J.; Varadan, V.K.; Varadan, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    This article briefly describes the T-matrix method and the MOOT (method of optimal truncation) of elastic wave scattering as they apply to A-D, SH- wave problems as well as 3-D elastic wave problems. Two methods are compared for scattering by elliptical cylinders as well as oblate spheroids of various eccentricity as a function of frequency. Convergence, and symmetry of the scattering cross section are also compared for ellipses and spheroidal cavities of different aspect ratios. Both the T-matrix approach and the MOOT were programmed on an AMDHL 470 computer using double precision arithmetic. Although the T-matrix method and MOOT are not always in agreement, it is in no way implied that any of the published results using MOOT are in error

  5. Elastic models: a comparative study applied to retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, E; Lambropoulou, S; Koutsouris, D

    2011-01-01

    In this work various methods of parametric elastic models are compared, namely the classical snake, the gradient vector field snake (GVF snake) and the topology-adaptive snake (t-snake), as well as the method of self-affine mapping system as an alternative to elastic models. We also give a brief overview of the methods used. The self-affine mapping system is implemented using an adapting scheme and minimum distance as optimization criterion, which is more suitable for weak edges detection. All methods are applied to glaucomatic retinal images with the purpose of segmenting the optical disk. The methods are compared in terms of segmentation accuracy and speed, as these are derived from cross-correlation coefficients between real and algorithm extracted contours and segmentation time, respectively. As a result, the method of self-affine mapping system presents adequate segmentation time and segmentation accuracy, and significant independence from initialization.

  6. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  7. Elastic Moduli of Carbon Nanohorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube is a special case of carbon nanohorns or carbon nanocones with zero apex angle. Research into carbon nanohorns started almost at the same time as the discovery of nanotubes in 1991. Most researchers focused on the investigation of nanotubes, and the exploration of nanohorns attracted little attention. To model the carbon nanohorns, we make use of a more reliable second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential by Brenner and coworkers. We investigate the elastic moduli and conclude that these nanohorns are equally strong and require in-depth investigation. The values of Young's and Shear moduli decrease with apex angle.

  8. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  9. DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dyrda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear

  10. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  11. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  12. Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U Sik

    1998-01-01

    In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids

  13. Nodal price volatility reduction and reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, L.; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    With the development of restructured power systems, the conventional 'same for all customers' electricity price is getting replaced by nodal prices. Electricity prices will fluctuate with time and nodes. In restructured power systems, electricity demands will interact mutually with prices. Customers may shift some of their electricity consumption from time slots of high electricity prices to those of low electricity prices if there is a commensurate price incentive. The demand side load shift will influence nodal prices in return. This interaction between demand and price can be depicted using demand-price elasticity. This paper proposes an evaluation technique incorporating the impact of the demand-price elasticity on nodal prices, system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. In this technique, demand and price correlations are represented using the demand-price elasticity matrix which consists of self/cross-elasticity coefficients. Nodal prices are determined using optimal power flow (OPF). The OPF and customer damage functions (CDFs) are combined in the proposed reliability evaluation technique to assess the reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is simulated to illustrate the developed techniques. The simulation results show that demand-price elasticity reduces the nodal price volatility and improves both the system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. Demand-price elasticity can therefore be utilized as a possible efficient tool to reduce price volatility and to enhance the reliability of restructured power systems. (author)

  14. Anomalous elasticity, fluctuations and disorder in elastic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by freely suspended graphene and polymerized membranes in soft and biological matter we present a detailed study of a tensionless elastic sheet in the presence of thermal fluctuations and quenched disorder. The manuscript is based on an extensive draft dating back to 1993, that was circulated privately. It presents the general theoretical framework and calculational details of numerous results, partial forms of which have been published in brief Letters (Le Doussal and Radzihovsky, 1992; 1993). The experimental realization atom-thin graphene sheets (Novoselov et al., 2004) have driven a resurgence in this fascinating subject, making our dated predictions and their detailed derivations timely. To this end we analyze the statistical mechanics of a generalized D-dimensional elastic "membrane" embedded in d dimensions using a self-consistent screening approximation (SCSA), that has proved to be unprecedentedly accurate in this system, exact in three complementary limits: (i) d → ∞, (ii) D → 4, and (iii) D = d. Focusing on the critical "flat" phase, for a homogeneous two-dimensional (D = 2) membrane embedded in three dimensions (d = 3), we predict its universal roughness exponent ζ = 0 . 590, length-scale dependent elastic moduli exponents η = 0 . 821 and ηu = 0 . 358, and an anomalous Poisson ratio, σ = - 1 / 3. In the presence of random uncorrelated heterogeneity the membrane exhibits a glassy wrinkled ground state, characterized by ζ‧ = 0 . 775 ,η‧ = 0 . 449, ηu‧ = 1 . 101 and a Poisson ratio σ‧ = - 1 / 3. Motivated by a number of physical realizations (charged impurities, disclinations and dislocations) we also study power-law correlated quenched disorder that leads to a variety of distinct glassy wrinkled phases. Finally, neglecting self-avoiding interaction we demonstrate that at high temperature a "phantom" sheet undergoes a continuous crumpling transition, characterized by a radius of gyration exponent, ν = 0 . 732 and η = 0

  15. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  16. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  17. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  18. Elastic properties of graphite and interstitial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasse, J.-B.

    1977-01-01

    The graphite elastic constants C 33 and C 44 , reflecting the interaction of the graphitic planes, were experimentally measured as a function of irradiation and temperature. A model of non-central strength atomic interaction was established to explain the experimental results obtained. This model is valid at zero temperature. The temperature dependence of the elastic properties was analyzed. The influence of the elastic property variations on the specific heat of the lattice at very low temperature was investigated [fr

  19. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  20. Elastic properties of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Problems associated with determining the symmetry properties of the elastic constant tensor of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals are reviewed. Notions of elastic isotropy and anisotropy are considered, and their relation to the components of the elastic constant tensor is discussed. The question is addressed of how to determine experimentally whether a system under study is elastically isotropic. Experimental results produced by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy of icosahedral Al-Li-Cu and decagonal Al-Ni-Co single quasicrystals are discussed in detail. (methodological notes)

  1. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  2. Dynamic Response Analysis of Microflow Electrochemical Sensors with Two Types of Elastic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Molecular Electric Transducer (MET, widely applied for vibration measurement, has excellent sensitivity and dynamic response at low frequencies. The elastic membrane in the MET is a significant factor with an obvious effect on the performance of the MET in the low frequency domain and is the focus of this paper. In simulation experiments, the elastic membrane and the reaction cavity of the MET were analysed in a model based on the multiphysics finite element method. Meanwhile, the effects caused by the elastic membrane elements are verified in this paper. With the numerical simulation and practical experiments, a suitable elastic membrane can be designed for different cavity structures. Thus, the MET can exhibit the best dynamic response characteristics to measure the vibration signals. With the new method presented in this paper, it is possible to develop and optimize the characteristics of the MET effectively, and the dynamic characteristics of the MET can be improved in a thorough and systematic manner.

  3. How tall can gelatin towers be? An introduction to elasticity and buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, Nicolas; Ferrand, Jérémy; Camus, Élise; Lachaud, Léa; Plihon, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    The stability of elastic towers is studied through simple hands-on experiments. Using gelatin-based stackable bricks, one can investigate the maximum height a simple structure can reach before collapsing. We show through experiments and by using the classical linear elastic theory that the main limitation to the height of such towers is the buckling of the elastic structures under their own weight. Moreover, the design and architecture of the towers can be optimized to greatly improve their resistance to self-buckling. To this aim, the maximum height of hollow and tapered towers is investigated. The experimental and theoretical developments presented in this paper can help students grasp the fundamental concepts in elasticity and mechanical stability.

  4. Double dividend effectiveness of energy tax policies and the elasticity of substitution: A CGE appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, Ferran

    2010-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature that has studied whether or not an adequately designed tax swap, whereby an ecotax is levied and some other tax is reduced while keeping government income constant, may achieve a so-called double dividend, that is, an increase in environmental quality and an increase in overall efficiency. Arguments in favor and against are abundant. Our position is that the issue should be empirically studied starting from an actual, non-optimal tax system structure and by way of checking the responsiveness of equilibria to revenue neutral tax regimes under alternate scenarios regarding technological substitution. With the use of a CGE model, we find that the most critical elasticity for achieving a double dividend is the substitution elasticity between labor and capital whereas the elasticity that would generate the highest reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is the substitution elasticity among energy goods.

  5. Double dividend effectiveness of energy tax policies and the elasticity of substitution. A CGE appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, Ferran [Departament d' Economia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    There is a considerable body of literature that has studied whether or not an adequately designed tax swap, whereby an ecotax is levied and some other tax is reduced while keeping government income constant, may achieve a so-called double dividend, that is, an increase in environmental quality and an increase in overall efficiency. Arguments in favor and against are abundant. Our position is that the issue should be empirically studied starting from an actual, non-optimal tax system structure and by way of checking the responsiveness of equilibria to revenue neutral tax regimes under alternate scenarios regarding technological substitution. With the use of a CGE model, we find that the most critical elasticity for achieving a double dividend is the substitution elasticity between labor and capital whereas the elasticity that would generate the highest reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is the substitution elasticity among energy goods. (author)

  6. Matrix elasticity of void-forming hydrogels controls transplanted-stem-cell-mediated bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Lippens, Evi; Lee, Kangwon; Mehta, Manav; Koshy, Sandeep T.; Darnell, Max C.; Desai, Rajiv M.; Madl, Christopher M.; Xu, Maria; Zhao, Xuanhe; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Verbeke, Catia; Kim, Woo Seob; Alim, Karen; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Duda, Georg N.; Mooney, David J.

    2015-12-01

    The effectiveness of stem cell therapies has been hampered by cell death and limited control over fate. These problems can be partially circumvented by using macroporous biomaterials that improve the survival of transplanted stem cells and provide molecular cues to direct cell phenotype. Stem cell behaviour can also be controlled in vitro by manipulating the elasticity of both porous and non-porous materials, yet translation to therapeutic processes in vivo remains elusive. Here, by developing injectable, void-forming hydrogels that decouple pore formation from elasticity, we show that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis in vitro, and cell deployment in vitro and in vivo, can be controlled by modifying, respectively, the hydrogel’s elastic modulus or its chemistry. When the hydrogels were used to transplant MSCs, the hydrogel’s elasticity regulated bone regeneration, with optimal bone formation at 60 kPa. Our findings show that biophysical cues can be harnessed to direct therapeutic stem cell behaviours in situ.

  7. Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844

  8. The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Flanagan, Eamonn P

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with an understanding of the role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements. Specifically, the article covers 1) the nature of elasticity and its application to human participants, 2) the role of elastic energy in activities requiring a stretch-shorten cycle such as the vertical jump, 3) the role of muscular stiffness in athletic performance, 4) the control of muscular stiffness through feedforward and feedback mechanisms, and 5) factors affecting muscular stiffness. Finally, practical applications are provided. In this section, it is suggested that the storage and reuse of elastic energy is optimized at relatively higher levels of stiffness. Because stiffness decreases as fatigue ensues as well as with stretching before an event, the article emphasizes the need for proper preparation phases in a periodized cycle and the avoidance of long static stretches before high-force activities. The importance of teaching athletes to transition from eccentric to concentric movements with minimal time delays is also proposed due to the finding that time delays appear to decrease the reuse of elastic energy. In addition to teaching within the criterion tasks, evidence is provided that minimizing transitions in plyometric training, a technique demonstrated to increase musculotendinous stiffness, can optimize power output in explosive movements. Finally, evidence is provided that training and teaching programs designed to optimize muscular stiffness may protect athletes against sports-related injuries.

  9. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  10. Models and Methods for Free Material Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot

    Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for structural optimization in which the design parametrization allows the entire elastic stiffness tensor to vary freely at each point of the design domain. The only requirement imposed on the stiffness tensor lies on its mild necessary...

  11. Optimal design of lossy bandgap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    The method of topology optimization is used to design structures for wave propagation with one lossy material component. Optimized designs for scalar elastic waves are presented for mininimum wave transmission as well as for maximum wave energy dissipation. The structures that are obtained...... are of the 1D or 2D bandgap type depending on the objective and the material parameters....

  12. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  14. Kinematic aspects of pion-nucleus elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.L.; Ernst, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of relativistic kinematics in the theory of elastic scattering of pions from nuclei is examined. The investigation is performed in the context of the first order impulse approximation which incorporates the following features: (1) Relative momentum are defined according to relativistic theories consistent with time reversal invariance. (2) The two-nucleon interaction is a new, multichannel, separable potential model consistent with the most recent data derived from a recent nonpotential model of Ernst and Johnson. (3) The recoil of the pion-nucleon interacting pair and its resultant nonlocality are included. (4) The Fermi integral is treated by an optimal factorization approximation. It is shown how a careful definition of an intrinsic target density leads to an unambiguous method for including the recoil of the target. The target recoil corrections are found to be large for elastic scattering from 4 He and not negligible for scattering from 12 C. Relativistic potential theory kinematics, kinematics which result from covariant reduction approaches, and kinematics which result from replacing masses by energies in nonrelativistic formulas are compared. The relativistic potential theory kinematics and covariant reduction kinematics are shown to produce different elastic scattering at all pion energies examined (T/sub π/<300 MeV). Simple extensions of nonrelativistic kinematics are found to be reasonable approximations to relativistic potential theory

  15. A hybrid algorithm for solving inverse problems in elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabasz Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a new approach to handling difficult parametric inverse problems in elasticity and thermo-elasticity, formulated as global optimization ones. The proposed strategy is composed of two phases. In the first, global phase, the stochastic hp-HGS algorithm recognizes the basins of attraction of various objective minima. In the second phase, the local objective minimizers are closer approached by steepest descent processes executed singly in each basin of attraction. The proposed complex strategy is especially dedicated to ill-posed problems with multimodal objective functionals. The strategy offers comparatively low computational and memory costs resulting from a double-adaptive technique in both forward and inverse problem domains. We provide a result on the Lipschitz continuity of the objective functional composed of the elastic energy and the boundary displacement misfits with respect to the unknown constitutive parameters. It allows common scaling of the accuracy of solving forward and inverse problems, which is the core of the introduced double-adaptive technique. The capability of the proposed method of finding multiple solutions is illustrated by a computational example which consists in restoring all feasible Young modulus distributions minimizing an objective functional in a 3D domain of a photo polymer template obtained during step and flash imprint lithography.

  16. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-06

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  17. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  18. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  19. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  20. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Huber, Robert; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive

  1. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  2. 7 CFR 29.2515 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2515 Elasticity. The flexible, springy... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2515 Section 29.2515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3516 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3516 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.3516 Section 29.3516 Agriculture...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1014 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1014 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.1014 Section 29.1014 Agriculture...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2265 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2265 Section 29.2265 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2265 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover approximately its original size and...

  6. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-03-08

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  7. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...

  8. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  9. Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert; Shahrammehr, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips and particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips and particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.

  10. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...

  11. Elastic SCAD as a novel penalization method for SVM classification tasks in high-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Natalia; Toedt, Grischa; Lichter, Peter; Benner, Axel

    2011-05-09

    Classification and variable selection play an important role in knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data. Although Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms are among the most powerful classification and prediction methods with a wide range of scientific applications, the SVM does not include automatic feature selection and therefore a number of feature selection procedures have been developed. Regularisation approaches extend SVM to a feature selection method in a flexible way using penalty functions like LASSO, SCAD and Elastic Net.We propose a novel penalty function for SVM classification tasks, Elastic SCAD, a combination of SCAD and ridge penalties which overcomes the limitations of each penalty alone.Since SVM models are extremely sensitive to the choice of tuning parameters, we adopted an interval search algorithm, which in comparison to a fixed grid search finds rapidly and more precisely a global optimal solution. Feature selection methods with combined penalties (Elastic Net and Elastic SCAD SVMs) are more robust to a change of the model complexity than methods using single penalties. Our simulation study showed that Elastic SCAD SVM outperformed LASSO (L1) and SCAD SVMs. Moreover, Elastic SCAD SVM provided sparser classifiers in terms of median number of features selected than Elastic Net SVM and often better predicted than Elastic Net in terms of misclassification error.Finally, we applied the penalization methods described above on four publicly available breast cancer data sets. Elastic SCAD SVM was the only method providing robust classifiers in sparse and non-sparse situations. The proposed Elastic SCAD SVM algorithm provides the advantages of the SCAD penalty and at the same time avoids sparsity limitations for non-sparse data. We were first to demonstrate that the integration of the interval search algorithm and penalized SVM classification techniques provides fast solutions on the optimization of tuning parameters.The penalized SVM

  12. Calculation of elastic-plastic strain ranges for fatigue analysis based on linear elastic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue analysis requires that the maximum strain ranges be known. These strain ranges are generally computed from linear elastic analysis. The elastic strain ranges are enhanced by a factor K e to obtain the total elastic-plastic strain range. The reliability of the fatigue analysis depends on the quality of this factor. Formulae for calculating the K e factor are proposed. A beam is introduced as a computational model for determining the elastic-plastic strains. The beam is loaded by the elastic stresses of the real structure. The elastic-plastic strains of the beam are compared with the beam's elastic strains. This comparison furnishes explicit expressions for the K e factor. The K e factor is tested by means of seven examples. (orig.)

  13. Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. B.; Wadley, H. N. G.; McMeeking, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost. These mechanical metamaterials have properties that are a function of their mesoscale geometry as well as their constituents, leading to combinations of properties that are unobtainable in solid materials; however, a material geometry that achieves the theoretical upper bounds for isotropic elasticity and strain energy storage (the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds) has yet to be identified. Here we evaluate the manner in which strain energy distributes under load in a representative selection of material geometries, to identify the morphological features associated with high elastic performance. Using finite-element models, supported by analytical methods, and a heuristic optimization scheme, we identify a material geometry that achieves the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness. Previous work has focused on truss networks and anisotropic honeycombs, neither of which can achieve this theoretical limit. We find that stiff but well distributed networks of plates are required to transfer loads efficiently between neighbouring members. The resulting low-density mechanical metamaterials have many advantageous properties: their mesoscale geometry can facilitate large crushing strains with high energy absorption, optical bandgaps and mechanically tunable acoustic bandgaps, high thermal insulation, buoyancy, and fluid storage and transport. Our relatively simple

  14. New empirical generalizations on the determinants of price elasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Van Heerde, HJ; Pieters, RGM

    The importance of pricing decisions for firms has fueled an extensive stream of research on price elasticities. In an influential meta-analytical study, Tellis (1988) summarized price elasticity research findings until 1986. However, empirical generalizations on price elasticity require

  15. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  16. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  17. Impact of Thresholds and Load Patterns when Executing HPC Applications with Cloud Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Facco Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is one of the most known capabilities related to cloud computing, being largely deployed reactively using thresholds. In this way, maximum and minimum limits are used to drive resource allocation and deallocation actions, leading to the following problem statements: How can cloud users set the threshold values to enable elasticity in their cloud applications? And what is the impact of the application’s load pattern in the elasticity? This article tries to answer these questions for iterative high performance computing applications, showing the impact of both thresholds and load patterns on application performance and resource consumption. To accomplish this, we developed a reactive and PaaS-based elasticity model called AutoElastic and employed it over a private cloud to execute a numerical integration application. Here, we are presenting an analysis of best practices and possible optimizations regarding the elasticity and HPC pair. Considering the results, we observed that the maximum threshold influences the application time more than the minimum one. We concluded that threshold values close to 100% of CPU load are directly related to a weaker reactivity, postponing resource reconfiguration when its activation in advance could be pertinent for reducing the application runtime.

  18. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Jing Chun; Foin, Nicolas; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Fam, Jiang Ming; Wong, Philip; Low, Fatt Hoe; Leo, Hwa Liang; Mari, Jean-Martial; Joner, Michael; Girard, Michael J A; Virmani, Renu; Bezerra, HG.; Costa, MA.; Guagliumi, G.; Rollins, AM.; Simon, D.; Gutiérrez-Chico, JL.; Alegría-Barrero, E.; Teijeiro-Mestre, R.; Chan, PH.; Tsujioka, H.; de Silva, R.; Otsuka, F.; Joner, M.; Prati, F.; Virmani, R.; Narula, J.; Members, WC.; Levine, GN.; Bates, ER.; Blankenship, JC.; Bailey, SR.; Bittl, JA.; Prati, F.; Guagliumi, G.; Mintz, G.S.; Costa, Marco; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Roleder, T.; Jąkała, J.; Kałuża, GL.; Partyka, Ł.; Proniewska, K.; Pociask, E.; Girard, MJA.; Strouthidis, NG.; Ethier, CR.; Mari, JM.; Mari, JM.; Strouthidis, NG.; Park, SC.; Girard, MJA.; van der Lee, R.; Foin, N.; Otsuka, F.; Wong, P.K.; Mari, J-M.; Joner, M.; Nakano, M.; Vorpahl, M.; Otsuka, F.; Taniwaki, M.; Yazdani, SK.; Finn, AV.; Nakano, M.; Yahagi, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Taniwaki, M.; Otsuka, F.; Ladich, ER.; Girard, MJ.; Ang, M.; Chung, CW.; Farook, M.; Strouthidis, N.; Mehta, JS.; Foin, N.; Mari, JM.; Nijjer, S.; Sen, S.; Petraco, R.; Ghione, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, JU.; Virmani, R.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Burke, AP.; Farb, A.; Schwartz, S.M.; Yahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Otsuka, F.; Finn, AV.; Davis, HR.; Joner, M.; Kume, T.; Akasaka, T.; Kawamoto, T.; Watanabe, N.; Toyota, E.; Neishi, Y.; Rieber, J.; Meissner, O.; Babaryka, G.; Reim, S.; Oswald, M.E.; Koenig, A.S.; Tearney, G. J.; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Adriaenssens, T.; Barlis, P.; Bezerra, HG.; Yabushita, H.; Bouma, BE.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; Guo, J.; Sun, L.; Chen, Y.D.; Tian, F.; Liu, HB.; Chen, L.; Kawasaki, M.; Bouma, BE.; Bressner, J. E.; Houser, S. L.; Nadkarni, S. K.; MacNeill, BD.; Jansen, CHP.; Onthank, DC.; Cuello, F.; Botnar, RM.; Wiethoff, AJ.; Warley, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Hartmann, A. M.; Kubo, T.; Akasaka, T.; Shite, J.; Suzuki, T.; Uemura, S.; Yu, B.; Habara, M.; Nasu, K.; Terashima, M.; Kaneda, H.; Yokota, D.; Ko, E.; Virmani, R.; Burke, AP.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Farb, A.; Takarada, S.; Imanishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Tanimoto, T.; Kitabata, H.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, K.; Ozaki, Y.; Ismail, TF.; Okumura, M.; Naruse, H.; Kan, S.; Nishio, R.; Shinke, T.; Otake, H.; Nakagawa, M.; Nagoshi, R.; Inoue, T.; Sinclair, H.D.; Bourantas, C.; Bagnall, A.; Mintz, G.S.; Kunadian, V.; Tearney, G. J.; Yabushita, H.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; van Soest, G.; Goderie, T.; Regar, E.; Koljenović, S.; Leenders, GL. van; Gonzalo, N.; Xu, C.; Schmitt, JM.; Carlier, SG.; Virmani, R.; van der Meer, FJ; Faber, D.J.; Sassoon, DMB.; Aalders, M.C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Leeuwen, TG. van; Schmitt, JM.; Knuttel, A.; Yadlowsky, M.; Eckhaus, MA.; Karamata, B.; Laubscher, M.; Leutenegger, M.; Bourquin, S.; Lasser, T.; Lambelet, P.; Vermeer, K.A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J.J.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Boer, JF. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. METHOD The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast

  19. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  20. Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs

  1. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  2. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Steven; Hicks, Sally; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; McEllistrem, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium ( 23 Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56 Fe and 54 Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23 Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@ 2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  3. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  4. SIMULATION OFTHERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIESOFTHERMALBARRIERCOATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Ferouani M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the micro structural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.  

  5. MAXIMIZING OPTO-ELASTIC INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with topology optimization of a coupled optical and mechanical problem in photonic crystals. It is motivated by the potential gain in functionality of optical devices where the mechanical loading influences the optical response by distorting the geometry and through...

  6. Stochastic seismic response of building with super-elastic damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Roy, Koushik

    2016-05-01

    Hysteretic yield dampers are widely employed for seismic vibration control of buildings. An improved version of such damper has been proposed recently by exploiting the superelastic force-deformation characteristics of the Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA). Although a number of studies have illustrated the performance of such damper, precise estimate of the optimal parameters and performances, along with the comparison with the conventional yield damper is lacking. Presently, the optimal parameters for the superelastic damper are proposed by conducting systematic design optimization, in which, the stochastic response serves as the objective function, evaluated through nonlinear random vibration analysis. These optimal parameters can be employed to establish an initial design for the SMA-damper. Further, a comparison among the optimal responses is also presented in order to assess the improvement that can be achieved by the superelastic damper over the yield damper. The consistency of the improvements is also checked by considering the anticipated variation in the system parameters as well as seismic loading condition. In spite of the improved performance of super-elastic damper, the available variant of SMA(s) is quite expensive to limit their applicability. However, recently developed ferrous SMA are expected to offer even superior performance along with improved cost effectiveness, that can be studied through a life cycle cost analysis in future work.

  7. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 dyne/cm irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows non-destructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity, and the value 22 dyne/cm ...

  8. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger

    2002-01-01

    The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for tra...

  9. Application Service Program (ASP) Price Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Jaeweon; Cho Wanwoo; Jang Ho; Kwak Youngsik

    2010-01-01

    Although the price elasticities for off-line industry are well documented in academic field, the report of price elasticities for on-line to a given brand or industry in practice have beenrelatively rare. The researcher aims to try to full this gap by applying a price response function to Home Trading System’s on-line transaction data for the first time in Korean securities market. The different price elasticities among seven brands were found from -0.819 to -1.811. These results suggested th...

  10. Elastic and inelastic psi production by muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented on the elastic and inelastic production of psi (3.1). The elastic data are qualitative agreement with the predictions of photon-gluon fusion but have a steeper dependence on Q 2 than the model predicts. A QCD calculation accounts well for the shape of the inelastic data in inelasticity, Q 2 and E/sub γ/, but fails to account for the absolute cross section. At 209 GeV, the cross-section for elastic psi production is 0.36 +- 0.07 nb; for inelastic, 0.28 +- 0.06nb

  11. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 mN/m irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed, and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows nondestructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity and the value 22 mN/m is likely applicable to other similarly constructed flowing soap films.

  12. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and ne...

  13. Canonical Duality Theory for Topology Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, David Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a canonical duality approach for solving a general topology optimization problem of nonlinear elastic structures. By using finite element method, this most challenging problem can be formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP), i.e. for a given deformation, the first-level optimization is a typical linear constrained 0-1 programming problem, while for a given structure, the second-level optimization is a general nonlinear continuous minimization pro...

  14. Optimization of boundary controls of string vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' in, V A; Moiseev, E I [Department of Computing Mathematics and Cybernetics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-31

    For a large time interval T boundary controls of string vibrations are optimized in the following seven boundary-control problems: displacement control at one end (with the other end fixed or free); displacement control at both ends; elastic force control at one end (with the other end fixed or free); elastic force control at both ends; combined control (displacement control at one end and elastic force control at the other). Optimal boundary controls in each of these seven problems are sought as functions minimizing the corresponding boundary-energy integral under the constraints following from the initial and terminal conditions for the string at t=0 and t=T, respectively. For all seven problems, the optimal boundary controls are written out in closed analytic form.

  15. Elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire of zincblende heterostructures with interface elasticity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Liu, Yifei

    2018-04-01

    This work formulates the solutions to the elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire (QWR) with interface elasticity effect. Closed-form solutions to the piezoelectric potential field of zincblende QWR/matrix heterostructures grown along [111] crystallographic orientation are found and numerical results of InAs/InP heterostructures are provided as an example. The piezoelectric potential in the matrix depends on the interface elasticity, the radius and stiffness of the QWR. Our results indicate that interface elasticity can significantly alter the elastic and piezoelectric fields near the interface. Additionally, when the elastic property of the QWR is considered to be anisotropic in contrary to the common isotropic assumption, piezoelectric potentials are found to be distinct near the interface, but the deviations are negligible at positions far away from the interface.

  16. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  17. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for transport may vmy according to thechanges in society and economy, and they also change thesources of traffic demand. Therefore, the elasticity of demandfor traffic se1vices is relatively low.

  18. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  19. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Huber, Robert; Soest, Gijs van

    2017-09-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. A displacement image can be reconstructed, which enables a new modality of phase-sensitive OCT, called thermo-elastic OCT. An analysis of the results shows that the optical absorption is a dominating factor for the displacement. Thermo-elastic OCT is capable of visualizing inclusions that do not appear on the structural OCT image, providing additional tissue type information.

  20. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  1. Elastic and Anelastic Structure Beneath Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstrom, Goran

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work has been to map the variations of elastic mantle properties beneath Eurasia over horizontal length scales of approximately 1000-1500 kilometers and vertial length...

  2. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  3. Elastic spheres can walk on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-02-04

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

  4. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction betwe...... nonlinearity. The balance between dispersion and nonlinearity in the equation is investigated.......Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...

  5. Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petratos, G.G. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.

  6. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...... values.We show that the extremal overall elastic response is alwaysachieved by a configuration consisting of a single properlyoriented crystal. This result is compared to results for isotropicpolycrystals....

  7. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  8. On the use of elastic-plastic material characteristics for linear-elastic component assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Silcher, H.; Eisele, U.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the procedure of safety assessment of components by fracture mechanics analysis as recommended in TECDOC 717 is applied to two standard specimens of ductile cast iron. It is shown that the use of a pseudo-elastic K IJ -value in linear elastic safety analysis may lead to non-conservative results, when elastic-plastic material behaviour can be expected. (author)

  9. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions

  10. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  11. Elastic interactions between hydrogen atoms in metals. II. Elastic interaction energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, A.I.; Hall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The fully harmonic lattice approximation derived in a previous paper is used to calculate the elastic interaction energies in the niobium-hydrogen system. The permanent-direct, permanent-indirect, induced-direct, and induced-indirect forces calculated previously each give rise to a corresponding elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms. The latter three interactions have three- and four-body terms in addition to the usual two-body terms. These quantities are calculated and compared with the corresponding two-body permanent elastic interactions obtained in the harmonic-approximation treatment of Horner and Wagner. The results show that the total induced elastic energy is approximately (1/3) the size of the total permanent elastic energy and opposite to it in sign. The total elastic energy due to three-body interactions is approximately (1/4) the size of the total two-body elastic energy, while the total four-body elastic energy is approximately 5% of the total two-body energy. These additional elastic energies are expected to have a profound effect on the thermodynamic and phase-change behavior of a metal hydride

  12. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic

  13. THE ELASTICITY OF EXPORT DEMAND FOR US COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.

  14. Free material optimization for laminated plates and shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldeyesus, Alemseged Gebrehiwot; Stolpe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for conceptual optimal design of composite structures. The design variable in FMO is the entire elastic material tensor which is allowed to vary almost freely over the design domain. The imposed requirements on the tensor are that it is symm......Free Material Optimization (FMO) is a powerful approach for conceptual optimal design of composite structures. The design variable in FMO is the entire elastic material tensor which is allowed to vary almost freely over the design domain. The imposed requirements on the tensor...

  15. Personal finance and life insurance under separation of risk aversion and elasticity of substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    aversion from elasticity of inter-temporal substitution, we introduce certainty equivalents. We propose a time-inconsistent global optimization problem, and we present a verification theorem for an equilibrium control. In the special case without mortality risk, we discover that our optimization approach...... is equivalent to recursive utility optimization with Epstein–Zin preferences in the sense that the two approaches lead to the same result. We find this interesting since our optimization problem has an intuitive interpretation as a global maximization of certainty equivalents and since recursive utility......, in contrast to our approach, gives rise to severe differentiability problems. Also, our optimization approach can there be seen as a generalization of recursive utility optimization with Epstein–Zin preferences to include mortality risk and life insurance....

  16. Is the Armington Elasticity Really Constant across Importers?

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmazkuday, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the Armington elasticity, which refers to both the elasticity of substitution across goods and the price elasticity of demand under the assumption of a large number of varieties, systematically changes from one importer country to another in an international trade context. Then a natural question to ask is "What determines the Armington elasticity?" The answer comes from the distinction between the elasticity of demand with respect to the destination price (i.e., the Arm...

  17. Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M

    2011-03-25

    To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.

  18. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth's surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  19. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2016-09-15

    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  20. Vibration of an Elastic Circular Plate on an Elastic Half Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Schmidt, H.

    1981-01-01

    The axisymmetric problem of a vibrating elastic plate on an elastic half space is solved by a direct method, in which the contact stresses and the normal displacements of the plate are taken as the unknown functions. First, the influence functions that give the displacements in terms...

  1. Asymmetric Vibrations of a Circular Elastic Plate on an Elastic Half Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, H.; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The asymmetric problem of a vibrating circular elastic plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half space is solved by an integral equation method, where the contact stress appears as the unknown function. By a trigonometric expansion, the problem is reduced to a number of uncoupled two...

  2. Elastic-plastic collapse of super-elastic shock waves in face-centered-cubic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; Demaske, Brian J; Oleynik, Ivan I; Inogamov, Nail A; White, Carter T

    2014-01-01

    Shock waves in the [110] and [111] directions of single-crystal Al samples were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Piston-driven simulations were performed to investigate the split shock-wave regime. At low piston velocities, the material is compressed initially to a metastable over-compressed elastic state leading to a super-elastic single shock wave. This metastable elastic state later collapses to a plastic state resulting in the formation of a two-wave structure consisting of an elastic precursor followed by a slower plastic wave. The single two-zone elastic-plastic shock-wave regime appearing at higher piston velocities was studied using moving window MD. The plastic wave attains the same average speed as the elastic precursor to form a single two-zone shock wave. In this case, repeated collapse of the highly over-compressed elastic state near the plastic shock front produces ultrashort triangle pulses that provide the pressure support for the leading elastic precursor.

  3. Ab initio study of the elastic properties of sodium chloride at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Bi Yan; Xu Jian; Chen Xiangrong

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state and elastic properties for B1- and B2-NaCl up to 160 GPa have been studied by using the density functional simulation within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated lattice constants of NaCl agree well with experimental values in a precision of 0.1% over the pressure range studied. It is found that the cell volume decreases 5.5% at the phase transition point. All three independent elastic stiffness coefficients, c 11 , c 12 and c 44 for B1- and B2-NaCl are evaluated by a calculated stress tensor which was generated by forcing small strain to the optimized unit cell. The calculated zero-pressure elastic moduli, wave velocities, and their initial pressure dependences of B1-NaCl are in excellent agreement with experiments. Systematic investigation on the elasticity of NaCl has been done through four parameters, the Zener anisotropy ratio (A Z ), the acoustic anisotropy factor (A a ), the Cauchy deviation (δ), and the normalized elastic constants (c ij '). With the pressure, the Zener anisotropy ratio A Z decreases in the B1-phase, but increases in the B2-phase and reaches 1 at about 174 GPa, it suggests that NaCl would become elastic isotropic at this pressure range. The acoustic anisotropy factor A a shows the similar pressure behavior as A Z . The Cauchy deviation (δ)) increases with pressures, it demonstrates that in the interatomic interaction, the many-body contribution becomes more important at higher pressures. A discussion on the normalized elastic constants is also presented.

  4. Size effect of the elastic modulus of rectangular nanobeams: Surface elasticity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hai-Yan; Fan Wen-Liang; Yun Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The size-dependent elastic property of rectangular nanobeams (nanowires or nanoplates) induced by the surface elasticity effect is investigated by using a developed modified core-shell model. The effect of surface elasticity on the elastic modulus of nanobeams can be characterized by two surface related parameters, i.e., inhomogeneous degree constant and surface layer thickness. The analytical results show that the elastic modulus of the rectangular nanobeam exhibits a distinct size effect when its characteristic size reduces below 100 nm. It is also found that the theoretical results calculated by a modified core-shell model have more obvious advantages than those by other models (core-shell model and core-surface model) by comparing them with relevant experimental measurements and computational results, especially when the dimensions of nanostructures reduce to a few tens of nanometers. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  5. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-08-30

    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  6. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of vascular elasticity can help detect thrombosis and prevent life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, we propose vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) to measure vascular elasticity in humans. VE-PAT was developed by incorporating a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system with a customized compression stage. By measuring the deformation of blood vessels under uniaxial loading, VE-PAT was able to quantify the vascular compliance. We first demonstrated the feasibility of VE-PAT in blood vessel phantoms. In large vessel phantoms, VE-PAT detected a decrease in vascular compliance due to simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. In small blood vessel phantoms embedded 3 mm deep in gelatin, VE-PAT detected elasticity changes at depths that are difficult to image using other elasticity imaging techniques. We then applied VE-PAT to assess vascular compliance in a human subject and detected a decrease in vascular compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point, demonstrating the potential of VE-PAT in clinical applications such as detection of deep venous thrombosis.

  7. Elastic Moduli of Permanently Densified Silica Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, T.; Margueritat, J.; Martinet, C.; Mermet, A.; Champagnon, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the mechanical response of silica glass is still challenging, due to the lack of knowledge concerning the elastic properties of intermediate states of densification. An extensive Brillouin Light Scattering study on permanently densified silica glasses after cold compression in diamond anvil cell has been carried out, in order to deduce the elastic properties of such glasses and to provide new insights concerning the densification process. From sound velocity measurements, we derive phenomenological laws linking the elastic moduli of silica glass as a function of its densification ratio. The found elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the sparse data extracted from literature, and we show that they do not depend on the thermodynamic path taken during densification (room temperature or heating). We also demonstrate that the longitudinal sound velocity exhibits an anomalous behavior, displaying a minimum for a densification ratio of 5%, and highlight the fact that this anomaly has to be distinguished from the compressibility anomaly of a-SiO2 in the elastic domain. PMID:25431218

  8. Population and energy elasticity of tornado casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Tyler; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2017-04-01

    Tornadoes are capable of catastrophic destruction and mass casualties, but there are yet no estimates of how sensitive the number of casualties are to changes in the number of people in harm's way or to changes in tornado energy. Here the relationship between tornado casualties (deaths and injuries), population, and energy dissipation is quantified using the economic concept of "elasticity." Records of casualties from individual tornadoes over the period 2007-2015 are fit to a regression model. The coefficient on the population term (population elasticity) indicates that a doubling in population increases the casualty rate by 21% [(17, 24)%, 95% credible interval]. The coefficient on the energy term (energy elasticity) indicates that a doubling in energy dissipation leads to a 33% [(30, 35)%, 95% credible interval] increase in the casualty rate. The difference in elasticity values show that on average, changes in energy dissipation have been relatively more important in explaining tornado casualties than changes in population. Assuming no changes in warning effectiveness or mitigation efforts, these elasticity estimates can be used to project changes in casualties given the known population trends and possible trends in tornado activity.

  9. Novel Plasmid Transformation Method Mediated by Chrysotile, Sliding Friction, and Elastic Body Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yoshida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a plasmid recipient cell was dispersed in a chrysotile colloidal solution, containing chrysotile adsorbed to plasmid DNA (chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture. Following this, the chrysotile-plasmid cell mixture was dropped onto the surface of an elastic body, such as agarose, and treated physically by sliding a polystyrene streak bar over the elastic body to create friction. Plasmid DNA was easily incorporated into E. coli, and antibiotic resistance was conferred by transformation. The transformation efficiency of E. coli cultured in solid medium was greater than that of E. coli cultured in broth. To obtain greater transformation efficiency, we attempted to determine optimal transformation conditions. The following conditions resulted in the greatest transformation efficiency: the recipient cell concentration within the chrysotileplasmid cell mixture had an optical density greater than or equal to 2 at 550 nm, the vertical reaction force applied to the streak bar was greater than or equal to 40 g, and the rotation speed of the elastic body was greater than or equal to 34 rpm. Under these conditions, we observed a transformation efficiency of 107 per μg plasmid DNA. The advantage of achieving bacterial transformation using the elastic body exposure method is that competent cell preparation of the recipient cell is not required. In addition to E. coli, other Gram negative bacteria are able to acquire plasmid DNA using the elastic body exposure method.

  10. Effects of elastic support on the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuaishuai WANG; Caichao ZHU; Chaosheng SONG; Huali HAN

    2017-01-01

    The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub,especially amidst a poor external wind environment.A three-point elastic support,which includes the main bearing and two torque arms,was considered in this study.Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing,a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train.Then,the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed.Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train.Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train.A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing,whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing.The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.

  11. Inverse methods for 3D quantitative optical coherence elasticity imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hugenberg, Nicholas; Sampson, David D.; Munro, Peter R. T.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Oberai, Assad A.

    2017-02-01

    In elastography, quantitative elastograms are desirable as they are system and operator independent. Such quantification also facilitates more accurate diagnosis, longitudinal studies and studies performed across multiple sites. In optical elastography (compression, surface-wave or shear-wave), quantitative elastograms are typically obtained by assuming some form of homogeneity. This simplifies data processing at the expense of smearing sharp transitions in elastic properties, and/or introducing artifacts in these regions. Recently, we proposed an inverse problem-based approach to compression OCE that does not assume homogeneity, and overcomes the drawbacks described above. In this approach, the difference between the measured and predicted displacement field is minimized by seeking the optimal distribution of elastic parameters. The predicted displacements and recovered elastic parameters together satisfy the constraint of the equations of equilibrium. This approach, which has been applied in two spatial dimensions assuming plane strain, has yielded accurate material property distributions. Here, we describe the extension of the inverse problem approach to three dimensions. In addition to the advantage of visualizing elastic properties in three dimensions, this extension eliminates the plane strain assumption and is therefore closer to the true physical state. It does, however, incur greater computational costs. We address this challenge through a modified adjoint problem, spatially adaptive grid resolution, and three-dimensional decomposition techniques. Through these techniques the inverse problem is solved on a typical desktop machine within a wall clock time of 20 hours. We present the details of the method and quantitative elasticity images of phantoms and tissue samples.

  12. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2008-03-06

    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s(-1). Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (W(d)) is modulated by the angle (theta) of a linear path of detachment. Gecko setae resist detachment when dragged towards the animal during detachment (theta = 30 degrees ) requiring W(d) = 5.0+/-0.86(s.e.) J m(-2) to detach, largely due to frictional losses. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. We found that, remarkably, setae possess a built-in release mechanism. Setae acted as springs when loaded in tension during attachment and returned elastic energy when detached along the optimal path (theta=130 degrees ), resulting in W(d) = -0.8+/-0.12 J m(-2). The release of elastic energy from the setal shaft probably causes spontaneous release, suggesting that curved shafts may enable easy detachment in natural, and synthetic, gecko adhesives.

  13. Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

    2008-07-01

    Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0optimize NaHA samples for their specific utilization and to find new applications, it is of great interest to understand its viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

  14. Modular rate laws for enzymatic reactions: thermodynamics, elasticities and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermeister, Wolfram; Uhlendorf, Jannis; Klipp, Edda

    2010-06-15

    Standard rate laws are a key requisite for systematically turning metabolic networks into kinetic models. They should provide simple, general and biochemically plausible formulae for reaction velocities and reaction elasticities. At the same time, they need to respect thermodynamic relations between the kinetic constants and the metabolic fluxes and concentrations. We present a family of reversible rate laws for reactions with arbitrary stoichiometries and various types of regulation, including mass-action, Michaelis-Menten and uni-uni reversible Hill kinetics as special cases. With a thermodynamically safe parameterization of these rate laws, parameter sets obtained by model fitting, sampling or optimization are guaranteed to lead to consistent chemical equilibrium states. A reformulation using saturation values yields simple formulae for rates and elasticities, which can be easily adjusted to the given stationary flux distributions. Furthermore, this formulation highlights the role of chemical potential differences as thermodynamic driving forces. We compare the modular rate laws to the thermodynamic-kinetic modelling formalism and discuss a simplified rate law in which the reaction rate directly depends on the reaction affinity. For automatic handling of modular rate laws, we propose a standard syntax and semantic annotations for the Systems Biology Markup Language. An online tool for inserting the rate laws into SBML models is freely available at www.semanticsbml.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  15. Finite element elastic-plastic analysis of LMFBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Pifko, A.; Armen, H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The present effort involves the development of computationally efficient finite element methods for accurately predicting the isothermal elastic-plastic three-dimensional response of thick and thin shell structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. This work will be used as the basis for further development of analytical tools to be used to verify the structural integrity of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) components. The methods presented here have been implemented into the three-dimensional solid element module (HEX) of the Grumman PLANS finite element program. These methods include the use of optimal stress points as well as a variable number of stress points within an element. This allows monitoring the stress history at many points within an element and hence provides an accurate representation of the elastic-plastic boundary using a minimum number of degrees of freedom. Also included is an improved thermal stress analysis capability in which the temperature variation and corresponding thermal strain variation are represented by the same functional form as the displacement variation. Various problems are used to demonstrate these improved capabilities. (Auth.)

  16. Alumina strength degradation in the elastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, Michael D.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Kanel et al. [1991] have suggested that deviatoric stresses in glasses shocked to nearly the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) relax over a time span of microseconds after initial loading. 'Failure' (damage) waves have been inferred on the basis of these measurements using time-resolved manganin normal and transverse stress gauges. Additional experiments on glass by other researchers, using time-resolved gauges, high-speed photography and spall strength determinations have also lead to the same conclusions. In the present study we have conducted transmitted-wave experiments on high-quality Coors AD995 alumina shocked to roughly 5 and 7 GPa (just below or at the HEL). The material is subsequently reshocked to just above its elastic limit. Results of these experiments do show some evidence of strength degradation in the elastic regime

  17. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2017-05-26

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  18. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.; Zabihi Naeini, E.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  19. Elastic interaction energies of defect structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, E.; de Fontaine, D.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic strain energy between point defects and small disk-shaped clusters of defects are calculated to determine stable configurations. A distortion tensor of tetragonal symmetry is assigned to each impurity atom. The tetragonality ratio t is varied to cover needle-type (t greater than 1), spherical (t = 1) and disk-type (t less than 0) strain fields. To vary the elastic properties of the host material, Fe, Cu, Al, and V were chosen as examples. Computer calculations are based on the microscopic theory of elasticity which emphasizes calculations in discrete Fourier space. Pairs of point defects order along [001] for t less than 1 and along (001) for t = 1 for all host elements. For t greater than 1 fcc lattices and bcc lattices behave differently. It is shown that only certain three dimensional periodic arrangements of parallel and perpendicular disk-like defect clusters are realized for given tetragonality ratio t and host element

  20. Elastic properties of some transition metal arsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.; Bisht, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The elastic properties of transition metal arsenides (TMAs) have been studied by employing Wien2K package based on density functional theory in the zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) phase treating valance electron scalar relativistically. Further, we have also treated them non-relativistically to find out the relativistic effect. We have calculated the elastic properties by computing the volume conservative stress tensor for small strains, using the method developed by Charpin. The obtained results are discussed in paper. From the obtained results, it is clear that the values of C11 > C12 and C44 for all the compounds. The values of shear moduli of these compounds are also calculated. The internal parameter for these compounds shows that ZB structures of these compounds have high resistance against bond order. We find that the estimated elastic constants are in good agreement with the available data.

  1. Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreiros, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Hernandez Vozmediano, Maria Angeles

    We show that, as it happens in graphene, elastic deformations couple to the electronic degrees of freedom as pseudo gauge fields in Weyl semimetals. We derive the form of the elastic gauge fields in a tight-binding model hosting Weyl nodes and see that this vector electron-phonon coupling is chiral, providing an example of axial gauge fields in three dimensions. As an example of the new response functions that arise associated to these elastic gauge fields, we derive a non-zero phonon Hall viscosity for the neutral system at zero temperature. The axial nature of the fields provides a test of the chiral anomaly in high energy with three axial vector couplings. European Union structural funds and the Comunidad de Madrid MAD2D-CM Program (S2013/MIT-3007).

  2. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-20

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.

  3. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-01

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.

  4. Dynamic nonlinear elasticity in geo materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovsky, L.A.; Johnson, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic behaviour of earth materials is an extremely rich topic, one that has broad implications to earth and materials sciences, including strong ground motion, rock physics, nondestructive evaluation and materials science. The mechanical properties of rock appear to place it in a broader class of materials, it can be named the Structural nonlinear elasticity class (also Mesoscopic/nano scale elasticity, or MS/NSE class). These terms are in contrast to materials that display classical, Atomic Elasticity, such as most fluids and monocrystalline solids. The difference between these two categories of materials is both in intensity and origin of their nonlinear response. The nonlinearity of atomic elastic materials is due to the atomic/molecular lattice anharmonicity. The latter is relatively small because the intermolecular forces are extremely strong. In contrast, the materials considered below contain small soft features that it is called the bond system (cracks, grain contacts, dislocations, etc.) within a hard matrix and relaxation (slow dynamical effects) are characteristic, non of which appear in atomic elastic materials. The research begins with a brief historical background from nonlinear acoustics to the recent developments in rock nonlinearity. This is followed by an overview of some representative laboratory measurements which serve as primary indicators of nonlinear behaviour, followed by theoretical development, and finally, mention a variety of observations of nonlinearity under field conditions and applications to nondestructive testing of materials. The goal is not to survey all papers published in the are but to demonstrate some experimental and theoretical results and ideas that will the reader to become oriented in this broad and rapidly growing area bridging macro-, meso- and microscale (nano scale) phenomena in physics, materials science, and geophysics

  5. THE CONTROL VARIATIONAL METHOD FOR ELASTIC CONTACT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Sofonea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multivalued equation of the form Ay + F(y = fin a real Hilbert space, where A is a linear operator and F represents the (Clarke subdifferential of some function. We prove existence and uniqueness results of the solution by using the control variational method. The main idea in this method is to minimize the energy functional associated to the nonlinear equation by arguments of optimal control theory. Then we consider a general mathematical model describing the contact between a linearly elastic body and an obstacle which leads to a variational formulation as above, for the displacement field. We apply the abstract existence and uniqueness results to prove the unique weak solvability of the corresponding contact problem. Finally, we present examples of contact and friction laws for which our results work.

  6. Non-linear theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, AI

    2012-01-01

    This book examines in detail the Theory of Elasticity which is a branch of the mechanics of a deformable solid. Special emphasis is placed on the investigation of the process of deformation within the framework of the generally accepted model of a medium which, in this case, is an elastic body. A comprehensive list of Appendices is included providing a wealth of references for more in depth coverage. The work will provide both a stimulus for future research in this field as well as useful reference material for many years to come.

  7. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    One of the principal foundations of mathematical theory of conventional plasticity for rate-independent metals is that there exists a well-defined yield surface in stress space for any material point under deformation. A material point can undergo further plastic deformation if the applied stresses are beyond current yield surface which is generally referred as 'plastic loading'. On the other hand, if the applied stress state falls within or on the yield surface, the metal will deform elastically only and is said to be undergoing 'elastic unloading'. Although it has been always recognized throughout the history of development of plasticity theory that there is indeed inelastic deformation accompanying elastic unloading, which leads to metal's hysteresis behavior, its effects were thought to be negligible and were largely ignored in the mathematical treatment.Recently there have been renewed interests in the study of unloading behavior of sheet metals upon large plastic deformation and its implications on springback prediction. Springback is essentially an elastic recovery process of a formed sheet metal blank when it is released from the forming dies. Its magnitude depends on the stress states and compliances of the deformed sheet metal if no further plastic loading occurs during the relaxation process. Therefore the accurate determination of material compliances during springback and its effective incorporation into simulation software are important aspects for springback calculation. Some of the studies suggest that the unloading curve might deviate from linearity, and suggestions were made that a reduced elastic modulus be used for springback simulation.The aim of this study is NOT to take a position on the debate of whether elastic moduli are changed during sheet metal forming process. Instead we propose an approach of modeling observed psuedoelastic behavior within the context of mathematical theory of plasticity, where elastic moduli are treated to be

  8. Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....

  9. Elastic-plastic-creep analysis of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the recent experience of a designer/fabricator of nuclear heat transport components in the area of elastic-plastic-creep analysis of shell-like structures. A brief historical perspective is first given to highlight the evolution leading to the present industry practice. The ASME elevated temperature design criteria will be discussed followed by examples of actual computations performed to support the design/analysis and fabrication of a breeder reactor component in which a substantial amount of elastic-plastic-creep analysis was performed. Mathematical challenges encountered by the design analyst in these problems will be highlighted. Developmental needs and future trends will then be given

  10. An introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, R J

    2005-01-01

    Thanks to intense research activity in the field of continuum mechanics, the teaching of subjects such as elasticity theory has attained a high degree of clarity and simplicity. This introductory volume offers upper-level undergraduates a perspective based on modern developments that also takes into account the limited mathematical tools they are likely to have at their disposal. It also places special emphasis on areas that students often find difficult upon first encounter. An Introduction to the Theory of Elasticity provides an accessible guide to the subject in a form that will instill a f

  11. Effect of elastic boundaries in hydrostatic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, A. N.; Tolstonogov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    The possibility and conditions of use of the Bernoulli equation for description of an elastic pipeline were considered. It is shown that this equation is identical in form to the Bernoulli equation used for description of a rigid pipeline. It has been established that the static pressure entering into the Bernoulli equation is not identical to the pressure entering into the impulse-momentum equation. The hydrostatic problem on the pressure distribution over the height of a beaker with a rigid bottom and elastic walls, filled with a liquid, was solved.

  12. The elastic response of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, N.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of linear elasticity is used to study the elastic response of composite materials. The main concern is the prediction of overall moduli. Some attention is paid to the problem of deciding upon when the idea of an overall modulus is meaningful. In addition it is shown how to calculate some rigorous bounds on the overall moduli, and some predictions of the self-consistent method are discussed. The paper mainly concentrates on isotropic dispersions of spheres, unidirectional fibre-reinforced materials and laminates. (author)

  13. Elastic band prediction equations for combined free-weight and elastic band bench presses and squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoepe, Todd C; Ramirez, David A; Almstedt, Hawley C

    2010-01-01

    Elastic bands added to traditional free-weight techniques have become a part of suggested training routines in recent years. Because of the variable loading patterns of elastic bands (i.e., greater stretch produces greater resistance), it is necessary to quantify the exact loading patterns of bands to identify the volume and intensity of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the length vs. tension properties of multiple sizes of a set of commonly used elastic bands to quantify the resistance that would be applied to free-weight plus elastic bench presses (BP) and squats (SQ). Five elastic bands of varying thickness were affixed to an overhead support beam. Dumbbells of varying weights were progressively added to the free end while the linear deformation was recorded with each subsequent weight increment. The resistance was plotted as a factor of linear deformation, and best-fit nonlinear logarithmic regression equations were then matched to the data. For both the BP and SQ loading conditions and all band thicknesses tested, R values were greater than 0.9623. These data suggest that differences in load exist as a result of the thickness of the elastic band, attachment technique, and type of exercise being performed. Facilities should adopt their own form of loading quantification to match their unique set of circumstances when acquiring, researching, and implementing elastic band and free-weight exercises into the training programs.

  14. Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.

    2017-07-01

    In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.

  15. Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico

    1990-01-01

    The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.

  16. Force sensing using 3D displacement measurements in linear elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinzeng; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2016-07-01

    In cell traction microscopy, the mechanical forces exerted by a cell on its environment is usually determined from experimentally measured displacement by solving an inverse problem in elasticity. In this paper, an innovative numerical method is proposed which finds the "optimal" traction to the inverse problem. When sufficient regularization is applied, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves the widely used approach using Green's functions. Motivated by real cell experiments, the equilibrium condition of a slowly migrating cell is imposed as a set of equality constraints on the unknown traction. Our validation benchmarks demonstrate that the numeric solution to the constrained inverse problem well recovers the actual traction when the optimal regularization parameter is used. The proposed method can thus be applied to study general force sensing problems, which utilize displacement measurements to sense inaccessible forces in linear elastic bodies with a priori constraints.

  17. Computing elastic anisotropy to discover gum-metal-like structural alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, I. S.; de Jong, M.; Asta, M.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-08-01

    The computer aided discovery of structural alloys is a burgeoning but still challenging area of research. A primary challenge in the field is to identify computable screening parameters that embody key structural alloy properties. Here, an elastic anisotropy parameter that captures a material's susceptibility to solute solution strengthening is identified. The parameter has many applications in the discovery and optimization of structural materials. As a first example, the parameter is used to identify alloys that might display the super elasticity, super strength, and high ductility of the class of TiNb alloys known as gum metals. In addition, it is noted that the parameter can be used to screen candidate alloys for shape memory response, and potentially aid in the optimization of the mechanical properties of high-entropy alloys.

  18. Longitudinally Vibrating Elastic Rods with Locally and Non-Locally Reacting Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefaatdin Yüksel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigencharacteristics of a longitudinally vibrating elastic rod with locally and non-locally reacting damping are analyzed. The rod is considered as a continuous system and complex eigenfrequencies are determined as solution of a characteristic equation. The variation of the damping ratios with respect to damper locations and damping coefficients for the first four eigenfrequencies are obtained. It is shown that at any mode of locally or non-locally damped elastic rod, the variation of damping ratio with damper location is linearly proportional to absolute value of the mode shape of undamped system. It is seen that the increasing damping coefficient does not always increase the damping ratio and there are optimal values for the damping ratio. Optimal values for external damping coefficients of viscous dampers and locations of the dampers are presented.

  19. Money flexibility, price elasticity, and elasticity of marginal utility of consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Malakhov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The development of G.Stigler’s original model of search describes the mathematical relationship between the elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption, the price elasticity, and the elasticity of the marginal utility of money income with respect to increase in the price of living and/or to inflation. This relationship can be used not only in economics of well-being but also in microeconomics where the increase in the price of living, i.e., in purchase price, can make consumption “bad” ...

  20. Stressed-deformed state of mountain rocks in elastic stage and between elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samedov A.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the stress-strain state of rocks in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limits, and the ways of schematizing the tension and compression diagrams were reviewed in the article. To simplify calculations outside the elastic range, the tension (compression diagrams are usually schematized, i.e. are replaced by curved smooth lines having a fairly simple mathematical expression and at the same time well coinciding with the experimentally obtained diagrams. When diagram is to be schematized, it is necessary to take a constant temperature of superheated water steam if a rock test is planned in a relaxed form. Note that when the diagram is schematizing, the difference between the limits of proportionality and fluidity is erased. This allows the limit of proportionality to be considered the limit of fluidity. Schematicization can be carried out in the area where the tensile strength (compression is planned to be destroyed with the established weakening of rocks by exposure to water steam or chemical reagents. Samples of rocks in natural form were tested and weakened by means of superheated water steam (220 °C and more and chemical reagents for tension and compression. The data are obtained, the diagrams of deformation are constructed and schematized in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limit. Based on the schematic diagrams of deformation, the components of stress and strain were composed in the elastic stage and beyond the elastic limit. It is established in the publication that rocks under compression and stretching deform, both within the elastic stage, and beyond the limits of elasticity. This could be seen when the samples, both in natural and in weakened state, with superheated water steam (more than 220 °C or chemical reagents were tested. In their natural form, they are mainly deformed within the elastic stage and are destroyed as a brittle material, and in a weakened form they can deform beyond the elastic stage and

  1. Design of an Active Bumper with a Series Elastic Actuator for Pedestrian Protection of Small Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terumasa, Narukawa; Tomoki, Tsuge; Hiroshi, Yamamoto; Takahiro, Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    When autonomous unmanned vehicles are operated on sidewalks, the vehicles must have high safety standards such as avoiding injury when they come in contact with pedestrians. In this study, we established a design for preventing serious injury when such collisions occur. We designed an active bumper with a series elastic actuator, with the goal of avoiding serious injury to a pedestrian in a collision with a small unmanned vehicle. The series elastic actuator comprised an elastic element in series with a table driven by a ball screw and servo motor. The active bumper was used to control the contact force between a vehicle and a pedestrian. The optimal force for minimizing the deflection of the object of the collision was derived, and the actuator controlled to apply this optimal force. Numerical simulations showed that the active bumper was successful in improving the collision safety of small unmanned vehicles.

  2. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.; Lé toublon, A.; Paofai, S.; Raymond, S.; Ecolivet, C.; Rufflé , B.; Cordier, S.; Katan, C.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhumekenov, A. A.; Bakr, Osman; Even, J.; Bourges, Ph.

    2018-01-01

    scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear

  3. On elastic structural elements for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.

    1978-03-01

    The in-pile stress-relaxation behaviour of materials usually employed for the elastic structural elements, in nuclear reactors, is critically reviewed and the results are compared with those obtained in commercial zirconium alloys irradiated under similar conditions. Finally, it is shown that, under certain conditions, some zirconium alloys may be used as an alternative material for these structural elements. (orig.) [de

  4. On the K+-nucleus elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, P.; Men, D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper conventional and unconventional nuclear medium effects in the K + scattering are briefly reviewed. Microscopic calculations of the K + elastic scattering on 4 He, 12 C, 40 Ca, 120 Sn at 800 MeV/c are performed and then possible swellings of nucleons in nuclei are discussed

  5. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...

  6. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results ar...... are compared with predictions of conservation theorems for energy and momentum....

  7. Hadron elastic scattering at small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is an extension of the measurements of the WA9 experiment up to the highest energies available in the North Area. It will measure the differential cross-section for hadron elastic scattering in the t-range 0.002-0.05 (GeV/c)$^{2}$ using an ionization chamber for the measurement of the energy and the angle of the recoil and a magnet-WC spectrometer to measure the momentum and direction of the forward particle. From these measurements will be obtained the ratio $\\rho$ of the real to imaginary parts of the forward elastic amplitude and the exponential slope parameter b of the hadronic amplitude at small t. The precision expected in these measurements is $\\Delta \\rho \\approx \\pm 0.01$ and $\\Delta$b $\\approx \\pm 0.2$ (GeV/c)$^{-2}$. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental programme includes: \\\\\\\\ i) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi$p elastic scattering at incident momenta between 150 GeV/c and 300 GeV/c; \\\\ ii) measurements of $\\rho$ and b for $\\pi^{+}$p and pp elastic scattering at incident momenta between 5...

  8. First-principles elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, J.

    2014-07-01

    The elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·xH2O (x = 11 or 8), has been investigated by first-principles calculations. Previous experimental study revealed that the fully hydrated monocarboaluminate (x = 11) exhibits exceptionally low compressibility compared to other reported calcium aluminate hydrates. This stiff hydration product can contribute to the strength of concrete made with Portland cements containing calcium carbonates. In this study, full elastic tensors and mechanical properties of the crystal structures with different water contents (x = 11 or 8) are computed by first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the compressibility of monocarboaluminate is highly dependent on the water content in the interlayer region. The structure also becomes more isotropic with the addition of water molecules in this region. Since the monocarboaluminate is a key hydration product of limestone added cement, elasticity of the crystal is important to understand its mechanical impact on concrete. Besides, it is put forth that this theoretical calculation will be useful in predicting the elastic properties of other complex cementitous materials and the influence of ion exchange on compressibility.

  9. Quasi-elastic Neutrino Scattering - an Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2011-01-01

    A non-technical overview of charge current quasi-elastic neutrino interaction is presented. Many body computations of multinucleon ejection which is proposed to explain recent large axial mass measurements are discussed. A few comments on recent experimental results reported at NuInt11 workshop are included.

  10. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  11. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    College, Patti 143 416, India. 3Department of Mathematics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, ... lem in microstretch elastic solid by employing the eigenvalue approach. 975. Page 2. 976. Rajneesh Kumar et al. 2. Basic equations ..... of the matrix A are characteristic roots of (29) assuming that real parts of qs.

  12. Price Elasticity of Alcohol Demand in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh

    2017-05-01

    Using a household survey conducted in 2014, this study estimates price elasticity of demand (PED) for beer, country liquor and spirits in India. Ordinary least-square models were used to estimate the responsiveness in alcohol demand due to price change. A large number of control variables were included to adjust for potential confounding in the model. Inter-district variation in alcohol consumption is adjusted for by including district fixed effects. Alcohol prices are negatively associated with demand for alcoholic beverages. The PED ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.46 for country liquor. Low level of education was positively associated with spirits consumption. The magnitude of elasticity varied by rural-urban, education and gender. Results indicate that a policy mix of price controls and awareness campaigns would be most effective in tackling the adverse effects of harmful drinking in India. The demand for beer, country liquor and spirits is negatively associated with its own price. The elasticity estimates ranged from -0.14 for spirits to -0.44 for country liquor. The elasticity estimates varied by rural-urban, gender and by education levels of the drinkers. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  13. Elastic kirchhoff migration for vertical seismic profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, T.H.; Wu, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Elastic Kirchhoff migration is implemented for the VSP recording geometry. The resulting migration formula requires measurement of the stress as well as the displacement. Since stress is not measured in a VSP, and in many cases the horizontal component of displacement is not measured, approximate migration formulas are given for these cases. The elastic migration formula for the case where only the vertical components are available, is the same as the acoustic migration formula, where the pressure data are replaced by the magnitudes of the elastic data as reconstructed from the vertical components, and the acoustic Green's functions are replaced with either the P or S wave elastic Green's functions. Two expressions for migration of two component displacement data are presented. In the first, the terms involving traction data are simply ignored. In the second, an improved backpropagation operator for the displacement field is obtained by replacing the traction data in the Kirchhoff integral by displacement data using Hooke's law. The migration expressions for the cases where two component data are available produce images which are less contaminated by artifacts than the migration images of one component data

  14. Some remarks on elastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destuynder, P.; Djaoua, M.; Lescure, S.

    1981-12-01

    A thermodynamical approach of propagation law in elastic media is given in this paper. From a particular choice of an energy dissipation potential, we deduce some propagation laws corresponding to particular loading cases. Finally a new computational method of the energy release rate is suggested and discussed from a computational point of view [fr

  15. A Linear Theory for Pretwisted Elastic Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1983-01-01

    contains a general system of differential equations and gives explicit solutions for homogenous extension, torsion, and bending. The theory accounts explicitly for the shear center, the elastic center, and the axis of pretwist. The resulting torsion-extension coupling is in agreement with a recent...

  16. Elastic plastic buckling of elliptical vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The risks of buckling of dished vessel head increase when the vessel is thin walled. This paper gives the last results on experimental tests of 3 elliptical heads and compares all the results with some empirical formula dealing with elastic and plastic buckling

  17. Magma flow through elastic-walled dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Woods, A.W.; de Boer, A

    2005-01-01

    A convection–diffusion model for the averaged flow of a viscous, incompressible magma through an elastic medium is considered. The magma flows through a dike from a magma reservoir to the Earth’s surface; only changes in dike width and velocity over large vertical length scales relative to the

  18. The theory of elastic waves and waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Miklowitz, J

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of this book is to give the reader a basic understanding of waves and their propagation in a linear elastic continuum. The studies of elastodynamic theory and its application to fundamental value problems should prepare the reader to tackle many physical problems of general interest in engineering and geophysics, and of particular interest in mechanics and seismology.

  19. Dynamic frictional contact for elastic viscoplastic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth L. Kuttler

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a general theory for evolution inclusions, existence and uniqueness theorems are obtained for weak solutions to a frictional dynamic contact problem for elastic visco-plastic material. An existence theorem in the case where the friction coefficient is discontinuous is also presented.

  20. First-principles elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, J.; Yoon, S.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·xH2O (x = 11 or 8), has been investigated by first-principles calculations. Previous experimental study revealed that the fully hydrated monocarboaluminate (x = 11) exhibits exceptionally low compressibility compared to other reported calcium aluminate hydrates. This stiff hydration product can contribute to the strength of concrete made with Portland cements containing calcium carbonates. In this study, full elastic tensors and mechanical properties of the crystal structures with different water contents (x = 11 or 8) are computed by first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the compressibility of monocarboaluminate is highly dependent on the water content in the interlayer region. The structure also becomes more isotropic with the addition of water molecules in this region. Since the monocarboaluminate is a key hydration product of limestone added cement, elasticity of the crystal is important to understand its mechanical impact on concrete. Besides, it is put forth that this theoretical calculation will be useful in predicting the elastic properties of other complex cementitous materials and the influence of ion exchange on compressibility.

  1. Elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    A review is given of elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Recent experimental results are reviewed and the current problems in interpretation of these results are pointed out. Some questions for future experiments are posed, and a preview of possible future measurements is presented. 28 references

  2. Elastic modulus and fracture of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Walther, G.

    1978-12-01

    The elastic modulus of hot-pressed boron carbide with 1 to 15% porosity was measured at room temperature. K/sub IC/ values were determined for the same porosity range at 500 0 C by the double torsion technique. The critical stress intensity factor of boron carbide with 8% porosity was evaluated from 25 to 1200 0 C

  3. Membrane elastic properties and cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pontes

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function.

  4. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  5. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...

  6. Robotic edge machining using elastic abrasive tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, A. V.; Semyonov, E. N.; Belomestnykh, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes a robotic center designed for automation of finishing operations, and analyzes technological aspects of an elastic abrasive tool applied for edge machining. Based on the experimental studies, practical recommendations on the application of the robotic center for finishing operations were developed.

  7. Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.

    2007-01-01

    -consistent approximation, which here represents the unrelaxed scenario where the pore spaces of the rock are assumed to be isolated, and the Gassmann theory, which assumes that pore spaces are connected, as tools for predicting the effect of hydrocarbons from the elastic properties of brine-saturated North Sea reservoir...

  8. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  9. Structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... 1Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la ... 5Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud ... elastic moduli, CdHo2S4 is mechanically stable with a ductile nature and a noticeable.

  10. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Sol-S?nchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-G?mez, M? Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of ela...

  11. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  12. Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Peter; Wu, Zedong

    2018-04-01

    Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may be tempted to assume acoustic FWI is sufficient given that only pressure waves exist in the water layer. In this paper, we pose the question as to whether or not in theory - at least for a hard water bottom case - it should be possible to resolve the shear modulus or S-wave velocity in a marine setting using large offset data. We therefore conduct numerical experiments with idealized marine data calculated with the elastic wave equation. We study two cases, FWI of data due to a diffractor model, and FWI of data due to a fault model. We find that at least in idealized situation, elastic FWI of hard waterbottom data is capable of resolving between the two Lamé parameters λ and μ. Another numerical experiment with a soft waterbottom layer gives the same result. In contrast, acoustic FWI of the synthetic elastic data results in a single image of the first Lamé parameter λ which contains severe artefacts for diffraction data and noticable artefacts for layer reflection data. Based on these results, it would appear that at least, inversions of large offset marine data should be fully elastic rather than acoustic unless it has been demonstrated that for the specific case in question (offsets, model and water depth, practical issues such as soft sediment attenuation of shear waves or computational time), that an acoustic only inversion provides a reasonably good quality of image comparable to that of an elastic inversion. Further research with real data is required to determine the degree to which practical issues such as shear wave attenuation in soft sediments may affect this result.

  13. Elastic versus acoustic inversion for marine surveys

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Peter

    2018-04-24

    Full Wavefield Inversion (FWI) is a powerful and elegant approach for seismic imaging that is on the way to becoming the method of choice when processing exploration or global seismic data. In the case of processing marine survey data, one may be tempted to assume acoustic FWI is sufficient given that only pressure waves exist in the water layer. In this paper, we pose the question as to whether or not in theory – at least for a hard water bottom case – it should be possible to resolve the shear modulus or S-wave velocity in a marine setting using large offset data. We therefore conduct numerical experiments with idealized marine data calculated with the elastic wave equation. We study two cases, FWI of data due to a diffractor model, and FWI of data due to a fault model. We find that at least in idealized situation, elastic FWI of hard waterbottom data is capable of resolving between the two Lamé parameters λ and μ. Another numerical experiment with a soft waterbottom layer gives the same result. In contrast, acoustic FWI of the synthetic elastic data results in a single image of the first Lamé parameter λ which contains severe artefacts for diffraction data and noticable artefacts for layer reflection data. Based on these results, it would appear that at least, inversions of large offset marine data should be fully elastic rather than acoustic unless it has been demonstrated that for the specific case in question (offsets, model and water depth, practical issues such as soft sediment attenuation of shear waves or computational time), that an acoustic only inversion provides a reasonably good quality of image comparable to that of an elastic inversion. Further research with real data is required to determine the degree to which practical issues such as shear wave attenuation in soft sediments may affect this result.

  14. Elasticity problems in domains with nonsmooth boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, David

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we study the behaviour of elastic stress fields in domains with non-regular boundaries. We consider three-dimensional problems in elastic media with thin conical defects (inclusions or cavities) and analyse the stress singularity at their vertices. To construct asymptotic expansions for the stress and displacement fields in terms of a small parameter ε related to the 'thickness' of the defect, we employ a technique based on the work by Kondrat'ev, Maz'ya, Nazarov and Plamenevskii. We first study the stress distribution in an elastic body with a thin conical notch. We derive an asymptotic representation for the stress singularity exponent by reducing the original problem to a spectral problem for a 9x9 matrix. The elements of this matrix are found to depend upon the geometry of the cross-section of the notch and the elastic properties of the medium. We specify the sets of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a circular, elliptical, 'triangular' and 'square' cross-section, and show that the strongest singularity is associated with the 'triangular' cross-section, and is generated by a non-axisymmetric load. We then analyse the stress distribution near a thin conical inclusion which is allowed to slide freely along its axis. We derive the representation for the stress singularity exponent for the case of a circular conical inclusion whose elastic properties differ from those of the medium. In the last chapter we study the stress distribution in the vicinity of a thin 'coated' conical inclusion. We show that a soft thin coating (perfectly bonded to the inclusion and the surrounding material) can be replaced by a so-called linear interface at which the normal displacement is discontinuous, and the stresses are proportional to the 'jump' in the normal displacement across the coating. We analyse the effect of the properties of the coating on the stress singularity exponent and compare the results with those for a perfectly bonded

  15. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1995-01-01

    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect to optimi......Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...... to optimization variables can be performed. A computer implementation is described and an illustrative example is given....

  16. Elastic interaction of hydrogen atoms on graphene: A multiscale approach from first principles to continuum elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Vastola, Guglielmo; Jhon, Mark H.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2016-10-01

    The deformation of graphene due to the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms on its surface and the long-range elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms induced by these deformations are investigated using a multiscale approach based on first principles, empirical interactions, and continuum modeling. Focus is given to the intrinsic low-temperature structure and interactions. Therefore, all calculations are performed at T =0 , neglecting possible temperature or thermal fluctuation effects. Results from different methods agree well and consistently describe the local deformation of graphene on multiple length scales reaching 500 Å . The results indicate that the elastic interaction mediated by this deformation is significant and depends on the deformation of the graphene sheet both in and out of plane. Surprisingly, despite the isotropic elasticity of graphene, within the linear elastic regime, atoms elastically attract or repel each other depending on (i) the specific site they are chemisorbed; (ii) the relative position of the sites; (iii) and if they are on the same or on opposite surface sides. The interaction energy sign and power-law decay calculated from molecular statics agree well with theoretical predictions from linear elasticity theory, considering in-plane or out-of-plane deformations as a superposition or in a coupled nonlinear approach. Deviations on the exact power law between molecular statics and the linear elastic analysis are evidence of the importance of nonlinear effects on the elasticity of monolayer graphene. These results have implications for the understanding of the generation of clusters and regular formations of hydrogen and other chemisorbed atoms on graphene.

  17. Numerical estimate of fracture parameters under elastic and elastic-plastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia C.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the stress intensity factor K in the elastic fracture analysis is well known. In this work three methods are developed to estimate the parameter K I , corresponding to the normal loading mode, employing the finite elements method. The elastic-plastic condition is also analyzed, where the line integral J is the relevant parameter. Two cases of interest are studied: sample with a crack in its center and tubes with internal pressure. (author)

  18. Leadership Elasticity Enhancing Style-Flex for Leadership Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2017-01-01

    Leadership elasticity enhances leadership style flexibility and mobility to enable educational leaders to maintain appropriate leadership equilibrium. The essential of leadership elasticity contributes towards organizational effectiveness by followership's maintenance through appropriate expansion and contraction of relations and task behavioural…

  19. Elastic electron scattering from the DNA bases: cytosine and thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, C J; Bellm, S M; Lohmanny, B; Blanco, F; Garcia, G

    2012-01-01

    Relative elastic differential cross sections for elastic scattering from cytosine and thymine have been measured using the crossed beam method. The experimental data are compared with theoretical cross sections calculated by the screen corrected additivity rule method.

  20. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-05-01

    We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  1. The elastic theory of a single DNA molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods and Monte Carlo simulations to understand the entropic elasticity, ... DNA; elastic theory; stacking interaction; supercoiling; hairpin-coil transition. .... the probability distribution of t and ϕ along the DNA chain [14,15], is governed by.

  2. Derivation of capture and reaction cross sections from experimental quasi-elastic and elastic backscattering probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2014-01-01

    We suggest simple and useful methods to extract reaction and capture (fusion) cross sections from the experimental elastic and quasi-elastic backscattering data.The direct measurement of the reaction or capture (fusion) cross section is a difficult task since it would require the measurement of individual cross sections of many reaction channels, and most of them could be reached only by specific experiments. This would require different experimental setups not always available at the same laboratory and, consequently, such direct measurements would demand a large amount of beam time and would take probably some years to be reached. Because of that, the measurements of elastic scattering angular distributions that cover full angular ranges and optical model analysis have been used for the determination of reaction cross sections. This traditional method consists in deriving the parameters of the complex optical potentials which fit the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and then of deriving the reaction cross sections predicted by these potentials. Even so, both the experimental part and the analysis of this latter method are not so simple. In the present work we present a much simpler method to determine reaction and capture (fusion) cross sections. It consists of measuring only elastic or quasi-elastic scattering at one backward angle, and from that, the extraction of the reaction or capture cross sections can easily be performed. (author)

  3. Making Cloud-based Systems Elasticity Testing Reproducible

    OpenAIRE

    Albonico , Michel; Mottu , Jean-Marie; Sunyé , Gerson; Alvares , Frederico

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elastic cloud infrastructures vary computational resources at runtime, i. e., elasticity, which is error-prone. That makes testing throughout elasticity crucial for those systems. Those errors are detected thanks to tests that should run deterministically many times all along the development. However, elasticity testing reproduction requires several features not supported natively by the main cloud providers, such as Amazon EC2. We identify three requirements that we c...

  4. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  5. Parameter Optimisation for the Behaviour of Elastic Models over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Optimisation of parameters for elastic models is essential for comparison or finding equivalent behaviour of elastic models when parameters cannot simply be transferred or converted. This is the case with a large range of commonly used elastic models. In this paper we present a general method tha...

  6. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Thallium manganese chloride(TIMnCl 3 ). 101.4. 16.5. 32.2. 5.2 For Isotropic Media. For some materials, it is possible to make approaches from cubic symmetry to isotropic symmetry. With cubic symmetry, three independent elastic constants are needed. If the medium is elastically isotropic, the elastic properties are ...

  7. Theory of the change of elastic constants by interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, N.; Dederichs, P.H.; Lehmann, C.; Leibfried, G.; Scholz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of the change of elastic constants by point-defects, in particular by interstitials, is briefly summarized. The typical effects of spring changes in a defect lattice on the elastic data are discussed qualitatively. Numerical results for the change of elastic constants by self-interstitials and vacancies are given and compared with experimental data for Cu and Al

  8. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  9. First-principles investigations on structural, elastic and mechanical properties of BNxAs1‑x ternary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqin; Ma, Huihui; Zhao, Bin; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang

    2018-05-01

    A systematic investigation of the structural optimization, elastic and mechanical properties of the BNxAs1‑x ternary alloys are reported in the present work using the density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of the exchange-correlation functional. Some of the constants which are used to analyze the properties including elastic constants and modulus, and some parameters describing the elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature are also calculated. Our calculations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium lattice constant and band structure compared with the available theoretical works. On the one hand, our results might be expected to provide a theoretical basis for future study of BNxAs1‑x alloys towards elastic or mechanical properties. On the other hand, we draw a conclusion that BNxAs1‑x alloys show direct bandgap when x equals 0.25, 0.5 or 0.75. We obtained the elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and universal anisotropic index which are used to demonstrate the elastic anisotropy of these alloys which is proved according to our calculations. Also, we calculated the Debye temperature to illustrate covalent interactions and obtained the lower limit of the thermal conductivity for further research.

  10. A Gradient Taguchi Method for Engineering Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shun-Fa; Wu, Jen-Chih; He, Rong-Song

    2017-10-01

    To balance the robustness and the convergence speed of optimization, a novel hybrid algorithm consisting of Taguchi method and the steepest descent method is proposed in this work. Taguchi method using orthogonal arrays could quickly find the optimum combination of the levels of various factors, even when the number of level and/or factor is quite large. This algorithm is applied to the inverse determination of elastic constants of three composite plates by combining numerical method and vibration testing. For these problems, the proposed algorithm could find better elastic constants in less computation cost. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has nice robustness and fast convergence speed as compared to some hybrid genetic algorithms.

  11. Shape Optimization of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2009-01-01

    of the rotor. The design variables used in the current study are the blade shape parameters, including chord, twist and relative thickness. To validate the implementation of the aerodynamic/aero-elastic model, the computed aerodynamic results are compared to experimental data for the experimental rotor used...... in the European Commision-sponsored project Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions, (MEXICO) and the computed aero-elastic results are examined against the FLEX code for flow post the Tjereborg 2 MW rotor. To illustrate the optimization technique, three wind turbine rotors of different sizes (the MEXICO 25 k...

  12. Development of a lower extremity wearable exoskeleton with double compact elastic module: preliminary experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a double compact elastic module is designed and implemented in the lower extremity exoskeleton. The double compact elastic module is composed of two parts, i.e., physical human robot interaction (pHRI measurement and the elastic actuation system (EAS, which are called proximal elastic module (PEM and distal elastic module (DEM respectively. The PEM is used as the pHRI information collection device while the DEM is used as the compliance device. A novel compact parallelogram-like structure based torsional spring is designed and developed. An iterative finite element analysis (FEA based optimization process was conducted to find the optimal parameters in the search space. In the PEM, the designed torsional spring has an outer circle with a diameter of 60 mm and an inner hole with a diameter of 12 mm, while in the DEM, the torsional spring has the outer circle with a diameter of 80 mm and the inner circle with a diameter of 16 mm. The torsional spring in the PEM has a thickness of 5 mm and a weight of 60 g, while that in the DEM has a thickness of 10 mm and a weight of 80 g. The double compact elastic module prototype is embedded in the mechanical joint directly. Calibration experiments were conducted on those two elastic modules to obtain the linear torque versus angle characteristic. The calibration experimental results show that this torsional spring in the PEM has a stiffness of 60.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 4 Nm, while that in the DEM has a stiffness of 80.2 Nm rad−1, which is capable of withstanding a maximum torque of 30 Nm. The experimental results and the simulation data show that the maximum resultant errors are 6 % for the PEM and 4 % for the DEM respectively. In this paper, an assumed regression algorithm is used to learn the human motion intent (HMI based on the pHRI collection. The HMI is defined as the angular position of the human limb joint. A

  13. Plutonium Elastic Moduli, Electron Localization, and Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, Albert; Mihut-Stroe, Izabella; Betts, Jon B.

    2008-01-01

    In almost all materials, compression is accompanied naturally by stiffening. Even in materials with zero or negative thermal expansion, where warming is accompanied by volume contraction it is the volume change that primarily controls elastic stiffness. Not so in the metal plutonium. In plutonium, alloying with gallium can change the sign of thermal expansion, but for the positive thermal- expansion monoclinic phase as well as the face-centered-cubic phase with either sign of thermal expansion, and the orthorhombic phase, recent measurements of elastic moduli show soften on warming by an order of magnitude more than expected, the shear and compressional moduli track, and volume seems irrelevant. These effects point toward a novel mechanism for electron localization, and have important implication for the pressure dependence of the bulk compressibility. (authors)

  14. Anticavitation and Differential Growth in Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2010-07-22

    Elastic anticavitation is the phenomenon of a void in an elastic solid collapsing on itself. Under the action of mechanical loading alone typical materials do not admit anticavitation. We study the possibility of anticavitation as a consequence of an imposed differential growth. Working in the geometry of a spherical shell, we seek radial growth functions which cause the shell to deform to a solid sphere. It is shown, surprisingly, that most material models do not admit full anticavitation, even when infinite growth or resorption is imposed at the inner surface of the shell. However, void collapse can occur in a limiting sense when radial and circumferential growth are properly balanced. Growth functions which diverge or vanish at a point arise naturally in a cumulative growth process. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain; Moulton, Derek

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.

  16. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.

    2018-01-26

    Much recent attention has been devoted towards unravelling the microscopic optoelectronic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP). Here we investigate by coherent inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear modulus C44. Further, a tendency towards an incipient ferroelastic transition is observed in FAPbBr3. We observe a systematic lower sound group velocity in the technologically important iodide-based compounds compared to the bromide-based ones. The findings suggest that low thermal conductivity and hot phonon bottleneck phenomena are expected to be enhanced by low elastic stiffness, particularly in the case of the ultrasoft α-FAPbI3.

  17. Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-10-11

    This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.

  18. Mathematical methods in electro-magneto-elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Bardzokas, DI; Filshtinsky, LA

    2007-01-01

    The mechanics of Coupled Fields is a discipline at the edge of modern research connecting Continuum Mechanics with Solid State Physics. It integrates the Mechanics of Continuous Media, Heat Conductivity and the theory of Electromagnetism that are usually studied separately. For an accurate description of the influence of static and dynamic loadings, high temperatures and strong electromagnetic fields in elastic media and constructive installations, a new approach is required; an approach that has the potential to establish a synergism between the above mentioned fields. Throughout the book a vast number of problems are considered: two-dimensional problems of electro-magneto-elasticity as well as static and dynamical problems for piecewise homogenous compound piezoelectric plates weakened by cracks and openings. The boundary conditions, the constructive equations and the mathematical methods for their solution are thoroughly presented, so that the reader can get a clear quantitative and qualitative understandi...

  19. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  20. Elastic K-means using posterior probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aihua; Jiang, Bo; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xuehan; Ding, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The widely used K-means clustering is a hard clustering algorithm. Here we propose a Elastic K-means clustering model (EKM) using posterior probability with soft capability where each data point can belong to multiple clusters fractionally and show the benefit of proposed Elastic K-means. Furthermore, in many applications, besides vector attributes information, pairwise relations (graph information) are also available. Thus we integrate EKM with Normalized Cut graph clustering into a single clustering formulation. Finally, we provide several useful matrix inequalities which are useful for matrix formulations of learning models. Based on these results, we prove the correctness and the convergence of EKM algorithms. Experimental results on six benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed EKM and its integrated model.

  1. Data-Driven Problems in Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, S.; Müller, S.; Ortiz, M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a new class of problems in elasticity, referred to as Data-Driven problems, defined on the space of strain-stress field pairs, or phase space. The problem consists of minimizing the distance between a given material data set and the subspace of compatible strain fields and stress fields in equilibrium. We find that the classical solutions are recovered in the case of linear elasticity. We identify conditions for convergence of Data-Driven solutions corresponding to sequences of approximating material data sets. Specialization to constant material data set sequences in turn establishes an appropriate notion of relaxation. We find that relaxation within this Data-Driven framework is fundamentally different from the classical relaxation of energy functions. For instance, we show that in the Data-Driven framework the relaxation of a bistable material leads to material data sets that are not graphs.

  2. Application of elasticity theory at Sandia Labortories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, L.

    1975-01-01

    Examples are given of the application of linear elasticity theory to the solution of practical problems encountered at Sandia Laboratories. It is being applied to a very broad range of problems: those in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, some involving static and some dynamic response, to materials having isotropic and anisotropic symmetry, to homogeneous and inhomogeneous bodies, etc. Various extensions of the theory to include electric, magnetic and thermal effects, to account for material microstructure, for radiation and spall damage, chemical reactions, and other phenomena have been developed and/or applied. In some applications linear elasticity represents the physics of a problem well and is the theory of choice. In others the theory was used because it lent insight into a larger problem that was also attacked by means of other theories and/or experiment, and in some cases it serves as a part of a more encompassing theory

  3. Diffraction by an immersed elastic wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Croisille, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    This monograph presents the mathematical description and numerical computation of the high-frequency diffracted wave by an immersed elastic wave with normal incidence. The mathematical analysis is based on the explicit description of the principal symbol of the pseudo-differential operator connected with the coupled linear problem elasticity/fluid by the wedge interface. This description is subsequently used to derive an accurate numerical computation of diffraction diagrams for different incoming waves in the fluid, and for different wedge angles. The method can be applied to any problem of coupled waves by a wedge interface. This work is of interest for any researcher concerned with high frequency wave scattering, especially mathematicians, acousticians, engineers.

  4. Elastic Multibody Dynamics A Direct Ritz Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, H

    2008-01-01

    This textbook is an introduction to and exploration of a number of core topics in the field of applied mechanics: On the basis of Lagrange's Principle, a Central Equation of Dynamics is presented which yields a unified view on existing methods. From these, the Projection Equation is selected for the derivation of the motion equations of holonomic and of non-holonomic systems. The method is applied to rigid multibody systems where the rigid body is defined such that, by relaxation of the rigidity constraints, one can directly proceed to elastic bodies. A decomposition into subsystems leads to a minimal representation and to a recursive representation, respectively, of the equations of motion. Applied to elastic multibody systems one obtains, along with the use of spatial operators, a straight-on procedure for the interconnected partial and ordinary differential equations and the corresponding boundary conditions. The spatial operators are eventually applied to a RITZ series for approximation. The resulting equ...

  5. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  6. The multiple V-shaped double peeling of elastic thin films from elastic soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menga, N.; Afferrante, L.; Pugno, N. M.; Carbone, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a periodic configuration of V-shaped double peeling process is investigated. Specifically, an elastic thin film is detached from a soft elastic material by applying multiple concentrated loads periodically distributed with spatial periodicity λ. The original Kendall's idea is extended to take into account the change in elastic energy occurring in the substrate when the detachment fronts propagate. The symmetric configuration typical of a V-peeling process causes the energy release rate to be sensitive to variations of the elastic energy stored in the soft substrate. This results in an enhancement of the adhesion strength because part of the external work required to trigger the peeling mechanism is converted in substrate elastic energy. A key role is played by both spatial periodicity λ and elasticity ratio E/Eh, between tape and substrate elastic moduli, in determining the conditions of stable adhesion. Indeed, the presence of multiple peeling fronts determines a modification of the mechanism of interaction, because deformations close to each peeling front are also affected by the stresses related to the other fronts. Results show that the energy release rate depends on the detached length of the tape so that conditions can be established which lead to an increase of the supported load compared to the classical peeling on rigid substrates. Finally, we also find that for any given value of the load per unit length, an optimum value of the wavelength λ exists that maximizes the tolerance of the system, before unstable propagation of the peeling front can occur.

  7. Elastic scattering of protons at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080719; Csanád, Máté; Niewiadomski, Hubert

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC at CERN is optimized to measure elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC and measures the total proton-proton cross-section with\tthe luminosity-independent method. The TOTEM experiment uses the special technique of movable beam pipe insertions -- called Roman Pots -- to detect very forward protons. The reconstruction of the forward proton kinematics requires the precise understanding of the LHC beam optics. A new method of LHC optics determination is reported, which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered proton-proton data measured by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment. The method has been successfully applied to data samples recorded since 2010. The interpretation of the proton-proton elastic differential cross-section is a challenging task. The geometrical model of proton-proton elastic scattering of Bialas and Bzdak is fitted to ISR data and to data measured by the TOTEM experiment at LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The Bialas-Bzdak model is g...

  8. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks. PMID:28788168

  9. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  10. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol-Sánchez, Miguel; Moreno-Navarro, Fernando; Rubio-Gámez, Mª Carmen

    2014-08-18

    Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats) to be used in railway tracks.

  11. Mapped Chebyshev Pseudo-Spectral Method for Dynamic Aero-Elastic Problem of Limit Cycle Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong Kyun; Kim, Hyun Soon; Choi, Seongim

    2018-05-01

    A mapped Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method is developed as one of the Fourier-spectral approaches and solves nonlinear PDE systems for unsteady flows and dynamic aero-elastic problem in a given time interval, where the flows or elastic motions can be periodic, nonperiodic, or periodic with an unknown frequency. The method uses the Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind for the basis function and redistributes the standard Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto collocation points more evenly by a conformal mapping function for improved numerical stability. Contributions of the method are several. It can be an order of magnitude more efficient than the conventional finite difference-based, time-accurate computation, depending on the complexity of solutions and the number of collocation points. The method reformulates the dynamic aero-elastic problem in spectral form for coupled analysis of aerodynamics and structures, which can be effective for design optimization of unsteady and dynamic problems. A limit cycle oscillation (LCO) is chosen for the validation and a new method to determine the LCO frequency is introduced based on the minimization of a second derivative of the aero-elastic formulation. Two examples of the limit cycle oscillation are tested: nonlinear, one degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system and two degrees-of-freedom oscillating airfoil under pitch and plunge motions. Results show good agreements with those of the conventional time-accurate simulations and wind tunnel experiments.

  12. Effect of a growth hormone treatment on bone orthotropic elasticity in dwarf rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohles, S. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Bowers, J. R.; Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R. Jr

    1997-01-01

    A refinement of the current ultrasonic elasticity technique was used to measure the orthotropic elastic properties of rat cortical bone as well as to quantify changes in elastic properties, density, and porosity of the dwarf rat cortex after a treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The ultrasonic elasticity technique was refined via optimized signal management of high-frequency wave propagation through cubic cortical specimens. Twenty dwarf rats (37 days old) were randomly assigned to two groups (10 rats each). The dwarf rat model (5-10% of normal GH) was given subcutaneous injections of either rhGH or saline over a 14-day treatment period. Density was measured using Archimedes technique. Porosity and other microstructural characteristics were also explored via scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Statistical tests verified significant decreases in cortical orthotropic Young's (-26.7%) and shear (-16.7%) moduli and density (-2.42%) concomitant with an increase in porosity (+125%) after rhGH treatments to the dwarf model (p bone properties at this time interval. Structural implications of these changes throughout physiological loading regimens should be explored.

  13. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R N [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  14. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  15. Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.

  16. pp elastic scattering at LHC energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, A.K.; Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Using a unified analytic representation for the elastic scattering amplitudes of pp scattering valid for all energies above 20 GeV, the behavior of observables in the LHC collisions in the range √(s) = 2.76-14 TeV is discussed. After the precise description of dσ/dt at 7 TeV, we discuss the energy dependence of the amplitudes and expect that the proposed analytical forms give equally good predictions for the future experiments. (orig.)

  17. pp elastic scattering at LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, A.K.; Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.

    2014-01-01

    Using a unified analytic representation for the elastic scattering amplitudes of pp scattering valid for all energies above 20 GeV, the behavior of observables in the LHC collisions in the range √(s) = 2.76-14 TeV is discussed. After the precise description of dσ/dt at 7 TeV, we discuss the energy dependence of the amplitudes and expect that the proposed analytical forms give equally good predictions for the future experiments. (orig.)

  18. Elastic stresses in u-shaped bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents relations describing the meridional and circumferential elastic stress levels at the root and crown due to external pressure and axial deflection of U-shaped bellows. The derivation is based on a statistical analysis of theoretical data obtained from a finite element analysis of selected bellows configurations. The mathematical formulations and various graphical representations are proposed as aids to bellows design and analysis. (auth)

  19. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  20. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  1. Asymptotic elastic energy in simple metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifeh, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    The asymptotic form of the elastic binding energy ΔEsup(as)(R) between two Mg atoms in Al is expressed as a product of a lattice Green function and the dipole force tensor P. The quantity P is obtained by a nearly free electron model in which the impurity effect is introduced by a screened Ashcroft pseudopotential characterized by an excess charge ΔZ and a core radius rsub(j). (author)

  2. Area distribution of an elastic Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabpour, M A

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the excursion and meander area distributions of the elastic Brownian motion by using the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian of the free quantum particle on the half line. We also give some comments on the area of the Brownian motion bridge on the real line with the origin removed. We will focus on the power of self-adjoint extension to investigate different possible boundary conditions for the stochastic processes. We also discuss some possible physical applications.

  3. Dynamic elastic moduli of rocks under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic moduli are determined as a function of confining pressure to 10 kb on rocks in which Plowshare shots are to be fired. Numerical simulation codes require accurate information on the mechanical response of the rock medium to various stress levels in order to predict cavity dimensions. The theoretical treatment of small strains in an elastic medium relates the propagation velocity of compressional and shear waves to the elastic moduli. Velocity measurements can provide, as unique code input data, the rigidity modulus, Poisson' ratio and the shear wave velocity, as well as providing checks on independent determinations of the other moduli. Velocities are determined using pulsed electro-mechanical transducers and measuring the time-of-flight in the rock specimen. A resonant frequency of 1 MHz is used to insure that the wavelength exceeds the average grain dimension and is subject to bulk rock properties. Data obtained on a variety of rock types are presented and analyzed. These data are discussed in terms of their relationship to moduli measured by static methods as well as the effect of anisotropy, porosity, and fractures. In general, fractured rocks with incipient cracks show large increases in velocity and moduli in the first 1 to 2 kb of compression as a result of the closing of these voids. After this, the velocities increase much more slowly. Dynamic moduli for these rocks are often 10% higher than corresponding static moduli at low pressure, but this difference decreases as the voids are closed until the moduli agree within experimental error. The discrepancy at low pressure is a result of the elastic energy in the wave pulse being propagated around cracks, with little effect on propagation velocity averaged over the entire specimen. (author)

  4. Elastic wave diffraction by infinite wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Larissa; Zernov, Victor [Sound Mathematics Ltd., Cambridge CB4 2AS (United Kingdom); Gautesen, Arthur [Mathematics Department, Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory (United States); Darmon, Michel, E-mail: l.fradkin@soundmathematics.com [CEA-LIST, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    We compare two recently developed semi-analytical approaches to the classical problem of diffraction by an elastic two dimensional wedge, one based on the reciprocity principle and Fourier Transform and another, on the representations of the elastodynamic potentials in the form of Sommerfeld Integrals. At present, in their common region of validity, the approaches are complementary, one working better than the other at some isolated angles of incidence.

  5. Graphene nanoribbon as an elastic damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evazzade, Iman; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Saadatmand, Danial; Korznikova, Elena A.; Zhou, Kun; Liu, Bo; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    Heterostructures composed of dissimilar two-dimensional nanomaterials can have nontrivial physical and mechanical properties which are potentially useful in many applications. Interestingly, in some cases, it is possible to create heterostructures composed of weakly and strongly stretched domains with the same chemical composition, as has been demonstrated for some polymer chains, DNA, and intermetallic nanowires supporting this effect of two-phase stretching. These materials, at relatively strong tension forces, split into domains with smaller and larger tensile strains. Within this region, average strain increases at constant tensile force due to the growth of the domain with the larger strain, at the expense of the domain with smaller strain. Here, the two-phase stretching phenomenon is described for graphene nanoribbons with the help of molecular dynamics simulations. This unprecedented feature of graphene that is revealed in our study is related to the peculiarities of nucleation and the motion of the domain walls separating the domains of different elastic strain. It turns out that the loading–unloading curves exhibit a hysteresis-like behavior due to the energy dissipation during the domain wall nucleation and motion. Here, we put forward the idea of implementing graphene nanoribbons as elastic dampers, efficiently converting mechanical strain energy into heat during cyclic loading–unloading through elastic extension where domains with larger and smaller strains coexist. Furthermore, in the regime of two-phase stretching, graphene nanoribbon is a heterostructure for which the fraction of domains with larger and smaller strain, and consequently its physical and mechanical properties, can be tuned in a controllable manner by applying elastic strain and/or heat.

  6. Price Elasticities of Food Demand: Compensated vs Uncompensated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Kenneth W; Si, Jiawei

    2016-11-01

    Two recent studies have provided a comprehensive review/summary of a large number of estimates of the price elasticity of food consumption using a meta-regression approach. In this letter, we introduce a way of removing the income effect from these elasticities to recover the compensated elasticities. Although the income effect is small, the compensated elasticities vary by income group. Both types of elasticity should possibly be considered when assessing the impact of policy changes on food consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Towards an elastic model of wurtzite AlN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrushchenkov, A; Chambaud, G; Yvonnet, J; He, Q-C

    2010-01-01

    Starting with ab initio calculations of AlN wurtzite [0001] nanowires with diameters up to 4 nm, a finite element method is developed to deal with larger nanostructures/nanoparticles. The ab initio calculations show that the structure of the nanowires can be well represented by an internal part with AlN bulk elastic properties, and one atomic surface layer with its own elastic behavior. The proposed finite element method includes surface elements with their own elastic properties using surface elastic coefficients deduced from the ab initio calculations. The elastic properties obtained with the finite element model compare very well with those obtained with the full ab initio calculations.

  8. Elastic Properties and Stability of Physisorbed Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lambin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is an ultimate membrane that mixes both flexibility and mechanical strength, together with many other remarkable properties. A good knowledge of the elastic properties of graphene is prerequisite to any practical application of it in nanoscopic devices. Although this two-dimensional material is only one atom thick, continuous-medium elasticity can be applied as long as the deformations vary slowly on the atomic scale and provided suitable parameters are used. The present paper aims to be a critical review on this topic that does not assume a specific pre-knowledge of graphene physics. The basis for the paper is the classical Kirchhoff-Love plate theory. It demands a few parameters that can be addressed from many points of view and fitted to independent experimental data. The parameters can also be estimated by electronic structure calculations. Although coming from diverse backgrounds, most of the available data provide a rather coherent picture that gives a good degree of confidence in the classical description of graphene elasticity. The theory can than be used to estimate, e.g., the buckling limit of graphene bound to a substrate. It can also predict the size above which a scrolled graphene sheet will never spontaneously unroll in free space.

  9. Environmental bias and elastic curves on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, Jemal; María Valencia, Dulce; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of an elastic curve bound to a surface will reflect the geometry of its environment. This may occur in an obvious way: the curve may deform freely along directions tangent to the surface, but not along the surface normal. However, even if the energy itself is symmetric in the curve's geodesic and normal curvatures, which control these modes, very distinct roles are played by the two. If the elastic curve binds preferentially on one side, or is itself assembled on the surface, not only would one expect the bending moduli associated with the two modes to differ, binding along specific directions, reflected in spontaneous values of these curvatures, may be favored. The shape equations describing the equilibrium states of a surface curve described by an elastic energy accommodating environmental factors will be identified by adapting the method of Lagrange multipliers to the Darboux frame associated with the curve. The forces transmitted to the surface along the surface normal will be determined. Features associated with a number of different energies, both of physical relevance and of mathematical interest, are described. The conservation laws associated with trajectories on surface geometries exhibiting continuous symmetries are also examined. (paper)

  10. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  11. Impact loads on beams on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.S.V.; Prasad, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Quite often, complex structural components are idealised as beams in engineering analysis and design. Also, equations governing the responses of shallow shells are mathematically equivalent to the equations governing the responses of beams on elastic foundations. Hence with possible applications in several technical disciplines, the behaviour of beams on elastic foundations subjected to impact loads is studied in detail in the present investigation both analytically and experimentally. The analytical methods include analysis and energy method. The effect of foundation parameters (stiffness, and damping constants) on the dynamic responses of the beam-foundation system has been analysed. In modal analysis, the free-vibration equation has been solved by replacing the applied impulse by suitable initial conditions and the solution has been obtained as the linear combination of an infinite sequence of discrete eigen-vectors. In the energy method, the beam-foundation system is treated to be under forced vibrations and the forcing function has been obtained using the Hertz's law of impact. In the case of free-free end conditions of the beam, the rigid body modes and the elastic modes have been superposed to obtain the total response. The responses predicted using modal analysis are higher than those obtained using energy method. From the present study it is observed that model analysis is preferable to energy method. (Auth.)

  12. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  13. A symplectic integration method for elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Tony; Misra, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    Elastic rods are a ubiquitous coarse-grained model of semi-flexible biopolymers such as DNA, actin, and microtubules. The Worm-Like Chain (WLC) is the standard numerical model for semi-flexible polymers, but it is only a linearized approximation to the dynamics of an elastic rod, valid for small deflections; typically the torsional motion is neglected as well. In the standard finite-difference and finite-element formulations of an elastic rod, the continuum equations of motion are discretized in space and time, but it is then difficult to ensure that the Hamiltonian structure of the exact equations is preserved. Here we discretize the Hamiltonian itself, expressed as a line integral over the contour of the filament. This discrete representation of the continuum filament can then be integrated by one of the explicit symplectic integrators frequently used in molecular dynamics. The model systematically approximates the continuum partial differential equations, but has the same level of computational complexity as molecular dynamics and is constraint free. Numerical tests show that the algorithm is much more stable than a finite-difference formulation and can be used for high aspect ratio filaments, such as actin. We present numerical results for the deterministic and stochastic motion of single filaments.

  14. Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta; Nielaba; Rao; Binder

    2000-02-01

    Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain epsilon(ij)(r,t), measured with respect to a static "reference" lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse-grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size L(b)) of a system (of total size L) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behavior of the fluctuations as a function of L(b)/L and extract elastic constants of the system in the thermodynamic limit at nonzero temperature. Our method is simple to implement, efficient, and general enough to be able to handle a wide class of model systems, including those with singular potentials without any essential modification. We illustrate the technique by computing isothermal elastic constants of "hard" and "soft" disk triangular solids in two dimensions from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. We compare our results with those from earlier simulations and theory.

  15. Wave anisotropy of shear viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the theory of shear wave propagation in a "soft solid" material possessing anisotropy of elastic and dissipative properties. The theory is developed mainly for understanding the nature of the low-frequency acoustic characteristics of skeletal muscles, which carry important diagnostic information on the functional state of muscles and their pathologies. It is shown that the shear elasticity of muscles is determined by two independent moduli. The dissipative properties are determined by the fourth-rank viscosity tensor, which also has two independent components. The propagation velocity and attenuation of shear waves in muscle depend on the relative orientation of three vectors: the wave vector, the polarization vector, and the direction of muscle fiber. For one of the many experiments where attention was distinctly focused on the vector character of the wave process, it was possible to make a comparison with the theory, estimate the elasticity moduli, and obtain agreement with the angular dependence of the wave propagation velocity predicted by the theory.

  16. Electron and positron atomic elastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to calculate the total and differential elastic-scattering cross sections for incident electrons and positrons in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 MeV for atoms of Z=1-100. For electrons, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, krypton, and xenon, and for positrons, helium, neon, and argon atoms were considered for comparison with experimental data. First, the variationally optimized atomic static potentials were calculated for each atom by solving the Dirac equations for bound electron states. Second, the Dirac equations for a free electron or positron are solved for an atom using the previously calculated static potential accomplished (in the case of electrons) by 'adjusted' Hara's exchange potential for a free-state particle. Additional to the exchange effects, the charge cloud polarization effects are considered applying the correlation-polarization potential of O'Connell and Lane (with correction of Padial and Norcross) for incident electrons, and of Jain for incident positrons. The total, cutoff and differential elastic-scattering cross sections are calculated for incident electrons and positrons with the help of the relativistic partial wave analysis. The solid state effects for scattering in solids are described by means of a muffin-tin model, i.e. the potentials of neighboring atoms are superpositioned in such a way that the resulting potential and its derivative are zero in the middle distance between the atoms. The potential of isolated atom is calculated up to the radius at which the long-range polarization potential becomes a value of -10 -8

  17. The elasticity of demand for gasoline in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Zeng, Jieyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for gasoline in China. Our estimates of the intermediate-run price elasticity of gasoline demand range between −0.497 and −0.196, and our estimates of the intermediate-run income elasticity of gasoline demand range between 1.01 and 1.05. We also extend previous studies to estimate the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) elasticity and obtain a range from −0.882 to −0.579. - highlights: • The price elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between −0.497 and −0.196. • The income elasticity of demand for gasoline in China is between 1.01 and 1.05. • The price elasticity of demand for VMT in China is between −0.882 and −0.579

  18. Observation of elastic topological states in soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaifeng; Zhao, Degang; Niu, Hao; Zhu, Xuefeng; Zang, Jianfeng

    2018-04-10

    Topological elastic metamaterials offer insight into classic motion law and open up opportunities in quantum and classic information processing. Theoretical modeling and numerical simulation of elastic topological states have been reported, whereas the experimental observation remains relatively unexplored. Here we present an experimental observation and numerical simulation of tunable topological states in soft elastic metamaterials. The on-demand reversible switch in topological phase has been achieved by changing filling ratio, tension, and/or compression of the elastic metamaterials. By combining two elastic metamaterials with distinct topological invariants, we further demonstrate the formation and dynamic tunability of topological interface states by mechanical deformation, and the manipulation of elastic wave propagation. Moreover, we provide a topological phase diagram of elastic metamaterials under deformation. Our approach to dynamically control interface states in soft materials paves the way to various phononic systems involving thermal management and soft robotics requiring better use of energy.

  19. In Silico Measurement of Elastic Moduli of Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; de Pablo, Juan J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments on confined droplets of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB have questioned long-established bounds imposed on the elastic free energy of nematic systems. This elasticity, which derives from molecular alignment within nematic systems, is quantified through a set of moduli which can be difficult to measure experimentally and, in some cases, can only be probed indirectly. This is particularly true of the surfacelike saddle-splay elastic term, for which the available experimental data indicate values on the cusp of stability, often with large uncertainties. Here, we demonstrate that all nematic elastic moduli, including the saddle-splay elastic constant k24, may be calculated directly from atomistic molecular simulations. Importantly, results obtained through in silico measurements of the 5CB elastic properties demonstrate unambiguously that saddle-splay elasticity alone is unable to describe the observed confined morphologies.

  20. Growth-induced axial buckling of a slender elastic filament embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix

    KAUST Repository

    O'Keeffe, Stephen G.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the problem of an axially loaded, isotropic, slender cylinder embedded in a soft, isotropic, outer elastic matrix. The cylinder undergoes uniform axial growth, whilst both the cylinder and the surrounding elastic matrix are confined between two rigid plates, so that this growth results in axial compression of the cylinder. We use two different modelling approaches to estimate the critical axial growth (that is, the amount of axial growth the cylinder is able to sustain before it buckles) and buckling wavelength of the cylinder. The first approach treats the filament and surrounding matrix as a single 3-dimensional elastic body undergoing large deformations, whilst the second approach treats the filament as a planar, elastic rod embedded in an infinite elastic foundation. By comparing the results of these two approaches, we obtain an estimate of the foundation modulus parameter, which characterises the strength of the foundation, in terms of the geometric and material properties of the system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Elasticity of fluorite at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, J.; Tennakoon, S.; Mookherjee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorite (CaF2) is a simple halide with cubic space group symmetry (Fm-3m) and is often used as an internal pressure calibrant in moderate high-pressure/high-temperature experiments [1]. In order to gain insight into the elastic behavior of fluorite, we have conducted Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) on a single crystal of fluorite with rectangular parallelepiped geometry. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction, we aligned the edges of the rectangular parallelepiped with [-1 1 1], [-1 1 -2], and [-1 -1 0] crystallographic directions. We conducted the RUS measurements up to 620 K. RUS spectra are influenced by the geometry, density, and the full elastic moduli tensor of the material. In our high-temperature RUS experiments, the geometry and density were constrained using thermal expansion from previous studies [2]. We determined the elasticity by minimizing the difference between observed resonance and calculated Eigen frequency using Rayleigh-Ritz method [3]. We found that at room temperature, the single crystal elastic moduli for fluorite are 170, 49, and 33 GPa for C11, C12, and C44 respectively. At room temperatures, the aggregate bulk modulus (K) is 90 GPa and the shear modulus (G) is 43 GPa. We note that the elastic moduli and sound wave velocities decrease linearly as a function of temperature with dVP /dT and dVS /dT being -9.6 ×10-4 and -5.0 ×10-4 km/s/K respectively. Our high-temperature RUS results are in good agreement with previous studies on fluorite using both Ultrasonic methods and Brillouin scattering [4,5]. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by US NSF awards EAR-1639552 and EAR-1634422. References: [1] Speziale, S., Duffy, T. S. 2002, Phys. Chem. Miner., 29, 465-472; [2] Roberts, R. B., White, G. K., 1986, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 19, 7167-7172. [3] Migliori, A., Maynard, J. D., 2005, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76, 121301. [4] Catlow, C. R. A., Comins, J. D., Germano, F. A., Harley, R. T., Hayes, W., 1978, J. Phys. C Solid State Phys

  2. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  3. Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions of Additive Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences), mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand.

  4. Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions of Additive Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sabatelli

    Full Text Available Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences, mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand.

  5. A complete solution of cartographic displacement based on elastic beams model and Delaunay triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.

    2014-04-01

    In map production and generalization, it is inevitable to arise some spatial conflicts, but the detection and resolution of these spatial conflicts still requires manual operation. It is become a bottleneck hindering the development of automated cartographic generalization. Displacement is the most useful contextual operator that is often used for resolving the conflicts arising between two or more map objects. Automated generalization researches have reported many approaches of displacement including sequential approaches and optimization approaches. As an excellent optimization approach on the basis of energy minimization principles, elastic beams model has been used in resolving displacement problem of roads and buildings for several times. However, to realize a complete displacement solution, techniques of conflict detection and spatial context analysis should be also take into consideration. So we proposed a complete solution of displacement based on the combined use of elastic beams model and constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in this paper. The solution designed as a cyclic and iterative process containing two phases: detection phase and displacement phase. In detection phase, CDT of map is use to detect proximity conflicts, identify spatial relationships and structures, and construct auxiliary structure, so as to support the displacement phase on the basis of elastic beams. In addition, for the improvements of displacement algorithm, a method for adaptive parameters setting and a new iterative strategy are put forward. Finally, we implemented our solution on a testing map generalization platform, and successfully tested it against 2 hand-generated test datasets of roads and buildings respectively.

  6. Density functional theory and evolution algorithm calculations of elastic properties of AlON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batyrev, I. G.; Taylor, D. E.; Gazonas, G. A.; McCauley, J. W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Different models for aluminum oxynitride (AlON) were calculated using density functional theory and optimized using an evolutionary algorithm. Evolutionary algorithm and density functional theory (DFT) calculations starting from several models of AlON with different Al or O vacancy locations and different positions for the N atoms relative to the vacancy were carried out. The results show that the constant anion model [McCauley et al., J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29(2), 223 (2009)] with a random distribution of N atoms not adjacent to the Al vacancy has the lowest energy configuration. The lowest energy structure is in a reasonable agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction spectra. The optimized structure of a 55 atom unit cell was used to construct 220 and 440 atom models for simulation cells using DFT with a Gaussian basis set. Cubic elastic constant predictions were found to approach the experimentally determined AlON single crystal elastic constants as the model size increased from 55 to 440 atoms. The pressure dependence of the elastic constants found from simulated stress-strain relations were in overall agreement with experimental measurements of polycrystalline and single crystal AlON. Calculated IR intensity and Raman spectra are compared with available experimental data.

  7. Modeling of demand response in electricity markets : effects of price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, E.C.; Tuan, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A design mechanism for the optimal participation of customer load in electricity markets was presented. In particular, this paper presented a modified market model for the optimal procurement of interruptible loads participating in day-ahead electricity markets. The proposed model considers the effect of price elasticity and demand-response functions. The objective was to determine the role that price elasticity plays in electricity markets. The simulation model can help the Independent System Operator (ISO) identify customers offering the lowest price of interruptible loads and load flow patterns that avoid problems associated with transmission congestion and transmission losses. Various issues associated with procurement of demand-response offerings such as advance notification, locational aspect of load, and power factor of the loads, were considered. It was shown that demand response can mitigate price volatility by allowing the ISO to maintain operating reserves during peak load periods. It was noted that the potential benefits of the demand response program would be reduced when price elasticity of demand is taken into account. This would most likely occur in actual developed open electricity markets, such as Nordpool. This study was based on the CIGRE 32-bus system, which represents the Swedish high voltage power system. It was modified for this study to include a broad range of customer characteristics. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  8. Tailoring Macroscale Response of Mechanical and Heat Transfer Systems by Topology Optimization of Microstructural Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    -contrast material parameters is proposed to alleviate the high computational cost associated with solving the discrete systems arising during the topology optimization process. Problems within important engineering areas, heat transfer and linear elasticity, are considered for exemplifying the approach...

  9. Layout Optimization of Structures with Finite-size Features using Multiresolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellappa, S.; Diaz, A. R.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for layout optimization in structures with multiple finite-sized heterogeneities is presented. Multiresolution analysis is used to compute reduced operators (stiffness matrices) representing the elastic behavior of material distributions with heterogeneities of sizes that are comparable...

  10. Transient Vibrations of an Elastic Cylinder Inserted in the Elastic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulym Heorgij

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using method of Laguerre polynomials we have obtained the solution of the dynamic problem of the theory of elasticity for elastic cylinder inserted into massive body modeled as a space. The source of non-stationary processes in composite is high intensity force load of the inner surface of the cylinder. On the surface separation of materials of space and cylinder the conditions of ideal mechanical contact are satisfied. The solution is obtained as series of Laguerre polynomials, which coefficients are found from recurrent relations. The results of numerical analysis of transient stress-strain state in elastic space with cylindrical insertion might be used for the technological process of hydraulic fracturing during shale gas extraction.

  11. On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Clausen, B.; Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.

  12. On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: raj@mail.ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.

  13. High-energy elastic and quasi-elastic deuteron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, Amouzou

    1974-01-01

    A study is made of deuteron-nucleus elastic and quasi-elastic scattering and the connection between the opaque nucleus model and the Glauber model is pointed out. The contributions to different cross-sections of the collisions in which the nucleus, excited by one of the nucleons of the deuteron, is brought back to the ground state by the other nucleon is analysed. Coherent deuteron disintegration is found to be highly improbable when the target nucleus is heavy and incoherent disintegration accounts for nearly all the deuteron disintegration. Thus a correct comparison between theoretical and experimental data on proton stripping must take the incoherent deuteron disintegration into consideration

  14. Uzawa algorithm to solve elastic and elastic-plastic fretting wear problems within the bipotential framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Po; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Quintero, Juan Antonio Rojas; Zhou, Yang-Jing; Peng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with elastic and elastic-plastic fretting problems. The wear gap is taken into account along with the initial contact distance to obtain the Signorini conditions. Both the Signorini conditions and the Coulomb friction laws are written in a compact form. Within the bipotential framework, an augmented Lagrangian method is applied to calculate the contact forces. The Archard wear law is then used to calculate the wear gap at the contact surface. The local fretting problems are solved via the Uzawa algorithm. Numerical examples are performed to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The influence of plasticity has been discussed.

  15. Energy in elastic fiber embedded in elastic matrix containing incident SH wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James H., Jr.; Nagem, Raymond J.

    1989-01-01

    A single elastic fiber embedded in an infinite elastic matrix is considered. An incident plane SH wave is assumed in the infinite matrix, and an expression is derived for the total energy in the fiber due to the incident SH wave. A nondimensional form of the fiber energy is plotted as a function of the nondimensional wavenumber of the SH wave. It is shown that the fiber energy attains maximum values at specific values of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The results obtained here are interpreted in the context of phenomena observed in acousto-ultrasonic experiments on fiber reinforced composite materials.

  16. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Price and income elasticities of transport fuel demand have numerous applications. They help forecast increases in fuel consumption as countries get richer, they help develop appropriate tax policies to curtail consumption, help determine how the transport fuel mix might evolve, and show the price response to a fuel disruption. Given their usefulness, it is understandable why hundreds of studies have focused on measuring such elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. In this paper, I focus my attention on price and income elasticities in the existing studies to see what can be learned from them. I summarize the elasticities from these historical studies. I use statistical analysis to investigate whether income and price elasticities seem to be constant across countries with different incomes and prices. Although income and price elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel are not found to be the same at high and low incomes and at high and low prices, patterns emerge that allow me to develop suggested price and income elasticities for gasoline and diesel demand for over one hundred countries. I adjust these elasticities for recent fuel mix policies, and suggest an agenda of future research topics. - Research highlights: ► Surveyed econometric studies of transport fuel demand. ► Developed price elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Developed income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Suggested a research agenda for future work.

  17. Growth on elastic silicone substrate elicits a partial myogenic response in periodontal ligament derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pelaez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of cellular differentiation and phenotypic maintenance can be influenced by stimuli from a variety of different factors. One commonly overlooked factor is the mechanical properties of the growth substrate in which stem cells are maintained or differentiated down various lineages. Here we explored the effect that growth on an elastic silicone substrate had on the myogenic expression and cytoskeletal morphology of periodontal ligament derived stem cells. Cells were grown on either collagen I coated tissue culture polystyrene plates or collagen I coated elastic silicone membranes for a period of 4 days without further induction from soluble factors in the culture media. Following the 4-day growth, gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis for key cardiomyogenic markers was performed along with a morphological assessment of cytoskeletal organization. Results show that cells grown on the elastic substrate significantly upregulate key markers associated with contractile activity in muscle tissues. Namely, the myosin light chain polypeptides 2 and 7, as well as the myosin heavy chain polypeptide 7 genes underwent a statistically significant upregulation in the cells grown on elastic silicone membranes. Similarly, the cells on the softer elastic substrate stained positive for both sarcomeric actin and cardiac troponin t proteins following just 4 days of growth on the softer material. Cytoskeletal analysis showed that substrate stiffness had a marked effect on the organization and distribution of filamentous actin fibers within the cell body. Growth on silicone membranes produced flatter and shorter cellular morphologies with filamentous actin fibers projecting anisotropically throughout the cell body. These results demonstrate how crucial the mechanical properties of the growth substrate of cells can be on the ultimate cellular phenotype. These observations highlight the need to further optimize differentiation protocols to enhance

  18. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3-D elastic orthorhombic media: an inversion prospective

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Ju-Won

    2016-07-04

    Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P–SV and SV–SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH–SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  19. Multi-stage full waveform inversion strategy for 2D elastic VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2015-08-19

    One of the most important issues in the multi-parametric full waveform inversion (FWI) is to find an optimal parameterization, which helps us recover the subsurface anisotropic parameters as well as seismic velocities, with minimal tradeoff. As a result, we analyze three different parameterizations for elastic VTI media in terms of the influence of the S-waves on the gradient direction for c13, the spatial coverage of gradient direction and the degree of trade-offs between the parameters. Based on the dependency results, we design a multi-stage elastic VTI FWI strategy to enhance both the spatial coverage of the FWI and the robustness to the trade-offs among the parameters as well as FWI for the c13 structure.

  20. Elastic tracking versus neural network tracking for very high multiplicity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1991-04-01

    A new Elastic Tracking (ET) algorithm is proposed for finding tracks in very high multiplicity and noisy environments. It is based on a dynamical reinterpretation and generalization of the Radon transform and is related to elastic net algorithms for geometrical optimization. ET performs an adaptive nonlinear fit to noisy data with a variable number of tracks. Its numerics is more efficient than that of the traditional Radon or Hough transform method because it avoids binning of phase space and the costly search for valid minima. Spurious local minima are avoided in ET by introducing a time-dependent effective potential. The method is shown to be very robust to noise and measurement error and extends tracking capabilities to much higher track densities than possible via local road finding or even the novel Denby-Peterson neural network tracking algorithms. 12 refs., 2 figs

  1. Structural, elastic, and electronic properties of compressed ZnP{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong-Mei [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Yan-Ling, E-mail: ylli@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-06-15

    The structural, elastic and electronic properties of compressed ZnP{sub 2} were investigated by first-principles total energy calculations. The optimized equilibrium structural parameters agree well with those of experiments for α-ZnP{sub 2} and β-ZnP{sub 2} at zero pressure. α-ZnP{sub 2} transforms into I4{sub 1}/22 phase (referred as γ-ZnP{sub 2}) at 11 GPa, which is an indirect band-gap (∼0.78 eV) semiconductor. Space group of low pressure phase is the subgroup of that of high pressure phase. The calculated elastic constants for α-ZnP{sub 2} and β-ZnP{sub 2} at zero pressure as well as γ-ZnP{sub 2} at phase transition pressure determine their stability mechanically. Phonon calculation confirms dynamical stability of γ-ZnP{sub 2}.

  2. The study of the elasticity of spider dragline silk with liquid crystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Linying; Liu Fei; Ouyang Zhongcan

    2009-01-01

    Spider dragline silk is an optimal biomaterial with a combination of high tensile strength and high elasticity, and it has long been suggested to belong to liquid crystalline materials. However, a satisfactory liquid crystal description for the mechanical properties of the dragline is still missing. To solve the long existing problem, we generalized the Maier-Saupe theory of nematics to construct a liquid crystal model of the deformation mechanism of the dragline silk. We show that the remarkable elasticity of the dragline can be understood as the isotropic-nematic phase transition of the chain network with the beginning of the transition corresponding to the yield point. The calculated curve fits well with the measurements and the yield point is obtained self-consistently within our framework. The present theory can also qualitatively account for the drop of stress in supercontracted spider silk. All these comprehensive agreements between theory and experiments strongly indicate the dragline to belong to liquid crystal materials.

  3. CFD Analysis of A Starved Four-Pad Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing with An Elastic Support of Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parovay, E. F.; Falaleev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Tilting-pad journal bearings are widely used in technics. Oil starvation operation regime is not common for hydrodynamic bearings. However, correctly designed low-flow journal bearing have to operate efficiently and consistently on high rotor speeds. An elastic support of bearing pads is a set of elastic pins made of steel. Elastic support allows pads to self-align and achieve an optimal operational mode. The article presents the thermohydrodynamic performance of an axial journal bearing. The study deals with 60 mm diameter four-pad tilting-pad journal bearing, submitted to a static load varying from 1000 to 30000 N with a rotating speed varying from 1000 to 10000 rpm. The investigation focuses on numerical studying the characteristics of low-flow tilting-pad journal bearings under oil starvation conditions. Dependencies of the bearing performance on the load, rotational speed of the shaft, and the size of the radial clearance are presented.

  4. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  5. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  6. Elegent—An elastic event generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašpar, J.

    2014-03-01

    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD cannot be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy √{s}. These distributions at ISR, Spp¯S, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework. Catalogue identifier: AERT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10551 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126316 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any in principle, tested on x86-64 architecture. Operating system: Any in principle, tested on GNU/Linux. RAM: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 20MB Classification: 11.6. External routines: ROOT, HepMC Nature of problem: Monte-Carlo simulation of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions Solution method: Implementation of some of the most prominent phenomenological/theoretical models providing cumulative distribution function that is used for random event generation. Running time: Strongly depends on the task, but

  7. Elasticity of semiflexible polymers in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ashok; Hori, Yuko; Kondev, Jané

    2005-10-01

    We study theoretically the entropic elasticity of a semiflexible polymer, such as DNA, confined to two dimensions. Using the worm-like-chain model we obtain an exact analytical expression for the partition function of the polymer pulled at one end with a constant force. The force-extension relation for the polymer is computed in the long chain limit in terms of Mathieu characteristic functions. We also present applications to the interaction between a semiflexible polymer and a nematic field, and derive the nematic order parameter and average extension of the polymer in a strong field.

  8. pp and ̄pp elastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Donnachie

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of pp and ̄pp elastic scattering in terms of various exchanges. Three-gluon exchange dominates at large t, and single-pomeron exchange at small t. The dip seen in high-energy pp scattering is provided by the interference of both of these with double-pomeron exchange. We predict that this dip will not be found in high-energy ̄pp scattering. The dip that is seen in low-energy ̄pp scattering is the result of the additional presence of reggeon-pomeron exchange.

  9. Hydrogen analysis by elastic recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Trocellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    An absolute, quantitative procedure was developed to determine the hydrogen content and to describe its concentration profile in the near-surface region of solids. The experimental technique used was the elastic recoil detection analysis of protons induced by 4 He beam bombardment in the energy range <=1.8 MeV. The hydrogen content was calculated using a new recoil cross section expression. The analyses were performed in silicon crystals implanted with hydrogen at 10 keV. The implantation dose was evaluated with an accuracy of 10% and the hydrogen depth profile with that of +-10 nm around 200 nm. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Elastic energy for reflection-symmetric topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M

    2006-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals in a polyhedral domain, a prototype for bistable displays, may be described by a unit-vector field subject to tangent boundary conditions. Here we consider the case of a rectangular prism. For configurations with reflection-symmetric topologies, we derive a new lower bound for the one-constant elastic energy. For certain topologies, called conformal and anticonformal, the lower bound agrees with a previous result. For the remaining topologies, called nonconformal, the new bound is an improvement. For nonconformal topologies we derive an upper bound, which differs from the lower bound by a factor depending only on the aspect ratios of the prism

  11. On liquid vibration in elastic containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priehn, F.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical methods of calculation for containers made of circular rings of any crossection are derived for containers which are filled with incompressible and also with compressible liquids. This is done neglecting the formation of waves on the liquid surface, and by using a simplified mechanical model for calculations for the elastic walls. Using a developed Fourier series in the circumferential direction, this leads to a plane model and one obtains a very compact system of equations, which give an opportunity of studying the individual effects very economically. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices

  13. Elastic lattice in a random potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Dickman, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, CUNY, Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of an elastic triangular lattice subject to a random background potential. As the cooling rate is reduced, we observe a rather sudden crossover between two different glass phases, with exponential decay of translational correlations, the other with power-law decay. Contrary to predictions derived for continuum models, no evidence of a crossover in the mean-square displacement B(r) from the quadratic growth at small r to the logarithmic growth at large r is found. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Elastic lattice in a random potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Dickman, R.

    1998-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the properties of an elastic triangular lattice subject to a random background potential. As the cooling rate is reduced, we observe a rather sudden crossover between two different glass phases, with exponential decay of translational correlations, the other with power-law decay. Contrary to predictions derived for continuum models, no evidence of a crossover in the mean-square displacement B(r) from the quadratic growth at small r to the logarithmic growth at large r is found. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Marginal elasticity of periodic triangulated origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan; Sussman, Dan; Lubensky, Tom; Santangelo, Chris

    Origami, the classical art of folding paper, has inspired much recent work on assembling complex 3D structures from planar sheets. Origami, and more generally hinged structures with rigid panels, where all faces are triangles have special properties due to having a bulk balance of mechanical degrees of freedom and constraints. We study two families of periodic triangulated origami structures, one based on the Miura ori and one based on a kagome-like pattern due to Ron Resch. We point out the consequences of the balance of degrees of freedom and constraints for these ''metamaterial plates'' and show how the elasticity can be tuned by changing the unit cell geometry.

  16. ELASTIC SCATTERING: How goes the Odderon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Kang, Kyungsik; Tan, C-I

    1994-01-01

    Spurred by new measurements of total reaction rates and associated parameters by groups at CERN, DESY, and Fermilab, and with the scent of possible solutions to past controversies in the air, some 110 experimental and theoretical highenergy physicists gathered at Brown University (Providence, Rhode Island) for the fifth traditional 'Blois' Workshop on High-Energy Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. Very much alive is the 'Odderon' - the extra effect to explain the difference between proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering.

  17. Applications of super elasticity in vibrational control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soul, H

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the possibilities of using shape memory alloys (SMA) as passive dampers devices in mechanicals vibrations problems are studied.The property that is exploited is the super elastic effect, by wich strains of the order of 10% can be obtained.The relationship between stress and strain means that this is an inelastic process.Nevertheless when load is removed the material recoveries its original dimension, presenting zero or almost zero permanent strain relative to others common materials, describing in its stress-strain diagram an important hysteretic loop.This features occurs basically because in well suited conditions the SMA can undergo martensitic transformations induced by stress.A series of uniaxial tension tests in commercial NiTi wires are performed, in order to characterize the super elastic behavior of the material.The influence of variables as ambient temperature, strain rate, strain levels and number of tension cycles accumulated are studied paying attention to the dissipative capacity of the material defined by means of the shape of the hysteretic loop.The influence on the damping capacity of the thermal effects associated with the martensitic transformation are evaluated by performing experiments at different transformation rates.Results are rationalized in terms of a model considering the interaction between a source term (heat of transformation), heat convection to the ambient and conduction along the wire.Some numerical results are obtained and discussed. For a performance evaluation in devices applications a simplified model of super elasticity is proposed.Then, the response of an elastic frame structure endowed with SMA tensors is evaluated following the model behavior when seismic movement is imposed at the base.The obtained results verify the possibility of using SMA as kernel elements in vibration control.This conclusion is experimentally verified in a prototype of the structure specially designed and constructed for this work

  18. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  19. Elastic Scattering - Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, Haris; Tahir, Sohail Afzal

    2007-01-01

    Various aspects of elastic and diffractive scattering have been studied at Fermilab and CERN. Search for more results is ongoing at RHIC and planned at LHC. In this talk, we review the progress made so far and elaborate future prospects. Theoretical study focuses on the analysis of the available data in the light of predictions of various models with special emphasis on Eikonal picture and QCD inspired models. In the light of this analysis, various possibilities have been explored with reference to RHIC and LHC measurements

  20. Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gath, Jakob

    We consider long-wavelength perturbations of charged black branes to first order in a uidelastic derivative expansion. At first order the perturbations decouple and we treat the hydrodynamic and elastic perturbations separately. To put the results in a broader perspective, we present the rst...... as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D...

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarda, V.

    1981-01-01

    The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt

  2. Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...

  3. Constitutive relations for non-elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of constitutive equations is described for non-elastic deformation of metals. The relations are embodied in a model that has had considerable experimental investigation. The model employs two deformation state variables of which one is a scalar hardness variable and the other is a stored anelastic strain. The description is entirely in terms of real time strain rates. The model and its experimental background is discussed. The relationship to mechanical calculations and a possible extension to radiation environment is also considered. (Auth.)

  4. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    We present an approximate description of the behavior of an elastic-plastic material processed by a cylindrically or spherically symmetric converging shock, following Whitham's shock dynamics theory. Originally applied with success to various gas dynamics problems, this theory is presently derived for solid media, in both elastic and plastic regimes. The exact solutions of the shock dynamics equations obtained reproduce well the results obtained by high-resolution numerical simulations. The examined constitutive laws share a compressible neo-Hookean structure for the internal energy e=e(s)(I(1))+e(h)(ρ,ς), where e(s) accounts for shear through the first invariant of the Cauchy-Green tensor, and e(h) represents the hydrostatic contribution as a function of the density ρ and entropy ς. In the strong-shock limit, reached as the shock approaches the axis or origin r=0, we show that compression effects are dominant over shear deformations. For an isothermal constitutive law, i.e., e(h)=e(h)(ρ), with a power-law dependence e(h) is proportional to ρ(α), shock dynamics predicts that for a converging shock located at r=R(t) at time t, the Mach number increases as M is proportional to [log(1/R)](α), independently of the space index s, where s=2 in cylindrical geometry and 3 in spherical geometry. An alternative isothermal constitutive law with p(ρ) of the arctanh type, which enforces a finite density in the strong-shock limit, leads to M is proportional to R(-(s-1)) for strong shocks. A nonisothermal constitutive law, whose hydrostatic part e(h) is that of an ideal gas, is also tested, recovering the strong-shock limit M is proportional to R(-(s-1)/n(γ)) originally derived by Whitham for perfect gases, where γ is inherently related to the maximum compression ratio that the material can reach, (γ+1)/(γ-1). From these strong-shock limits, we also estimate analytically the density, radial velocity, pressure, and sound speed immediately behind the shock. While the

  5. Elastic hadron scattering and optical theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Lokajicek, Milos V.; Prochazka, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    In principle all contemporary phenomenological models of elastic hadronic scattering have been based on the assumption of optical theorem validity that has been overtaken from optics. It will be shown that the given theorem which has not been actually proved cannot be applied to short-ranged strong interactions in any case. The actual progress in description of collision processes might then exist only if the initial states are specified on the basis of impact parameter values of colliding particles and probability dependence on this parameter is established.

  6. Remaking the Elasticity of Consumer Wants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug

    The paper analyses a smart grid project named EcoGrid, the paper shows how a large market experiment is used to present a solution to the intermittency problem associated with wind power: How to balance supply and demand when electricity production 'follows the wind'? It is shown how electricity...... consumption is sought moved away from periods of peak consumption, and towards periods of peak production, by making consumers sensitive to ongoing changes in price. The study takes a pragmatic stance, applying concepts from the sociology of markets. The paper shows how the price elasticity of a good...

  7. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  8. Kuni 10 kaitseväelast Malisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Valitsus saatis riigikokku eelnõu, mille kohaselt võib Eesti saata Euroopa Liidu väljaõppemissioonile Malis kuni 10 kaitseväelast. Kaitsevägi panustaks staabiohvitseridega, kelle peamiseks ülesandeks on osaleda Mali üksustele erinevate riikide poolt läbiviidava väljaõppe planeerimise ja nõustamise protsessides ning väljaõppemeeskonnaga, kelle ülesandeks on viia läbi Mali üksustele mitmesugust sõjalist väljaõpet

  9. A spectral hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic-acoustic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a time-domain, high-order in space, hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spectral element method (HDG-SEM) for wave equations in coupled elastic-acoustic media. The method is based on a first-order hyperbolic velocity-strain formulation of the wave equations written in conservative form. This method follows the HDG approach by introducing a hybrid unknown, which is the approximation of the velocity on the elements boundaries, as the only globally (i.e. interelement) coupled degrees of freedom. In this paper, we first present a hybridized formulation of the exact Riemann solver at the element boundaries, taking into account elastic-elastic, acoustic-acoustic and elastic-acoustic interfaces. We then use this Riemann solver to derive an explicit construction of the HDG stabilization function τ for all the above-mentioned interfaces. We thus obtain an HDG scheme for coupled elastic-acoustic problems. This scheme is then discretized in space on quadrangular/hexahedral meshes using arbitrary high-order polynomial basis for both volumetric and hybrid fields, using an approach similar to the spectral element methods. This leads to a semi-discrete system of algebraic differential equations (ADEs), which thanks to the structure of the global conservativity condition can be reformulated easily as a classical system of first-order ordinary differential equations in time, allowing the use of classical explicit or implicit time integration schemes. When an explicit time scheme is used, the HDG method can be seen as a reformulation of a DG with upwind fluxes. The introduction of the velocity hybrid unknown leads to relatively simple computations at the element boundaries which, in turn, makes the HDG approach competitive with the DG-upwind methods. Extensive numerical results are provided to illustrate and assess the accuracy and convergence properties of this HDG-SEM. The approximate velocity is shown to converge with the optimal order of k + 1 in the L2-norm

  10. Morphology, surface roughness, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering in elastic peak electron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Nowakowski, R.; Koever, L.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Sulyok, A.; Gergely, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) deals with the interaction of electrons with atoms of a solid surface, studying the distribution of electrons backscattered elastically. The nearest vicinity of the elastic peak, (low kinetic energy region) reflects both, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic processes. The incident electrons produce surface excitations, inducing surface plasmons with the corresponding loss peaks separated by 1 - 20 eV energy from the elastic peak. Quasi-elastic losses result from the recoil of scattering atoms of different atomic number, Z. The respective energy shift and Doppler broadening of the elastic peak depend on Z, the primary electron energy, E, and the measurement geometry. Quantitative surface analytical application of EPES, such as determination of parameters describing electron transport, requires a comparison of experimental data with corresponding data derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Several problems occur in EPES studies of polymers. The intensity of elastic peak, considered in quantitative surface analysis, is influenced by both, the inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering processes (especially for hydrogen scattering atoms and primary electron energy above 1000 eV). An additional factor affecting the elastic peak intensity is the surface morphology and roughness. The present work compares the effect of these factors on the elastic peak intensity for selected polymers (polyethylene, polyaniline and polythiophenes). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and helium pycnometry are applied for deriving the surface atomic composition and the bulk density, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for determining surface morphology and roughness. According to presented results, the influence of surface morphology and roughness is larger than those of surface excitations or recoil of hydrogen atoms. The component due to recoil of hydrogen atoms can be

  11. The Optimal Tax on Antebellum U.S. Cotton Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas A. Irwin

    2001-01-01

    The United States produced about 80 percent of the world's cotton in the decades prior to the Civil War. How much monopoly power did the United States possess in the world cotton market and what would have been the effect of an optimal export tax? This paper estimates the elasticity of foreign demand for U.S. cotton exports and uses the elasticity in a simple partial equilibrium model to calculate the optimal export tax and its effect on prices, trade, and welfare. The results indicate that t...

  12. Optimally eating a stochastic cake. A recursive utility approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epaulard, Anne; Pommeret, Aude

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper, uncertainties on resource stock and on technical progress are introduced into an intertemporal equilibrium model of optimal extraction of a non-renewable resource. The representative consumer maximizes a recursive utility function which disentangles between intertemporal elasticity of substitution and risk aversion. A closed-form solution is derived for both the optimal extraction and price paths. The value of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution relative to unity is then crucial in understanding extraction. Moreover, this model leads to a non-renewable resource price following a geometric Brownian motion

  13. Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability-Based Structural Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect to optimi......Application of stochastic finite elements in structural optimization is considered. It is shown how stochastic fields modelling e.g. the modulus of elasticity can be discretized in stochastic variables and how a sensitivity analysis of the reliability of a structural system with respect...

  14. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  15. Determinants of Advertising Effectiveness: The Development of an International Advertising Elasticity Database and a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Henningsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for marketing accountability requires an efficient allocation of marketing expenditures. Managers who know the elasticity of their marketing instruments can allocate their budgets optimally. Meta-analyses offer a basis for deriving benchmark elasticities for advertising. Although they provide a variety of valuable insights, a major shortcoming of prior meta-analyses is that they report only generalized results as the disaggregated raw data are not made available. This problem is highly relevant because coding of empirical studies, at least to a certain extent, involves subjective judgment. For this reason, meta-studies would be more valuable if researchers and practitioners had access to disaggregated data allowing them to conduct further analyses of individual, e.g., product-level-specific, interests. We are the first to address this gap by providing (1 an advertising elasticity database (AED and (2 empirical generalizations about advertising elasticities and their determinants. Our findings indicate that the average current-period advertising elasticity is 0.09, which is substantially smaller than the value 0f 0.12 that was recently reported by Sethuraman, Tellis, and Briesch (2011. Furthermore, our meta-analysis reveals a wide range of significant determinants of advertising elasticity. For example, we find that advertising elasticities are higher (i for hedonic and experience goods than for other goods; (ii for new than for established goods; (iii when advertising is measured in gross rating points (GRP instead of absolute terms; and (iv when the lagged dependent or lagged advertising variable is omitted.

  16. Unraveling complex nonlinear elastic behaviors in rocks using dynamic acousto-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J.; Guyer, R.; Renaud, G.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    In comparison with standard nonlinear ultrasonic methods like frequency mixing or resonance based measurements that allow one to extract average, bulk variations of modulus and attenuation versus strain level, dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. This method consists of exciting a sample in Bulk-mode resonance at strains of 10-7 to 10-5 and simultaneously probing with a sequence of high frequency, low amplitude pulses. Time of flight and amplitudes of these pulses, respectively related to nonlinear elastic and dissipative parameters, can be plotted versus vibration strain level. Despite complex nonlinear signatures obtained for most rocks, it can be shown that for low strain amplitude (Pasqualini et al., JGR 2007), but not with the extreme detail of elasticity provided by DAE. Previous quasi-static measurements made in Berea sandstone (Claytor et al, GRL 2009), show that the hysteretic behavior disappears when the protocol is performed at a very low strain-rate (static limit). Therefore, future work will aim at linking quasi-static and dynamic observations, i.e. the frequency or strain-rate dependence, in order to understand underlying physical phenomena.

  17. Angular distributions of elastic and quasi elastic heavy-ion collisions. Pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silveira, R.

    1980-06-01

    The emergence, as well as the evolution, of the most typical patterns observed in the angular distributions of elastic scattering and surface transfer between heavy-nuclei, is discussed. Starting from the semi-classical approximation, Thom's classification theorem is evoked to further illuminate the connection between these patterns and the collision parameters

  18. Token-Aware Completion Functions for Elastic Processor Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan K. Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a formal verification procedure to check that elastic pipelined processor designs correctly implement their instruction set architecture (ISA specifications. The notion of correctness we use is based on refinement. Refinement proofs are based on refinement maps, which—in the context of this problem—are functions that map elastic processor states to states of the ISA specification model. Data flow in elastic architectures is complicated by the insertion of any number of buffers in any place in the design, making it hard to construct refinement maps for elastic systems in a systematic manner. We introduce token-aware completion functions, which incorporate a mechanism to track the flow of data in elastic pipelines, as a highly automated and systematic approach to construct refinement maps. We demonstrate the efficiency of the overall verification procedure based on token-aware completion functions using six elastic pipelined processor models based on the DLX architecture.

  19. Indentation of elastically soft and plastically compressible solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo; Van der Giessen, E.

    2015-01-01

    rapidly for small deviations from plastic incompressibility and then decreases rather slowly for values of the plastic Poisson's ratio less than 0.25. For both soft elasticity and plastic compressibility, the main reason for the lower values of indentation hardness is related to the reduction......The effect of soft elasticity, i.e., a relatively small value of the ratio of Young's modulus to yield strength and plastic compressibility on the indentation of isotropically hardening elastic-viscoplastic solids is investigated. Calculations are carried out for indentation of a perfectly sticking...... rigid sharp indenter into a cylinder modeling indentation of a half space. The material is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that allows for plastic as well as elastic compressibility. Both soft elasticity and plastic compressibility significantly reduce...

  20. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy