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Sample records for optimal cytoplasmic transport

  1. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  2. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  3. Cytoplasmic Dynein Regulation by Subunit Heterogeneity and Its Role in Apical Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew W.; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Sung, Ching-Hwa

    2001-01-01

    Despite the existence of multiple subunit isoforms for the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, it has not yet been directly shown that dynein complexes with different compositions exhibit different properties. The 14-kD dynein light chain Tctex-1, but not its homologue RP3, binds directly to rhodopsin's cytoplasmic COOH-terminal tail, which encodes an apical targeting determinant in polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We demonstrate that Tctex-1 and RP3 compete for binding to dynein intermediate chain and that overexpressed RP3 displaces endogenous Tctex-1 from dynein complexes in MDCK cells. Furthermore, replacement of Tctex-1 by RP3 selectively disrupts the translocation of rhodopsin to the MDCK apical surface. These results directly show that cytoplasmic dynein function can be regulated by its subunit composition and that cytoplasmic dynein is essential for at least one mode of apical transport in polarized epithelia. PMID:11425878

  4. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  5. Towards Optimal Transport Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Vargo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our ultimate goal is to design transportation net- works whose dynamic performance metrics (e.g. pas- senger throughput, passenger delay, and insensitivity to weather disturbances are optimized. Here the fo- cus is on optimizing static features of the network that are known to directly affect the network dynamics. First, we present simulation results which support a connection between maximizing the first non-trivial eigenvalue of a network's Laplacian and superior air- port network performance. Then, we explore the ef- fectiveness of a tabu search heuristic for optimizing this metric by comparing experimental results to the- oretical upper bounds. We also consider generating upper bounds on a network's algebraic connectivity via the solution of semidefinite programming (SDP relaxations. A modification of an existing subgraph extraction algorithm is implemented to explore the underlying regional structures in the U.S. airport net- work, with the hope that the resulting localized struc- tures can be optimized independently and reconnected via a "backbone" network to achieve superior network performance.

  6. Cell cycle-dependent microtubule-based dynamic transport of cytoplasmic dynein in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic dynein complex is a large multi-subunit microtubule (MT-associated molecular motor involved in various cellular functions including organelle positioning, vesicle transport and cell division. However, regulatory mechanism of the cell-cycle dependent distribution of dynein has not fully been understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report live-cell imaging of cytoplasmic dynein in HeLa cells, by expressing multifunctional green fluorescent protein (mfGFP-tagged 74-kDa intermediate chain (IC74. IC74-mfGFP was successfully incorporated into functional dynein complex. In interphase, dynein moved bi-directionally along with MTs, which might carry cargos such as transport vesicles. A substantial fraction of dynein moved toward cell periphery together with EB1, a member of MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs, suggesting +TIPs-mediated transport of dynein. In late-interphase and prophase, dynein was localized at the centrosomes and the radial MT array. In prometaphase and metaphase, dynein was localized at spindle MTs where it frequently moved from spindle poles toward chromosomes or cell cortex. +TIPs may be involved in the transport of spindle dyneins. Possible kinetochore and cortical dyneins were also observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cytoplasmic dynein is transported to the site of action in preparation for the following cellular events, primarily by the MT-based transport. The MT-based transport may have greater advantage than simple diffusion of soluble dynein in rapid and efficient transport of the limited concentration of the protein.

  7. Perturbation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport affects size of nucleus and nucleolus in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Abira; Bhattacharjee, Chumki; Bhave, Madhura; Kailaje, Vaishali; Jain, Bhawik K; Sengupta, Isha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2016-03-01

    Size regulation of human cell nucleus and nucleolus are poorly understood subjects. 3D reconstruction of live image shows that the karyoplasmic ratio (KR) increases by 30-80% in transformed cell lines compared to their immortalized counterpart. The attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes the KR value to increase by 30-50% in immortalized cell lines. Nucleolus volumes are significantly increased in transformed cell lines and the attenuation of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport causes a significant increase in the nucleolus volume of immortalized cell lines. A cytosol and nuclear fraction swapping experiment emphasizes the potential role of unknown cytosolic factors in nuclear and nucleolar size regulation. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, the term 'transport-optimized' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  9. Optimal transport of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.K.; Reiser, M.

    1997-01-01

    The transport and matching problem for a low energy transport system is approached from a control theoretical viewpoint. We develop a model for a beam transport and matching section based on a multistage control network. To this model we apply the principles of optimal control to formulate techniques aiding in the design of the transport and matching section. Both nonlinear programming and dynamic programming techniques are used in the optimization. These techniques are implemented in a computer-aided design program called SPOT. Examples are presented to demonstrate the procedure and outline the results. (orig.)

  10. The RanGTP pathway: from nucleo-cytoplasmic transport to spindle assembly and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eCavazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Ran regulates the interaction of transport receptors with a number of cellular cargo proteins. The high affinity binding of the GTP-bound form of Ran to import receptors promotes cargo release, whereas its binding to export receptors stabilizes their interaction with the cargo. This basic mechanism linked to the asymmetric distribution of the two nucleotide-bound forms of Ran between the nucleus and the cytoplasm generates a switch like mechanism controlling nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Since 1999, we have known that after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD Ran and the above transport receptors also provide a local control over the activity of factors driving spindle assembly and regulating other aspects of cell division. The identification and functional characterization of RanGTP mitotic targets is providing novel insights into mechanisms essential for cell division. Here we review our current knowledge on the RanGTP system and its regulation and we focus on the recent advances made through the characterization of its mitotic targets. We then briefly review the novel functions of the pathway that were recently described. Altogether, the RanGTP system has moonlighting functions exerting a spatial control over protein interactions that drive specific functions depending on the cellular context.

  11. A Problem on Optimal Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechlarova, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical optimization problems are not typical in the classical curriculum of mathematics. In this paper we show how several generalizations of an easy problem on optimal transportation were solved by gifted secondary school pupils in a correspondence mathematical seminar, how they can be used in university courses of linear programming and…

  12. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  13. Neoclassical transport optimization of LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Watanabe, K.Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Wakasa, A. [Hokkaido Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Maassberg, H.; Beidler, C.D. [Teilinstitut Greifswald, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Neoclassical transport is studied for LHD configurations in which the magnetic axis has been shifted radially by determining the mono-energetic transport coefficient and the effective helical ripple. With respect to the transport in the long mean free path collisionality region - the so called 1/{nu} transport -, the optimum configuration is found when the magnetic axis has a major radius of 3.53m, which is 0.22m inward shifted from the standard'' configuration of LHD. In the optimized case, the effective helical ripple is very small, remaining below 2% inside 4/5 of the plasma radius. This indicates that a strong inward shift of the magnetic axis in the LHD can diminish the neoclassical transport to a level typical of so-called advanced stellarators''. (author)

  14. Neoclassical transport optimization of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Wakasa, A.; Maassberg, H.; Beidler, C.D.

    2002-06-01

    Neoclassical transport is studied for LHD configurations in which the magnetic axis has been shifted radially by determining the mono-energetic transport coefficient and the effective helical ripple. With respect to the transport in the long mean free path collisionality region - the so called 1/ν transport -, the optimum configuration is found when the magnetic axis has a major radius of 3.53m, which is 0.22m inward shifted from the standard'' configuration of LHD. In the optimized case, the effective helical ripple is very small, remaining below 2% inside 4/5 of the plasma radius. This indicates that a strong inward shift of the magnetic axis in the LHD can diminish the neoclassical transport to a level typical of so-called advanced stellarators''. (author)

  15. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

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    Robert A Gatenby

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM. While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length.Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions.This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger

  16. An ABC transporter B family protein, ABCB19, is required for cytoplasmic streaming and gravitropism of the inflorescence stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1) Currently, however, there are no reports of molecular components for cytoplasmic streaming other than the actin-myosin-cytoskeleton and ER-related proteins. In the present study, we found that elongated cells of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit vigorous cytoplasmic streaming. Statistical analysis showed that the maximal velocity of plastid movements is 7.26 µm/s, which is much faster than the previously reported velocities of organelles. Surprisingly, the maximal velocity of streaming in the inflorescence stem cells was significantly reduced to 1.11 µm/s in an Arabidopsis mutant, abcb19-101, which lacks ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUBFAMILY B19 (ABCB19) that mediates the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin together with PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Polar auxin transport establishes the auxin concentration gradient essential for plant development and tropisms. Deficiency of ABCB19 activity eventually caused enhanced gravitropic responses of the inflorescence stems and abnormally flexed inflorescence stems. These results suggest that ABCB19-mediated auxin transport plays a role not only in tropism regulation, but also in cytoplasmic streaming.

  17. Reduced RAN expression and disrupted transport between cytoplasm and nucleus; a key event in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

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    Diego Mastroeni

    Full Text Available Transcription of DNA is essential for cell maintenance and survival; inappropriate localization of proteins that are involved in transcription would be catastrophic. In Alzheimer's disease brains, and in vitro studies, we have found qualitative and quantitative deficits in transport into the nucleus of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II, accompanied by their abnormal sequestration in the cytoplasm. RAN (RAs-related Nuclear protein knockdown, by siRNA and oligomeric Aβ42 treatment in neurons, replicate human data which indicate that transport disruption in AD may be mechanistically linked to reduced expression of RAN, a pivotal molecule in nucleocytoplasmic transport. In vitro studies also indicate a significant role for oligomeric Aβ42 in the observed phenomena. We propose a model in which reduced transcription regulators in the nucleus and their increased presence in the cytoplasm may lead to many of the cellular manifestations of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  19. Making it big : how characean algae use cytoplasmic streaming to enhance transport in giant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meent, Jan Willem van de

    2010-01-01

    Organisms show a remarkable variation in sizes, yet cell sizes are surprisingly similar across species, typically ranging from 10 μm to 100 μm. A striking exception are the giant cells of the algal weed Chara, which can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. A circulation known as cytoplasmic

  20. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  1. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

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    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  2. Optimizing pipeline transportation using a fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago L.; Correa, Joao L. L.; Montalvoa, Antonio F. F. [National Control and Operation Center Tranpetro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The optimization of pipeline transportation is a big concern for the transporter companies. This paper is the third of a series of three articles which investigated the application of a system to simulate the human ability to operate a pipeline in an optimized way. The present paper presents the development of a proportional integral (PI) fuzzy controller, in order to optimize pipeline transportation capacity. The fuzzy adaptive PI controller system was developed and tested with a hydraulic simulator. On-field data were used from the OSBRA pipeline. The preliminary tests showed that the performance of the software simulation was satisfactory. It varied the set-point of the conventional controller within the limits of flow meters. The transport capacity of the pipe was maximize without compromising the integrity of the commodities transported. The system developed proved that it can be easily deployed as a specialist optimizing system to be added to SCADA systems.

  3. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

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    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  4. OPTIMIZATION METHODS IN TRANSPORTATION OF FOREST PRODUCTS

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    Selçuk Gümüş

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has total of 21.2 million ha (27 % forest land. In this area, average 9 million m3 of logs and 5 million stere of fuel wood have been annually produced by the government forest enterprises. The total annual production is approximately 13million m3 Considering the fact that the costs of transporting forest products was about . 160 million TL in the year of 2006, the importance of optimizing the total costs in transportation can be better understood. Today, there is not common optimization method used at whole transportation problems. However, the decision makers select the most appropriate methods according to their aims.Comprehending of features and capacity of optimization methods is important for selecting of the most appropriate method. The evaluation of optimization methods that can be used at forest products transportation is aimed in this study.

  5. Repository Waste Package Transporter Shielding Weight Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.E. Sanders; Shiaw-Der Su

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain repository requires the use of a waste package (WP) transporter to transport a WP from a process facility on the surface to the subsurface for underground emplacement. The transporter is a part of the waste emplacement transport systems, which includes a primary locomotive at the front end and a secondary locomotive at the rear end. The overall system with a WP on board weights over 350 metric tons (MT). With the shielding mass constituting approximately one-third of the total system weight, shielding optimization for minimal weight will benefit the overall transport system with reduced axle requirements and improved maneuverability. With a high contact dose rate on the WP external surface and minimal personnel shielding afforded by the WP, the transporter provides radiation shielding to workers during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. This paper presents the design approach and optimization method used in achieving a shielding configuration with minimal weight

  6. Green maritime transportation: Speed and route optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2015-01-01

    Among the spectrum of logistics-based measures for green maritime transportation, this chapter focuses on speed optimization. This involves the selection of an appropriate speed by the vessel, so as to optimize a certain objective. As ship speed is not fixed, depressed shipping markets and/or high...

  7. Texture mapping via optimal mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominitz, Ayelet; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for texture mapping of closed surfaces. Our method is based on the technique of optimal mass transport (also known as the "earth-mover's metric"). This is a classical problem that concerns determining the optimal way, in the sense of minimal transportation cost, of moving a pile of soil from one site to another. In our context, the resulting mapping is area preserving and minimizes angle distortion in the optimal mass sense. Indeed, we first begin with an angle-preserving mapping (which may greatly distort area) and then correct it using the mass transport procedure derived via a certain gradient flow. In order to obtain fast convergence to the optimal mapping, we incorporate a multiresolution scheme into our flow. We also use ideas from discrete exterior calculus in our computations.

  8. Optimal protocols and optimal transport in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2011-06-24

    Thermodynamics of small systems has become an important field of statistical physics. Such systems are driven out of equilibrium by a control, and the question is naturally posed how such a control can be optimized. We show that optimization problems in small system thermodynamics are solved by (deterministic) optimal transport, for which very efficient numerical methods have been developed, and of which there are applications in cosmology, fluid mechanics, logistics, and many other fields. We show, in particular, that minimizing expected heat released or work done during a nonequilibrium transition in finite time is solved by the Burgers equation and mass transport by the Burgers velocity field. Our contribution hence considerably extends the range of solvable optimization problems in small system thermodynamics.

  9. Sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Rifford, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an introduction to sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport and presents some of the recent progress in these two fields. The text is completely self-contained: the linear discussion, containing all the proofs of the stated results, leads the reader step by step from the notion of distribution at the very beginning to the existence of optimal transport maps for Lipschitz sub-Riemannian structure. The combination of geometry presented from an analytic point of view and of optimal transport, makes the book interesting for a very large community. This set of notes grew from a series of lectures given by the author during a CIMPA school in Beirut, Lebanon.

  10. Cytoplasmic electric fields and electroosmosis: possible solution for the paradoxes of the intracellular transport of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Victor P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to show that electroosmotic flow might play an important role in the intracellular transport of biomolecules. The paper presents two mathematical models describing the role of electroosmosis in the transport of the negatively charged messenger proteins to the negatively charged nucleus and in the recovery of the fluorescence after photobleaching. The parameters of the models were derived from the extensive review of the literature data. Computer simulations were performed within the COMSOL 4.2a software environment. The first model demonstrated that the presence of electroosmosis might intensify the flux of messenger proteins to the nucleus and allow the efficient transport of the negatively charged phosphorylated messenger proteins against the electrostatic repulsion of the negatively charged nucleus. The second model revealed that the presence of the electroosmotic flow made the time of fluorescence recovery dependent on the position of the bleaching spot relative to cellular membrane. The magnitude of the electroosmotic flow effect was shown to be quite substantial, i.e. increasing the flux of the messengers onto the nucleus up to 4-fold relative to pure diffusion and resulting in the up to 3-fold change in the values of fluorescence recovery time, and therefore the apparent diffusion coefficient determined from the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Based on the results of the modeling and on the universal nature of the electroosmotic flow, the potential wider implications of electroosmotic flow in the intracellular and extracellular biological processes are discussed. Both models are available for download at ModelDB.

  11. Logistics in Yemen: Optimal Intermodal Frieght Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Najeeb Said AL-Shikh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major roads in Yemen are not paved and its population density is high in coastal areas, implementing the idea of intermodal transportation method all over the coastline will give the product industries a huge advantages, due to its attractive solutions to the poor transportation infrastructure and its extremely limited road transportation system. The transport of goods in Yemen depends heavily on road transport in the absence of rail transport and limited movement by air transport and its high cost, the private sector provides the bulk of land transport services (goods and has accompanied the performance of road transport activities in the absence of regulation and supervision. In this research paper the author intends to analyse and develop optimal intermodal freight transportation plans for product shipping in Yemen by using two modes of transport (truck, ship without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. Using intermodal transportation is vital for the product movement and supplies when single mode alternative becomes unusable or infeasible. The author intends to use quantitative research method, plan and execute fieldwork, collecting data form freight companies (truck, ship, local factories, Ministry of Transportation, etc. Compile preliminary maps of roads condition and population density. First the author intends to visit the Ministry of Transport to closely monitor the program and objectives of the Ministry and the secret of work and projects in which it is implemented and meet with its representative for the purpose of collecting data and evidence of the difficulties it faces in order to become familiar with it Comprehensively and directly on its problems and study the possible solutions. , the author will intend to visit Aden and Hodeida ports to view the service and facilities for a better understanding of the processes and to examine the availabilities of intermodal transportation freight and collect data of sea

  12. Optimal transportation networks models and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernot, Marc; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    The transportation problem can be formalized as the problem of finding the optimal way to transport a given measure into another with the same mass. In contrast to the Monge-Kantorovitch problem, recent approaches model the branched structure of such supply networks as minima of an energy functional whose essential feature is to favour wide roads. Such a branched structure is observable in ground transportation networks, in draining and irrigation systems, in electrical power supply systems and in natural counterparts such as blood vessels or the branches of trees. These lectures provide mathematical proof of several existence, structure and regularity properties empirically observed in transportation networks. The link with previous discrete physical models of irrigation and erosion models in geomorphology and with discrete telecommunication and transportation models is discussed. It will be mathematically proven that the majority fit in the simple model sketched in this volume.

  13. Data Transfer Advisor with Transport Profiling Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Wu, Chase Qishi [New Jersey Institute of Technology; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Jung, Eun-sung [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2017-11-01

    The network infrastructures have been rapidly upgraded in many high-performance networks (HPNs). However, such infrastructure investment has not led to corresponding performance improvement in big data transfer, especially at the application layer, largely due to the complexity of optimizing transport control on end hosts. We design and implement ProbData, a PRofiling Optimization Based DAta Transfer Advisor, to help users determine the most effective data transfer method with the most appropriate control parameter values to achieve the best data transfer performance. ProbData employs a profiling optimization based approach to exploit the optimal operational zone of various data transfer methods in support of big data transfer in extreme scale scientific applications. We present a theoretical framework of the optimized profiling approach employed in ProbData as wellas its detailed design and implementation. The advising procedure and performance benefits of ProbData are illustrated and evaluated by proof-of-concept experiments in real-life networks.

  14. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The design of structures and engineering systems has always been an iterative process whose complexity was dependent upon the boundary conditions, constraints and available analytical tools. Transportation packaging design is no exception with structural, thermal and radiation shielding constraints based on regulatory hypothetical accident conditions. Transportation packaging design is often accomplished by a group of specialists, each designing a single component based on one or more simple criteria, pooling results with the group, evaluating the open-quotes pooledclose quotes design, and then reiterating the entire process until a satisfactory design is reached. The manual iterative methods used by the designer/analyst can be summarized in the following steps: design the part, analyze the part, interpret the analysis results, modify the part, and re-analyze the part. The inefficiency of this design practice and the frequently conservative result suggests the need for a more structured design methodology, which can simultaneously consider all of the design constraints. Numerical optimization is a structured design methodology whose maturity in development has allowed it to become a primary design tool in many industries. The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  15. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  16. Optimal urban networks via mass transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Buttazzo, Giuseppe; Stepanov, Eugene; Solimini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recently much attention has been devoted to the optimization of transportation networks in a given geographic area. One assumes the distributions of population and of services/workplaces (i.e. the network's sources and sinks) are known, as well as the costs of movement with/without the network, and the cost of constructing/maintaining it. Both the long-term optimization and the short-term, "who goes where" optimization are considered. These models can also be adapted for the optimization of other types of networks, such as telecommunications, pipeline or drainage networks. In the monograph we study the most general problem settings, namely, when neither the shape nor even the topology of the network to be constructed is known a priori.

  17. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Multi-Scale Characean Experimental System: From Electrophysiology of Membrane Transporters to Cell-to-Cell Connectivity, Cytoplasmic Streaming and Auxin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of characean algae could be mistaken for a higher plant: stem-like axes with leaf-like branchlets anchored in the soil by root-like rhizoids. However, all of these structures are made up of giant multinucleate cells separated by multicellular nodal complexes. The excised internodal cells survive long enough for the nodes to give rise to new thallus. The size of the internodes and their thick cytoplasmic layer minimize impalement injury and allow specific micro-electrode placement. The cell structure can be manipulated by centrifugation, perfusion of cell contents or creation of cytoplasmic droplets, allowing access to both vacuolar and cytoplasmic compartments and both sides of the cell membranes. Thousands of electrical measurements on intact or altered cells and cytoplasmic droplets laid down basis to modern plant electrophysiology. Furthermore, the giant internodal cells and whole thalli facilitate research into many other plant properties. As nutrients have to be transported from rhizoids to growing parts of the thallus and hormonal signals need to pass from cell to cell, Characeae possess very fast cytoplasmic streaming. The mechanism was resolved in the characean model. Plasmodesmata between the internodal cells and nodal complexes facilitate transport of ions, nutrients and photosynthates across the nodes. The internal structure was found to be similar to those of higher plants. Recent experiments suggest a strong circadian influence on metabolic pathways producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and serotonin/melatonin. The review will discuss the impact of the characean models arising from fragments of cells, single cells, cell-to-cell transport or whole thalli on understanding of plant evolution and physiology. PMID:27504112

  19. Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool : Description, Methodology, and Demonstration Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes an Alternative Fuel Transportation Optimization Tool (AFTOT), developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) in support of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)....

  20. Cytoplasmic Flow Enhances Organelle Dispersion in Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslover, Elena; Mogre, Saurabh; Chan, Caleb; Theriot, Julie

    The cytoplasm of a living cell is an active environment through which intracellular components move and mix. We explore, using theoretical modeling coupled with microrheological measurements, the efficiency of particle dispersion via different modes of transport within this active environment. In particular, we focus on the role of cytoplasmic flow over different scales in contributing to organelle transport within two different cell types. In motile neutrophil cells, we show that bulk fluid flow associated with rapid cell deformation enhances particle transport to and from the cell periphery. In narrow fungal hyphae, localized flows due to hydrodynamic entrainment are shown to contribute to optimally efficient organelle dispersion. Our results highlight the importance of non-traditional modes of transport associated with flow of the cytoplasmic fluid in the distribution of organelles throughout eukaryotic cells.

  1. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  2. Optimized two dimension SN transport (Bistro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Rieunier, J.M.; Gho, C.

    1987-01-01

    A S N two dimension transport module has been developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR. The aim in the development has been the optimization of algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A particular form of diffusion synthetic acceleration has been adopted and a particular effort has been devoted in solving efficiently the associated diffusion equation. The improvements in the algorithms along with the use of an efficient programming language leads to a significant gain in computational time with respect to DOT code

  3. Topology Optimization of Active Transport Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    Fluid flows with particle transport are common in many industrial processes and components. The design of components for addition or removal of particles as well as mixing or stratification is of great importance in the specific processes. This work presents a methodology to apply topology....... The paper present the design and optimization of a particle separator and the important interpolation for modeling both solids, fluids and particles with a monolithic problem formulation. The interplay with the physics behind the model are discussed and the influence of parameters are demonstrated....

  4. Parameter optimization for surface flux transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbread, T.; Yeates, A. R.; Muñoz-Jaramillo, A.; Petrie, G. J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate prediction of solar activity calls for precise calibration of solar cycle models. Consequently we aim to find optimal parameters for models which describe the physical processes on the solar surface, which in turn act as proxies for what occurs in the interior and provide source terms for coronal models. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize surface flux transport models using National Solar Observatory (NSO) magnetogram data for Solar Cycle 23. This is applied to both a 1D model that inserts new magnetic flux in the form of idealized bipolar magnetic regions, and also to a 2D model that assimilates specific shapes of real active regions. The genetic algorithm searches for parameter sets (meridional flow speed and profile, supergranular diffusivity, initial magnetic field, and radial decay time) that produce the best fit between observed and simulated butterfly diagrams, weighted by a latitude-dependent error structure which reflects uncertainty in observations. Due to the easily adaptable nature of the 2D model, the optimization process is repeated for Cycles 21, 22, and 24 in order to analyse cycle-to-cycle variation of the optimal solution. We find that the ranges and optimal solutions for the various regimes are in reasonable agreement with results from the literature, both theoretical and observational. The optimal meridional flow profiles for each regime are almost entirely within observational bounds determined by magnetic feature tracking, with the 2D model being able to accommodate the mean observed profile more successfully. Differences between models appear to be important in deciding values for the diffusive and decay terms. In like fashion, differences in the behaviours of different solar cycles lead to contrasts in parameters defining the meridional flow and initial field strength.

  5. Cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA is mainly transported by diffusion in the presence or absence of Gag protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianbo; Grunwald, David; Sardo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    . In this report, we visualized HIV-1 RNA and monitored its movement in the cytoplasm by using single-molecule tracking. We observed that most of the HIV-1 RNA molecules move in a nondirectional, random-walk manner, which does not require an intact cytoskeletal structure, and that the mean-squared distance...... traveled by the RNA increases linearly with time, indicative of diffusive movement. We also observed that a single HIV-1 RNA molecule can move at various speeds when traveling through the cytoplasm, indicating that its movement is strongly affected by the immediate environment. To examine the effect of Gag...

  6. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since the design of transportation packages involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal and radiation shielding analyses and must follow very strict design constraints, numerical optimization provides the potential for more efficient container designs. In numerical optimization, the requirements of the design problem are mathematically formulated through the use of an objective function and constraints. The objective function(s), e.g., package weight, cost, volume, or combination thereof, is the function to be minimized or maximized by altering a set of design variables that define the package's shape and dimensions. Constraints are limitations on the performance of the system, such as resisting structural and thermal accident environments. Two constraints defined for an example wire mesh composite Type B package are: 1) deformation in the containment vessel seal region remains small enough throughout the 10 CFR-71 accident conditions to meet containment criteria, and 2) the elastomeric seal region remains below its operational temperature limit to guarantee seal integrity in the fire environment. The first constraint of a minimum energy absorbing layer thickness is evaluated with finite element analyses of the proposed dynamic crush accident criteria. The second constraint is evaluated with a 1-D transient thermal finite difference code parametrized for variable composite layer thicknesses, and is integrated with the optimization process. (J.P.N.)

  7. Shape signature based on Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Su, Zengyu; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wei; Dai, Junfei; Gu, Xianfeng

    2014-11-01

    A shape signature based on surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation is introduced for the purpose of surface comparison. First, the surface is conformally mapped onto plane by Ricci flow, which induces a measure on the planar domain. Second, the unique optimal mass transport map is computed that transports the new measure to the canonical measure on the plane. The map is obtained by a convex optimization process. This optimal transport map encodes all the information of the Riemannian metric on the surface. The shape signature consists of the optimal transport map, together with the mean curvature, which can fully recover the original surface. The discrete theories of surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation are explained thoroughly. The algorithms are given in detail. The signature is tested on human facial surfaces with different expressions accquired by structured light 3-D scanner based on phase-shifting method. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the method.

  8. Particle swarm optimization - Genetic algorithm (PSOGA) on linear transportation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmalia, Dinita

    2017-08-01

    Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) is the case of constrained optimization where we want to minimize cost subject to the balance of the number of supply and the number of demand. The exact method such as northwest corner, vogel, russel, minimal cost have been applied at approaching optimal solution. In this paper, we use heurisitic like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving linear transportation problem at any size of decision variable. In addition, we combine mutation operator of Genetic Algorithm (GA) at PSO to improve optimal solution. This method is called Particle Swarm Optimization - Genetic Algorithm (PSOGA). The simulations show that PSOGA can improve optimal solution resulted by PSO.

  9. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan, E-mail: swapan2009sajal@gmail.com; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr., E-mail: bidyut53@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  10. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length

  11. Heuristic Optimization Approach to Selecting a Transport Connection in City Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul’ka Jozef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a heuristic optimization approach to select a suitable transport connection in the framework of a city public transport. This methodology was applied on a part of the public transport in Košice, because it is the second largest city in the Slovak Republic and its network of the public transport creates a complex transport system, which consists of three different transport modes, namely from the bus transport, tram transport and trolley-bus transport. This solution focused on examining the individual transport services and their interconnection in relevant interchange points.

  12. Optimizing sales areas of combined transport chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Michalk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined transport chains (such as intermodal transport, have certain advantages. The main advantage from customer points of view is the possibility to bundle freight and thereby decrease transport costs. On the other hand, a combined transport chain can cause longer transport times, due to the necessary transshipment processes. Methods: The area around a terminal, in which a combined service has favourable properties to a customer in comparison to a direct transport, can be understood as a sales-area, in which a combined transport product is marketable. The aim of this paper was to find a method to determine the best shape and size of this area. Results and conclusions: The paper at hand lined out a method in order to calculate such a sales area and determine which geographical points around a terminal have an advantage in comparison to a direct transport service.

  13. Procedures for Dealing with Optimism Bias in Transport Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Glenting, Carsten; Rønnest, Arne Kvist

    of the document are to provide empirically based optimism bias up-lifts for selected reference classes of transport infrastructure projects and provide guidance on using the established uplifts to produce more realistic forecasts for the individual project's capital expenditures. Furthermore, the underlying...... causes and institutional context for optimism bias in British transport projects are discussed and some possibilities for reducing optimism bias in project preparation and decision-making are identified....

  14. Global Optimization for Transport Network Expansion and Signal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haoxiang; Wang, David Z. W.; Yue, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to address an urban transport planning problem involving combined network design and signal setting in a saturated network. Conventional transport planning models usually deal with the network design problem and signal setting problem separately. However, the fact that network capacity design and capacity allocation determined by network signal setting combine to govern the transport network performance requires the optimal transport planning to consider the two pr...

  15. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transport Routes Optimization Model Through Application of Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bortas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport policy of the European Union is based on the mission of restructuring road traffic into other and energy-favourable transport modes which have not been sufficiently represented yet. Therefore, the development of the inland waterway and rail transport, and connectivity in the intermodal transport network are development planning priorities of the European transport strategy. The aim of this research study was to apply the scientific methodology and thus analyse the factors that affect the distribution of the goods flows and by using the fuzzy logic to make an optimization model, according to the criteria of minimizing the costs and negative impact on the environment, for the selection of the optimal transport route. Testing of the model by simulation, was performed on the basis of evaluating the criteria of the influential parameters with unprecise and indefinite input parameters. The testing results show that by the distribution of the goods flow from road transport network to inland waterways or rail transport, can be predicted in advance and determine the transport route with optimal characteristics. The results of the performed research study will be used to improve the process of planning the transport service, with the aim of reducing the transport costs and environmental pollution.

  17. Formulation of optimal international freight transport objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jarašūnienė

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available To increase the attraction of Lithuania as a transit country striving to promote carriers' border crossing activities and facilitate customs clearance procedures as well as freight delivery to clients it is necessary to identify the main obstacles, to analyse them and to select adequate measures and means for their elimination. Therefore, on the basis of the formulation of transport freight management objective, as well as basing on the assessment of indeterminacy of external impacts, it would be possible to deduce the main causes of idle time of transport means in customs, to estimate the dependence of service time in proportion to transport flow.

  18. Optimizing transport in a homogeneous network

    OpenAIRE

    WEAIRE, DENIS LAWRENCE

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED Many situations in physics, biology, and engineering consist of the transport of some physical quantity through a network of narrow channels. The ability of a network to transport such a quantity in every direction can be described by the average conductivity associated with it. When the flow through each channel is conserved and derives from a potential function, we show that there exists an upper bound of the average conductivity and explicitly give the expression f...

  19. Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, M.; Franek, M.; Schonlieb, C.-B.

    2012-01-01

    for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations

  20. Optimizing outlays for transporting agricultural peat to the consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanov, Ye S; Prisadkov, V I; Silant' yeza, G P

    1979-01-01

    An economic-mathematical model is described for supplying the consumers with agricultural peat and the corresponding computer program. Certain results are presented of calculating the optimal plans for transporting peat from the enterprises of the association Kalinintorf.

  1. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  3. Optimal perturbations for nonlinear systems using graph-based optimal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Elamvazhuthi, Karthik

    2018-06-01

    We formulate and solve a class of finite-time transport and mixing problems in the set-oriented framework. The aim is to obtain optimal discrete-time perturbations in nonlinear dynamical systems to transport a specified initial measure on the phase space to a final measure in finite time. The measure is propagated under system dynamics in between the perturbations via the associated transfer operator. Each perturbation is described by a deterministic map in the measure space that implements a version of Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport with quadratic cost. Hence, the optimal solution minimizes a sum of quadratic costs on phase space transport due to the perturbations applied at specified times. The action of the transport map is approximated by a continuous pseudo-time flow on a graph, resulting in a tractable convex optimization problem. This problem is solved via state-of-the-art solvers to global optimality. We apply this algorithm to a problem of transport between measures supported on two disjoint almost-invariant sets in a chaotic fluid system, and to a finite-time optimal mixing problem by choosing the final measure to be uniform. In both cases, the optimal perturbations are found to exploit the phase space structures, such as lobe dynamics, leading to efficient global transport. As the time-horizon of the problem is increased, the optimal perturbations become increasingly localized. Hence, by combining the transfer operator approach with ideas from the theory of optimal mass transportation, we obtain a discrete-time graph-based algorithm for optimal transport and mixing in nonlinear systems.

  4. Cation diffusion facilitators transport initiation and regulation is mediated by cation induced conformational changes of the cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Zeytuni

    Full Text Available Cation diffusion facilitators (CDF are part of a highly conserved protein family that maintains cellular divalent cation homeostasis in all domains of life. CDF's were shown to be involved in several human diseases, such as Type-II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we employed a multi-disciplinary approach to study the activation mechanism of the CDF protein family. For this we used MamM, one of the main ion transporters of magnetosomes--bacterial organelles that enable magnetotactic bacteria to orientate along geomagnetic fields. Our results reveal that the cytosolic domain of MamM forms a stable dimer that undergoes distinct conformational changes upon divalent cation binding. MamM conformational change is associated with three metal binding sites that were identified and characterized. Altogether, our results provide a novel auto-regulation mode of action model in which the cytosolic domain's conformational changes upon ligand binding allows the priming of the CDF into its transport mode.

  5. Optimizing sealed transports of small ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Esteves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on multiple simulated long-term transports of small ornamental fish inside plastic bags. The species involved were Diplodus sargus, Gobius paganellus, Gobiusculus flavescens, Lepadogaster lepadogaster and Lipophrys pholis. The objective of such simulations was moving the maximum bioload possible while ensuring 100% survivorship, ultimately resulting in savings for the end-receiver. Transports were simulated over 24, 48 and 72 hours, with increasing animal bioloads per bag. Half of the trials were performed with “regular” saltwater while the other half involved seawater buffered with Amquel ®, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, with the objective of keeping ammonia low and pH similar to initial baseline values. At the end of each trial, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and ammonia were analized and the survival rate calculated and recorded. L. lepadogaster endured the highest bioloads at 100% survivorship (i.e. up to 30 g / L, which is not surprising given the intertidal nature of this species. D. sargus exhibited mortalities with bioloads as low as 3,23 g / L, which echoes its predominantly pelagic nature and relatively lesser ability to endure confinement. The three remaining species showed varying degrees of tolerance to increasing bioloads in transport: L. pholis, also an intertidal species, handled up to 20 g/L over 72 hours, while G. paganellus handled up to 7 g/L over 72 hours, and G. flavescens (a predominantly pelagic species could deal with no more than 6 g/L up to 72 hours.

  6. Optimal partial mass transportation and obstacle Monge-Kantorovich equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbida, Noureddine; Nguyen, Van Thanh

    2018-05-01

    Optimal partial mass transport, which is a variant of the optimal transport problem, consists in transporting effectively a prescribed amount of mass from a source to a target. The problem was first studied by Caffarelli and McCann (2010) [6] and Figalli (2010) [12] with a particular attention to the quadratic cost. Our aim here is to study the optimal partial mass transport problem with Finsler distance costs including the Monge cost given by the Euclidian distance. Our approach is different and our results do not follow from previous works. Among our results, we introduce a PDE of Monge-Kantorovich type with a double obstacle to characterize active submeasures, Kantorovich potential and optimal flow for the optimal partial transport problem. This new PDE enables us to study the uniqueness and monotonicity results for the active submeasures. Another interesting issue of our approach is its convenience for numerical analysis and computations that we develop in a separate paper [14] (Igbida and Nguyen, 2018).

  7. Optimal block-tridiagonalization of matrices for coherent charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, Michael; Richter, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Numerical quantum transport calculations are commonly based on a tight-binding formulation. A wide class of quantum transport algorithms require the tight-binding Hamiltonian to be in the form of a block-tridiagonal matrix. Here, we develop a matrix reordering algorithm based on graph partitioning techniques that yields the optimal block-tridiagonal form for quantum transport. The reordered Hamiltonian can lead to significant performance gains in transport calculations, and allows to apply conventional two-terminal algorithms to arbitrarily complex geometries, including multi-terminal structures. The block-tridiagonalization algorithm can thus be the foundation for a generic quantum transport code, applicable to arbitrary tight-binding systems. We demonstrate the power of this approach by applying the block-tridiagonalization algorithm together with the recursive Green's function algorithm to various examples of mesoscopic transport in two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductors and graphene.

  8. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  9. Sustainable logistics and transportation optimization models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Focused on the logistics and transportation operations within a supply chain, this book brings together the latest models, algorithms, and optimization possibilities. Logistics and transportation problems are examined within a sustainability perspective to offer a comprehensive assessment of environmental, social, ethical, and economic performance measures. Featured models, techniques, and algorithms may be used to construct policies on alternative transportation modes and technologies, green logistics, and incentives by the incorporation of environmental, economic, and social measures. Researchers, professionals, and graduate students in urban regional planning, logistics, transport systems, optimization, supply chain management, business administration, information science, mathematics, and industrial and systems engineering will find the real life and interdisciplinary issues presented in this book informative and useful.

  10. Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Kaare P.; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute

    2004-11-01

    This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)

  11. Neoclassical bootstrap current and transport in optimized stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Lotz, W.; Nuehrenberg, J.

    1993-01-01

    The neoclassical bootstrap current properties of optimized stellarators are analyzed in the relevant mean-free-path regimes and compared with the neoclassical transport properties. Two methods---global Monte Carlo simulation [Phys. Fluids 31, 2984 (1988)], and local analysis with the drift kinetic equation solver code [Phys. Fluids B 1, 563 (1989)]---are employed and good agreement is obtained. Full consistency with the elimination of the bootstrap current and favorable neoclassical transport are found

  12. Regularity of optimal transport maps on multiple products of spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Figalli, Alessio; Kim, Young-Heon; McCann, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses regularity of optimal transport maps for cost="squared distance" on Riemannian manifolds that are products of arbitrarily many round spheres with arbitrary sizes and dimensions. Such manifolds are known to be non-negatively cross-curved [KM2]. Under boundedness and non-vanishing assumptions on the transfered source and target densities we show that optimal maps stay away from the cut-locus (where the cost exhibits singularity), and obtain injectivity and continuity of o...

  13. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  14. Optimal Operation of Interdependent Power Systems and Electrified Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hadi Amini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrified transportation and power systems are mutually coupled networks. In this paper, a novel framework is developed for interdependent power and transportation networks. Our approach constitutes solving an iterative least cost vehicle routing process, which utilizes the communication of electrified vehicles (EVs with competing charging stations, to exchange data such as electricity price, energy demand, and time of arrival. The EV routing problem is solved to minimize the total cost of travel using the Dijkstra algorithm with the input from EVs battery management system, electricity price from charging stations, powertrain component efficiencies and transportation network traffic conditions. Through the bidirectional communication of EVs with competing charging stations, EVs’ charging demand estimation is done much more accurately. Then the optimal power flow problem is solved for the power system, to find the locational marginal price at load buses where charging stations are connected. Finally, the electricity prices were communicated from the charging stations to the EVs, and the loop is closed. Locational electricity price acts as the shared parameter between the two optimization problems, i.e., optimal power flow and optimal routing problem. Electricity price depends on the power demand, which is affected by the charging of EVs. On the other hand, location of EV charging stations and their different pricing strategies might affect the routing decisions of the EVs. Our novel approach that combines the electrified transportation with power system operation, holds tremendous potential for solving electrified transportation issues and reducing energy costs. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using Shanghai transportation network and IEEE 9-bus test system. The results verify the cost-savings for both power system and transportation networks.

  15. Electron heat transport analysis of low-collisionality plasmas in the neoclassical-transport-optimized configuration of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Arimitsu

    2002-01-01

    Electron heat transport in low-collisionality LHD plasma is investigated in order to study the neoclassical transport optimization effect on thermal plasma transport with an optimization level typical of so-called ''advanced stellarators''. In the central region, a higher electron temperature is obtained in the optimized configuration, and transport analysis suggests the considerable effect of neoclassical transport on the electron heat transport assuming the ion-root level of radial electric field. The obtained experimental results support future reactor design in which the neoclassical and/or anomalous transports are reduced by magnetic field optimization in a non-axisymmetric configuration. (author)

  16. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.

    2015-05-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.

  17. Optimizing itineraries in public transportation with walks between rides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Teunter, Ruud H.

    We study the problem of finding an optimal itinerary to travel from a starting location to a destination location using public transport, where we allow travelers to alternate rides with (short) walks. The main difference with previous research is that we take all possible walks that a traveler can

  18. Managing supply chains : transport optimization and chain synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, T.; Dabia, S.; de Kok, A.G.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Huijbregts, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2011-01-01

    Transport optimization is part of the broad area of physical distribution and logistics management. Physical distribution involves the handling, movement, and storage of goods from the point of origin to their point of consumption or use, via various channels of distribution. Logistics management

  19. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...... storage in combination with heat pumps and heat boilers, and plug-in electric vehicles....

  20. Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Box 90300 Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Joint Institute, University of Michigan—Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murdoch, David M. [Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kim, CheolGi [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-28

    The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.

  1. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabiditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex (“cortical flow”) is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region (“cytoplasmic flow”) is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos. PMID:21730185

  2. An optimization model for transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, M.; Kheirkhah, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal routing problem for transportation of hazardous materials is studied. Routing for the purpose of reducing the risk of transportation of hazardous materials has been studied and formulated by many researcher and several routing models have been presented up to now. These models can be classified into the categories: the models for routing a single movement and the models for routing multiple movements. In this paper, according to the current rules and regulations of road transportations of hazardous materials in Iran, a routing problem is designed. In this problem, the routs for several independent movements are simultaneously determined. To examine the model, the problem the transportations of two different dangerous materials in the road network of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran is formulated and solved by applying Integer programming model

  3. Optimizing the patient transport function at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchera, Dustin; Rohleder, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report on the implementation of a computerized scheduling tool to optimize staffing for patient transport at the Mayo Clinic. The tool was developed and implemented in Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic for Applications and includes an easy-to-use interface. The tool allows transport management to consider the trade-offs between patient waiting time and staffing levels. While improved staffing efficiency was a desire of the project, it was important that patient service quality was also maintained. The results show that staffing could be reduced while maintaining historical patient service levels.

  4. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartwright L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laura Cartwright1, Marie Sønnegaard Poulsen2, Hanne Mørck Nielsen3, Giulio Pojana4, Lisbeth E Knudsen2, Margaret Saunders1, Erik Rytting2,51Bristol Initiative for Research of Child Health (BIRCH, Biophysics Research Unit, St Michael's Hospital, UH Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, UK; 2University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, 3University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice, Venice, Italy; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USABackground: Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman's exposure to nanoparticles could have significant effects on the fetus developing in the womb. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to optimize an in vitro model for characterizing the transport of nanoparticles across human placental trophoblast cells.Methods: The growth of BeWo (clone b30 human placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium transport. Following the determination of nontoxic concentrations of fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles, the cellular uptake and transport of 50 nm and 100 nm diameter particles was measured using the in vitro BeWo cell model.Results: Particle size measurements, fluorescence readings, and confocal microscopy indicated both cellular uptake of

  5. Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...

  6. Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Patrick; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry,...

  7. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the ...

  8. In vitro placental model optimization for nanoparticle transport studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, Laura; Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advances in biomedical nanotechnology raise hopes in patient populations but may also raise questions regarding biodistribution and biocompatibility, especially during pregnancy. Special consideration must be given to the placenta as a biological barrier because a pregnant woman...... placental choriocarcinoma cells for nanoparticle transport studies was characterized in terms of optimized Transwell® insert type and pore size, the investigation of barrier properties by transmission electron microscopy, tight junction staining, transepithelial electrical resistance, and fluorescein sodium...

  9. Optimal Transport for Data Fusion in Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Courty , Nicolas; Flamary , Rémi; Tuia , Devis; Corpetti , Thomas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; One of the main objective of data fusion is the integration of several acquisition of the same physical object, in order to build a new consistent representation that embeds all the information from the different modalities. In this paper, we propose the use of optimal transport theory as a powerful mean of establishing correspondences between the modalities. After reviewing important properties and computational aspects, we showcase its application to three remote sen...

  10. Optimization for routing vehicles of seafood product transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenandi, I. A.; Juan, Y.; Budi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, increasing usage of marine products is creating new challenges for businesses of marine products in terms of transportation that used to carry the marine products like seafood to the main warehouse. This can be a problem if the carrier fleet is limited, and there are time constraints in terms of the freshness of the marine product. There are many ways to solve this problem, including the optimization of routing vehicles. In this study, this strategy is to implement in the marine product business in Indonesia with such an expected arrangement of the company to optimize routing problem in transportation with time and capacity windows. Until now, the company has not used the scientific method to manage the routing of their vehicle from warehouse to the location of marine products source. This study will solve a stochastic Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) with time and capacity windows by using the comparison of six methods and looking the best results for the optimization, in this situation the company could choose the best method, in accordance with the existing condition. In this research, we compared the optimization with another method such as branch and bound, dynamic programming and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Finally, we get the best result after running ACO algorithm with existing travel time data. With ACO algorithm was able to reduce vehicle travel time by 3189.65 minutes, which is about 23% less than existing and based on consideration of the constraints of time within 2 days (including rest time for the driver) using 28 tons capacity of truck and the companies need two units of vehicles for transportation.

  11. Routing and Scheduling Optimization Model of Sea Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    barus, Mika debora br; asyrafy, Habib; nababan, Esther; mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the routing and scheduling optimization model of sea transportation. One of the issues discussed is about the transportation of ships carrying crude oil (tankers) which is distributed to many islands. The consideration is the cost of transportation which consists of travel costs and the cost of layover at the port. Crude oil to be distributed consists of several types. This paper develops routing and scheduling model taking into consideration some objective functions and constraints. The formulation of the mathematical model analyzed is to minimize costs based on the total distance visited by the tanker and minimize the cost of the ports. In order for the model of the problem to be more realistic and the cost calculated to be more appropriate then added a parameter that states the multiplier factor of cost increases as the charge of crude oil is filled.

  12. Topological Effects and Performance Optimization in Transportation Continuous Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limitation of budget, in the planning of road works, increased efforts should be made on links that are more critical to the whole traffic system. Therefore, it would be helpful to model and evaluate the vulnerability and reliability of the transportation network when the network design is processing. This paper proposes a bilevel transportation network design model, in which the upper level is to minimize the performance of the network under the given budgets, while the lower level is a typical user equilibrium assignment problem. A new solution approach based on particle swarm optimization (PSO method is presented. The topological effects on the performance of transportation networks are studied with the consideration of three typical networks, regular lattice, random graph, and small-world network. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to demonstrate the proposed model.

  13. Designing Nanostructures for Phonon Transport via Bayesian Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Ju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate optimization of thermal conductance across nanostructures by developing a method combining atomistic Green’s function and Bayesian optimization. With an aim to minimize and maximize the interfacial thermal conductance (ITC across Si-Si and Si-Ge interfaces by means of the Si/Ge composite interfacial structure, the method identifies the optimal structures from calculations of only a few percent of the entire candidates (over 60 000 structures. The obtained optimal interfacial structures are nonintuitive and impacting: the minimum ITC structure is an aperiodic superlattice that realizes 50% reduction from the best periodic superlattice. The physical mechanism of the minimum ITC can be understood in terms of the crossover of the two effects on phonon transport: as the layer thickness in the superlattice increases, the impact of Fabry-Pérot interference increases, and the rate of reflection at the layer interfaces decreases. An aperiodic superlattice with spatial variation in the layer thickness has a degree of freedom to realize optimal balance between the above two competing mechanisms. Furthermore, the spatial variation enables weakening the impact of constructive phonon interference relative to that of destructive interference. The present work shows the effectiveness and advantage of material informatics in designing nanostructures to control heat conduction, which can be extended to other nanostructures and properties.

  14. Optimization of pipeline transport for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Rudolph, V.

    2006-01-01

    Coal fired power generation will continue to provide energy to the world for the foreseeable future. However, this energy use is a significant contributor to increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and, hence, global warming. Capture and disposal of CO 2 has received increased R and D attention in the last decade as the technology promises to be the most cost effective for large scale reductions in CO 2 emissions. This paper addresses CO 2 transport via pipeline from capture site to disposal site, in terms of system optimization, energy efficiency and overall economics. Technically, CO 2 can be transported through pipelines in the form of a gas, a supercritical fluid or in the subcooled liquid state. Operationally, most CO 2 pipelines used for enhanced oil recovery transport CO 2 as a supercritical fluid. In this paper, supercritical fluid and subcooled liquid transport are examined and compared, including their impacts on energy efficiency and cost. Using a commercially available process simulator, ASPEN PLUS 10.1, the results show that subcooled liquid transport maximizes the energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO 2 transport over long distances under both isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Pipeline transport of subcooled liquid CO 2 can be ideally used in areas of cold climate or by burying and insulating the pipeline. In very warm climates, periodic refrigeration to cool the CO 2 below its critical point of 31.1 o C, may prove economical. Simulations have been used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature and ground level heat flux conditions

  15. 3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Johnson, Sara J. [Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Physics Department, Clarion, PA 16214 (United States); Grant, Gabriel B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent development of Google Earth, an information service that provides imagery and three-dimensional data depicting the entire Earth, provides an opportunity to use a new method of navigating information to save energy in the real world. Google Earth uses Keyhole Markup Language (KML) for modeling and storing geographic features and information for display in the Google Earth Client. This paper will analyze the potential of this novel and free geographic mapping service to reduce embodied energy of transportation in two ways. First, at the consumer level, Google Earth will be studied to map the automobile route that uses the least fuel and maintains vehicle velocities at their individual maximum fuel efficiency. The same analysis for single destination trips could be used to optimize fleet vehicle routes such as garbage or recycling collection trucks. The secondary benefit of ecological education will also be explored. Fuel used could be converted into monetary units based on the current price of gas, pollution/greenhouse gas emissions, or ecological footprints to improve driving habits. Secondly, KML overlays will be analyzed for use of determining: (1) raw material and products availability as a function of location, and (2) modes of transportation as a function of emissions. These overlays would enable manufacturers access to an easily navigable method to optimize the life cycle of their products by minimizing embodied energy of transportation. The most efficient transportation methods and travel routes could be calculated. This same tool would be useful for architects to obtain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating points for the green design of buildings. Overall, the analysis completed finds that the flexibility and visual display of quantitative information made available by Google Earth could have a significant impact at conserving fuel resources by reducing the embodied energy of transportation on a global scale. (author)

  16. Optimal Filtering in Mass Transport Modeling From Satellite Gravimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmar, P.; Hashemi Farahani, H.; Klees, R.

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring natural mass transport in the Earth's system, which has marked a new era in Earth observation, is largely based on the data collected by the GRACE satellite mission. Unfortunately, this mission is not free from certain limitations, two of which are especially critical. Firstly, its sensitivity is strongly anisotropic: it senses the north-south component of the mass re-distribution gradient much better than the east-west component. Secondly, it suffers from a trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution: a high (e.g., daily) temporal resolution is only possible if the spatial resolution is sacrificed. To make things even worse, the GRACE satellites enter occasionally a phase when their orbit is characterized by a short repeat period, which makes it impossible to reach a high spatial resolution at all. A way to mitigate limitations of GRACE measurements is to design optimal data processing procedures, so that all available information is fully exploited when modeling mass transport. This implies, in particular, that an unconstrained model directly derived from satellite gravimetry data needs to be optimally filtered. In principle, this can be realized with a Wiener filter, which is built on the basis of covariance matrices of noise and signal. In practice, however, a compilation of both matrices (and, therefore, of the filter itself) is not a trivial task. To build the covariance matrix of noise in a mass transport model, it is necessary to start from a realistic model of noise in the level-1B data. Furthermore, a routine satellite gravimetry data processing includes, in particular, the subtraction of nuisance signals (for instance, associated with atmosphere and ocean), for which appropriate background models are used. Such models are not error-free, which has to be taken into account when the noise covariance matrix is constructed. In addition, both signal and noise covariance matrices depend on the type of mass transport processes under

  17. Experimental transport phenomena and optimization strategies for thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, A C; Gillespie, D J

    1997-07-01

    When a new and promising thermoelectric material is discovered, an effort is undertaken to improve its figure of merit. If the effort is to be more efficient than one of trial and error with perhaps some rule of thumb guidance then it is important to be able to make the connection between experimental data and the underlying material characteristics, electronic and phononic, that influence the figure of merit. Transport and fermiology experimental data can be used to evaluate these material characteristics and thus establish trends as a function of some controllable parameter, such as composition. In this paper some of the generic-materials characteristics, generally believed to be required for a high figure of merit, will be discussed in terms of the experimental approach to their evaluation and optimization. Transport and fermiology experiments will be emphasized and both will be outlined in what they can reveal and what can be obscured by the simplifying assumptions generally used in their interpretation.

  18. Contributions to optimization of storage and transporting industrial goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Glăvan, D. O.; Glăvan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Optimization of storage and transporting industrial goods in a factory either from a constructive, functional, or technological point of view is a determinant parameter in programming the manufacturing process, the performance of the whole process being determined by the correlation realized taking in consideration those two factors (optimization and programming the process). It is imperative to take into consideration each type of production program (range), to restrain as much as possible the area that we are using and to minimize the times of execution, all of these in order to satisfy the client’s needs, to try to classify them in order to be able to define a global software (with general rules) that is expected to fulfil each client’s needs.

  19. ON PROBLEM OF REGIONAL WAREHOUSE AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Miretskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests an approach of solving the problem of warehouse and transport infrastructure optimization in a region. The task is to determine the optimal capacity and location of the support network of warehouses in the region, as well as power, composition and location of motor fleets. Optimization is carried out using mathematical models of a regional warehouse network and a network of motor fleets. These models are presented as mathematical programming problems with separable functions. The process of finding the optimal solution of problems is complicated due to high dimensionality, non-linearity of functions, and the fact that a part of variables are constrained to integer, and some variables can take values only from a discrete set. Given the mentioned above complications search for an exact solution was rejected. The article suggests an approximate approach to solving problems. This approach employs effective computational schemes for solving multidimensional optimization problems. We use the continuous relaxation of the original problem to obtain its approximate solution. An approximately optimal solution of continuous relaxation is taken as an approximate solution of the original problem. The suggested solution method implies linearization of the obtained continuous relaxation and use of the separable programming scheme and the scheme of branches and bounds. We describe the use of the simplex method for solving the linearized continuous relaxation of the original problem and the specific moments of the branches and bounds method implementation. The paper shows the finiteness of the algorithm and recommends how to accelerate process of finding a solution.

  20. Surrogate-Based Optimization of Biogeochemical Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieß, Malte; Slawig, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    First approaches towards a surrogate-based optimization method for a one-dimensional marine biogeochemical model of NPZD type are presented. The model, developed by Oschlies and Garcon [1], simulates the distribution of nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus in a water column and is driven by ocean circulation data. A key issue is to minimize the misfit between the model output and given observational data. Our aim is to reduce the overall optimization cost avoiding expensive function and derivative evaluations by using a surrogate model replacing the high-fidelity model in focus. This in particular becomes important for more complex three-dimensional models. We analyse a coarsening in the discretization of the model equations as one way to create such a surrogate. Here the numerical stability crucially depends upon the discrete stepsize in time and space and the biochemical terms. We show that for given model parameters the level of grid coarsening can be choosen accordingly yielding a stable and satisfactory surrogate. As one example of a surrogate-based optimization method we present results of the Aggressive Space Mapping technique (developed by John W. Bandler [2, 3]) applied to the optimization of this one-dimensional biogeochemical transport model.

  1. The Cytoplasmic Carbonic Anhydrases βCA2 and βCA4 Are Required for Optimal Plant Growth at Low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Robert J; Quebedeaux, Jennifer C; Longstreth, David J; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Hartman, Monica M; Moroney, James V

    2016-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that interconvert CO2 and HCO3 (-) In plants, both α- and β-type CAs are present. We hypothesize that cytoplasmic βCAs are required to modulate inorganic carbon forms needed in leaf cells for carbon-requiring reactions such as photosynthesis and amino acid biosynthesis. In this report, we present evidence that βCA2 and βCA4 are the two most abundant cytoplasmic CAs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. Previously, βCA4 was reported to be localized to the plasma membrane, but here, we show that two forms of βCA4 are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and that the two proteins encoded by βCA4 localize to two different regions of the cell. Comparing transfer DNA knockout lines with wild-type plants, there was no reduction in the growth rates of the single mutants, βca2 and βca4 However, the growth rate of the double mutant, βca2βca4, was reduced significantly when grown at 200 μL L(-1) CO2 The reduction in growth of the double mutant was not linked to a reduction in photosynthetic rate. The amino acid content of leaves from the double mutant showed marked reduction in aspartate when compared with the wild type and the single mutants. This suggests the cytoplasmic CAs play an important but not previously appreciated role in amino acid biosynthesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P{sub x} x P{sub y} x P{sub z} partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10{sup 6}. (authors)

  3. Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D.; Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M.; Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P x x P y x P z partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10 6 . (authors)

  4. Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Raúl; Folch, Arnau; Farré, Pau; Cabezas, Javier; Navarro, Nacho; Cela, José María

    2016-12-01

    The performance and scalability of atmospheric transport models on high performance computing environments is often far from optimal for multiple reasons including, for example, sequential input and output, synchronous communications, work unbalance, memory access latency or lack of task overlapping. We investigate how different software optimizations and porting to non general-purpose hardware architectures improve code scalability and execution times considering, as an example, the FALL3D volcanic ash transport model. To this purpose, we implement the FALL3D model equations in the WARIS framework, a software designed from scratch to solve in a parallel and efficient way different geoscience problems on a wide variety of architectures. In addition, we consider further improvements in WARIS such as hybrid MPI-OMP parallelization, spatial blocking, auto-tuning and thread affinity. Considering all these aspects together, the FALL3D execution times for a realistic test case running on general-purpose cluster architectures (Intel Sandy Bridge) decrease by a factor between 7 and 40 depending on the grid resolution. Finally, we port the application to Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) and NVIDIA GPUs (CUDA) accelerator-based architectures and compare performance, cost and power consumption on all the architectures. Implications on time-constrained operational model configurations are discussed.

  5. Optimal thickness of hole transport layer in doped OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.C.; Zhou, J.; Zhao, J.M.; Zhang, S.T.; Zhan, Y.Q.; Wang, X.Z.; Wu, Y.; Ding, X.M.; Hou, X.Y. [Fudan University, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory), Shanghai (China)

    2006-06-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of organic light-emitting devices with N,N'-Di-[(1-naphthalenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) of various thicknesses as the hole transport layer, and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) selectively doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) as the electron transport layer, have been investigated. A trapped charge induced band bend model is proposed to explain the I-V characteristics. It is suggested that space charge changes the injection barrier and therefore influences the electron injection process in addition to the carrier transport process. Enhanced external quantum efficiency of the devices due to the electron blocking effect of an inserted NPB layer is observed. The optimal thickness of the NPB layer is experimentally determined to be 12{+-}3 nm in doped devices, a value different from that for undoped devices, which is attributed to the electron trap effect of DCM molecules. This is consistent with the result that the proportion of Alq{sub 3} luminescence in the total electroluminescence (EL) spectra increases with NPB thickness up to 12 nm under a fixed bias. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  7. Beam-transport optimization for cold-neutron spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakajima Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the design of the beam-transport system (especially the vertical geometry for a cold-neutron disk-chopper spectrometer AMATERAS at J-PARC. Based on the elliptical shape, which is one of the most effective geometries for a ballistic mirror, the design was optimized to obtain, at the sample position, a neutron beam with high flux without serious degrading in divergence and spacial homogeneity within the boundary conditions required from actual spectrometer construction. The optimum focal point was examined. An ideal elliptical shape was modified to reduce its height without serious loss of transmission. The final result was adapted to the construction requirements of AMATERAS. Although the ideas studied in this paper are considered for the AMATERAS case, they can be useful also to other spectrometers in similar situations.

  8. Regularized Regression and Density Estimation based on Optimal Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, M.

    2012-03-11

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a novel nonparametric approach for estimating and smoothing density functions as well as probability densities from discrete samples based on a variational regularization method with the Wasserstein metric as a data fidelity. The approach allows a unified treatment of discrete and continuous probability measures and is hence attractive for various tasks. In particular, the variational model for special regularization functionals yields a natural method for estimating densities and for preserving edges in the case of total variation regularization. In order to compute solutions of the variational problems, a regularized optimal transport problem needs to be solved, for which we discuss several formulations and provide a detailed analysis. Moreover, we compute special self-similar solutions for standard regularization functionals and we discuss several computational approaches and results. © 2012 The Author(s).

  9. A View on Optimal Transport from Noncommutative Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the relation between the Wasserstein distance of order 1 between probability distributions on a metric space, arising in the study of Monge-Kantorovich transport problem, and the spectral distance of noncommutative geometry. Starting from a remark of Rieffel on compact manifolds, we first show that on any - i.e. non-necessary compact - complete Riemannian spin manifolds, the two distances coincide. Then, on convex manifolds in the sense of Nash embedding, we provide some natural upper and lower bounds to the distance between any two probability distributions. Specializing to the Euclidean space R^n, we explicitly compute the distance for a particular class of distributions generalizing Gaussian wave packet. Finally we explore the analogy between the spectral and the Wasserstein distances in the noncommutative case, focusing on the standard model and the Moyal plane. In particular we point out that in the two-sheet space of the standard model, an optimal-transport interpretation of the metric requires a cost function that does not vanish on the diagonal. The latest is similar to the cost function occurring in the relativistic heat equation.

  10. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Peter; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres.

  11. SWAN-PPL, Fusion Reactor 1-D Particle Transport Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, P.; Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Given the material density profiles which describe a one-dimensional reference system with a neutron source, SWAN will calculate, and optionally implement, density changes so as to optimize a single functional parameter of the system. 2 - Method of solution: The one-dimensional discrete-ordinate transport code ANISN is used to calculate flux and adjoint distributions for specified sources. The code SWIF calculates first-order estimates of the effect of material density changes on a goal functional, and from these evaluates effectiveness functions for the substitution of one material for another. Density distribution changes are then calculated which would optimize the goal functional, optionally subject to a constraint of holding another functional constant (to first order). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SWAN is not designed to analyze critical systems; it assumes that there is a fixed source, as in shielding or fusion reactor applications. Otherwise it is compatible with ANISN. All arrays are variably-dimensioned, so that there are no restrictions on individual dimensions

  12. A Cloud Computing Model for Optimization of Transport Logistics Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benotmane Zineb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In any increasing competitive environment and even in companies; we must adopt a good logistic chain management policy which is the main objective to increase the overall gain by maximizing profits and minimizing costs, including manufacturing costs such as: transaction, transport, storage, etc. In this paper, we propose a cloud platform of this chain logistic for decision support; in fact, this decision must be made to adopt new strategy for cost optimization, besides, the decision-maker must have knowledge on the consequences of this new strategy. Our proposed cloud computing platform has a multilayer structure; this later is contained from a set of web services to provide a link between applications using different technologies; to enable sending; and receiving data through protocols, which should be understandable by everyone. The chain logistic is a process-oriented business; it’s used to evaluate logistics process costs, to propose optimal solutions and to evaluate these solutions before their application. As a scenario, we have formulated the problem for the delivery process, and we have proposed a modified Bin-packing algorithm to improve vehicles loading.

  13. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres. (letter)

  14. Cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid transport via the glymphatic pathway modeled by optimal mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-05-15

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4min over ∼3h in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation

  16. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  17. Minimization for conditional simulation: Relationship to optimal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dean S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of generating independent samples from a conditional distribution when independent samples from the prior distribution are available. Although there are exact methods for sampling from the posterior (e.g. Markov chain Monte Carlo or acceptance/rejection), these methods tend to be computationally demanding when evaluation of the likelihood function is expensive, as it is for most geoscience applications. As an alternative, in this paper we discuss deterministic mappings of variables distributed according to the prior to variables distributed according to the posterior. Although any deterministic mappings might be equally useful, we will focus our discussion on a class of algorithms that obtain implicit mappings by minimization of a cost function that includes measures of data mismatch and model variable mismatch. Algorithms of this type include quasi-linear estimation, randomized maximum likelihood, perturbed observation ensemble Kalman filter, and ensemble of perturbed analyses (4D-Var). When the prior pdf is Gaussian and the observation operators are linear, we show that these minimization-based simulation methods solve an optimal transport problem with a nonstandard cost function. When the observation operators are nonlinear, however, the mapping of variables from the prior to the posterior obtained from those methods is only approximate. Errors arise from neglect of the Jacobian determinant of the transformation and from the possibility of discontinuous mappings.

  18. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  19. Discussion of and guidance on the optimization of radiation protection in the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The document provides guidance on one of the components of the system of dose limitation as it applies to the transport of radioactive material, namely the optimization of radiation protection. It focuses on the following parts of the transport system: design, maintenance, preparation for transport, transport, storage-in-transit and handling and it considers occupational and public exposures. The application is intended mainly for those transport situations within the regulatory requirements where potential radiation exposures could be beneficially reduced

  20. Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods.

  1. Research on crude oil storage and transportation based on optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuhua

    2018-04-01

    At present, the optimization theory and method have been widely used in the optimization scheduling and optimal operation scheme of complex production systems. Based on C++Builder 6 program development platform, the theoretical research results are implemented by computer. The simulation and intelligent decision system of crude oil storage and transportation inventory scheduling are designed. The system includes modules of project management, data management, graphics processing, simulation of oil depot operation scheme. It can realize the optimization of the scheduling scheme of crude oil storage and transportation system. A multi-point temperature measuring system for monitoring the temperature field of floating roof oil storage tank is developed. The results show that by optimizing operating parameters such as tank operating mode and temperature, the total transportation scheduling costs of the storage and transportation system can be reduced by 9.1%. Therefore, this method can realize safe and stable operation of crude oil storage and transportation system.

  2. Optimal decisions of sharing rate and ticket price of different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoping Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper concerns competition of different transportation modes coexist in inter-city transportation corridor. The purpose of this paper is to express the competitive relationship by building mathematical model and obtain the best sharing rate and the optimal ticket price of different transportation modes. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, analyzing influencing factors of passenger choice about transportation modes, we designed an utility function of transportation modes. Secondly, referring to the game theory and logit modle, a non-cooperative game model between railway and highway was built. Finally, the model was applied to Nanchang-Jiujiang transportation corridor in China for an empirical analysis. Findings: The results indicate that the proposed non-cooperative game model is rational and reliable, and it supplies a scientific method to determine the optimal ticket price and passenger sharing rate of different transportation modes, and can be applied to the competition study on different transportation modes in inter-city transportation corridor. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to built the non-cooperative game model, which can consider the needs of different travelers, and achieve reasonable passenger divergence of different transportation modes and coordinated development of whole transport market.

  3. Transoptr-a second order beam transport design code with automatic internal optimization and general constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heighway, E.A.

    1980-07-01

    A second order beam transport design code with parametric optimization is described. The code analyzes the transport of charged particle beams through a user defined magnet system. The magnet system parameters are varied (within user defined limits) until the properties of the transported beam and/or the system transport matrix match those properties requested by the user. The code uses matrix formalism to represent the transport elements and optimization is achieved using the variable metric method. Any constraints that can be expressed algebraically may be included by the user as part of his design. Instruction in the use of the program is given. (auth)

  4. Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, A.A.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems

  5. Multigroup cross section collapsing optimization of a He-3 detector assembly model using deterministic transport techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Mi; Yi, Ce; Manalo, Kevin L.; Sjoden, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    Multigroup optimization is performed on a neutron detector assembly to examine the validity of transport response in forward and adjoint modes. For SN transport simulations, we discuss the multigroup collapse of an 80 group library to 40, 30, and 16 groups, constructed from using the 3-D parallel PENTRAN and macroscopic cross section collapsing with YGROUP contribution weighting. The difference in using P_1 and P_3 Legendre order in scattering cross sections is investigated; also, associated forward and adjoint transport responses are calculated. We conclude that for the block analyzed, a 30 group cross section optimizes both computation time and accuracy relative to the 80 group transport calculations. (author)

  6. Efficient transportation for Vermont : optimal statewide transit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "Public transit systems are receiving increased attention as viable solutions to problems with : transportation system robustness, energy-efficiency and equity. The over-reliance on a single : mode, the automobile, is a threat to system robustness. I...

  7. Computer-based modelling and optimization in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    This volume brings together works resulting from research carried out by members of the EURO Working Group on Transportation (EWGT) and presented during meetings and workshops organized by the Group under the patronage of the Association of European Operational Research Societies in 2012 and 2013. The main targets of the EWGT include providing a forum to share research information and experience, encouraging joint research and the development of both theoretical methods and applications, and promoting cooperation among the many institutions and organizations which are leaders at national level in the field of transportation and logistics. The primary fields of interest concern operational research methods, mathematical models and computation algorithms, to solve and sustain solutions to problems mainly faced by public administrations, city authorities, public transport companies, service providers and logistic operators. Related areas of interest are: land use and transportation planning, traffic control and ...

  8. Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Transport Aircraft Wing using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Venter, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of particle swarm optimization to a realistic multidisciplinary optimization test problem. The paper's new contributions to multidisciplinary optimization is the application of a new algorithm for dealing with the unique challenges associated with multidisciplinary optimization problems, and recommendations as to the utility of the algorithm in future multidisciplinary optimization applications. The selected example is a bi-level optimization problem that demonstrates severe numerical noise and has a combination of continuous and truly discrete design variables. The use of traditional gradient-based optimization algorithms is thus not practical. The numerical results presented indicate that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is able to reliably find the optimum design for the problem presented here. The algorithm is capable of dealing with the unique challenges posed by multidisciplinary optimization as well as the numerical noise and truly discrete variables present in the current example problem.

  9. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  10. Simulation and Optimization Methodologies for Military Transportation Network Routing and Scheduling and for Military Medical Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodin, Ervin Y

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this present research was to develop a generic model and methodology for analyzing and optimizing large-scale air transportation networks including both their routing and their scheduling...

  11. Cytoplasmic influence of nucleolar development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sibdas

    1974-01-01

    The role of cytoplasmic factors on the development of nucleolus in nucleus has been investigated in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells using tritiated thymidine/uridine for autoradiography. It is inferred from the observations that the cytoplasmic factors has some but not absolute control over the development of nucleolus. (M.G.B.)

  12. Optimization of Parking Public Transport Vehicles in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Teichmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical trait of public transport is a spatially scattered demand. A route net that is operated by a carrier (or several carriers has to be adapted to the demand. Public transport vehicles that are not used during a period of a day are usually parked in defined parking lots that have a given capacity. When the vehicle goes from the place where its schedule ends (usually a terminus of the last connection served by the vehicle to the place where the vehicle should be parked, a non-productive journey occurs. The same occurs at the beginning of the vehicle schedule as well. The main goal of the paper is to present a mathematical model that enables minimization of the total length of all the non-productive journeys. Functionality of the proposed mathematical model was tested in the conditions of a real bus public transport network.

  13. City transport monitoring and routes optimal management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gargasas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of further development of geographic informational systems with traffic monitoring channel (GIS-TMC in order to present the road users with effective information about the fastest (the shortest in respect of time routes and thus to improve the use of existing city transport infrastructure. To solve this task it is suggested to create dynamic (automatically updated in real time street passing duration base, for support of which a city transport monitoring system operating in real time is necessary, consisting of a network of sensors, a data collection communications system and a data processing system. In the article it is shown that to predict the street passing duration it is enough to measure speed of transport in the characteristic points of the street. Measurements of traffic density do not significantly improve accuracy of forecasting the street passing time. Analytical formulas are presented meant to forecast the street passing time.

  14. The choice of directions for optimization of Ukrainian marine transport potential

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Kolegaev

    2013-01-01

    A proper marine transport development should provide independence of foreign trade and increase efficiency of national economy due to expansion of transport services export. However, to achieve these goals, optimization of investments and proper development and management of functional activity of fleet and ports are required. Normalized development and marine transport potential of a country, as shown by the experience of world’s leading maritime states, predetermine high functional efficien...

  15. Two-stage optimization in a transportation problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, TJ

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the economic distribution of maize throughout South Africa is reported. Although the problem of minimizing total transportation costs in such a situation is a classical one, and its solution is well known, there was in this case a high...

  16. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics

  17. OPTIMAL LOCALIZATION OF SPECIAL TRANSPORT AND LOGISTIC FOODSTUFF CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Pasichnyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of statistic indices of custom-house, the population and geographic location of cities of Donetsk region, the method of calculation of optimum placing of the specialized transport-logistical centre of foodstuff is offered.

  18. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can

  19. Optimal policy for mitigating emissions in the European transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Piera, Patrizio; Sennai, Mesfun; Igor, Staritsky; Berien, Elbersen; Tijs, Lammens; Florian, Kraxner

    2017-04-01

    A geographic explicit techno-economic model, BeWhere (www.iiasa.ac.at/bewhere), has been developed at the European scale (Europe 28, the Balkans countries, Turkey, Moldavia and Ukraine) at a 40km grid size, to assess the potential of bioenergy from non-food feedstock. Based on the minimization of the supply chain from feedstock collection to the final energy product distribution, the model identifies the optimal bioenergy production plants in terms of spatial location, technology and capacity. The feedstock of interests are woody biomass (divided into eight types from conifers and non-conifers) and five different crop residuals. For each type of feedstock, one or multiple technologies can be applied for either heat, electricity or biofuel production. The model is run for different policy tools such as carbon cost, biofuel support, or subsidies, and the optimal mix of technologies and biomass needed is optimized to reach a production cost competitive against the actual reference system which is fossil fuel based. From this approach, the optimal mix of policy tools that can be applied country wide in Europe will be identified. The preliminary results show that high carbon tax and biofuel support contribute to the development of large scale biofuel production based on woody biomass plants mainly located in the northern part of Europe. Finally the highest emission reduction is reached with low biofuel support and high carbon tax evenly distributed in Europe.

  20. Optimal transport for applied mathematicians calculus of variations, PDEs, and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents a rigorous mathematical introduction to optimal transport as a variational problem, its use in modeling various phenomena, and its connections with partial differential equations. Its main goal is to provide the reader with the techniques necessary to understand the current research in optimal transport and the tools which are most useful for its applications. Full proofs are used to illustrate mathematical concepts and each chapter includes a section that discusses applications of optimal transport to various areas, such as economics, finance, potential games, image processing and fluid dynamics. Several topics are covered that have never been previously in books on this subject, such as the Knothe transport, the properties of functionals on measures, the Dacorogna-Moser flow, the formulation through minimal flows with prescribed divergence formulation, the case of the supremal cost, and the most classical numerical methods. Graduate students and researchers in both pure and appl...

  1. Study on transfer optimization of urban rail transit and conventional public transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Sun, Quan Xin; Mao, Bao Hua

    2018-04-01

    This paper mainly studies the time optimization of feeder connection between rail transit and conventional bus in a shopping center. In order to achieve the goal of connecting rail transportation effectively and optimizing the convergence between the two transportations, the things had to be done are optimizing the departure intervals, shorting the passenger transfer time and improving the service level of public transit. Based on the goal that has the minimum of total waiting time of passengers and the number of start of classes, establish the optimizing model of bus connecting of departure time. This model has some constrains such as transfer time, load factor, and the convergence of public transportation grid spacing. It solves the problems by using genetic algorithms.

  2. Internal transport barriers in optimized shear plasmas in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, A.C.C.; Baranov, Y.F.; Challis, C.D.; Cottrell, G.A.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Gormezano, C.; Gowers, C.; Haas, J.C.M. de; Hellermann, M. von; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Howman, A.; K ig, R.; Lazarus, A.; Nielsen, P.; O'Brien, D.; Sadler, G.; Soeldner, F.X.; Stamp, M.F.; Tubbing, B.J.D.; Ward, D.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Luce, T.; Strait, E.J.; Lazarus, E.A.; Wade, M.; Rice, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments using high-power heating during the current ramp-up phase of the discharge have obtained the highest D-D neutron rates in JET; S n =5x6x10 16 neutrons s -1 , with n e0 approx.= 6x10 19 m - 3, T e0 approx.= 12 keV and T i0 approx.= 26 keV. The best discharges (I p = 3.3 MA and B t = 3.4 tesla) have peaked pressure profiles with a transport barrier located at r/a = 0.55. The pressure peaking is limited by MHD modes and requires active input power control to achieve the best performance. Deuterium neutral beam injection into a tritium-rich target plasma has established internal transport barriers at power levels close to the lowest threshold for pure deuterium plasmas. (author)

  3. Two-dimensional radiation shielding optimization analysis of spent fuel transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yingnan; Chen Yixue; Yang Shouhai

    2013-01-01

    The intelligent radiation shielding optimization design software platform is a one-dimensional multi-target radiation shielding optimization program which is developed on the basis of the genetic algorithm program and one-dimensional discrete ordinate program-ANISN. This program was applied in the optimization design analysis of the spent fuel transport container radiation shielding. The multi-objective optimization calculation model of the spent fuel transport container radiation shielding was established, and the optimization calculation of the spent fuel transport container weight and radiation dose rate was carried by this program. The calculation results were checked by Monte-Carlo program-MCNP/4C. The results show that the weight of the optimized spent fuel transport container decreases to 81.1% of the origin and the radiation dose rate decreases to below 65.4% of the origin. The maximum deviation between the calculated values from the program and the MCNP is below 5%. The results show that the optimization design scheme is feasible and the calculation result is correct. (authors)

  4. Mars Scenario-Based Visioning: Logistical Optimization of Transportation Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual design investigation is to examine transportation forecasts for future human Wu missions to Mars. - Scenario-Based Visioning is used to generate possible future demand projections. These scenarios are then coupled with availability, cost, and capacity parameters for indigenously designed Mars Transfer Vehicles (solar electric, nuclear thermal, and chemical propulsion types) and Earth-to-Orbit launch vehicles (current, future, and indigenous) to provide a cost-conscious dual-phase launch manifest to meet such future demand. A simulator named M-SAT (Mars Scenario Analysis Tool) is developed using this method. This simulation is used to examine three specific transportation scenarios to Mars: a limited "flaus and footprints" mission, a More ambitious scientific expedition similar to an expanded version of the Design Reference Mission from NASA, and a long-term colonization scenario. Initial results from the simulation indicate that chemical propulsion systems might be the architecture of choice for all three scenarios. With this mind, "what if' analyses were performed which indicated that if nuclear production costs were reduced by 30% for the colonization scenario, then the nuclear architecture would have a lower life cycle cost than the chemical. Results indicate that the most cost-effective solution to the Mars transportation problem is to plan for segmented development, this involves development of one vehicle at one opportunity and derivatives of that vehicle at subsequent opportunities.

  5. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  6. Optimal solution of full fuzzy transportation problems using total integral ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam’an, M.; Farikhin; Hariyanto, S.; Surarso, B.

    2018-03-01

    Full fuzzy transportation problem (FFTP) is a transportation problem where transport costs, demand, supply and decision variables are expressed in form of fuzzy numbers. To solve fuzzy transportation problem, fuzzy number parameter must be converted to a crisp number called defuzzyfication method. In this new total integral ranking method with fuzzy numbers from conversion of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to hexagonal fuzzy numbers obtained result of consistency defuzzyfication on symmetrical fuzzy hexagonal and non symmetrical type 2 numbers with fuzzy triangular numbers. To calculate of optimum solution FTP used fuzzy transportation algorithm with least cost method. From this optimum solution, it is found that use of fuzzy number form total integral ranking with index of optimism gives different optimum value. In addition, total integral ranking value using hexagonal fuzzy numbers has an optimal value better than the total integral ranking value using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.

  7. Understanding the sub-cellular dynamics of silicon transportation and synthesis in diatoms using population-level data and computational optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Javaheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV. Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT. Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search, together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics

  8. Simulation Optimization for Transportation System: A Real Case Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Enes Akpınar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation applications help decision makers to give right decisions to eliminate some problems such as: create a new firm, need some changes inside a factory; improve the process of a hospital etc. In this engineering simulation study, there are two points which are used by students to arrive at the University. Initial point is the train station and the final point is the arrival point. Students’ transportation is provided with buses. The main problem is to decide the number of buses by taking number of student into consideration. To be able to solve this real-life application PROMODEL pack software is used.

  9. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer B. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Goodzeit, Carl L. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Ball, Millicent J. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  10. Vectorising the detector geometry to optimize particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Among the components contributing to particle transport, geometry navigation is an important consumer of CPU cycles. The tasks performed to get answers to "basic" queries such as locating a point within a geometry hierarchy or computing accurately the distance to the next boundary can become very computing intensive for complex detector setups. So far, the existing geometry algorithms employ mainly scalar optimisation strategies (voxelization, caching) to reduce their CPU consumption. In this paper, we would like to take a different approach and investigate how geometry navigation can benefit from the vector instruction set extensions that are one of the primary source of performance enhancements on current and future hardware. While on paper, this form of microparallelism promises increasing performance opportunities, applying this technology to the highly hierarchical and multiply branched geometry code is a difficult challenge. We refer to the current work done to vectorise an important part of the critica...

  11. Optimal wall spacing for heat transport in thermal convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, Olga [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The simulation of RB flow for Ra up to 1 x 10{sup 10} is computationally expensive in terms of computing power and hard disk storage. Thus, we gratefully acknowledge the computational resources supported by Leibniz-Rechenzentrum Munich. Compared to Γ=1 situation, a new physical picture of heat transport is identified here at Γ{sub opt} for any explored Ra. Therefore, a detailed comparison between Γ=1 and Γ=Γ{sub opt} is valuable for our further research, for example, their vertical temperature and velocity profiles. Additionally, we plan to compare the fluid with different Pr under geometrical confinement, which are computationally expensive for the situations of Pr<<1 and Pr>>1.

  12. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Jin; Kite-Powell, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  14. The Optimization of Transportation Costs in Logistics Enterprises with Time-Window Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for solving a multiobjective vehicle routing problem with soft time-window constraints that specify the earliest and latest arrival times of customers. If a customer is serviced before the earliest specified arrival time, extra inventory costs are incurred. If the customer is serviced after the latest arrival time, penalty costs must be paid. Both the total transportation cost and the required fleet size are minimized in this model, which also accounts for the given capacity limitations of each vehicle. The total transportation cost consists of direct transportation costs, extra inventory costs, and penalty costs. This multiobjective optimization is solved by using a modified genetic algorithm approach. The output of the algorithm is a set of optimal solutions that represent the trade-off between total transportation cost and the fleet size required to service customers. The influential impact of these two factors is analyzed through the use of a case study.

  15. Optimization of a neutron detector design using adjoint transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, C.; Manalo, K.; Huang, M.; Chin, M.; Edgar, C.; Applegate, S.; Sjoden, G.

    2012-01-01

    A synthetic aperture approach has been developed and investigated for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection in vehicles passing a checkpoint at highway speeds. SNM is postulated to be stored in a moving vehicle and detector assemblies are placed on the road-side or in chambers embedded below the road surface. Neutron and gamma spectral awareness is important for the detector assembly design besides high efficiencies, so that different SNMs can be detected and identified with various possible shielding settings. The detector assembly design is composed of a CsI gamma-ray detector block and five neutron detector blocks, with peak efficiencies targeting different energy ranges determined by adjoint simulations. In this study, formulations are derived using adjoint transport simulations to estimate detector efficiencies. The formulations is applied to investigate several neutron detector designs for Block IV, which has its peak efficiency in the thermal range, and Block V, designed to maximize the total neutron counts over the entire energy spectrum. Other Blocks detect different neutron energies. All five neutron detector blocks and the gamma-ray block are assembled in both MCNP and deterministic simulation models, with detector responses calculated to validate the fully assembled design using a 30-group library. The simulation results show that the 30-group library, collapsed from an 80-group library using an adjoint-weighting approach with the YGROUP code, significantly reduced the computational cost while maintaining accuracy. (authors)

  16. Enhancing Physician Empathy: Optimizing Learner Potential for Narrative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Hester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the pedagogical usefulness of engaging with literary texts in the formal training of physicians and healthcare workers. It suggests that particular “skills” in reading and engaging with narrative are as readily teachable to healthcare students as are skills in reading x-rays or in diagnosing symptoms. It focuses on three phenomena associated with literary (and other forms of narrative – namely, the recognition of characters, vicarious experience, and the experience of fellow feeling – and relates them to three categories in cognitive psychology: Theory of Mind, Narrative Transportation, and Empathy. It presents a survey of empirical studies in cognitive psychology that demonstrates the effectiveness of literary narrative in producing these psychological states, and ends by demonstrating how the teaching of a literary narrative – Bastard Out of Carolina – has enhanced these states in students planning on a career in medicine. Such enhancement, the article suggests, are produced by literary features such as imagery, defamiliarization, and patterned organization on the levels of phonology, semantics, and story structure.

  17. Effect of Neoclassical Transport Optimization on Energetic Ion Confinement in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Yamada, H.; Sasao, M.

    2004-01-01

    Confinement of energetic ions from neutral beam injection heating is investigated by changing the magnetic field configuration of the Large Helical Device from a classical heliotron configuration to an optimized neoclassical transport configuration to a level typical of ''advanced stellarators.'' The experimental results show the highest count rate of fast neutral particles not in the optimized configuration but in the inward-shifted one. The GNET simulation results show a relatively good agreement with the experimental results, and they also show a lower energy loss rate in the optimized configuration. This contradiction can be explained by the radial profile of the energetic ions. The relatively good agreement between experimental and simulation results suggest that ripple transport (neoclassical) dominates the energetic ion confinement and that the optimization process is effective in improving confinement in helical systems

  18. Optimal Mass Transport for Statistical Estimation, Image Analysis, Information Geometry, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    advances on formulating and solving optimal transport problems on discrete spaces (networks) while ensuring robustness of the transportation plan. This...Metric Uncertainty for Spectral Estimation based on Nevanlinna-Pick Interpolation, (with J. Karlsson) Intern. Symp. on the Math . Theory of Networks and...Systems, Melbourne 2012. 22. Geometric tools for the estimation of structured covariances, (with L. Ning, X. Jiang) Intern. Symposium on the Math . Theory

  19. Optimization of transport network in the Basin of Yangtze River with minimization of environmental emission and transport/investment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Shi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of the ship-lock at the Three Gorges Dam has become bottleneck of waterway transport and caused serious congestion. In this article, a continual network design model is established to solve the problem with minimizing the transport cost and environmental emission as well as infrastructure construction cost. In this bi-level model, the upper model gives the schemes of ship-lock expansion or construction of pass-dam highway. The lower model assigns the containers in the multi-mode network and calculates the transport cost, environmental emission, and construction investment. The solution algorithm to the model is proposed. In the numerical study, scenario analyses are done to evaluate the schemes and determine the optimal one in the context of different traffic demands. The result shows that expanding the ship-lock is better than constructing pass-dam highway.

  20. Intelligent Mechatronics Systems for Transport Climate Parameters Optimization Using Fuzzy Logic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Beinarts, I; Ļevčenkovs, A; Kuņicina, N

    2007-01-01

    In article interest is concentrated on the climate parameters optimization in passengers’ salon of public electric transportation vehicles. The article presents mathematical problem for using intelligent agents in mechatronics problems for climate parameters optimal control. Idea is to use fuzzy logic and intelligent algorithms to create coordination mechanism for climate parameters control to save electrical energy, and it increases the level of comfort for passengers. A special interest for...

  1. Optimization of hot water transport and distribution networks by analytical method: OPTAL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Alain; Caizergues, Robert; Moret-Bailly, Jean

    1977-06-01

    This report presents optimization studies of hot water transport and distribution network by minimizing operating cost. Analytical optimization is used: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Optimum diameter of each pipe is calculated for minimum network operating cost. The characteristics of the computer program used for calculations, OPTAL, are given in this report. An example of network is calculated and described: 52 branches and 27 customers. Results are discussed [fr

  2. Evaluation of swabs, transport media, and specimen transport conditions for optimal detection of viruses by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Julian; Garcia, Katherine; Tran, Thomas; Papadakis, Georgina; Birch, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Depletion of swabs and viral transport medium during epidemics may prompt the use of unvalidated alternatives. Swabs collected and transported dry or in saline were compared to commercially available swab/medium combinations for PCR detection of influenza, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, and adenovirus. Each was detected at an ambient temperature (22°C) and 4°C for 7 days. Detection of influenza on dry or saline swabs is important because of its capacity to cause outbreaks involving large numbers of cases.

  3. An Agent-Based Model for Optimization of Road Width and Public Transport Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Koryagin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An urban passenger transportation problem is studied. Municipal authorities and passengers are regarded as participants in the passenger transportation system. The municipal authorities have to optimise road width and public transport frequency. The road consists of a dedicated bus lane and lanes for passenger cars. The car travel time depends on the number of road lanes and passengers’ choice of travel mode. The passengers’ goal is to minimize total travel costs, including time value. The passengers try to find the optimal ratio between public transport and cars. The conflict between municipal authorities and the passengers is described as a game theoretic model. The existence of Nash equilibrium in the model is proved. The numerical example shows the influence of the value of time and intensity of passenger flow on the equilibrium road width and public transport frequency.

  4. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  5. Tomographic Reconstruction from a Few Views: A Multi-Marginal Optimal Transport Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, I., E-mail: isabelle.abraham@cea.fr [CEA Ile de France (France); Abraham, R., E-mail: romain.abraham@univ-orleans.fr; Bergounioux, M., E-mail: maitine.bergounioux@univ-orleans.fr [Université d’Orléans, UFR Sciences, MAPMO, UMR 7349 (France); Carlier, G., E-mail: carlier@ceremade.dauphine.fr [CEREMADE, UMR CNRS 7534, Université Paris IX Dauphine, Pl. de Lattre de Tassigny (France)

    2017-02-15

    In this article, we focus on tomographic reconstruction. The problem is to determine the shape of the interior interface using a tomographic approach while very few X-ray radiographs are performed. We use a multi-marginal optimal transport approach. Preliminary numerical results are presented.

  6. An Optimized Version of a New Absolute Linear Encoder Dedicated to Intelligent Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    made in the coding algorithm, in the ruler topology and in the dedicated software. The optimized ALE is a robust device able to work in industrial environment, with a high level of vibrations. By this reason it is ideal for the transport system control in automating manufacturing processes, intelligent...

  7. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  8. The choice of directions for optimization of Ukrainian marine transport potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kolegaev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A proper marine transport development should provide independence of foreign trade and increase efficiency of national economy due to expansion of transport services export. However, to achieve these goals, optimization of investments and proper development and management of functional activity of fleet and ports are required. Normalized development and marine transport potential of a country, as shown by the experience of world’s leading maritime states, predetermine high functional efficiency of capital assets and freight independence of a country with respect to international division of labour. Thus development and production activity of fleet and ports influence a country’s investment complex activity as maritime transport is a large consumer of other branches resources.

  9. Railway optimal network simulation for the development of regional transport-logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Borisovich Petrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of logistics on mineral fuel is a stable tendency of regions development, though when making strategic plans of logistics in the regions, it is necessary to provide the alternative possibilities of power-supply sources change together with population density, transport infrastructure peculiarities, and demographic changes forecast. On the example of timber processing complex of the Sverdlovsk region, the authors suggest the algorithm of decision of the optimal logistics infrastructure allocation. The problem of regional railway network organization at the stage of slow transition from the prolonged stagnation to the new development is carried out. The transport networks’ configurations of countries on the Pacific Rim, which successfully developed nowadays, are analyzed. The authors offer some results of regional transport network simulation on the basis of artificial intelligence method. These methods let to solve the task with incomplete data. The ways of the transport network improvement in the Sverdlovsk region are offered.

  10. TNTM85 and TNTM81 transports / storage flasks: An optimized solution for vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A.; Dyck, P.

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing flask designs. Therefore COGEMA LOGISTICS decided in the late nineties to develop a design with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters. The TN TM 85 flask shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the highest vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW. The challenge for the TN TM 85 flask design was that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by COGEMA Specification 300AQ16 relative to vitrified residue canister. In addition, the cask had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  11. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, A.A. van; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  12. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; van Lammeren, A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study (Houtman et al., 2007)

  13. Hydrodynamic flow in the cytoplasm of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling-Ozdoba, A.; Houtman, D.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Eiser, E.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cells show myosin-driven organelle movement, called cytoplasmic streaming. Soluble molecules, such as metabolites do not move with motor proteins but by diffusion. However, is all of this streaming active motor-driven organelle transport? Our recent simulation study ( Houtman et al., 2007 )

  14. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing transport logistics taking into account the state of roads and road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikul’skaya Ol’ga Mikhaylovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice and use of rational routes at strict observance of deliveries terms help to achieve not only minimization of operational expenses, but also to reduce commodity and production stocks in warehouses by 1,5...2 times. Therefore special relevance is gained by the works allowing precisely calculating the volumes of a cargo transportation, to count the quantity of transport units necessary for providing cargo flow, to define the rational routes of transportation, and also to reduce total costs of transportation. On the basis of the analysis of the known mathematical methods applied in transport logistics, the authors drew a conclusion that the route of freight delivery is estimated according to the distance passed by the vehicle. However the time of freight delivery depends not only on distance, but also on a set of other factors, such as vehicle type, road capacity, intensity of transport stream, weather conditions, season and others. For taking note of additional factors when optimizing a freight delivery route the method of analogy and similarity is used by the authors. The transportation parameters were estimated by analogy with an electric chain. For this purpose the authors entered the new concepts “fictitious distance” and “conductivity of the road”. The mathematical model allowing optimizing the organization of freight delivery taking into account not only distances, but also the probable speed of the vehicle movement depending on the road quality, intensity of transport stream and weather conditions is developed. Further development of the system of decision-making support while choosing the optimum route of cargo delivery is planned.

  16. Integration of numerical analysis tools for automated numerical optimization of a transportation package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, W.R.; Eldred, M.S.; Harding, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art numerical analysis tools to determine the optimal design of a radioactive material (RAM) transportation container is investigated. The design of a RAM package's components involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal, and radioactive shielding analyses. The final design must adhere to very strict design constraints. The current technique used by cask designers is uncoupled and involves designing each component separately with respect to its driving constraint. With the use of numerical optimization schemes, the complex couplings can be considered directly, and the performance of the integrated package can be maximized with respect to the analysis conditions. This can lead to more efficient package designs. Thermal and structural accident conditions are analyzed in the shape optimization of a simplified cask design. In this paper, details of the integration of numerical analysis tools, development of a process model, nonsmoothness difficulties with the optimization of the cask, and preliminary results are discussed

  17. Optimal Micropatterns in 2D Transport Networks and Their Relation to Image Inpainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancolini, Alessio; Rossmanith, Carolin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2018-04-01

    We consider two different variational models of transport networks: the so-called branched transport problem and the urban planning problem. Based on a novel relation to Mumford-Shah image inpainting and techniques developed in that field, we show for a two-dimensional situation that both highly non-convex network optimization tasks can be transformed into a convex variational problem, which may be very useful from analytical and numerical perspectives. As applications of the convex formulation, we use it to perform numerical simulations (to our knowledge this is the first numerical treatment of urban planning), and we prove a lower bound for the network cost that matches a known upper bound (in terms of how the cost scales in the model parameters) which helps better understand optimal networks and their minimal costs.

  18. Two-phase optimizing approach to design assessments of long distance heat transportation for CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał; Piotrowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for long distance heat transportation system effectivity evaluation. • Decision model formulation which reflects time and spatial structure of the problem. • Multi-criteria and complex approach to solving the decision-making problem. • Solver based on simulation-optimization approach with two-phase optimization method. • Sensitivity analysis of the optimization procedure elements. - Abstract: Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for power plants is a method of putting to use waste heat which would be otherwise released to the environment. This allows the increase in thermodynamic efficiency of the plant and can be a source of environmental friendly heat for District Heating (DH). In the paper CHP for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is analyzed with the focus on heat transportation. A method for effectivity and feasibility evaluation of the long distance, high power Heat Transportation System (HTS) between the NPP and the DH network is proposed. As a part of the method the multi-criteria decision-making problem, having the structure of the mathematical programming problem, for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of the HTS is formulated. The constraints for this problem include a static model of HTS, that allows considerations of system lifetime, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby variation of annual heat demand within the DH area, variability of ground temperature, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile can be taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. In general, the analyzed optimization problem is multi-criteria, hybrid and nonlinear. The two-phase optimization based on optimization-simulation framework is proposed to solve the decision-making problem. The solver introduces a number of assumptions concerning the optimization process. Methods for problem decomposition

  19. Impact of optimized mixing heights on simulated regional atmospheric transport of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kretschmer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mixing height (MH is a crucial parameter in commonly used transport models that proportionally affects air concentrations of trace gases with sources/sinks near the ground and on diurnal scales. Past synthetic data experiments indicated the possibility to improve tracer transport by minimizing errors of simulated MHs. In this paper we evaluate a method to constrain the Lagrangian particle dispersion model STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport with MH diagnosed from radiosonde profiles using a bulk Richardson method. The same method was used to obtain hourly MHs for the period September/October 2009 from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, which covers the European continent at 10 km horizontal resolution. Kriging with external drift (KED was applied to estimate optimized MHs from observed and modelled MHs, which were used as input for STILT to assess the impact on CO2 transport. Special care has been taken to account for uncertainty in MH retrieval in this estimation process. MHs and CO2 concentrations were compared to vertical profiles from aircraft in situ data. We put an emphasis on testing the consistency of estimated MHs to observed vertical mixing of CO2. Modelled CO2 was also compared with continuous measurements made at Cabauw and Heidelberg stations. WRF MHs were significantly biased by ~10–20% during day and ~40–60% during night. Optimized MHs reduced this bias to ~5% with additional slight improvements in random errors. The KED MHs were generally more consistent with observed CO2 mixing. The use of optimized MHs had in general a favourable impact on CO2 transport, with bias reductions of 5–45% (day and 60–90% (night. This indicates that a large part of the found CO2 model–data mismatch was indeed due to MH errors. Other causes for CO2 mismatch are discussed. Applicability of our method is discussed in the context of CO2 inversions at regional scales.

  20. Impact of optimized mixing heights on simulated regional atmospheric transport of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, R.; Gerbig, C.; Karstens, U.; Biavati, G.; Vermeulen, A.; Vogel, E.; Hammer, S.; Totsche, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    The mixing height (MH) is a crucial parameter in commonly used transport models that proportionally affects air concentrations of trace gases with sources/sinks near the ground and on diurnal scales. Past synthetic data experiments indicated the possibility to improve tracer transport by minimizing errors of simulated MHs. In this paper we evaluate a method to constrain the Lagrangian particle dispersion model STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) with MH diagnosed from radiosonde profiles using a bulk Richardson method. The same method was used to obtain hourly MHs for the period September/October 2009 from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which covers the European continent at 10 km horizontal resolution. Kriging with external drift (KED) was applied to estimate optimized MHs from observed and modelled MHs, which were used as input for STILT to assess the impact on CO 2 transport. Special care has been taken to account for uncertainty in MH retrieval in this estimation process.MHs and CO 2 concentrations were compared to vertical profiles from aircraft in situ data.We put an emphasis on testing the consistency of estimated MHs to observed vertical mixing of CO 2 . Modelled CO 2 was also compared with continuous measurements made at Cabauw and Heidelberg stations. WRF MHs were significantly biased by 10-20% during day and 40-60% during night. Optimized MHs reduced this bias to 5% with additional slight improvements in random errors. The KED MHs were generally more consistent with observed CO 2 mixing. The use of optimized MHs had in general a favourable impact on CO 2 transport, with bias reductions of 5-45% (day) and 60-90% (night). This indicates that a large part of the found CO 2 model-data mismatch was indeed due to MH errors. Other causes for CO 2 mismatch are discussed. Applicability of our method is discussed in the context of CO 2 inversions at regional scales. (authors)

  1. Optimizing beam transport in rapidly compressing beams on the neutralized drift compression experiment – II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton D. Stepanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II is an induction linac that generates intense pulses of 1.2 MeV helium ions for heating matter to extreme conditions. Here, we present recent results on optimizing beam transport. The NDCX-II beamline includes a 1-m-long drift section downstream of the last transport solenoid, which is filled with charge-neutralizing plasma that enables rapid longitudinal compression of an intense ion beam against space-charge forces. The transport section on NDCX-II consists of 28 solenoids. Finding optimal field settings for a group of solenoids requires knowledge of the envelope parameters of the beam. Imaging the beam on the scintillator gives the radius of the beam, but the envelope angle is not measured directly. We demonstrate how the parameters of the beam envelope (radius, envelop angle, and emittance can be reconstructed from a series of images taken by varying the B-field strengths of a solenoid upstream of the scintillator. We use this technique to evaluate emittance at several points in the NDCX-II beamline and for optimizing the trajectory of the beam at the entry of the plasma-filled drift section. Keywords: Charged-particle beams, Induction accelerators, Beam dynamics, Beam emittance, Ion beam diagnostics, PACS Codes: 41.75.-i, 41.85.Ja, 52.59.Sa, 52.59.Wd, 29.27.Eg

  2. Optimization of cask for transport of radioactive material under impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kuldeep, E-mail: kuldeep.brit@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Pawaskar, D.N.; Guha, Anirban [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, R.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Cost and weight are important criteria for fabrication and transportation of cask used for transportation of radioactive material. • Reduction of cask cost by modifying few cask geometry parameters using complex search method. • Maximum von Mises stress generated and deformation after impact as design constraints. • Up to 6.9% reduction in cost and 4.6% reduction in weight observed in the examples used. - Abstract: Casks used for transporting radioactive material need to be certified fit by subjecting them to a specific set of tests (IAEA, 2012). The high cost of these casks gives rise to the need for optimizing them. Conducting actual experiments for the process of design iterations is very costly. This work outlines a procedure for optimizing Type B(U) casks through simulations of the 9 m drop test conducted in ABAQUS{sup ®}. Standard designs and material properties were chosen, thus making the process as realistic as reasonable even at the cost of reducing the options (design variables) available for optimization. The results, repeated for different source cavity sizes, show a scope for 6.9% reduction in cost and 4.6% reduction in weight over currently used casks.

  3. Particle transport and fluctuation characteristics around neoclassically optimized configurations in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    Density profiles in LHD were measured and particle transport coefficients were estimated from density modulation experiments in LHD. The data set contains the wide region of discharge condition. The dataset of different magnetic axis, toroidal magnetic field and heating power provided data set of widely scanned neoclassical transport. At minimized neoclassical transport configuration in the dataset (Rax=3.5m, Bt=2.8T) showed peaked density profile. Its peaking factor increased gradually with decrease of collisional frequency. This is a similar result observed in tokamak data base. At other configuration, peaking factor reduced with decrease of collisional frequency. Data set showed that larger contribution of neoclassical transport produced hollowed density profile. Comparison between neoclassical and experimental estimated particle diffusivity showed different minimum condition. This suggests neoclassical optimization is not same as anomalous optimization. Clear difference of spatial profile of turbulence was observed between hollowed and peaked density profiles. Major part of fluctuation existed in the unstable region of linear growth rate of ion temperature gradient mode. (author)

  4. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  5. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Optimization model for school transportation design based on economic and social efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to design a model that allows to suggest new planning proposals on school transport, so that greater efficiency operational will be achieved. It is a multi-objective optimization problem including the minimization of the cost of busing and minimizes the total travel time of all students. The foundation of the model is the planning routes made by bus due to changes in the starting time in schools, so the buses are able to perform more than one route. The methodology is based on the School Bus Routing Problem, so that routes from different schools within a given time window are connected, and within the restrictions of the problem, the system costs are minimized. The proposed model is programmed to be applied in any generic case. This is a multi-objective problem, in which there will be several possible solutions, depending on the weight to be assigned to each of the variables involved, economic point of view versus social point of view. Therefore, the proposed model is helpful for policy planning school transportation, supporting the decision making under conditions of economic and social efficiency. The model has been applied in some schools located in an area of Cantabria (Spain), resulting in 71 possible optimal options that minimize the cost of school transport between 2,7% and 35,1% regarding to the current routes of school transport, with different school start time and minimum travel time for students. (Author)

  7. Optimal Control of Scalar Conservation Laws Using Linear/Quadratic Programming: Application to Transportation Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new optimal control framework for transportation networks in which the state is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law. Using an equivalent formulation based on a Hamilton-Jacobi (H-J) equation and the commonly used triangular fundamental diagram, we pose the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link, in a finite horizon, as a Linear Program (LP). We then show that this framework can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, resulting in an LP or a Quadratic Program. Unlike many previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this method yields a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling shocks (i.e., discontinuities in the state of the system). As it leverages the intrinsic properties of the H-J equation used to model the state of the system, it does not require any approximation, unlike classical methods that are based on discretizations of the model. The computational efficiency of the method is illustrated on a transportation network. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. An Optimal Allocation Model of Public Transit Mode Proportion for the Low-Carbon Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit has been widely recognized as a potential way to develop low-carbon transportation. In this paper, an optimal allocation model of public transit mode proportion (MPMP has been built to achieve the low-carbon public transit. Optimal ratios of passenger traffic for rail, bus, and taxi are derived by running the model using typical data. With different values of traffic demand, construction cost, travel time, and accessibilities, MPMP can generate corresponding optimal ratios, benefiting decision impacts analysis and decision makers. Instead of considering public transit as a united system, it is separated into units in this paper. And Shanghai is used to test model validity and practicality.

  9. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yun YU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM, the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

  10. Mechanisms for cytoplasmic organization: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, L

    2000-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of life is the intrinsic organization of cytoplasm, yet we know surprisingly little about the manner in which cytoplasmic macromolecules are arranged. It is clear that cytoplasm is not the homogeneous "soup" it was once envisioned to be, but a comprehensive model for cytoplasmic organization is not available in modern cell biology. The premise of this volume is that phase separation in cytoplasm may play a role in organization at the subcellular level. Other mechanisms for non-membrane-bounded intracellular organization have previously been proposed. Some of these will be reviewed in this chapter. Multiple mechanisms, involving phase separation, specific intracellular targeting, formation of macromolecular complexes, and channeling, all could well contribute to cytoplasmic organization. Temporal and spatial organization, as well as composition, are likely to be important in defining the characteristics of cytoplasm.

  11. Optimal Spatial Subdivision method for improving geometry navigation performance in Monte Carlo particle transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenping; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Wu, Bin; Hu, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The subdivision combines both advantages of uniform and non-uniform schemes. • The grid models were proved to be more efficient than traditional CSG models. • Monte Carlo simulation performance was enhanced by Optimal Spatial Subdivision. • Efficiency gains were obtained for realistic whole reactor core models. - Abstract: Geometry navigation is one of the key aspects of dominating Monte Carlo particle transport simulation performance for large-scale whole reactor models. In such cases, spatial subdivision is an easily-established and high-potential method to improve the run-time performance. In this study, a dedicated method, named Optimal Spatial Subdivision, is proposed for generating numerically optimal spatial grid models, which are demonstrated to be more efficient for geometry navigation than traditional Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) models. The method uses a recursive subdivision algorithm to subdivide a CSG model into non-overlapping grids, which are labeled as totally or partially occupied, or not occupied at all, by CSG objects. The most important point is that, at each stage of subdivision, a conception of quality factor based on a cost estimation function is derived to evaluate the qualities of the subdivision schemes. Only the scheme with optimal quality factor will be chosen as the final subdivision strategy for generating the grid model. Eventually, the model built with the optimal quality factor will be efficient for Monte Carlo particle transport simulation. The method has been implemented and integrated into the Super Monte Carlo program SuperMC developed by FDS Team. Testing cases were used to highlight the performance gains that could be achieved. Results showed that Monte Carlo simulation runtime could be reduced significantly when using the new method, even as cases reached whole reactor core model sizes

  12. Analysis of an optimal public transport structure under a carbon emission constraint: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linling; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Yang, Tong

    2018-02-01

    Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies. The objective functions of these factors were transformed into satisfaction functions, and a multi-objective programming model was used to solve for the optimal proportions of the ground bus and rail transit, and the carbon emission reduction potential was analyzed in different scenarios. The study showed that the actual proportion of rail transit in Shanghai was slightly lower than the optimal value, and accompanied by low satisfaction with each factor relative to the optimal value. It was difficult to achieve the traffic emission reduction targets by only reducing satisfaction with other factors except carbon emissions assuming a fixed proportion of public transport. As the proportion of total travel represented by public transport increased, rail transit became the main mode of public transport and the usage trend was more obvious, but the structure of public transport gradually reached a relatively stable state after a certain level of development. Compared to reducing carbon emissions by changing satisfaction with other factors, it was easier to achieve traffic emission reduction targets by increasing the proportion of public transport. To increase the proportion of public transport travel and achieve the goal of traffic reduction in the future, further improvements are needed in the quality of public transport system services, public transport

  13. Optimization of territories and transport routes for hazardous products in a distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantú, José Manuel Velarde; Solano, Alfredo Bueno; Leyva, Ernesto Alonso Lagarda; Acosta, Mauricio Lopez

    2017-07-01

    In a system of distribution of products are involved in different factors that determine their efficiency, profitability or optimal state, among these factors is the type of goods to be collected or delivered, it must also be considered the physical-chemical composition, hazard index to transport etc., in this sense, exist different standards for collection, delivery and transportation of such material causing with it an increase in operating costs associated with territory design and planning of distribution routes, the current paper present a general model based in mixed integer programming which integrates both problems, seeking to minimize the total distance traveled by the vehicle in each territory. It should be noted that one of the main features of this model is that it only considers the collection of goods in the distribution network which gives us the opportunity to offer low-cost solutions in terms of time and quality, addressing the specific and general characteristics of the emerging markets in Mexico.

  14. Optimization of territories and transport routes for hazardous products in a distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantú, José Manuel Velarde; Solano, Alfredo Bueno; Leyva, Ernesto Alonso Lagarda; Acosta, Mauricio Lopez

    2017-01-01

    In a system of distribution of products are involved in different factors that determine their efficiency, profitability or optimal state, among these factors is the type of goods to be collected or delivered, it must also be considered the physical-chemical composition, hazard index to transport etc., in this sense, exist different standards for collection, delivery and transportation of such material causing with it an increase in operating costs associated with territory design and planning of distribution routes, the current paper present a general model based in mixed integer programming which integrates both problems, seeking to minimize the total distance traveled by the vehicle in each territory. It should be noted that one of the main features of this model is that it only considers the collection of goods in the distribution network which gives us the opportunity to offer low-cost solutions in terms of time and quality, addressing the specific and general characteristics of the emerging markets in Mexico

  15. Optimization models to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption of transport in open pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpizar, Maria J.; Morales, Nelson; Wiertz, Jaques [Universidad de Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    In the mining industry, approximately 20% of total cost corresponds to material transportation and, in the case of copper, 25% of the total energy consumed for extraction. These high values, together with growing concerns over excess CO2 emissions, have motivated the development of the optimization models discussed in this paper. The objective was to introduce energy and environmental variables into production planning and scheduling. The methodology includes variables that can save transportation energy and models that decrease material rehandling and hence, the cost of transportation. Two types of variables were adapted in the model: environmental and energetic. The advantage, leaving aside the costs and mileage of transportation, was a reduction in emissions of CO2 and in the amount of diesel used. With the inclusion of blending constraints, this model could be used in milling or other such processes. The results are shown using graphs. It worth noting that rehandling decreased, Cu production increased, and the model was able to calculate the extraction sequence over all time horizons.

  16. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  17. Inventory-transportation integrated optimization for maintenance spare parts of high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Wang, Huasheng; Wang, Zhongkai; Li, Jian; Lin, Ruixi; Xiao, Jie; Wu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a 0–1 programming model aimed at obtaining the optimal inventory policy and transportation mode for maintenance spare parts of high-speed trains. To obtain the model parameters for occasionally-replaced spare parts, a demand estimation method based on the maintenance strategies of China’s high-speed railway system is proposed. In addition, we analyse the shortage time using PERT, and then calculate the unit time shortage cost from the viewpoint of train operation revenue. Finally, a real-world case study from Shanghai Depot is conducted to demonstrate our method. Computational results offer an effective and efficient decision support for inventory managers. PMID:28472097

  18. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  19. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-08-06

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s(-1), motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as 'cytoplasmic streaming', found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms-algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies-often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming.

  20. Nucleoporin Nup98 mediates galectin-3 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi, E-mail: funasaka@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Balan, Vitaly; Raz, Avraham [Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Wong, Richard W., E-mail: rwong@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Systems, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Nuclear pore protein Nup98 is a novel binding partner of galectin-3. •Nup98 transports galectin-3 into cytoplasm. •Nup98 depletion leads to galectin-3 nuclear transport and induces growth retardation. •Nup98 may involve in ß-catenin pathway through interaction with galectin-3. -- Abstract: Nucleoporin Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex, and is important in transport across the nuclear pore. Many studies implicate nucleoporin in cancer progression, but no direct mechanistic studies of its effect in cancer have been reported. We show here that Nup98 specifically regulates nucleus–cytoplasm transport of galectin-3, which is a ß-galactoside-binding protein that affects adhesion, migration, and cancer progression, and controls cell growth through the ß-catenin signaling pathway in cancer cells. Nup98 interacted with galectin-3 on the nuclear membrane, and promoted galectin-3 cytoplasmic translocation whereas other nucleoporins did not show these functions. Inversely, silencing of Nup98 expression by siRNA technique localized galectin-3 to the nucleus and retarded cell growth, which was rescued by Nup98 transfection. In addition, Nup98 RNA interference significantly suppressed downstream mRNA expression in the ß-catenin pathway, such as cyclin D1 and FRA-1, while nuclear galectin-3 binds to ß-catenin to inhibit transcriptional activity. Reduced expression of ß-catenin target genes is consistent with the Nup98 reduction and the galectin-3–nucleus translocation rate. Overall, the results show Nup98’s involvement in nuclear–cytoplasm translocation of galectin-3 and ß-catenin signaling pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and the results depicted here suggest a novel therapeutic target/modality for cancers.

  1. Optimized shielding calculation to the transport of 131I employed in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M.; Rodrigues, D.; Sanches, M.P.; Romero F, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the basis for shielding calculation used in different situations that could occur during the transport of 131 I utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The aim of these calculation is to optimize the shielding in order to satisfy the transport of radioactive material. These calculations were proposed for estimated activities around 1,85 GBq (50mCi), 3,7 GBq(100mCi) and 7,4 GBq(200mCi), considering the driver of the cargo company and his assistant as the critical group and the general people considered as effect of collective dose. The population density considered in the models is the one related to Sao Paulo city, because the transport is done by the highway across the city and the radioactive material is distributed from west to north and south, where the airports are located. This area ranges a perimeter of 40 km. For the collective dose calculation, it was considered a population dose of less than 1/100 of the annual limit dose for the public. Our main concern is related to the large volume of radioactive material that is transported per week, specially because 1/3 of this material has activities around 3,7 GBq (100mCi). During the calculations, we have figured out that the activities at the moment of transport are nearly 40% greater than the one related to the calibration date. As for the discrepancy of official alpha value of US$10000/man-Sv and the real value for our country of US$3000/man-Sv,a comparative study was performed. (authors). 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Interpolating between random walks and optimal transportation routes: Flow with multiple sources and targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    In recent articles about graphs, different models proposed a formalism to find a type of path between two nodes, the source and the target, at crossroads between the shortest-path and the random-walk path. These models include a freely adjustable parameter, allowing to tune the behavior of the path toward randomized movements or direct routes. This article presents a natural generalization of these models, namely a model with multiple sources and targets. In this context, source nodes can be viewed as locations with a supply of a certain good (e.g. people, money, information) and target nodes as locations with a demand of the same good. An algorithm is constructed to display the flow of goods in the network between sources and targets. With again a freely adjustable parameter, this flow can be tuned to follow routes of minimum cost, thus displaying the flow in the context of the optimal transportation problem or, by contrast, a random flow, known to be similar to the electrical current flow if the random-walk is reversible. Moreover, a source-targetcoupling can be retrieved from this flow, offering an optimal assignment to the transportation problem. This algorithm is described in the first part of this article and then illustrated with case studies.

  3. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- κ dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  4. Optimizing SuperCDMS phonon energy sensitivity by studying quasiparticle transport in Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jeffrey; Shank, Benjamin; Cabrera, Blas; Moffatt, Robert; Redl, Peter; Brink, Paul; Tomada, Astrid; Cherry, Matt; Young, Betty; Tortorici, Teddy; Kreikebaum, John Mark

    2014-03-01

    In order to further improve the phonon energy sensitivity of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detectors, we studied quasiparticle transport at ~ 40 mK in superconducting Al films similar in geometry to those used for CDMS detectors. Test structures of Al were deposited and photolithographically patterned on Si wafers using the same production-line equipment used to fabricate kg-scale CDMS detectors. Three Al film lengths and two film thicknesses were used in this study. In the test experiments described here, an 55Fe source was used to excite a NaCl reflector, producing 2.6 keV x-rays that hit our test devices after passing through a collimator. The impinging x-rays broke Cooper pairs in the Al films, producing quasiparticles that propagated into W transition edge sensors (TESs) coupled to the ends of the Al films. In this talk, we will give the motivation behind these studies, describe our experimental setup, and compare our data to results obtained using signal processing models constructed from basic physical parameters. We show that a non-linear, non-stationary optimal filter applied to the data allows us to precisely measure quasiparticle diffusion and other aspects of energy transport in our thin-film Al-W test devices. These results are being used to further optimize next-generation CDMS detectors.

  5. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  6. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, M. [Google Research, Venice, California 90291 (United States); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shabani, A. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lloyd, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rabitz, H. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k{sub B}λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap.

  7. Energy-scales convergence for optimal and robust quantum transport in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M.; Shabani, A.; Lloyd, S.; Rabitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Underlying physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to estimate energy transfer efficiency of such complex excitonic systems. We observe that the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex leads to optimal and robust energy transport due to a convergence of energy scales among all important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimum and stable with respect to important parameters of environmental interactions including reorganization energy λ, bath frequency cutoff γ, temperature T, and bath spatial correlations. We identify the ratio of k B λT/ℏγ⁢g as a single key parameter governing quantum transport efficiency, where g is the average excitonic energy gap

  8. Magnetite nanoparticles as reporters for microcarrier processing in cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibetanz, Uta, E-mail: uta.reibetanz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM) Leipzig, Universitaet Leipzig, Philipp-Rosenthal-Strasse 55, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Universitaet Leipzig, Haertelstrasse 16-18, 04107 Leipzig (Germany); Jankuhn, Steffen, E-mail: jankuhn@uni-leipzig.de [Division of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Geosciences, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Office for Environmental Protection and Occupational Safety, Universitaet Leipzig, Ritterstrasse 24, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The development and therapeutic application of drug delivery systems based on colloidal microcarriers layer-by-layer coated with biopolyelectrolytes requires the investigation of their processing inside the cell for the successful and efficient transport and release of the active agents. The present study is focused on the time-dependent multilayer decomposition and the subsequent release of active agents to the cytoplasm. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were used as reporter agents integrated into the protamine sulfate/dextran sulfate basis multilayer on colloidal SiO{sub 2} cores. This functionalization allows the monitoring of the multilayer decomposition due to the detection of the MNP release, visualized by means of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) by elemental distribution of Si and Fe. The direct correlation between the microcarrier localization in endolysosomes and cytoplasm of HEK293T/17 cells via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the elemental distribution (PIXE) allows tracing the fate of the MNP-coated microcarriers in cytoplasm, and thus the processing of the multilayer. Microcarrier/cell co-incubation experiments of 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h show that a MNP release and a slight expansion into the cytoplasm occurs after a longer co-incubation of 72 h.

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  10. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  11. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Microbial electron transport and energy conservation – the foundation for optimizing bioelectrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Frauke; Vassilev, Igor; Krömer, Jens O.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrochemical techniques describe a variety of emerging technologies that use electrode–bacteria interactions for biotechnology applications including the production of electricity, waste and wastewater treatment, bioremediation and the production of valuable products. Central in each application is the ability of the microbial catalyst to interact with external electron acceptors and/or donors and its metabolic properties that enable the combination of electron transport and carbon metabolism. And here also lies the key challenge. A wide range of microbes has been discovered to be able to exchange electrons with solid surfaces or mediators but only a few have been studied in depth. Especially electron transfer mechanisms from cathodes towards the microbial organism are poorly understood but are essential for many applications such as microbial electrosynthesis. We analyze the different electron transport chains that nature offers for organisms such as metal respiring bacteria and acetogens, but also standard biotechnological organisms currently used in bio-production. Special focus lies on the essential connection of redox and energy metabolism, which is often ignored when studying bioelectrochemical systems. The possibility of extracellular electron exchange at different points in each organism is discussed regarding required redox potentials and effect on cellular redox and energy levels. Key compounds such as electron carriers (e.g., cytochromes, ferredoxin, quinones, flavins) are identified and analyzed regarding their possible role in electrode–microbe interactions. This work summarizes our current knowledge on electron transport processes and uses a theoretical approach to predict the impact of different modes of transfer on the energy metabolism. As such it adds an important piece of fundamental understanding of microbial electron transport possibilities to the research community and will help to optimize and advance bioelectrochemical

  13. A stochastic optimization approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, Ebrahim; Asadi, Somayeh; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of building- and transportation-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions makes the adoption of all-EVs (electric vehicles) powered with renewable power as one of the most effective strategies to reduce emission of GHGs. This paper formulates the problem of GHG mitigation strategy under uncertain conditions and optimizes the strategies in which EVs are powered by solar energy. Under a pre-specified budget, the objective is to determine the type of EV and power generation capacity of the solar system in such a way as to maximize GHG emissions reductions. The model supports the three primary solar systems: off-grid, grid-tied, and hybrid. First, a stochastic optimization model using probability distributions of stochastic variables and EV and solar system specifications is developed. The model is then validated by comparing the estimated values of the optimal strategies and actual values. It is found that the mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a hybrid solar system lead to the best cost-expected reduction of CO_2 emissions ratio. The results show an accuracy of about 4% for mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a grid-tied or hybrid solar system and 11% when applied to estimate the CO_2 emissions reductions of an off-grid system. - Highlights: • The problem of GHG mitigation is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. • The objective is to maximize CO_2 emissions reductions within a specified budget. • The stochastic model is validated using actual data. • The results show an estimation accuracy of 4–11%.

  14. Investigation of sediment transport and optimization of dredging operations in Indian ports using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    tracked at regular intervals using waterproof scintillation detector. The concentration of radiotracer is recorded as counts per unit time and plotted as a function of latitude and longitude to obtain iso-activity contours. The iso-activity contours are analyzed to obtain various transport parameters of sediments and subsequently used to evaluate the suitability of dumping site and optimize the dumping operation. More than eighty large-scale radiotracer investigations have been carried out in all the major ports in India during last five decades. The results of a few recently carried out sediment transport investigations will be discussed. (author)

  15. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  16. RibM from Streptomyces davawensis is a riboflavin/roseoflavin transporter and may be useful for the optimization of riboflavin production strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is not a natural riboflavin overproducer, has been converted into an excellent production strain by classical mutagenesis and metabolic engineering. To our knowledge, the enhancement of riboflavin excretion from the cytoplasm of overproducing cells has not yet been considered as a target for (further) strain improvement. Here we evaluate the flavin transporter RibM from Streptomyces davawensis with respect to improvement of a riboflavin production strain. Results The gene ribM from S. davawensis, coding for a putative facilitator of riboflavin uptake, was codon optimized (ribMopt) for expression in B. subtilis. The gene ribMopt was functionally introduced into B. subtilis using the isopropyl-β-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible expression plasmid pHT01: Northern-blot analysis of total RNA from IPTG treated recombinant B. subtilis cells revealed a ribMopt specific transcript. Western blot analysis showed that the his6-tagged heterologous gene product RibM was present in the cytoplasmic membrane. Expression of ribM in Escherichia coli increased [14C]riboflavin uptake, which was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Expression of ribMopt supported growth of a B. subtilis ΔribB::Ermr ΔribU::Kanr double mutant deficient in riboflavin synthesis (ΔribB) and also deficient with respect to riboflavin uptake (ΔribU). Expression of ribMopt increased roseoflavin (a toxic riboflavin analog produced by S. davawensis) sensitivity of a B. subtilis ΔribU::Kanr strain. Riboflavin synthesis by a model riboflavin B. subtilis production strain overproducing RibM was increased significantly depending on the amount of the inducer IPTG. Conclusions The energy independent flavin facilitator RibM could in principle catalyze riboflavin export and thus may be useful to increase the riboflavin yield in a riboflavin production process using a recombinant RibM overproducing B. subtilis strain

  17. Characterization of cytoplasmic male sterility of rice with Lead Rice cytoplasm in comparison with that with Chinsurah Boro II cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Etsuko; Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2009-02-01

    Rice with LD-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) possesses the cytoplasm of 'Lead Rice' and its fertility is recovered by a nuclear fertility restorer gene Rf1. Rf1 promotes processing of a CMS-associated mitochondrial RNA of atp6-orf79, which consists of atp6 and orf79, in BT-CMS with the cytoplasm of 'Chinsurah Boro II'. In this study, we found that LD-cytoplasm contained a sequence variant of orf79 downstream of atp6. Northern blot analysis showed that atp6-orf79 RNA of LD-cytoplasm was co-transcribed and was processed in the presence of Rf1 in the same manner as in BT-cytoplasm. Western blot analysis showed that the ORF79 peptide did not accumulate in an LD-CMS line, while ORF79 accumulated in a BT-CMS line and was diminished by Rf1. These results suggest that accumulation of ORF79 is not the cause of CMS in LD-cytoplasm and the mechanism of male-sterility induction/fertility restoration in LD-CMS is different from that in BT-CMS.

  18. DATA MINING WORKSPACE AS AN OPTIMIZATION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING TRANSPORT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia KUPTCOVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the study related to forecasting with an actual high-speed decision making under careful modelling of time series data. The study uses data-mining modelling for algorithmic optimization of transport goals. Our finding brings to the future adequate techniques for the fitting of a prediction model. This model is going to be used for analyses of the future transaction costs in the frontiers of the Czech Republic. Time series prediction methods for the performance of prediction models in the package of Statistics are Exponential, ARIMA and Neural Network approaches. The primary target for a predictive scenario in the data mining workspace is to provide modelling data faster and with more versatility than the other management techniques.

  19. Integration of finite element analysis and numerical optimization techniques for RAM transport package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Eldred, M.S.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Type B radioactive material transport packages must meet strict Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations specified in 10 CFR 71. Type B containers include impact limiters, radiation or thermal shielding layers, and one or more containment vessels. In the past, each component was typically designed separately based on its driving constraint and the expertise of the designer. The components were subsequently assembled and the design modified iteratively until all of the design criteria were met. This approach neglects the fact that components may serve secondary purposes as well as primary ones. For example, an impact limiter's primary purpose is to act as an energy absorber and protect the contents of the package, but can also act as a heat dissipater or insulator. Designing the component to maximize its performance with respect to both objectives can be accomplished using numerical optimization techniques

  20. An exact model for airline flight network optimization based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorge Caetano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of airline flight network optimization can be split into subproblems such as Schedule Generation (SG and Fleet Assignment (FA, solved in consecutive steps or in an integrated way, usually based on monetary costs and revenue forecasts. A linear pro­gramming model to solve SG and FA in an integrated way is presented, but with an al­ternative approach based on transport momentum and aircraft load factor. This alterna­tive approach relies on demand forecast and allows obtaining solutions considering min­imum average load factors. Results of the proposed model applications to instances of a regional Brazilian airline are presented. The comparison of the schedules generated by the proposed approach against those obtained by applying a model based on mone­tary costs and revenue forecasts demonstrates the validity of this alternative approach for airlines network planning.

  1. Optimal-mass-transfer-based estimation of glymphatic transport in living brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2015-03-01

    It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs . It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly through a network of dedicated vessels, but rather through para-vascular channels and brain parenchyma in a slower time-domain, and thus conventional fMRI or other blood-flow sensitive MRI sequences do not provide much useful information about the desired flow patterns. We have accordingly analyzed a series of MRI images, taken at different times, of the brain of a live rat, which was injected with a paramagnetic tracer into the CSF via the lumbar intrathecal space of the spine. Our goal is twofold: (a) find glymphatic (tracer) flow directions in the live rodent brain; and (b) provide a model of a (healthy) brain that will allow the prediction of tracer concentrations given initial conditions. We model the liquid flow through the brain by the diffusion equation. We then use the Optimal Mass Transfer (OMT) approach to derive the glymphatic flow vector field, and estimate the diffusion tensors by analyzing the (changes in the) flow. Simulations show that the resulting model successfully reproduces the dominant features of the experimental data. Keywords: inverse problem, optimal mass transport, diffusion equation, cerebrospinal fluid flow in brain, optical flow, liquid flow modeling, Monge Kantorovich problem, diffusion tensor estimation

  2. Fugitive emission source characterization using a gradient-based optimization scheme and scalar transport adjoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Carol A.; Joynes, Ian M.; Campbell, Lucy J.; Johnson, Matthew R.

    2018-05-01

    Fugitive emissions are important sources of greenhouse gases and lost product in the energy sector that can be difficult to detect, but are often easily mitigated once they are known, located, and quantified. In this paper, a scalar transport adjoint-based optimization method is presented to locate and quantify unknown emission sources from downstream measurements. This emission characterization approach correctly predicted locations to within 5 m and magnitudes to within 13% of experimental release data from Project Prairie Grass. The method was further demonstrated on simulated simultaneous releases in a complex 3-D geometry based on an Alberta gas plant. Reconstructions were performed using both the complex 3-D transient wind field used to generate the simulated release data and using a sequential series of steady-state RANS wind simulations (SSWS) representing 30 s intervals of physical time. Both the detailed transient and the simplified wind field series could be used to correctly locate major sources and predict their emission rates within 10%, while predicting total emission rates from all sources within 24%. This SSWS case would be much easier to implement in a real-world application, and gives rise to the possibility of developing pre-computed databases of both wind and scalar transport adjoints to reduce computational time.

  3. How to dip nectar: optimal time apportionment in natural viscous fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianing; Shi, Guanya; Zhao, Yiwei; Yan, Shaoze

    2018-06-01

    The mouthparts of some animals are highly evolved fluid transporters. Most honeybees dip viscous nectar in a cyclic fashion by using protrusible tongues with active hairs that can erect rhythmically. The glossal hairs flatten when the tongue extends into the nectar, and then erect outwards like an umbrella to catch nectar while retracting. This paper examines the potential capability of honeybees in allocating the duration of the tongue protraction and retraction phases for the sake of energy saving. A physical model is established to analyze energy consumption induced by viscous drag, considering tongue kinematics and variation of the surface profile in different phases of tongue movements. The results indicate that the theoretically optimal time apportionment ratio at which the energy consumption is the minimum, is directly related to the square root of the tongue’s diameter ratio between the protraction and retraction phase. Through dipping observations, we validate that the duration for the protraction and retraction phases show high accordance with the theoretical prediction. These findings not only broaden the insights into honeybee’s foraging strategy but inspire the design of high-performance microfluidic pumps with dynamic surfaces to transport viscous fluid.

  4. Optimal routing of hazardous substances in time-varying, stochastic transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Miller-Hooks, E.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report is concerned with the selection of routes in a network along which to transport hazardous substances, taking into consideration several key factors pertaining to the cost of transport and the risk of population exposure in the event of an accident. Furthermore, the fact that travel time and the risk measures are not constant over time is explicitly recognized in the routing decisions. Existing approaches typically assume static conditions, possibly resulting in inefficient route selection and unnecessary risk exposure. The report described the application of recent advances in network analysis methodologies to the problem of routing hazardous substances. Several specific problem formulations are presented, reflecting different degrees of risk aversion on the part of the decision-maker, as well as different possible operational scenarios. All procedures explicitly consider travel times and travel costs (including risk measures) to be stochastic time-varying quantities. The procedures include both exact algorithms, which may require extensive computational effort in some situations, as well as more efficient heuristics that may not guarantee a Pareto-optimal solution. All procedures are systematically illustrated for an example application using the Texas highway network, for both normal and incident condition scenarios. The application illustrates the trade-offs between the information obtained in the solution and computational efficiency, and highlights the benefits of incorporating these procedures in a decision-support system for hazardous substance shipment routing decisions

  5. Penentuan Rute Angkutan Umum Optimal Dengan Transport Network Simulator (TRANETSIM di Kota Tuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Riaya Nikita Ratriaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan ekonomi, jumlah penduduk yang mendiami Kota Tuban terus mengalami peningkatan. Kondisi tersebut menimbulkan dampak terhadap kegiatan di beberapa ruas jalan pada Kota Tuban. Perkembangan permukiman yang ekspansif ke pinggiran Kota Tuban juga menimbulkan bangkitan-bangkitan pergerakan baru.. Sirkulasi angkutan umum yang terdapat di Kota Tuban memiliki kondisi eksisting yang belum mencakup keseluruhan zona yang menjadi bangkitan dan tarikan pergerakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan rute angkutan umum yang optimal untuk Kota Tuban. Untuk itu, dilakukan tiga tahapan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Tahap pertama adalah mengukur bangkitan dan tarikan pergerakan tiap zona dengan matriks asal-tujuan. Tahap selanjutnya adalah melakukan pembobotan terhadap faktor-faktor penentu rute angkutan umum dengan teknik analisis Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP menggunakan software Expert Choice. Tahap terakhir adalah menentukan rute angkutan umum yang optimal menggunakan software Transport Network Simulator (TRANETSIM. Berdasarkan analisis yang digunakan dalam tahapan penelitian, hasil yang diperoleh yaitu rute Terminal Kambang Putih – Desa Tunah (PP, Desa Tunah – Terminal Kambang Putih (PP, Terminal Kambang Putih – Desa Semanding (PP, serta Desa Semanding – Desa Tunah (PP.

  6. An optimized ultra-fine energy group structure for neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, Harish; Ouisloumen, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an optimized energy group structure that was developed for neutron transport calculations in lattices using the Westinghouse lattice physics code PARAGON. The currently used 70-energy group structure results in significant discrepancies when the predictions are compared with those from the continuous energy Monte Carlo methods. The main source of the differences is the approximations employed in the resonance self-shielding methodology. This, in turn, leads to ambiguous adjustments in the resonance range cross-sections. The main goal of developing this group structure was to bypass the self-shielding methodology altogether thereby reducing the neutronic calculation errors. The proposed optimized energy mesh has 6064 points with 5877 points spanning the resonance range. The group boundaries in the resonance range were selected so that the micro group cross-sections matched reasonably well with those derived from reaction tallies of MCNP for a number of resonance absorbers of interest in reactor lattices. At the same time, however, the fast and thermal energy range boundaries were also adjusted to match the MCNP reaction rates in the relevant ranges. The resulting multi-group library was used to obtain eigenvalues for a wide variety of reactor lattice numerical benchmarks and also the Doppler reactivity defect benchmarks to establish its adequacy. (authors)

  7. Optimization of existing transport services – case study of the Niko Transport d.o.o. Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor TRUPAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational efficiency of the transport-logistics chains is affected by all actors involved: linear companies, port authorities, stevedores, forwarders, agents as well as of the level of integration of terminals and hinterland transportation modes. At the moment, only the company Niko Transport d.o.o. offers the intermodal way of transport in Slovenia. As for any other transportation problem, time window constraints and the availability of alternative routings of intermodal transport poses additional challenges.The new strategy of the company was named »We select green«. Its main goal is the same effect with lower pollution. They understand they are part of whole logistic chains for which it is typical to become more and more sensible to the demands that concerns the protection of the environment. That is also one of the priority strategies of the EU. Launched in the Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan, Green Corridors support today the EU's agenda towards decarbonising transport while emphasising the need for efficient logistics. The goal of the article is to present the business of the Niko Transport d.o.o. company on the UK market, the introduction of the multimodal transport, the approval of the Marco Polo project, the selection of courses and partners. A research of the students of the Caledonian University of Glasgow as a part of the project is also presented in the article.

  8. Aerodynamic shape optimization directed toward a supersonic transport using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    This investigation was conducted from March 1994 to August 1995, primarily, to extend and implement the previously developed aerodynamic design optimization methodologies for the problems related to a supersonic transport design. These methods had demonstrated promise to improve the designs (more specifically, the shape) of aerodynamic surfaces, by coupling optimization algorithms (OA) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) algorithms via sensitivity analyses (SA) with surface definition methods from Computer Aided Design (CAD). The present extensions of this method and their supersonic implementations have produced wing section designs, delta wing designs, cranked-delta wing designs, and nacelle designs, all of which have been reported in the open literature. Despite the fact that these configurations were highly simplified to be of any practical or commercial use, they served the algorithmic and proof-of-concept objectives of the study very well. The primary cause for the configurational simplifications, other than the usual simplify-to-study the fundamentals reason, were the premature closing of the project. Only after the first of the originally intended three-year term, both the funds and the computer resources supporting the project were abruptly cut due to their severe shortages at the funding agency. Nonetheless, it was shown that the extended methodologies could be viable options in optimizing the design of not only an isolated single-component configuration, but also a multiple-component configuration in supersonic and viscous flow. This allowed designing with the mutual interference of the components being one of the constraints all along the evolution of the shapes.

  9. General factors that affects the increase of population mobility and principles of optimization of high-speed passenger transportations

    OpenAIRE

    Momot, A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Analyze the main factors that influence the increased mobility of the population in the transport market of Ukraine. Methods. The article uses an improved method of determining the optimal areas of high-speed passenger trains and determines the value of rational transportation of passengers in different directions of speed traffic, as well as the method of marginal income. Results. In this article we analyzed seven major factors that influence the increased mobility of the population...

  10. Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, V; Shahabudeen, P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, about US$410 billion is spent every year to manage four billion tonnes of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Transport cost alone constitutes more than 50% of the total expenditure on solid waste management (SWM) in major cities of the developed world and the collection and transport cost is about 85% in the developing world. There is a need to improve the ability of the city administrators to manage the municipal solid wastes with least cost. Since 2000, new technologies such as geographical information system (GIS) and related optimization software have been used to optimize the haul route distances. The city limits of Chennai were extended from 175 to 426 km(2) in 2011, leading to sub-optimum levels in solid waste transportation of 4840 tonnes per day. After developing a spatial database for the whole of Chennai with 200 wards, the route optimization procedures have been run for the transport of solid wastes from 13 wards (generating nodes) to one transfer station (intermediary before landfill), using ArcGIS. The optimization process reduced the distances travelled by 9.93%. The annual total cost incurred for this segment alone is Indian Rupees (INR) 226.1 million. Savings in terms of time taken for both the current and shortest paths have also been computed, considering traffic conditions. The overall savings are thus very meaningful and call for optimization of the haul routes for the entire Chennai. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Generalized railway tank car safety design optimization for hazardous materials transport: Addressing the trade-off between transportation efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2011-01-01

    North America railways offer safe and generally the most economical means of long distance transport of hazardous materials. Nevertheless, in the event of a train accident releases of these materials can pose substantial risk to human health, property or the environment. The majority of railway shipments of hazardous materials are in tank cars. Improving the safety design of these cars to make them more robust in accidents generally increases their weight thereby reducing their capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. This paper presents a generalized tank car safety design optimization model that addresses this tradeoff. The optimization model enables evaluation of each element of tank car safety design, independently and in combination with one another. We present the optimization model by identifying a set of Pareto-optimal solutions for a baseline tank car design in a bicriteria decision problem. This model provides a quantitative framework for a rational decision-making process involving tank car safety design enhancements to reduce the risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  12. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  13. Investigating the Slow Axonal Transport of Neurofilaments: A Precursor for Optimal Neuronal Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    Neurofilaments are the intermediate filaments of neurons and are the most abundant structure of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Once synthesized within the cell body they are then transported throughout the axon along microtubule tracks, driven by the molecular motors kinesin and dynein. This movement is characterized by long pauses with no movement interrupted by infrequent bouts of rapid movement, resulting in an aggregate dense cytoskeletal structure, which serves to regulate an axon's shape and size. Curiously, the modulated kinetics of these polymers produces a very regular, yet non-uniform, morphology in myelinated axons which are composed of discretely spaced myelin-ensheathed segments that are separated by short constricted regions called "nodes of Ranvier". This unique design optimizes the conduction velocity of myelinated axons at minimal fiber size. Hence, neurofilaments regulate the axon caliber to optimize neuron function. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the motile mechanism of neurofilament transport as well as the resulting electrophysiological effects that follow. We start by examining highly time-resolved kymograph images generated from recorded neurofilament movement via epifluorescence microscopy. Using kymograph analysis, edge detection algorithms, and pixel smoothing tactics, neurofilament trajectories are extracted and used to obtain statistical distributions for the characteristics of how these filaments move within cells. The results suggest that the observed intermittent and bidirectional motions of these filaments might be explained by a model in which dynein and kinesin motors attach to a single neurofilament cargo and interact through mechanical forces only (i.e. a "tug-of-war" model). We test this hypothesis by developing two discrete-state stochastic models for the kinetic cycles of kinesin and dynein, which are then incorporated into a separate stochastic model that represents the posed tug-of-war scenario. We then

  14. Optimization of the spatial mesh for numerical solution of the neutron transport equation in a cluster-type lattice cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    For programs that solve the neutron transport equation with an approximation that the neutron flux is constant in each space in a user-defined mesh, optimization of that mesh yields benefits in computing time and attainable precision. The previous best practice does not optimize the mesh thoroughly, because a large number of test runs of the solving software would be necessary. The method presented here optimizes the mesh for a flux that is based on conventional approximations but is more informative, so that a minimal number of parameters, one per type of material, must be adjusted by test runs to achieve thorough optimization. For a 37 element, natural-uranium, CANDU lattice cell, the present optimization yields 7 to 12 times (depending on the criterion) better precision than the previous best practice in 37% less computing time. (author)

  15. An optimization design proposal of automated guided vehicles for mixed type transportation in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Domingo; Romero, Luis; Espinosa, María Del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an optimization proposal in the automated guided vehicles design used in hospital logistics, as well as to analyze the impact of its implementation in a real environment. This proposal is based on the design of those elements that would allow the vehicles to deliver an extra cart by the towing method. So, the proposal intention is to improve the productivity and the performance of the current vehicles by using a transportation method of combined carts. The study has been developed following concurrent engineering premises from three different viewpoints. First, the sequence of operations has been described, and second, a proposal of design of the equipment has been undertaken. Finally, the impact of the proposal has been analyzed according to real data from the Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega in Valladolid (Spain). In this particular case, by the implementation of the analyzed proposal in the hospital a reduction of over 35% of the current time of use can be achieved. This result may allow adding new tasks to the vehicles, and according to this, both a new kind of vehicle and a specific module can be developed in order to get a better performance.

  16. An optimization design proposal of automated guided vehicles for mixed type transportation in hospital environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo González

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an optimization proposal in the automated guided vehicles design used in hospital logistics, as well as to analyze the impact of its implementation in a real environment.This proposal is based on the design of those elements that would allow the vehicles to deliver an extra cart by the towing method. So, the proposal intention is to improve the productivity and the performance of the current vehicles by using a transportation method of combined carts.The study has been developed following concurrent engineering premises from three different viewpoints. First, the sequence of operations has been described, and second, a proposal of design of the equipment has been undertaken. Finally, the impact of the proposal has been analyzed according to real data from the Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega in Valladolid (Spain. In this particular case, by the implementation of the analyzed proposal in the hospital a reduction of over 35% of the current time of use can be achieved. This result may allow adding new tasks to the vehicles, and according to this, both a new kind of vehicle and a specific module can be developed in order to get a better performance.

  17. Optimized aerodynamic design process for subsonic transport wing fitted with winglets. [wind tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic design of a wind-tunnel model of a wing representative of that of a subsonic jet transport aircraft, fitted with winglets, was performed using two recently developed optimal wing-design computer programs. Both potential flow codes use a vortex lattice representation of the near-field of the aerodynamic surfaces for determination of the required mean camber surfaces for minimum induced drag, and both codes use far-field induced drag minimization procedures to obtain the required spanloads. One code uses a discrete vortex wake model for this far-field drag computation, while the second uses a 2-D advanced panel wake model. Wing camber shapes for the two codes are very similar, but the resulting winglet camber shapes differ widely. Design techniques and considerations for these two wind-tunnel models are detailed, including a description of the necessary modifications of the design geometry to format it for use by a numerically controlled machine for the actual model construction.

  18. Optimization of the transporting beam for the CMS Barrel under a displacement constraint

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2139604; Spadinger, Markus

    The aim of this research was to find the optimal solution for the design of the new transporting beam for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Barrel. Once the new crane in the experimental cavern is installed, the previous design of the beam will become obsolete due to its weight. The current beam is made from steel and has four air-pads to support it. The new design of the beam, which will be presented in this thesis, will be made of aluminium alloy and will have only two air-pads supporting it. Two main issues that guided the direction of this research were the concentrations of stresses and the displacements due to bending. At the beginning of the research, all of the focus will be on the beam. This approach will prove to be limited, which will lead to the gradual inclusion of other interfacing components in the analysis. In order to correctly mimic the behaviour of the beam under such loads, representative models of the air-pads will be introduced into the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Part of the original B...

  19. Optimation of Operation System Integration between Main and Feeder Public Transport (Case Study: Trans Jakarta-Kopaja Bus Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Priadi, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    Promoting a better public transport is a key strategy to cope with urban transport problems which are mostly caused by a huge private vehicle usage. A better public transport service quality not only focuses on one type of public transport mode, but also concerns on inter modes service integration. Fragmented inter mode public transport service leads to a longer trip chain as well as average travel time which would result in its failure to compete with a private vehicle. This paper examines the optimation process of operation system integration between Trans Jakarta Bus as the main public transport mode and Kopaja Bus as feeder public transport service in Jakarta. Using scoring-interview method combined with standard parameters in operation system integration, this paper identifies the key factors that determine the success of the two public transport operation system integrations. The study found that some key integration parameters, such as the cancellation of “system setoran”, passenger get in-get out at official stop points, and systematic payment, positively contribute to a better service integration. However, some parameters such as fine system, time and changing point reliability, and information system reliability are among those which need improvement. These findings are very useful for the authority to set the right strategy to improve operation system integration between Trans Jakarta and Kopaja Bus services.

  20. Microtubule–microtubule sliding by kinesin-1 is essential for normal cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Winding, Michael; Lakonishok, Margot; Wildonger, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes is a microtubule-based bulk cytoplasmic movement. Streaming efficiently circulates and localizes mRNAs and proteins deposited by the nurse cells across the oocyte. This movement is driven by kinesin-1, a major microtubule motor. Recently, we have shown that kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) can transport one microtubule on another microtubule, thus driving microtubule–microtubule sliding in multiple cell types. To study the role of microtubule sliding in oocyte cytoplasmic streaming, we used a Khc mutant that is deficient in microtubule sliding but able to transport a majority of cargoes. We demonstrated that streaming is reduced by genomic replacement of wild-type Khc with this sliding-deficient mutant. Streaming can be fully rescued by wild-type KHC and partially rescued by a chimeric motor that cannot move organelles but is active in microtubule sliding. Consistent with these data, we identified two populations of microtubules in fast-streaming oocytes: a network of stable microtubules anchored to the actin cortex and free cytoplasmic microtubules that moved in the ooplasm. We further demonstrated that the reduced streaming in sliding-deficient oocytes resulted in posterior determination defects. Together, we propose that kinesin-1 slides free cytoplasmic microtubules against cortically immobilized microtubules, generating forces that contribute to cytoplasmic streaming and are essential for the refinement of posterior determinants. PMID:27512034

  1. Inter-terminal transfer between port terminals. A continuous mathematical programming model to optimize scheduling and deployment of transport units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Fusco, P.; Pedrielli, G.; Zhou, C.; Hay Lee, L.; Peng Chew, E.

    2016-07-01

    In most large port cities, the challenge of inter-terminal transfers (ITT) prevails due to the long distance between multiple terminals. The quantity of containers requiring movement between terminals as they connect from pre-carrier to on-carrier is increasing with the formation of the mega-alliances. The paper proposes a continuous time mathematical programming model to optimize the deployment and schedule of trucks and barges to minimize the number of operating transporters, their makespan, costs and the distance travelled by the containers by choosing the right combination of transporters and container movements while fulfilling time window restrictions imposed on reception of the containers. A multi-step routing problem is developed where transporters can travel from one terminal to another and/or load or unload containers from a specific batch at each step. The model proves successful in identifying the costless schedule and means of transportation. And a sensibility analysis over the parameters used is provided. (Author)

  2. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    In Caco-2 cells, aminopeptidase N is transported to the apical membrane from the trans Golgi network by both the direct and the indirect pathway (Matter, K., Brauchbar, M., Bucher, K., and Hauri, H.-P. (1990) Cell 60, 429-437). The aim of this study was to determine the importance...... of the transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain of aminopeptidase N for transport of aminopeptidase N by the indirect pathway by analysis of mutated forms of aminopeptidase N recombinantly expressed in Caco-2 cells. A tail-less and two secretory forms of aminopeptidase N, all deprived of the cytoplasmic tail, were...

  3. Promising SINEs for embargoing nuclear-cytoplasmic export as an anticancer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, David S P; Bedard, Philippe L; Kuruvilla, John; Siu, Lillian L; Razak, Albiruni R Abdul

    2014-05-01

    In cancer cells, the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is frequently disrupted, resulting in mislocalization and loss of function for many key regulatory proteins. In this review, the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-opt the nuclear transport machinery to facilitate carcinogenesis, cell survival, drug resistance, and tumor progression will be elucidated, with a particular focus on the role of the nuclear-cytoplasmic export protein. The recent development of a new generation of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (XPO1 antagonists) and how these novel anticancer drugs may bring us closer to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy in the clinic will be discussed.

  4. Future car transport, Evaluating optimal solutions for future transport in the Netherlands focussing on the electric and hydrogen car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The modern world we are living in today, consumes fasts amounts of fossil fuels in many sectors. One of these sectors is transport which is almost completely dependent on oil derivatives. This heavy dependency on oil and other types of fossil fuel makes i

  5. Determination of transport properties and optimization of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah Grace

    We have adapted the method of restricted diffusion to measure diffusion coefficients in lithium-battery electrolytes using Ultra-Violent-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption. The use of UV-Vis absorption reduces the likelihood of side reactions. Here we describe the measurement of the diffusion coefficient in lithium-battery electrolytic solutions. The diffusion coefficient is seen to decrease with increasing concentration according to the following: D = 3.018·10-5 exp(-0.357c), for LiPF 6 in acetonitrile and D = 2.582·10-5 exp(-2.856c) for LiPF6 in EC:DEC (with D in cm2/s and c in moles per liter). This technique may be useful for any liquid solution with a UV-active species of D greater than 10-6 cm2/s. Activity coefficients were measured in concentration cell and melting-point-depression experiments. Results from concentration-cell experiments are presented for solutions of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) as well as in a 1:1 by weight solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Heat capacity results are also presented. The thermodynamic factor of LiPF6 solutions in EC varies between ca. 1.33 and ca. 6.10 in the concentration range ca. 0.06 to 1.25 M (which appears to be a eutectic point). We show that the solutions of LiPF6 investigated are not ideal but that an assumption of ideality for these solutions may overestimate the specific energy of a lithium-ion cell by only 0.6%. The thermodynamic and transport properties that we have measured are used in a system model. We have used this model to optimize the design of an asymmetric-hybrid system. This technology attempts to bridge the gap in energy density between a battery and supercapacitor. In this system, the positive electrode stores charge through a reversible, nonfaradaic adsorption of anions on the surface. The negative electrode is nanostructured Li4Ti 5O12, which reversibly intercalates lithium. We use the properties that we have measured in a system

  6. An energy-optimal solution for transportation control of cranes with double pendulum dynamics: Design and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Wu, Yiming; Chen, He; Fang, Yongchun

    2018-03-01

    Underactuated cranes play an important role in modern industry. Specifically, in most situations of practical applications, crane systems exhibit significant double pendulum characteristics, which makes the control problem quite challenging. Moreover, most existing planners/controllers obtained with standard methods/techniques for double pendulum cranes cannot minimize the energy consumption when fulfilling the transportation tasks. Therefore, from a practical perspective, this paper proposes an energy-optimal solution for transportation control of double pendulum cranes. By applying the presented approach, the transportation objective, including fast trolley positioning and swing elimination, is achieved with minimized energy consumption, and the residual oscillations are suppressed effectively with all the state constrains being satisfied during the entire transportation process. As far as we know, this is the first energy-optimal solution for transportation control of underactuated double pendulum cranes with various state and control constraints. Hardware experimental results are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, whose superior performance is reflected by being experimentally compared with some comparative controllers.

  7. Cytoplasmic Estrogen Receptor in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Allison W.; Lannin, Donald R.; Young, Gregory S.; Sherman, Mark E.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Henry, N. Lynn; Ryden, Lisa; Kim, Chungyeul; Love, Richard R.; Schiff, Rachel; Rimm, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In addition to genomic signaling, it is accepted that ERα has non-nuclear signaling functions, which correlate with tamoxifen resistance in preclinical models. However, evidence for cytoplasmic ER localization in human breast tumors is less established. We sought to determine the presence and implications of non-nuclear ER in clinical specimens. Experimental Design A panel of ERα-specific antibodies (SP1, MC20, F10, 60c, 1D5) were validated by western blot and quantitative immunofluorescent (QIF) analysis of cell lines and patient controls. Then eight retrospective cohorts collected on tissue microarrays were assessed for cytoplasmic ER. Four cohorts were from Yale (YTMA 49, 107, 130, 128) and four others (NCI YTMA 99, South Swedish Breast Cancer Group SBII, NSABP B14, and a Vietnamese Cohort) from other sites around the world. Results Four of the antibodies specifically recognized ER by western and QIF, showed linear increases in amounts of ER in cell line series with progressively increasing ER, and the antibodies were reproducible on YTMA 49 with pearson’s correlations (r2 values)ranging from 0.87-0.94. One antibody with striking cytoplasmic staining (MC20) failed validation. We found evidence for specific cytoplasmic staining with the other 4 antibodies across eight cohorts. The average incidence was 1.5%, ranging from 0 to 3.2%. Conclusions Our data shows ERα present in the cytoplasm in a number of cases using multiple antibodies, while reinforcing the importance of antibody validation. In nearly 3,200 cases, cytoplasmic ER is present at very low incidence, suggesting its measurement is unlikely to be of routine clinical value. PMID:21980134

  8. Two-phase model of hydrogen transport to optimize nanoparticle catalyst loading for hydrogen evolution reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Erno; Halme, Janne; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is the evolution and transport of gaseous H2, since HER leads to the continuous formation of H2 bubbles near the electrode. We present a numerical model that includes the transport of both gaseous and dissolved H2, as well as mass exchange between them, and combine it with a kinetic model of HER at platinum (Pt......) nanoparticle electrodes. We study the effect of the diffusion layer thickness and H2 dissolution rate constant on the importance of gaseous transport, and the effect of equilibrium hydrogen coverage and Pt loading on the kinetic and mass transport overpotentials. Gaseous transport becomes significant when...

  9. Consequences of cytoplasmic irradiation. Studies from microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hong, Mei; Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing dogma for radiation biology is that genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations and carcinogenesis are attributed mainly to direct damage to the nucleus. However, with the development of microbeam that can target precise positions inside the cells, accumulating evidences have shown that energy deposit by radiation in nuclear DNA is not required to trigger the damage, extra-nuclear or extra-cellular radiation could induce the similar biological effects as well. This review will summarize the biological responses after cytoplasm irradiated by microbeam, and the possible mechanisms involved in cytoplasmic irradiation. (author)

  10. Modified Approach for Optimization of Real Life Transportation Problem in Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, there is only one approach for solving neutrosophic cost minimization transportation problems. Since neutrosophic transportation problems are a new area of research, other researchers may be attracted to extend this approach for solving other types of neutrosophic transportation problems like neutrosophic solid transportation problems, neutrosophic time minimization transportation problems, neutrosophic transshipment problems, and so on. However, after a deep study of the existing approach, it is noticed that a mathematical incorrect assumption has been used in these existing approaches; therefore there is a need to modify these existing approaches. Keeping the same in mind, in this paper, the existing approach is modified. Furthermore, the exact results of some existing transportation problems are obtained by the modified approach.

  11. Flowchart on Choosing Optimal Method of Observing Transverse Dispersion Coefficient for Solute Transport in Open Channel Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Oh Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methods for observing and estimating the transverse dispersion coefficient in an analysis of the solute transport in open channel flow. It may be difficult to select an optimal method to calculate dispersion coefficients from tracer data among numerous methodologies. A flowchart was proposed in this study to select an appropriate method under the transport situation of either time-variant or steady condition. When making the flowchart, the strengths and limitations of the methods were evaluated based on its derivation procedure which was conducted under specific assumptions. Additionally, application examples of these methods on experimental data were illustrated using previous works. Furthermore, the observed dispersion coefficients in a laboratory channel were validated by using transport numerical modeling, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental results from tracer tests. This flowchart may assist in choosing the better methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in various river mixing situations.

  12. Manipulation technology optimization for the interim storage of HAW transport and storage containers; Optimierung der Handhabungstechnik zur Zwischenlagerung von HAW-Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmrich, Uwe; Krueger, Michael; Schulze, Hartmut [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The handling of high-level radioactive waste transport and storage containers from reprocessing plants is determined by the cask configuration and the radiation protection measures with respect to the safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory and shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. The new of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW28M was designed for higher radioactive inventories, the heat generation is has rarely been changed with respect to the former design. The essential structural modifications are shock absorbers that have to be demounted before storage in the interim storage facility Gorleben. Due to public acceptance forcings the ALARA principle is not the only basis for manipulation technology optimizations, the minimization of dose rate for the operational personnel is of increasing importance. The authors describe the optimizations and the resulting dose reductions.

  13. Detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damoiseaux, Jan; Csernok, Elena; Rasmussen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    of diagnosis) from 251 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), including granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis, and from 924 disease controls were tested for the presence of cytoplasmic pattern/perinuclear pattern and atypical ANCA (A-ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF...

  14. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded

  15. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  16. Using emission functions in mathematical programming models for ustainable urban transportation: an application in bilevel optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hızır, Ahmet Esat; Hizir, Ahmet Esat

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability is an emerging issue as a direct consequence of the population increase in the world. Urban transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining sustainability. Recently, sustainable urban transportation has become a major research area. Most of these studies propose evaluation methods that use simulation tools to assess the sustainability of different transportation policies. Despite all studies, there seems to be lack of mathematical programming models to determine the optima...

  17. Optimizing Public Transport Planning and Operations Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data: The Dutch Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, N.; Sparing, D.; Brands, Ties; Goverde, R.M.P.; Albrecht, Thomas; Jaekel, Birgit; Lehnert, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing pressure on urban public transport companies and authorities to improve efficiency, stemming from reduced budgets, political expectations and competition between operators. In order to find inefficiencies, bottlenecks and potentials in the public transport service, it is useful to

  18. Optimizing Transport in Surface Mines, Taking into Account the Quality of Extracted Raw Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Šofranko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles concerns problemacy of appropriate separation of transporting mechanisms for mining minerals from individulalteritories. In the following sections of the article a model solution is presented with the use of newly created program for optimizationof transport, taking into account the required quality of extracted raw ore. This process is being done through computing analysisand programming language Borland C++ Builder

  19. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  20. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economopoulou, M.A. [Hellenic Statistical Authority, Pireos 46 and Eponiton, Pireus 185 10 (Greece); Economopoulou, A.A. [Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change, 15 Amaliados Street, Athens 11523 (Greece); Economopoulos, A.P., E-mail: eco@otenet.gr [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  1. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  2. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  3. Optimization of city transportation of cargoes with use of system researches in the field of logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Павлович Кіркін

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In market working conditions, the enterprises need to maintain the competitiveness constantly. It is reached due to increase of standards of customer service and application of the latest technologies of management and production, including logistics. Over time there were following kinds of logistics: transport, warehouse, supply, production, etc. Thus, there is some parallel methodological development in the field of logistics and creation of logistic chains and systems at various stages of life cycle of goods. Thus, for city transportations, except high requirements to ecology and the impacts on the person inherent quick search of administrative decisions on effective customer service for the minimum time is. The warehouse logistics is an intermediate link between economic models by definition of stocks and parties of purchase, and transport operations which these indicators influence. Thus, system researches in the field of warehouse and transport logistic allow to coordinate transport and warehouse operations in uniform indicators, and also to expand methods of transport logistics. Planning and management of transport operations with the solution of problems of the target conflict can be used only for continuous transport sizes. First of all it is connected with impossibility of accumulation of transport works. It is necessary to notice feature of the solution of problems of the target conflict which can carry as the end result, and it can be presented by function, including function of distribution of a random variable. Therefore, the solution of a task can be used in imitating modeling. For transport operations it is necessary to consider two cases: the maximum intensity of service can't be increased and possibility of accumulation of intensity of service at the expense of additional resources

  4. Analysis of Optimal Transport Route Determination of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches from Plantation to Processing Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Sidabutar, R. F.; Tarigan, U. P. P.; Chen, A.

    2018-04-01

    Manufacturers engaged in the business, producing CPO and kernels whose raw materials are oil palm fresh fruit bunches taken from their own plantation, generally face problems of transporting from plantation to factory where there is often a change of distance traveled by the truck the carrier of FFB is due to non-specific transport instructions. The research was conducted to determine the optimal transportation route in terms of distance, time and route number. The determination of this transportation route is solved using Nearest Neighbours and Clarke & Wright Savings methods. Based on the calculations performed then found in area I with method Nearest Neighbours has a distance of 200.78 Km while Clarke & Wright Savings as with a result of 214.09 Km. As for the harvest area, II obtained results with Nearest Neighbours method of 264.37 Km and Clarke & Wright Savings method with a total distance of 264.33 Km. Based on the calculation of the time to do all the activities of transporting FFB juxtaposed with the work time of the driver got the reduction of conveyance from 8 units to 5 units. There is also improvement of fuel efficiency by 0.8%.

  5. Optimization of waste transportation route at waste transfers point in Lowokwaru District, Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.; Meidiana, C.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing population led to the emergence of the urban infrastructure services issue including waste problems especially waste transportation system. Data in 2016 shows that the amount of waste in Malang was 659.21 tons / day. The amount of waste transported to landfill only reached 464.74 tons / day. This indicates that not all waste can be transported to the landfill Supiturang because Level of Service (LoS) reached 70.49%. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of waste transportation system and determine the fastest route from waste transfers point in Lowokwaru district to the landfill Supiturang. The data collection method in this research were 1) primary survey by interview officials from the Sanitation and Gardening Agency which questions related to the condition of the waste transportation system in waste transfer point, 2) Secondary survey related to data of waste transportation system in Malang City i.e the amount of waste generation in waste transfer point, number of garbage trucks and other data related to the garbage transportation system. To determine the fastest route analyzed by network analyst using ArcGIS software. The results of network analyst show that not all routes are already using the fastest route to the landfill Supiturang.

  6. Minimizing the health and climate impacts of emissions from heavy-duty public transportation bus fleets through operational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Brian; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; Ries, Francis J

    2013-04-16

    In contrast to capital control strategies (i.e., investments in new technology), the potential of operational control strategies (e.g., vehicle scheduling optimization) to reduce the health and climate impacts of the emissions from public transportation bus fleets has not been widely considered. This case study demonstrates that heterogeneity in the emission levels of different bus technologies and the exposure potential of bus routes can be exploited though optimization (e.g., how vehicles are assigned to routes) to minimize these impacts as well as operating costs. The magnitude of the benefits of the optimization depend on the specific transit system and region. Health impacts were found to be particularly sensitive to different vehicle assignments and ranged from worst to best case assignment by more than a factor of 2, suggesting there is significant potential to reduce health impacts. Trade-offs between climate, health, and cost objectives were also found. Transit agencies that do not consider these objectives in an integrated framework and, for example, optimize for costs and/or climate impacts alone, risk inadvertently increasing health impacts by as much as 49%. Cost-benefit analysis was used to evaluate trade-offs between objectives, but large uncertainties make identifying an optimal solution challenging.

  7. Seasonal transport - A study to determine the seasonal effects of transporting fish from the Snake River to optimize a transportation strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of this U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) - funded study that began in 2004 is to determine if the smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs), transport/in-river...

  8. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  9. Replacement of the cytoplasmic domain alters sorting of a viral glycoprotein in polarized cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Puddington, L; Woodgett, C; Rose, J K

    1987-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is transported to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, whereas the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA protein) of influenza virus is transported to the apical plasma membrane. To determine if the cytoplasmic domain of VSV G protein might be important in directing G protein to the basolateral membrane, we derived polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing G protein or G protein with i...

  10. Control and optimization of solute transport in a thin porous tube

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.; Howell, P. D.; Shipley, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a

  11. Optimization and Simulation of Collaborative Networks for Sustainable Production and Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liotta, Giacomo; Kaihara, Toshiya; Stecca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Complex and delocalized manufacturing industries require high levels of integration between production and transportation in order to effectively implement lean and agile operations. There are, however, limitations in research and applications simultaneously embodying further sustainability dimen...

  12. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan; Rumpf, Martin; Schö nlieb, Carola; Simon, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals

  13. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  14. Cost optimization of a real-time GIS-based management system for hazardous waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhong, Yilong; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Che-Jen; Chen, Chunyi

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the design and cost analysis of a real-time, geographical information system (GIS) based management system for hazardous waste transportation are described. The implementation of such a system can effectively prevent illegal dumping and perform emergency responses during the transportation of hazardous wastes. A case study was conducted in Guangzhou, China to build a small-scale, real-time management system for waste transportation. Two alternatives were evaluated in terms of system capability and cost structure. Alternative I was the building of a complete real-time monitoring and management system in a governing agency; whereas alternative II was the combination of the existing management framework with a commercial Telematics service to achieve the desired level of monitoring and management. The technological framework under consideration included locating transportation vehicles using a global positioning system (GPS), exchanging vehicle location data via the Internet and Intranet, managing hazardous waste transportation using a government management system and responding to emergencies during transportation. Analysis of the cost structure showed that alternative II lowered the capital and operation cost by 38 and 56% in comparison with alternative I. It is demonstrated that efficient management can be achieved through integration of the existing technological components with additional cost benefits being achieved by streamlined software interfacing.

  15. Application of Flow and Transport Optimization Codes to Groundwater Pump and Treat Systems- VOLUME 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minsker, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent studies completed by the EPA and the Navy indicate that the majority of pump and treat systems are not operating as designed, have unachievable or undefined goals, and have not been optimized since installation...

  16. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  17. Two Topics in Data Analysis: Sample-based Optimal Transport and Analysis of Turbulent Spectra from Ship Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Simeng Max

    This thesis contains two topics in data analysis. The first topic consists of the introduction of algorithms for sample-based optimal transport and barycenter problems. In chapter 1, a family of algorithms is introduced to solve both the L2 optimal transport problem and the Wasserstein barycenter problem. Starting from a theoretical perspective, the new algorithms are motivated from a key characterization of the barycenter measure, which suggests an update that reduces the total transportation cost and stops only when the barycenter is reached. A series of general theorems is given to prove the convergence of all the algorithms. We then extend the algorithms to solve sample-based optimal transport and barycenter problems, in which only finite sample sets are available instead of underlying probability distributions. A unique feature of the new approach is that it compares sample sets in terms of the expected values of a set of feature functions, which at the same time induce the function space of optimal maps and can be chosen by users to incorporate their prior knowledge of the data. All the algorithms are implemented and applied to various synthetic example and practical applications. On synthetic examples it is found that both the SOT algorithm and the SCB algorithm are able to find the true solution and often converge in a handful of iterations. On more challenging applications including Gaussian mixture models, color transfer and shape transform problems, the algorithms give very good results throughout despite the very different nature of the corresponding datasets. In chapter 2, a preconditioning procedure is developed for the L2 and more general optimal transport problems. The procedure is based on a family of affine map pairs, which transforms the original measures into two new measures that are closer to each other, while preserving the optimality of solutions. It is proved that the preconditioning procedure minimizes the remaining transportation cost

  18. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  19. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Purpose of reviews This review focuses on recent advance in the diagnosis pathogenesis and treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated small-vessel vasculitis. Recent findings Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are closely associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and

  20. Economic optimization of the energy transport component of a large distributed solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A solar thermal power plant with a field of collectors, each locally heating some transport fluid, requires a pipe network system for eventual delivery of energy power generation equipment. For a given collector distribution and pipe network geometry, a technique is herein developed which manipulates basic cost information and physical data in order to design an energy transport system consistent with minimized cost constrained by a calculated technical performance. For a given transport fluid and collector conditions, the method determines the network pipe diameter and pipe thickness distribution and also insulation thickness distribution associated with minimum system cost; these relative distributions are unique. Transport losses, including pump work and heat leak, are calculated operating expenses and impact the total system cost. The minimum cost system is readily selected. The technique is demonstrated on six candidate transport fluids to emphasize which parameters dominate the system cost and to provide basic decision data. Three different power plant output sizes are evaluated in each case to determine severity of diseconomy of scale.

  1. Optimization of public protection in the case of transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Hubert, P.

    1986-09-01

    The initial purpose of the study was to assess risk to the public associated with UF 6 transportation in France as projected for the years to come. In a first stage a particular risk assessment methodology has been developed at the CEPN in the field of radioactive material transportation, through this first example and some others. Then a number of questions were raised as to the opportunity of given safety measures, associated for example with possible changes in the regulations. One such measure could be to adopt an overpack for natural uranium hexafluoride containers. This particular action and others bearing on either natural or enriched uranium hexafluoride transportation in both truck and rail modes were envisaged. The case study presented here deals with the comparison of a set of such alternative options aiming at reducing the risk to the public in the transportation of natural UF 6 by truck in France. Risk from the transportation only itself is taken into account, risk is assessed for accident situations only, health detriment is evaluated only for the consequences of the release itself

  2. Optimization of a He-jet activity transport system to use at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Bunker, M.E.; Starner, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of an assessment of the feasibility for a He-jet coupled on-line mass separator at LAMPF, we have studied performance characteristics of a gas activity transport system under conditions simulating those expected on the main LAMPF beam line. In experiments utilizing a side beam at LAMPF, we have measured absolute transport efficiencies, transit times, aerosol properties, and dependences on beam intensity. Further experiments with a He-jet system at the Omega West Reactor have indicated an optimum configuration of a target chamber to be placed in the LAMPF main beam. The results of these studies suggest that a He-jet activity transport system should work well at LAMPF in the 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam that is spread over ∼40 cm 2 near the beam stop. 19 refs., 8 figs

  3. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  4. Energy optimized automatic public transportation system with a microprocessor in the vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchinda, A.

    1980-09-11

    The matter with energy optimizing running is, that the train reaches the final state (target station) from the initial state (original station) in time with consideration of the given safety demands and other limitations and the consumed energy has its minimal value. This principle was extended for a driverless train operation in a sense that the optimization problem was formulated new and solved with regards to extensive secondary conditions as: velocity-dependent train and braking power and motion resistance force, path-dependent maximum velocity of the route and hazardous points. The algorithms for optimal vehicle control were developed by means of E. Bellmann's dynamic programming with regards to the secondary conditions mentioned above.

  5. Optimizing RF energy transport : channel modelling and transmit antenna and rectenna design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    For powering wireless sensors in buildings rechargeable batteries may be used, being charged remotely by dedicated RF sources. RF energy transport suffers from path loss and therefore the RF power available on a rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency will

  6. Applying ant colony optimization metaheuristic to solve forest transportation planning problems with side constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco A. Contreras; Woodam Chung; Greg Jones

    2008-01-01

    Forest transportation planning problems (FTPP) have evolved from considering only the financial aspects of timber management to more holistic problems that also consider the environmental impacts of roads. These additional requirements have introduced side constraints, making FTPP larger and more complex. Mixed-integer programming (MIP) has been used to solve FTPP, but...

  7. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  8. Optimization of a passenger railway transportation plan considering mobility flows and service quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brethome, L.; Bouvet-Agnelli, C.; Chevrier, R.; van Oort, N.; Rodriguez, J

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on designing transportation plan for SNCF Transilien (French rail-way operator for the Parisian suburban mass transit). The objective is to develop methods and decision support tools to propose a timetable adapted to the passenger demand in the Parisian mass transit system,

  9. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  10. Gain of transportation revenue by optimization of quota allocation for in-between stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Venediktov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for calculation of optimal train ticket selling share for a departure station and in-between stations is proposed to obtain the ceiling total income. Available demand statistics for relevant stations are taken into account. The solution of the problem is reduced to applying of simplex-method to dual linear programming procedure with special objective function.

  11. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method.

  12. Optimization of an Electron Transport Layer to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency of Flexible Inverted Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kang Hyuck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The photovoltaic (PV performance of flexible inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs with an active layer consisting of a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butlyric acid methyl ester was investigated by varying the thicknesses of ZnO seed layers and introducing ZnO nanorods (NRs. A ZnO seed layer or ZnO NRs grown on the seed layer were used as an electron transport layer and pathway to optimize PV performance. ZnO seed layers were deposited using spin coating at 3,000 rpm for 30 s onto indium tin oxide (ITO-coated polyethersulphone (PES substrates. The ZnO NRs were grown using an aqueous solution method at a low temperature (90°C. The optimized device with ZnO NRs exhibited a threefold increase in PV performance compared with that of a device consisting of a ZnO seed layer without ZnO NRs. Flexible IOSCs fabricated using ZnO NRs with improved PV performance may pave the way for the development of PV devices with larger interface areas for effective exciton dissociation and continuous carrier transport paths.

  13. Taking advantage of reduced droplet-surface interaction to optimize transport of bioanalytes in digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sergio L S; Thorne, Nathaniel; Wutkowski, Michael; Dao, Selina

    2014-11-10

    Digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique for manipulation of droplets, is a promising alternative for the development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Often, droplet motion relies on the wetting of a surface, directly associated with the application of an electric field; surface interactions, however, make motion dependent on droplet contents, limiting the breadth of applications of the technique. Some alternatives have been presented to minimize this dependence. However, they rely on the addition of extra chemical species to the droplet or its surroundings, which could potentially interact with droplet moieties. Addressing this challenge, our group recently developed Field-DW devices to allow the transport of cells and proteins in DMF, without extra additives. Here, the protocol for device fabrication and operation is provided, including the electronic interface for motion control. We also continue the studies with the devices, showing that multicellular, relatively large, model organisms can also be transported, arguably unaffected by the electric fields required for device operation.

  14. Fast Algorithms for Earth Mover Distance Based on Optimal Transport and L1 Regularization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    gradient ascent in the dual variable Φ and a gradient descent in the primal variable m. In our updates for (6), we use simple exact formulae. Since the...0. References [1] Luigi Ambrosio, Nicola Gigli, and Giuseppe Savaré. Gradient flows: in metric spaces and in the space of probability measures...continuity and summability of transport densities: simpler proofs and new estimates. Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations, 36 (3

  15. Optimal-mass-transfer-based estimation of glymphatic transport in living brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Vadim; Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2015-01-01

    It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the ‘glymphatic pathway’ plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs1,2. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly through ...

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid Motion via the Glymphatic Pathway Modelled by Optimal Mass Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste, Helene; Nedergaard, Maikan; Lee, Hedok; Gao, Yi; Tannenbaum, Allen; Ratner, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    It was recently shown that the brain-wide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid exchange system designated the `glymphatic pathway' plays a key role in removing waste products from the brain, similarly to the lymphatic system in other body organs [1,2]. It is therefore important to study the flow patterns of glymphatic transport through the live brain in order to better understand its functionality in normal and pathological states. Unlike blood, the CSF does not flow rapidly throu...

  17. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, Kaare H; Holbrook, N Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2015-02-22

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits and takes into account the transport strategy and natural constraints. This minimal model predicts a power law phloem distribution consistent with transport energy minimization, suggesting that energetics are more important than translocation speed at the leaf level. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug transporter gene expression in human colorectal tissue and cell lines: modulation with antiretrovirals for microbicide optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Berry, Susan; Thomson, John; Frank, Bruce; Gwozdz, Garry; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to comprehensively assess mRNA expression of 84 drug transporters in human colorectal biopsies and six representative cell lines, and to investigate the alteration of drug transporter gene expression after exposure to three candidate microbicidal antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (tenofovir, darunavir and dapivirine) in the colorectal epithelium. The outcome of the objectives informs development of optimal ARV-based microbicidal formulations for prevention of HIV-1 infection. Drug transporter mRNA expression was quantified from colorectal biopsies and cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR. Relative mRNA expression was quantified in Caco-2 cells and colorectal explants after induction with ARVs. Data were analysed using Pearson's product moment correlation (r), hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA). Expression of 58 of the 84 transporters was documented in colorectal biopsies, with genes for CNT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MRP3 showing the highest expression. No difference was noted between individual subjects when analysed by age, gender or anatomical site (rectum or recto-sigmoid) (r = 0.95-0.99). High expression of P-gp and CNT2 proteins was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Similarity between colorectal tissue and cell-line drug transporter gene expression was variable (r = 0.64-0.84). PCA showed distinct clustering of human colorectal biopsy samples, with the Caco-2 cells defined as the best surrogate system. Induction of Caco-2 cell lines with ARV drugs suggests that darunavir-based microbicides incorporating tenofovir may result in drug-drug interactions likely to affect distribution of individual drugs to sub-epithelial target cells. These findings will help optimize complex formulations of rectal microbicides to realize their full potential as an effective approach for pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV-1 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  19. A Wavelet Neural Network Optimal Control Model for Traffic-Flow Prediction in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Darong; Bai, Xing-Rong

    Based on wavelet transform and neural network theory, a traffic-flow prediction model, which was used in optimal control of Intelligent Traffic system, is constructed. First of all, we have extracted the scale coefficient and wavelet coefficient from the online measured raw data of traffic flow via wavelet transform; Secondly, an Artificial Neural Network model of Traffic-flow Prediction was constructed and trained using the coefficient sequences as inputs and raw data as outputs; Simultaneous, we have designed the running principium of the optimal control system of traffic-flow Forecasting model, the network topological structure and the data transmitted model; Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effectively and exactly. The theoretical results indicated that the wavelet neural network prediction model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.

  20. Optimizing tritium extraction from a Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) by dimensional design using different tritium transport modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P., E-mail: pablomiguel.martinez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenca 392, 4a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) has been conceived as the simplest, cost effective and reliable technology system dedicated to tritium extraction from breeding liquid metals. An optimal design of a PAV requires a detailed hydraulic design optimization for established operational ranges (HCLL at low velocities of {approx}1 mm/s or DCLL in the ranges of tens of cm/s). The present work analyses the PAV extraction efficiency dependency on the design parameters as optimum on-line Tritium Extraction System (TES). Three different models have been built for that purpose: one through physically refined 1D tritium transport computation using TMAP7 (unique simulation tool with QA for ITER); and two further detailed models on 2D/3D FEM tool (COMSOL Multi-physics 4.0). The geometry used in this work is a simplification of Fuskite{sup Registered-Sign} conceptual design developed at CIEMAT, consisting of a set of cylindrical and concentric {alpha}-Fe double membranes enclosing a vacuumed space and in contact with in-pipe flowing LiPb eutectic. The aim of this paper is to give the first steps to establish the optimal design parameters of a PAV and evaluate the state-of-the-art of these models.

  1. Cytoplasm localization of aminopeptidase M1 and its functional activity in root hair cells and BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Ran; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2012-12-01

    Aminopeptidase M1 (APM1) was the first M1 metallopeptidase family member identified in Arabidopsis, isolated by its affinity for the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). A loss-of-function mutation showed various developmental defects in cell division and auxin transport. APM1 was shown to be localized in endomembrane structures, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. These previous results suggested that APM1 has diverse functional roles in different cell and tissue types. Here we report that APM1 localized to the cytoplasm, and its over-expression in the root hair cell caused longer root hair phenotypes. Treatment of aminopeptidase inhibitors caused internalization of auxin efflux PIN-FORMED proteins in root hair cells and suppressed short root hair phenotype of PIN3 overexpression line (PIN3ox). APM1 also localized to the cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells, its over-expression had little effect on auxin transport in these cells.

  2. Investigation of nonlinear 2D bottom transportation dynamics in coastal zone on optimal curvilinear boundary adaptive grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhinov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the practically important tasks of hydrophysics for sea coastal systems is the problem of modeling and forecasting bottom sediment transportation. A number of problems connected to ship safety traffic, water medium condition near the coastal line etc. depends on forecasting bottom deposit transportation under natural and technogenic influences. Coastal systems are characterized by a complicated form of coastline - the presence of long, narrow and curvilinear peninsulas and bays. Water currents and waves near the beach are strongly depend on complicated coastal line and in turn, exert on the bottom sediment transportation near the shore. The use of rectangular grids in the construction of discrete models leads to significant errors in both the specification of boundary conditions and in the modeling of hydrophysical processes in the coastal zone. In this paper, we consider the construction of a finite-element approximation of the initial-boundary value problem for the spatially two-dimensional linearized equation of sediment transportation using optimal boundary-adaptive grid. First, the linearization of a spatially two-dimensional nonlinear parabolic equation on the time grid is performed-when the coefficients of the equation that are nonlinearly dependent on the bottom relief function are set on the previous time layer, and the corresponding initial conditions are used on the first time layer. The algorithm for constructing the grid is based on the procedure for minimizing the generalized Dirichlet functional. On the constructed grid, finite element approximation using bilinear basis functions is performed, which completes the construction of a discrete model for the given problem. The using of curvilinear boundary adaptive grids leads to decreasing of total grid number in 5-20 times and respectively the total modeling time and/or it allows to improve modeling accuracy.

  3. Design and optimization of porous ceramic supports for asymmetric ceria-based oxygen transport membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Pećanac, G.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties and gas permeability of porous supports of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ (CGO) were investigated as a function of sintering temperature and volume fraction of pore former for use in planar asymmetric oxygen transport membranes (OTMs). With increasing the pore former...... content from 11 vol% to 16 vol%, the gas permeabilities increased by a factor of 5 when support tapes were sintered to comparable densities. The improved permeabilities were due to a more favourable microstructure with larger interconnected pores at a porosity of 45% and a fracture strength of 47±2 MPa (m...

  4. Transport Limits for Non-Fixed Contamination: A Hazard to Optimization in Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, S.; Lorenz, B.; Schwarz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from the Fairbairn model more than 40 years ago. This model has proved to be effective if used with pragmatism, but conservative. In some countries the limits are handled as action levels. Actions are taken if contamination levels are exceeded, but instant reporting to authorities is only necessary if the excess is higher than a certain factor of e.g. 10. In countries like Germany the limits are regarded as strictly binding. As could be seen after contamination incidents with transport casks for spent fuel assembly, the reporting by the media and perception by the public was not in accordance with the real radiation risk, which could in any case be neglected. However, exceeding the limits by only one percent lead in some cases immediately to legal actions. To avoid such actions, any practice with relevance for possible contamination or decontamination must consider an additional safety margin which is usually a factor of 10. This results -by the definition of TS-R1 recommendations- in a complete removal of non fixed contamination. For two examples the tremendous amount of decontamination work as well as measurements, which are necessary to reach this aim, is quantified. The first example focuses on the clearance measurements of 20' standard ISO-containers, (which are used exclusively for the transport of radioactive materials,) as conveyances for shipment of radioactive packages. In the second example (a loaded cask awaiting shipment) such actions lead to a real operational exposure which -according to good health physics practice- should otherwise be subject to minimization. These information is compared with the results of an IAEA working group, which was set up in 2000 with the aim of remodeling the exposure conditions for all persons involved in the transport of radioactive material, even members of the public. This international group combined members

  5. Transport Limits for Non-Fixed Contamination: A Hazard to Optimization in Radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theis, S.; Lorenz, B.; Schwarz, W.

    2004-07-01

    Current contamination limits for packages and conveyances under routine transport conditions have been derived from the Fairbairn model more than 40 years ago. This model has proved to be effective if used with pragmatism, but conservative. In some countries the limits are handled as action levels. Actions are taken if contamination levels are exceeded, but instant reporting to authorities is only necessary if the excess is higher than a certain factor of e.g. 10. In countries like Germany the limits are regarded as strictly binding. As could be seen after contamination incidents with transport casks for spent fuel assembly, the reporting by the media and perception by the public was not in accordance with the real radiation risk, which could in any case be neglected. However, exceeding the limits by only one percent lead in some cases immediately to legal actions. To avoid such actions, any practice with relevance for possible contamination or decontamination must consider an additional safety margin which is usually a factor of 10. This results -by the definition of TS-R1 recommendations- in a complete removal of non fixed contamination. For two examples the tremendous amount of decontamination work as well as measurements, which are necessary to reach this aim, is quantified. The first example focuses on the clearance measurements of 20' standard ISO-containers, (which are used exclusively for the transport of radioactive materials,) as conveyances for shipment of radioactive packages. In the second example (a loaded cask awaiting shipment) such actions lead to a real operational exposure which -according to good health physics practice- should otherwise be subject to minimization. These information is compared with the results of an IAEA working group, which was set up in 2000 with the aim of remodeling the exposure conditions for all persons involved in the transport of radioactive material, even members of the public. This international group combined

  6. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  7. Optimizing the ASC WAN: evaluating network performance tools for comparing transport protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydick, Christopher L.

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Simulation & Computing Wide Area Network (ASC WAN), which is a high delay-bandwidth network connection between US Department of Energy National Laboratories, is constantly being examined and evaluated for efficiency. One of the current transport-layer protocols which is used, TCP, was developed for traffic demands which are different from that on the ASC WAN. The Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), on the other hand, has shown characteristics which make it more appealing to networks such as these. Most important, before considering a replacement for TCP on any network, a testing tool that performs well against certain criteria needs to be found. In order to try to find such a tool, two popular networking tools (Netperf v.2.4.3 & v.2.4.6 (OpenSS7 STREAMS), and Iperf v.2.0.6) were tested. These tools implement both TCP and SCTP and were evaluated using four metrics: (1) How effectively can the tool reach a throughput near the bandwidth? (2) How much of the CPU does the tool utilize during operation? (3) Is the tool freely and widely available? And, (4) Is the tool actively developed? Following the analysis of those tools, this paper goes further into explaining some recommendations and ideas for future work.

  8. Control and optimization of solute transport in a thin porous tube

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting the distribution of solutes or particles in flows within porous-walled tubes is essential to inform the design of devices that rely on cross-flow filtration, such as those used in water purification, irrigation devices, field-flow fractionation, and hollow-fibre bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. Motivated by these applications, a radially averaged model for fluid and solute transport in a tube with thin porous walls is derived by developing the classical ideas of Taylor dispersion. The model includes solute diffusion and advection via both radial and axial flow components, and the advection, diffusion, and uptake coefficients in the averaged equation are explicitly derived. The effect of wall permeability, slip, and pressure differentials upon the dispersive solute behaviour are investigated. The model is used to explore the control of solute transport across the membrane walls via the membrane permeability, and a parametric expression for the permeability required to generate a given solute distribution is derived. The theory is applied to the specific example of a hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor, where a uniform delivery of nutrient across the membrane walls to the extra-capillary space is required to promote spatially uniform cell growth. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Optimization of the transport and mechanical properties of polysiloxane/polyether hybrid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Nicola; Horn, Theresa; Popall, Michael; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the thermo-mechanical properties of networked, polysiloxane/polyether-based, hybrid polymer electrolytes are optimized with the aim of enabling room-temperature operation in lithium metal-polymer batteries. The structural parameters of the electrolytes (polyether chain length, cross-linking and salt concentration) are varied in order to get the best tradeoff between conductivity and mechanical stability. The optimized material has a conductivity close to 1.5·10 −4 S cm −1 at room temperature and a shear storage modulus of 50 kPa up to 100 °C. The effect of TiO 2 nano-particles is also studied with the results showing an overall ambiguous effect on the materials properties. Finally, one of the materials with the highest conductivity is used as electrolyte in a Li/LiFePO 4 cell. This cell has good rate capability and cyclability due to the high conductivity of the electrolyte. However, the high conductivity is reached at expense of the mechanical stability and the resulting electrolyte proves to be too weak to work as an efficient barrier against lithium dendrite growth.

  10. A Mechanism for Cytoplasmic Streaming: Kinesin-Driven Alignment of Microtubules and Fast Fluid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Corey E; Brunner, Matthew E; Djagaeva, Inna; Bielecki, Anthony M; Deutsch, Joshua M; Saxton, William M

    2016-05-10

    The transport of cytoplasmic components can be profoundly affected by hydrodynamics. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes offers a striking example. Forces on fluid from kinesin-1 are initially directed by a disordered meshwork of microtubules, generating minor slow cytoplasmic flows. Subsequently, to mix incoming nurse cell cytoplasm with ooplasm, a subcortical layer of microtubules forms parallel arrays that support long-range, fast flows. To analyze the streaming mechanism, we combined observations of microtubule and organelle motions with detailed mathematical modeling. In the fast state, microtubules tethered to the cortex form a thin subcortical layer and undergo correlated sinusoidal bending. Organelles moving in flows along the arrays show velocities that are slow near the cortex and fast on the inward side of the subcortical microtubule layer. Starting with fundamental physical principles suggested by qualitative hypotheses, and with published values for microtubule stiffness, kinesin velocity, and cytoplasmic viscosity, we developed a quantitative coupled hydrodynamic model for streaming. The fully detailed mathematical model and its simulations identify key variables that can shift the system between disordered (slow) and ordered (fast) states. Measurements of array curvature, wave period, and the effects of diminished kinesin velocity on flow rates, as well as prior observations on f-actin perturbation, support the model. This establishes a concrete mechanistic framework for the ooplasmic streaming process. The self-organizing fast phase is a result of viscous drag on kinesin-driven cargoes that mediates equal and opposite forces on cytoplasmic fluid and on microtubules whose minus ends are tethered to the cortex. Fluid moves toward plus ends and microtubules are forced backward toward their minus ends, resulting in buckling. Under certain conditions, the buckling microtubules self-organize into parallel bending arrays, guiding varying directions

  11. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig

    2015-01-01

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated...... by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found......, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its...

  12. PART I – USUAL PROBLEMS OF OPTIMIZING THE ACTION SYSTEMS OFTHE BAND TRANSPORTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the systems of electric action are non-linear systems, including the continuous transportsystems with band, that could be brought by linearization and negligence at the linear system. The latest news inthe field of static convertors, of the new transfer schemes of electric energy, make possible the analysis of theaction systems of the continuous transport installations with band as linearisable systems. For the linearisableaction systems described by state equations, there are two consecrated calculation methods of the optimaltrajectory of the system, the variational calculation and the Euler-Lagrange algorithm, as the latter one isconsidered by the specialty literature as an optimum generator, and the first one as an extremum generator. Butthe two methods need conditions reviewed enough in the Euler-Lagrange conditions

  13. Neutral buoyancy is optimal to minimize the cost of transport in horizontally swimming seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi; Aoki, Kagari; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Miller, Patrick J O

    2013-01-01

    Flying and terrestrial animals should spend energy to move while supporting their weight against gravity. On the other hand, supported by buoyancy, aquatic animals can minimize the energy cost for supporting their body weight and neutral buoyancy has been considered advantageous for aquatic animals. However, some studies suggested that aquatic animals might use non-neutral buoyancy for gliding and thereby save energy cost for locomotion. We manipulated the body density of seals using detachable weights and floats, and compared stroke efforts of horizontally swimming seals under natural conditions using animal-borne recorders. The results indicated that seals had smaller stroke efforts to swim a given speed when they were closer to neutral buoyancy. We conclude that neutral buoyancy is likely the best body density to minimize the cost of transport in horizontal swimming by seals.

  14. Optimization of Intracellular Transportation of Gene Therapeutic DNA in Small Cell Lung Cancer (Ph.d.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease characterized as being very aggressive and metastasizing at a rapid pace. The malevolent pace of SCLC cell migration results in almost three out of four SCLC patients having disseminated SCLC at the time of diagnosis. Unfortunately...... has to be able to repeated systemic delivery of gene therapy to cancer cells in a both safe and efficient way. Non-viral delivery vectors fulfill many of these requirements except the latter. It is currently very difficult to systemically transport sufficient amounts of therapeutic DNA, by a non......-viral delivery system, to the nuclei of the SCLC cells. As a result, the gene therapy expression obtained is too low to have any clinical relevance. We have at the Department of Radiation Biology developed a transcriptionally targeting suicide gene therapy system which is built on a double stranded DNA plasmid...

  15. Application of an optimized winglet configuration to an advanced commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design is presented of an aircraft which employs an integrated wing and winglet lift system. Comparison was made with a conventional baseline configuration employing a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. An optimized wing-winglet combination was selected from four proposed configurations for which aerodynamic, structural, and weight characteristics were evaluated. Each candidate wing-winglet configuration was constrained to the same induced drag coefficient as the baseline aircraft. The selected wing-winglet configuration was resized for a specific medium-range mission requirement, and operating costs were estimated for a typical mission. Study results indicated that the wing-winglet aircraft was lighter and could complete the specified mission at less cost than the conventional wing aircraft. These indications were sensitive to the impact of flutter characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to the performance of the high-lift system. Further study in these areas is recommended to reduce uncertainty in future development.

  16. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  17. Polarized trafficking: the palmitoylation cycle distributes cytoplasmic proteins to distinct neuronal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Elena; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2018-02-01

    In neurons, polarized cargo distribution occurs mainly between the soma and axonal and dendritic compartments, and requires coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. The Golgi complex plays a critical role during neuronal polarization and secretory trafficking has been shown to differentially transport proteins to both axons and dendrites. Besides the Golgi protein sorting, recent data revealed that palmitoylation cycles are an efficient mechanism to localize cytoplasmic, non-transmembrane proteins to particular neuronal compartments, such as the newly formed axon. Palmitoylation allows substrate proteins to bind to and ride with Golgi-derived secretory vesicles to all neuronal compartments. By allowing cytoplasmic proteins to 'hitchhike' on transport carriers in a non-polarized fashion, compartmentalized depalmitoylation may act as a selective retention mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sediment transport modeling in deposited bed sewers: unified form of May's equations using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mir Jafar Sadegh; Shirzad, Akbar; Mohammadi, Mirali

    2017-08-01

    May proposed two dimensionless parameters of transport (η) and mobility (F s ) for self-cleansing design of sewers with deposited bed condition. The relationships between those two parameters were introduced in conditional form for specific ranges of F s , which makes it difficult to use as a practical tool for sewer design. In this study, using the same experimental data used by May and employing the particle swarm optimization algorithm, a unified equation is recommended based on η and F s . The developed model is compared with original May relationships as well as corresponding models available in the literature. A large amount of data taken from the literature is used for the models' evaluation. The results demonstrate that the developed model in this study is superior to May and other existing models in the literature. Due to the fact that in May's dimensionless parameters more effective variables in the sediment transport process in sewers with deposited bed condition are considered, it is concluded that the revised May equation proposed in this study is a reliable model for sewer design.

  19. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  20. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  2. Optimization of transport suppression barriers generated by externally driven Alfven waves in D-shaped, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C; Cuperman, S; Komoshvili, K

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to optimize the internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated by externally launched mode-converted fast waves (FWs) in pre-heated spherical tokamaks (STs), we have carried out a systematic parametric investigation with respect to the rf waves and antenna characteristics; as a study case, a START-like device has been considered. Within the framework of a plasma model including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped and passing electrons and ions, and starting with the solution of the full wave equation for a ST-plasma, we show that optimized ITBs, suitable for the stabilization of plasma turbulence (e.g. overpassing the maximum growth rate of the ITG-instability, γ ITG ) in STs can be generated by the aid of externally launched FW and mode-converted to kinetic Alfven waves. This result holds in spite of the limiting trapped-particles associated squeezing factor S present in the non-linear equation for E r (via the viscosity coefficient μ θi ∝|S| 3/2 , S = S(dE r /dr))

  3. Optimization of transport suppression barriers generated by externally driven Alfven waves in D-shaped, low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, C [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Cuperman, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Komoshvili, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2003-04-01

    In an effort to optimize the internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated by externally launched mode-converted fast waves (FWs) in pre-heated spherical tokamaks (STs), we have carried out a systematic parametric investigation with respect to the rf waves and antenna characteristics; as a study case, a START-like device has been considered. Within the framework of a plasma model including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped and passing electrons and ions, and starting with the solution of the full wave equation for a ST-plasma, we show that optimized ITBs, suitable for the stabilization of plasma turbulence (e.g. overpassing the maximum growth rate of the ITG-instability, {gamma}{sub ITG}) in STs can be generated by the aid of externally launched FW and mode-converted to kinetic Alfven waves. This result holds in spite of the limiting trapped-particles associated squeezing factor S present in the non-linear equation for E{sub r} (via the viscosity coefficient {mu}{sub {theta}}{sub i}{proportional_to}|S|{sup 3/2}, S = S(dE{sub r}/dr))

  4. Detector placement optimization for cargo containers using deterministic adjoint transport examination for SNM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Trevor D.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Manalo, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    With growing concerns over port security and the potential for illicit trafficking of SNM through portable cargo shipping containers, efforts are ongoing to reduce the threat via container monitoring. This paper focuses on answering an important question of how many detectors are necessary for adequate coverage of a cargo container considering the detection of neutrons and gamma rays. Deterministic adjoint transport calculations are performed with compressed helium- 3 polyethylene moderated neutron detectors and sodium activated cesium-iodide gamma-ray scintillation detectors on partial and full container models. Results indicate that the detector capability is dependent on source strength and potential shielding. Using a surrogate weapons grade plutonium leakage source, it was determined that for a 20 foot ISO container, five neutron detectors and three gamma detectors are necessary for adequate coverage. While a large CsI(Na) gamma detector has the potential to monitor the entire height of the container for SNM, the He-3 neutron detector is limited to roughly 1.25 m in depth. Detector blind spots are unavoidable inside the container volume unless additional measures are taken for adequate coverage. (author)

  5. Transportation and storage optimization of spent nuclear fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Boryczka, M.K.; Collyer, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the U.S. Congress amended the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, establishing an independent body known as the Monitored Retrievable Storage Review Commission. The mandate of the Commission was to review DOE's assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and to evaluate the need for an MRS. The MRS Review Commission asked ICF Technology Incorporated to develop a systems integration and transportation analysis model that would aid their evaluation for Congress. The resulting model (Model for Analysis of System Risk And Cost - MARC) was adapted from an earlier model (TRICAM) written for the DOE. MARC was made available to the Commission to calculate the costs and risks (both radiological and non-radiological) of alternative spent fuel storage configurations within the Federal Waste Management System. Two of the over 30 MARC scenarios run by the MRS Commission are used to demonstrate the use of MARC in evaluating alternatives in terms of system costs and risks. These two cases are initially run in a cost minimizing mode and then in a risk minimizing mode in order to compare the difference in the value of risk for each system configuration. This example demonstrates the kind of insights MARC can yield and its utility in policy-making. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  7. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nora F.; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki; Nagamata, Satoshi; Kawabata, Akiko; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  8. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Nora F. [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Jasirwan, Chyntia [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia (Indonesia); Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Nagamata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kawabata, Akiko [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Tang, Huamin [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Mori, Yasuko, E-mail: ymori@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  9. Optimized convective transport with automated pressure control in on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, V; Sijpkens, Y; Haddj-Elmrabet, A; Bijvoet, A J; Nilsson, L-G

    2008-11-01

    In a stable patient population we evaluated on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) on the incremental improvement in blood purification versus high-flux HD, using the same dialyzer and blood flow rate. For HDF we used a new way of controlling HDF treatments based on the concept of constant pressure control where the trans-membrane pressure is automatically set by the machine using a feedback loop on the achieved filtration (HDF UC). We enrolled 20 patients on on-line HDF treatment and during a 4-week study period recorded key treatment parameters in HDF UC. For one mid-week study treatment performed in HD and one midweek HDF UC treatment we sampled blood and spent dialysate to evaluate the removal of small- and middle-sized solutes. We achieved 18+/-3 liters of ultrafiltration in four-hour HDF UC treatments, corresponding to 27+/-3% of the treated blood volume. That percentage varied by patient hematocrit level. The ultrafiltration amounted to 49+/-4% of the estimated plasma water volume treated. We noted few machine alarms. For beta2m and factor D the effective reduction in plasma level by HDF (76+/-6% and 43+/-9%, respectively) was significantly greater than in HD, and a similar relation was seen in mass recovered in spent dialysate. Small solute removal was similar in HDF and HD. Albumin loss was low. The additional convective transport provided by on-line HDF significantly improved the removal of middle molecules when all other treatment settings were equal. Using the automated pressure control mode in HDF, the convective volume depended on the blood volume processed and the patient hematocrit level.

  10. Diffusive Promotion by Velocity Gradient of Cytoplasmic Streaming (CPS in Nitella Internodal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic streaming (CPS is well known to assist the movement of nutrients, organelles and genetic material by transporting all of the cytoplasmic contents of a cell. CPS is generated by motility organelles that are driven by motor proteins near a membrane surface, where the CPS has been found to have a flat velocity profile in the flow field according to the sliding theory. There is a consistent mixing of contents inside the cell by CPS if the velocity gradient profile is flattened, which is not assisted by advection diffusion but is only supported by Brownian diffusion. Although the precise flow structure of the cytoplasm has an important role for cellular metabolism, the hydrodynamic mechanism of its convection has not been clarified. We conducted an experiment to visualise the flow of cytoplasm in Nitella cells by injecting tracer fluorescent nanoparticles and using a flow visualisation system in order to understand how the flow profile affects their metabolic system. We determined that the velocity field in the cytosol has an obvious velocity gradient, not a flattened gradient, which suggests that the gradient assists cytosolic mixing by Taylor-Aris dispersion more than by Brownian diffusion.

  11. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-01-01

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  12. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; D'Amelio, Marcello; Criollo, Alfredo; Morselli, Eugenia; Zhu, Changlian; Harper, Francis; Nannmark, Ulf; Samara, Chrysanthi; Pinton, Paolo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Carnuccio, Rosa; Moll, Ute M; Madeo, Frank; Paterlini-Brechot, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Rosario; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Pierron, Gérard; Blomgren, Klas; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Codogno, Patrice; Cecconi, Francesco; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-06-01

    Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer cells under conditions of hypoxia and nutrient depletion, allowing them to maintain high ATP levels. Inhibition of p53 led to autophagy in enucleated cells, and cytoplasmic, not nuclear, p53 was able to repress the enhanced autophagy of p53(-/-) cells. Many different inducers of autophagy (for example, starvation, rapamycin and toxins affecting the endoplasmic reticulum) stimulated proteasome-mediated degradation of p53 through a pathway relying on the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2. Inhibition of p53 degradation prevented the activation of autophagy in several cell lines, in response to several distinct stimuli. These results provide evidence of a key signalling pathway that links autophagy to the cancer-associated dysregulation of p53.

  13. Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody: positivity and clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Téllez, Goitybell; Torres Rives, Bárbara; Rangel Velázquez, Suchiquil; Sánchez Rodríguez, Vicky; Ramos Ríos, María Antonia; Fuentes Smith, Lisset Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    To determine positivity and clinical correlation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), taking into account the interference of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). A prospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Immunology of the National Cuban Center of Medical Genetic during one year. Two hounded sixty-seven patients with indication for ANCA determination were included. ANCA and ANA determinations with different cut off points and assays were determined by indirect immunofluorescense. Anti proteinase 3 and antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were determined by ELISA. Most positivity for ANCA was seen in patients with ANCA associated, primary small-vessel vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Presence of ANCA without positivity for proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase was higher in patients with ANA and little relation was observed between the perinuclear pattern confirmed in formalin and specificity by myeloperoxidase. Highest sensibility and specificity values for vasculitides diagnostic were achieved by ANCA determination using indirect immunofluorescense with a cut off 1/80 and confirming antigenic specificities with ELISA. ANCA can be present in a great number of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders in the population studied. This determination using indirect immunofluorescence and following by ELISA had a great value for vasculitis diagnosis. Anti mieloperoxidasa assay has a higher utility than the formalin assay when ANA is present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal charging scheduling for large-scale EV (electric vehicle) deployment based on the interaction of the smart-grid and intelligent-transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yugong; Zhu, Tao; Wan, Shuang; Zhang, Shuwei; Li, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming an imminent trend. Research has been done on the scheduling of EVs from the perspective of the charging characteristic, improvement in the safety and economy of the power grid, or the traffic jams in the transport system caused by a large number of EVs driven to charging stations. There is a lack of systematic studies considering EVs, the power grid, and the transport system all together. In this paper, a novel optimal charging scheduling strategy for different types of EVs is proposed based on not only transport system information, such as road length, vehicle velocity and waiting time, but also grid system information, such as load deviation and node voltage. In addition, a charging scheduling simulation platform suitable for large-scale EV deployment is developed based on actual charging scenarios. The simulation results show that the improvements in both the transport system efficiency and the grid system operation can be obtained by using the optimal strategy, such as the node voltage drop is decreased, the power loss is reduced, and the load curve is optimized. - Highlights: • A novel optimal charging scheduling strategy is proposed for different electric vehicles (EVs). • A simulation platform suitable for large-scale EV deployment is established. • The traffic congestion near the charging and battery-switch stations is relieved. • The safety and economy problems of the distribution network are solved. • The peak-to-valley load of the distribution system is reduced.

  15. Lessons from Animal Models of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Magin, Thomas M

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies. Epidermal keratins, together with desmin, are essential to protect corresponding tissues against mechanical force but also participate in stabilizing cell adhesion and in inflammatory signalling. Surprisingly, other IF proteins contribute to tissue integrity to a much lesser extent than anticipated, pointing towards their role in stress situations. In support, the overexpression of small chaperones or the interference with inflammatory signalling in several settings has been shown to rescue severe tissue pathologies that resulted from the expression of mutant IF proteins. It stills remains an open issue whether the wide range of IF disorders share similar pathomechanisms. Moreover, we lack an understanding how IF proteins participate in signalling processes. Now, with a large number of mouse models in hand, the next challenge will be to develop organotypic cell culture models to dissect pathomechanisms at the molecular level, to employ Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering to optimize models and, finally, to combine available animal models with medicinal chemistry for the development of molecular therapies.

  16. Maglev for fast regional transportation. Optimization of long stator propulsion and energy supply; Magnetschnellbahn fuer den schnellen Regionalverkehr. Optimierung des Langstatorantriebs und der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischperer, R.

    2006-07-01

    This work deals with linear propulsion systems of the Transrapid maglev system especially applicable to regional transportation tasks. In a first step the principle of the linear motor and its configurations and layout strategies for long distance applications are explained and analyzed with regard to their operational characteristics. Next, modified requirements for regional transportation are identified and strategies for optimization of the propulsion system are set up. Various optimization measures within the propulsion system and neighboring subsystems are worked out and explained. Finally, a quantitative analysis of different measures is shown using an exemplary regional line. Optimization potentials compared to a long distance propulsion layouts are shown. It has been found that given the relevant developments in the subsystems concerned savings of up to 40% both in investment and operation costs are feasible. (orig.)

  17. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  18. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Vincent; Lesourd, Anais; Girszyn, Nicolas; Ménard, Jean-Francois; Levesque, Hervé; Caron, Francois; Marie, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in internal medicine; and to compare clinical and biochemical features and outcome between patients exhibiting IE with and without ANCA. Fifty consecutive patients with IE underwent ANCA testing. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. Of the 50 patients with IE, 12 exhibited ANCA (24%). ANCA-positive patients with IE exhibited: longer duration between the onset of first symptoms and IE diagnosis (P = 0.02); and more frequently: weight loss (P = 0.017) and renal impairment (P = 0.08), lower levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.0009) and serum albumin (P = 0.0032), involvement of both aortic and mitral valves (P = 0.009), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.016). Under multivariate analysis, significant factors for ANCA-associated IE were: longer hospital stay (P = 0.004), lower level of serum albumin (P = 0.02), and multiple valve involvement (P = 0.04). Mortality rate was 25% in ANCA patients; death was because of IE complications in all these patients. Our study identifies a high prevalence of ANCA in unselected patients with IE in internal medicine (24%). Our findings further underscore that ANCA may be associated with a subacute form of IE leading to multiple valve involvement and more frequent renal impairment. Because death was due to IE complications in all patients, our data suggest that aggressive therapy may be required to improve such patients’ outcome. PMID:26817911

  19. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  20. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  1. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks (aka AURORA: Areal Use and Reactant Optimization at Rated Amperage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Amedeo [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dross, Robert [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Hydrogen fuel cells are recognized as one of the most viable solutions for mobility in the 21st century; however, there are technical challenges that must be addressed before the technology can become available for mass production. One of the most demanding aspects is the costs of present-day fuel cells which are prohibitively high for the majority of envisioned markets. The fuel cell community recognizes two major drivers to an effective cost reduction: (1) decreasing the noble metals content, and (2) increasing the power density in order to reduce the number of cells needed to achieve a specified power level. To date, the majority of development work aimed at increasing the value metric (i.e. W/mg-Pt) has focused on the reduction of precious metal loadings, and this important work continues. Efforts to increase power density have been limited by two main factors: (1) performance limitations associated with mass transport barriers, and (2) the historical prioritization of efficiency over cost. This program is driven by commercialization imperatives, and challenges both of these factors. The premise of this Program, supported by proprietary cost modeling by Nuvera, is that DOE 2015 cost targets can be met by simultaneously exceeding DOE 2015 targets for Platinum loadings (using materials with less than 0.2 mg-Pt/cm2) and MEA power density (operating at higher than 1.0 Watt/cm2). The approach of this program is to combine Nuvera’s stack technology, which has demonstrated the ability to operate stably at high current densities (> 1.5 A/cm2), with low Platinum loading MEAs developed by Johnson Matthey in order to maximize Pt specific power density and reduce stack cost. A predictive performance model developed by PSU/UTK is central to the program allowing the team to study the physics and optimize materials/conditions specific to low Pt loading electrodes and ultra-high current density and operation.

  2. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-01

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus

  3. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-03-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller's ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes-despite their asexual mode of reproduction-can readily undergo adaptive evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Uniparental Inheritance Promotes Adaptive Evolution in Cytoplasmic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R.; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes—specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance—enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution. Uniparental inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes decreases competition between different beneficial substitutions (clonal interference), promoting the accumulation of beneficial substitutions. Uniparental inheritance also facilitates selection against deleterious cytoplasmic substitutions, slowing Muller’s ratchet. In addition, uniparental inheritance generally reduces genetic hitchhiking of deleterious substitutions during selective sweeps. Overall, uniparental inheritance promotes adaptive evolution by increasing the level of beneficial substitutions relative to deleterious substitutions. When we assume that cytoplasmic genome inheritance is biparental, decreasing the number of genomes transmitted during gametogenesis (bottleneck) aids adaptive evolution. Nevertheless, adaptive evolution is always more efficient when inheritance is uniparental. Our findings explain empirical observations that cytoplasmic genomes—despite their asexual mode of reproduction—can readily undergo adaptive evolution. PMID:28025277

  5. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  6. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Cytoplasmic Staining of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unusual for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with cytoplasmic pattern (cANCA to present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD without vasculitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and characteristics of pediatrics IBD with cANCA. Methods. A retrospective review of pediatric IBD associated with cANCA serology in patients from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and February 2012. Results. Out of 131 patients with IBD screened for cANCAs, cANCA was positive in 7 (5.3% patients of whom 4 had ulcerative colitis and 3 had Crohn's disease. The median age was 8.8 years (2–14.8 years. Six (86% were males. Of the 7 patients, 5 (71% were Saudi Arabians and 2 were of Indian ethnicity. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding. None had family history or clinical features suggestive of vasculitis involving renal and respiratory systems. No difference in the disease location or severity was observed between cANCA positive and cANCA negative patients apart from male preponderance in cANCA positive patients. Conclusion. The occurrence of cANCA in pediatric IBD is rare. Apart from male preponderance, there were no peculiar characteristics for the cANCA positive patients.

  7. Nanoscale Transport Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    In addition to having a capacitive property, the membranes are permeable to small ions. To account for this permeation, the Nernst -Planck equation ...Bs) are assumed to be independent of the species concentration. With these assumptions, the Nernst -Planck equation may be integrated with respect...outside of the membrane. Ion Channels: Ion channels are modeled per the Nernst -Planck equation , and employ stochastic methods to predict the gating

  8. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  9. Optimal Transportation Plans and Portfolios for Synchromodal Container Networks : Optimale transportplanning en portfolio’s voor synchromodale containernetwerken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation proposes an integrated approach for optimising synchromodal container transportation, motivated by two separate trends in the container transportation practice in North-West Europe. On the one hand, competition in hinterland transportation and the societal need for a

  10. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received.

  11. Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Postigo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Consistent with this, pharmacological and RNAi-mediated inhibition of canonical ATR signaling suppresses genome replication. RPA and the sliding clamp PCNA interact with the viral polymerase E9 and are required for DNA replication. Moreover, the ATR activator TOPBP1 promotes genome replication and associates with the viral replisome component H5. Our study suggests that, in contrast to long-held beliefs, vaccinia recruits conserved components of the eukaryote DNA replication and repair machinery to amplify its genome in the host cytoplasm.

  12. Evaluation of cytoplasmic genetic effects for production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2014-12-03

    Dec 3, 2014 ... Cytoplasmic genetic effects are transmitted directly only from mother to offspring through mitochondrial DNA. Normal genetic .... inheritance in three synthetic lines of beef cattle differing in mature size. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 745.

  13. Vasculitis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies associated with propylthiouracil therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, K. M.; Gans, R. O.; Vervaat, T. J.; Zevenbergen, G.; Maingay, D.; Nikkels, R. E.; Donker, A. J.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1993-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare complication of propylthiouracil therapy. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) have been described in association with several vasculitic disorders. We report detection of ANCA against human neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and myeloperoxidase in serum from six

  14. Balanced nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 are required for a complete plant innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An important layer of plant innate immunity to host-adapted pathogens is conferred by intracellular nucleotide-binding/oligomerization domain-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors recognizing specific microbial effectors. Signaling from activated receptors of the TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-NB-LRR class converges on the nucleo-cytoplasmic immune regulator EDS1 (Enhanced Disease Susceptibility1. In this report we show that a receptor-stimulated increase in accumulation of nuclear EDS1 precedes or coincides with the EDS1-dependent induction and repression of defense-related genes. EDS1 is capable of nuclear transport receptor-mediated shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus. By enhancing EDS1 export from inside nuclei (through attachment of an additional nuclear export sequence (NES or conditionally releasing EDS1 to the nucleus (by fusion to a glucocorticoid receptor (GR in transgenic Arabidopsis we establish that the EDS1 nuclear pool is essential for resistance to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens and for transcriptional reprogramming. Evidence points to post-transcriptional processes regulating receptor-triggered accumulation of EDS1 in nuclei. Changes in nuclear EDS1 levels become equilibrated with the cytoplasmic EDS1 pool and cytoplasmic EDS1 is needed for complete resistance and restriction of host cell death at infection sites. We propose that coordinated nuclear and cytoplasmic activities of EDS1 enable the plant to mount an appropriately balanced immune response to pathogen attack.

  15. Cytoplasmic chromatin triggers inflammation in senescence and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhixun; Ghosh, Kanad; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Zhu, Jiajun; Sen, Payel; Wangensteen, Kirk J; Simithy, Johayra; Lan, Yemin; Lin, Yanping; Zhou, Zhuo; Capell, Brian C; Xu, Caiyue; Xu, Mingang; Kieckhaefer, Julia E; Jiang, Tianying; Shoshkes-Carmel, Michal; Tanim, K M Ahasan Al; Barber, Glen N; Seykora, John T; Millar, Sarah E; Kaestner, Klaus H; Garcia, Benjamin A; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2017-10-19

    Chromatin is traditionally viewed as a nuclear entity that regulates gene expression and silencing. However, we recently discovered the presence of cytoplasmic chromatin fragments that pinch off from intact nuclei of primary cells during senescence, a form of terminal cell-cycle arrest associated with pro-inflammatory responses. The functional significance of chromatin in the cytoplasm is unclear. Here we show that cytoplasmic chromatin activates the innate immunity cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase linked to stimulator of interferon genes) pathway, leading both to short-term inflammation to restrain activated oncogenes and to chronic inflammation that associates with tissue destruction and cancer. The cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway promotes the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in primary human cells and in mice. Mice deficient in STING show impaired immuno-surveillance of oncogenic RAS and reduced tissue inflammation upon ionizing radiation. Furthermore, this pathway is activated in cancer cells, and correlates with pro-inflammatory gene expression in human cancers. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic DNA serves as a reservoir to initiate a pro-inflammatory pathway in the cytoplasm in senescence and cancer. Targeting the cytoplasmic chromatin-mediated pathway may hold promise in treating inflammation-related disorders.

  16. Antibody-mediated enzyme replacement therapy targeting both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haiqing; Sun, Tao; Armstrong, Dustin; Borneman, Scott; Yang, Chunyu; Austin, Stephanie; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-05-01

    Pompe disease is characterized by accumulation of both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mannose-6-phosphate receptor-mediated enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid α-glucosidase (rhGAA) targets the enzyme to lysosomes and thus is unable to digest cytoplasmic glycogen. Studies have shown that anti-DNA antibody 3E10 penetrates living cells and delivers "cargo" proteins to the cytosol or nucleus via equilibrative nucleoside transporter ENT2. We speculate that 3E10-mediated ERT with GAA will target both lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen in Pompe disease. A fusion protein (FabGAA) containing a humanized Fab fragment derived from the murine 3E10 antibody and the 110 kDa human GAA precursor was constructed and produced in CHO cells. Immunostaining with an anti-Fab antibody revealed that the Fab signals did not co-localize with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in cultured L6 myoblasts or Pompe patient fibroblasts after incubation with FabGAA. Western blot with an anti-GAA antibody showed presence of the 150 kDa full-length FabGAA in the cell lysates, in addition to the 95- and 76 kDa processed forms of GAA that were also seen in the rhGAA-treated cells. Blocking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor with mannose-6-phosphate markedly reduced the 95- and the 76 kDa forms but not the 150 kDa form. In GAA-KO mice, FabGAA achieved similar treatment efficacy as rhGAA at an equal molar dose in reducing tissue glycogen contents. Our data suggest that FabGAA retains the ability of rhGAA to treat lysosomal glycogen accumulation and has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to reduce cytoplasmic glycogen storage in Pompe disease. FabGAA can be delivered to both the cytoplasm and lysosomes in cultured cells. FabGAA equally reduced lysosomal glycogen accumulation as rhGAA in GAA-KO mice. FabGAA has the beneficial potential over rhGAA to clear cytoplasmic glycogen. This study suggests a novel antibody-enzyme fusion protein therapy

  17. Microbial transport : Adaptations to natural environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, W.N

    2006-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is the matrix for metabolic energy transducing processes such as proton motive force generation and solute transport. Passive permeation of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane is a crucial determinant in the proton motive generating capacity of the organisms.

  18. Microbial transport : Adaptations to natural environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, W.N

    The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is the matrix for metabolic energy transducing processes such as proton motive force generation and solute transport. Passive permeation of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane is a crucial determinant in the proton motive generating capacity of the organisms.

  19. Alanine substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus gB can enhance or abolish cell fusion activity and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Nancy; Zago, Anna; Spear, Patricia G.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino acids from the C-terminus. Some of the mutations abolished cell fusion activity and also prevented transport of gB to the cell surface, identifying residues in the gB cytoplasmic tail that are critical for intracellular transport of this glycoprotein. These mutations also prevented production of infectious virus, possibly because the mutant forms of gB were not transported to the site of envelopment. Other mutations, particularly the deletion, significantly enhanced cell fusion activity. These mutations, as well as others described previously, identify regions of the gB cytoplasmic domain that modulate cell fusion activity

  20. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  1. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  2. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  3. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  6. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  7. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S; Palacios, Isabel M; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-09-18

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA.

  8. The antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin B and magainin 2 cross over the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and reside in the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukland, H H; Ulvatne, H; Sandvik, K; Vorland, L H

    2001-11-23

    The localization of immunolabelled antimicrobial peptides was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were exposed to lactoferricin B (17-41), lactoferricin B (17-31) and D-lactoferricin B (17-31). E. coli was also exposed to cecropin P1 and magainin 2. The lactoferricins were found in the cytoplasm of both bacteria. In S. aureus the amount of cytoplasmic lactoferricin B (17-41) was time- and concentration-dependent, reaching a maximum within 30 min. Cecropin P1 was confined to the cell wall, while magainin 2 was found in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The finding of intracellularly localized magainin is not reported previously.

  9. Cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP): New approach for the delivery of biomolecules into cytoplasm in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyou; Jeon, Choonju; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mi-Seon; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Yong-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV-1 TAT has been extensively documented with regard to its membrane transduction potential, as well as its efficient delivery of biomolecules in vivo. However, the majority of PTD and PTD-conjugated molecules translocate to the nucleus rather than to the cytoplasm after transduction, due to the functional nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Here, we report a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP), which was deliberately designed to ensure the efficient cytoplasmic delivery of the CTP-fused biomolecules. In comparison with PTD, CTP and its fusion partners exhibited a clear preference for cytoplasmic localization, and also markedly enhanced membrane transduction potential. Unlike the mechanism underlying PTD-mediated transduction, CTP-mediated transduction occurs independently of the lipid raft-dependent macropinocytosis pathway. The CTP-conjugated Smac/DIABLO peptide (Smac-CTP) was also shown to be much more efficient than Smac-PTD in the blockage of the antiapoptotic properties of XIAP, suggesting that cytoplasmic functional molecules can be more efficiently targeted by CTP-mediated delivery. In in vivo trafficking studies, CTP-fused β-gal exhibited unique organ tropisms to the liver and lymph nodes when systemically injected into mice, whereas PTD-β-gal exhibited no such tropisms. Taken together, our findings implicate CTP as a novel delivery peptide appropriate for (i) molecular targeting to cytoplasmic compartments in vitro, (ii) the development of class I-associated CTL vaccines, and (iii) special drug delivery in vivo, without causing any untoward effects on nuclear genetic material

  10. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2008-01-01

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  11. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  12. Analysis of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for antibodies to cytoplasmic antigen fractions of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, H.; Bromback, J.

    1981-01-01

    An indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in individual polystyrene microtiter cups has been adapted for measurement of antibody to various cytoplasmic and carbohydrate antigen fractions of Candida albicans. The assay was optimized for sensitivity, precision and linearization of serum dilution curves. The optimized procedure allows computerized measurement of anti-Candida antibodies and can be used for measurement of antibody over a wide concentration range. The procedure obviates variation due to changes in day-to-day counts as a result of isotope decay and end-point antibody dilutions. The assay has been used to demonstrate a Poisson-like distribution of antibody levels in the sera of persons showing no symptoms of candidiasis. The minimum antibody level detectable by the assay is about two orders of magnitude lower than the lowest level found in human serum and 4 orders of magnitude lower than the most sensitive test used hitherto, the hemagglutination test. (Auth.)

  13. Development and optimization of radiographic and tomographic methods for characterization of water transport processes in PEM fuel cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoetter, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Water transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) was non-destructively studied during operation with synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography. The focus was set on the influence of the three-dimensional morphology of the cell materials on the water distribution and transport. Water management is still one of the mayor issues in PEMFC research. If the fuel cell is too dry, the proton conductivity (of the membrane) decreases leading to a performance loss and, in the worst case, to an irreversible damage of the membrane. On the other hand, the presence of water hinders the gas supply and causes a decrease in the cell performance. For this reason, effective water transport is a prerequisite for successful fuel cell operation. In this work the three-dimensional water transport through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and its correlated with the 3D morphology of the cell materials has been revealed for the first time. It was shown that water is transported preferably through only a few larger pores which form transport paths of low resistance. This effect is pronounced because of the hydrophobic properties of the employed materials. In addition, water transport was found to be bidirectional, i. e. at appropriate locations a back and forth transport between GDL and flow field channels was observed. Furthermore, liquid water in the GDL was found to agglomerate preferably at the ribs of the flow field. This can be explained by condensation due to a temperature gradient in the cell and by the position, which is sheltered from the gas flow. Larger water accumulations in the gas supply channels were mainly attached to the channel wall opposing the GDL. The gas flow can bypass these agglomerations allowing a continuous gas supply. Moreover, it was shown that randomly distributed cracks in the micro porous layers (MPL) play an important role for the agglomeration of liquid water as they form preferred low resistance transport paths. In this work also

  14. Animal models of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salama, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    To provide an update on the experimental models that have been developed recapitulating clinical antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. The application of the models in the study of pathogenesis, and the therapeutic implications of this, are covered in the article by van Timmeren and Heeringa in this issue.

  15. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication

  16. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  17. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  18. Actin polymerisation at the cytoplasmic face of eukaryotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Watine Brigitte

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists abundant molecular and ultra-structural evidence to suggest that cytoplasmic actin can physically interact with the nuclear envelope (NE membrane system. However, this interaction has yet to be characterised in living interphase cells. Results Using a fluorescent conjugate of the actin binding drug cytochalasin D (CD-BODIPY we provide evidence that polymerising actin accumulates in vicinity to the NE. In addition, both transiently expressed fluorescent actin and cytoplasmic micro-injection of fluorescent actin resulted in accumulation of actin at the NE-membrane. Consistent with the idea that the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes can support this novel pool of perinuclear actin polymerisation we show that isolated, intact, differentiated primary hepatocyte nuclei support actin polymerisation in vitro. Further this phenomenon was inhibited by treatments hindering steric access to outer-nuclear-membrane proteins (e.g. wheat germ agglutinin, anti-nesprin and anti-nucleoporin antibodies. Conclusion We conclude that actin polymerisation occurs around interphase nuclei of living cells at the cytoplasmic phase of NE-membranes.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Cell Function Using Cytoplasmic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Peter; Waldhuber, Megan

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming in the fresh water alga "Nitella". Students use the fungal toxin cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, to investigate the mechanism of streaming. Students use simple statistical methods to analyze their data. Typical student data are provided. (Contains 3…

  20. Endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated microtubule alignment governs cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenji; Mamane, Alexandre; Sasaki, Tohru; Sato, Kohta; Takagi, Jun; Niwayama, Ritsuya; Hufnagel, Lars; Shimamoto, Yuta; Joanny, Jean-François; Uchida, Seiichi; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2017-04-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow. We propose a positive-feedback mechanism, where a local flow generated along a microtubule is transmitted to neighbouring regions through the ER. This, in turn, aligns microtubules over a broader area to self-organize the collective flow. The proposed model could be applicable to various cytoplasmic streaming phenomena in the absence of predefined polarity. The increased mobility of cortical granules by MeiCS correlates with the efficient exocytosis of the granules to protect the zygotes from osmotic and mechanical stresses.

  1. Stabilization and Degradation Mechanisms of Cytoplasmic Ataxin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi F. Kohiyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation-prone proteins in neurodegenerative disease disrupt cellular protein stabilization and degradation pathways. The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 is caused by a coding polyglutamine expansion in the Ataxin-1 gene ( ATXN1 , which gives rise to the aggregation-prone mutant form of ATXN1 protein. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons, preferentially vulnerable in SCA1, produce ATXN1 protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Cytoplasmic stabilization of ATXN1 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3-mediated mechanisms ultimately drive translocation of the protein to the nucleus where aggregation may occur. However, experimental inhibition of phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding results in rapid degradation of ATXN1, thus preventing nuclear translocation and cellular toxicity. The exact mechanism of cytoplasmic ATXN1 degradation is currently unknown; further investigation of degradation may provide future therapeutic targets. This review examines the present understanding of cytoplasmic ATXN1 stabilization and potential degradation mechanisms during normal and pathogenic states.

  2. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/042/02/0231-0244. Keywords. Coronavirus spike protein trafficking; cytoplasmic tail signal; endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate complex; lysosome. Abstract. Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is ...

  3. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    2015-05-15

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

  4. Pressure Prediction of Coal Slurry Transportation Pipeline Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Kernel Function Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-cun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For coal slurry pipeline blockage prediction problem, through the analysis of actual scene, it is determined that the pressure prediction from each measuring point is the premise of pipeline blockage prediction. Kernel function of support vector machine is introduced into extreme learning machine, the parameters are optimized by particle swarm algorithm, and blockage prediction method based on particle swarm optimization kernel function extreme learning machine (PSOKELM is put forward. The actual test data from HuangLing coal gangue power plant are used for simulation experiments and compared with support vector machine prediction model optimized by particle swarm algorithm (PSOSVM and kernel function extreme learning machine prediction model (KELM. The results prove that mean square error (MSE for the prediction model based on PSOKELM is 0.0038 and the correlation coefficient is 0.9955, which is superior to prediction model based on PSOSVM in speed and accuracy and superior to KELM prediction model in accuracy.

  5. Mechanism of Transport Modulation by an Extracellular Loop in an Archaeal Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter (EAAT) Homolog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary transporters in the excitatory amino acid transporter family terminate glutamatergic synaptic transmission by catalyzing Na+-dependent removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Recent structural studies of the aspartate-specific archaeal homolog, GltPh, suggest that transport is achieved by a rigid body, piston-like movement of the transport domain, which houses the substrate-binding site, between the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. This transport domain is connected to an immobile scaffold by three loops, one of which, the 3–4 loop (3L4), undergoes substrate-sensitive conformational change. Proteolytic cleavage of the 3L4 was found to abolish transport activity indicating an essential function for this loop in the transport mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that despite the presence of fully cleaved 3L4, GltPh is still able to sample conformations relevant for transport. Optimized reconstitution conditions reveal that fully cleaved GltPh retains some transport activity. Analysis of the kinetics and temperature dependence of transport accompanied by direct measurements of substrate binding reveal that this decreased transport activity is not due to alteration of the substrate binding characteristics but is caused by the significantly reduced turnover rate. By measuring solute counterflow activity and cross-link formation rates, we demonstrate that cleaving 3L4 severely and specifically compromises one or more steps contributing to the movement of the substrate-loaded transport domain between the outward- and inward-facing conformational states, sparing the equivalent step(s) during the movement of the empty transport domain. These results reveal a hitherto unknown role for the 3L4 in modulating an essential step in the transport process. PMID:24155238

  6. First cytoplasmic loop of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can function at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Tose, Koji; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified into several families based on their amino acid sequences. In family 1, GPCRs such as rhodopsin and adrenergic receptor, the structure-function relationship has been extensively investigated to demonstrate that exposure of the third cytoplasmic loop is essential for selective G protein activation. In contrast, much less is known about other families. Here we prepared chimeric mutants between Gt-coupled rhodopsin and Gi/Go- and Gs-coupled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor of family 2 and tried to identify the loop region that functions at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin. We succeeded in expressing a mutant having the first cytoplasmic loop of GLP-1 receptor and found that this mutant activated Gi and Go efficiently but did not activate Gt. Moreover, the rhodopsin mutant having the first loop of Gs-coupled secretin receptor of family 2 decreased the Gi and Go activation efficiencies. Therefore, the first loop of GLP-1 receptor would share a similar role to the third loop of rhodopsin in G protein activation. This result strongly suggested that different families of GPCRs have maintained molecular architectures of their ancestral types to generate a common mechanism, namely exposure of the cytoplasmic loop, to activate peripheral G protein.

  7. Secretion of Bacterial Lipoproteins: Through the Cytoplasmic Membrane, the Periplasm and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zückert, Wolfram R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are peripherally anchored membrane proteins that play a variety of roles in bacterial physiology and virulence in monoderm (single membrane-enveloped, e.g., grampositive) and diderm (double membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-negative) bacteria. After export of prolipoproteins through the cytoplasmic membrane, which occurs predominantly but not exclusively via the general secretory or Sec pathway, the proteins are lipid-modified at the cytoplasmic membrane in a multistep process that involves sequential modification of a cysteine residue and cleavage of the signal peptide by the signal II peptidase Lsp. In both monoderms and diderms, signal peptide processing is preceded by acylation with a diacylglycerol through preprolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt). In diderms but also some monoderms, lipoproteins are further modified with a third acyl chain through lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). Fully modified lipoproteins that are destined to be anchored in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) are selected, transported and inserted by the Lol (lipoprotein outer membrane localization) pathway machinery, which consists of the inner-membrane (IM) ABC transporterlike LolCDE complex, the periplasmic LolA chaperone and the OM LolB lipoprotein receptor. Retention of lipoproteins in the cytoplasmic membrane results from Lol avoidance signals that were originally described as the “+2 rule”. Surface localization of lipoproteins in diderms is rare in most bacteria, with the exception of several spirochetal species. Type 2 (T2SS) and type 5 (T5SS) secretion systems are involved in secretion of specific surface lipoproteins of γ-proteobacteria. In the model spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, surface lipoprotein secretion does not follow established sorting rules, but remains dependent on N-terminal peptide sequences. Secretion through the outer membrane requires maintenance of lipoproteins in a translocation-competent unfolded conformation

  8. Optimizing the design of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump systems using groundwater and heat transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H.; Itoi, R.; Fujii, J. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Earth Resources Engineering; Uchida, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    In order to predict the long-term performance of large-scale ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems, it is necessary to take into consideration well-to-well interference, especially in the presence of groundwater flow. A mass and heat transport model was developed to simulate the behavior of this type of system in the Akita Plain, northern Japan. The model was used to investigate different operational schemes and to maximize the heat extraction rate from the GCHP system. (author)

  9. A non-linear optimal Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method for stabilising the solution of the transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merton, S. R.; Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Eaton, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new Non-Linear Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (NDPG) method and application to the one-speed Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) for space-time problems. The purpose of the method is to remove unwanted oscillations in the transport solution which occur in the vicinity of sharp flux gradients, while improving computational efficiency and numerical accuracy. This is achieved by applying artificial dissipation in the solution gradient direction, internal to an element using a novel finite element (FE) Riemann approach. The amount of dissipation added acts internal to each element. This is done using a gradient-informed scaling of the advection velocities in the stabilisation term. This makes the method in its most general form non-linear. The method is designed to be independent of angular expansion framework. This is demonstrated for the both discrete ordinates (S N ) and spherical harmonics (P N ) descriptions of the angular variable. Results show the scheme performs consistently well in demanding time dependent and multi-dimensional radiation transport problems. (authors)

  10. Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method based on the optimal test space norm for steady transport problems in one space dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Optimal signal constellation design for ultra-high-speed optical transport in the presence of nonlinear phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2014-12-29

    In this paper, we first describe an optimal signal constellation design algorithm suitable for the coherent optical channels dominated by the linear phase noise. Then, we modify this algorithm to be suitable for the nonlinear phase noise dominated channels. In optimization procedure, the proposed algorithm uses the cumulative log-likelihood function instead of the Euclidian distance. Further, an LDPC coded modulation scheme is proposed to be used in combination with signal constellations obtained by proposed algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the LDPC-coded modulation schemes employing the new constellation sets, obtained by our new signal constellation design algorithm, outperform corresponding QAM constellations significantly in terms of transmission distance and have better nonlinearity tolerance.

  12. Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method based on the optimal test space norm for steady transport problems in one space dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2013-05-01

    We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Behavioral and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic Dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth T; Haas, Matilda A; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L; Alqatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-04-06

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialized roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein-controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyze the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioral phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system.

  14. Modulation of integrin-linked kinase nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling by ILKAP and CRM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Vespa, Alisa; Mason, David; Irvine, Timothy S; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2008-07-15

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays key roles in a variety of cell functions, including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. Within the cell, ILK localizes to multiple sites, including the cytoplasm, focal adhesion complexes that mediate cell adhesion to extracellular substrates, as well as cell-cell junctions in epidermal keratinocytes. Central to understanding ILK function is the elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We now demonstrate that ILK is imported into the nucleus through sequences in its N-terminus, via active transport mechanisms that involve nuclear pore complexes. In addition, nuclear ILK can be rapidly exported into the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent pathway, and its export is enhanced by the type 2C protein phosphatase ILKAP. Nuclear localization of ILK in epidermal keratinocytes is associated with increased DNA synthesis, which is sensitive to inhibition by ILKAP. Our studies demonstrate the importance for keratinocyte proliferation of ILK regulation through changes in its subcellular localization, and establish ILKAP and CRM1 as pivotal modulators of ILK subcellular distribution and activity in these cells.

  15. No influence of Indy on lifespan in Drosophila after correction for genetic and cytoplasmic background effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne M Toivonen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether alterations in mitochondrial metabolism affect longevity in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied lifespan in various single gene mutants, using inbred and outbred genetic backgrounds. As positive controls we included the two most intensively studied mutants of Indy, which encodes a Drosophila Krebs cycle intermediate transporter. It has been reported that flies heterozygous for these Indy mutations, which lie outside the coding region, show almost a doubling of lifespan. We report that only one of the two mutants lowers mRNA levels, implying that the lifespan extension observed is not attributable to the Indy mutations themselves. Moreover, neither Indy mutation extended lifespan in female flies in any genetic background tested. In the original genetic background, only the Indy mutation associated with altered RNA expression extended lifespan in male flies. However, this effect was abolished by backcrossing into standard outbred genetic backgrounds, and was associated with an unidentified locus on the X chromosome. The original Indy line with long-lived males is infected by the cytoplasmic symbiont Wolbachia, and the longevity of Indy males disappeared after tetracycline clearance of this endosymbiont. These findings underscore the critical importance of standardisation of genetic background and of cytoplasm in genetic studies of lifespan, and show that the lifespan extension previously claimed for Indy mutants was entirely attributable to confounding variation from these two sources. In addition, we saw no effects on lifespan of expression knockdown of the Indy orthologues nac-2 and nac-3 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  16. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  17. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kevin Pfister

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  18. Amorphous areas in the cytoplasm of Dendrobium tepal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G.; Kirasak, Kanjana; Ketsa, Saichol

    2013-01-01

    In Dendrobium flowers some tepal mesophyll cells showed cytoplasmic areas devoid of large organelles. Such amorphous areas comprised up to about 40% of the cross-section of a cell. The areas were not bound by a membrane. The origin of these areas is not known. We show data suggesting that they can be formed from vesicle-like organelles. The data imply that these organelles and other material become degraded inside the cytoplasm. This can be regarded as a form of autophagy. The amorphous areas became surrounded by small vacuoles, vesicles or double membranes. These seemed to merge and thereby sequester the areas. Degradation of the amorphous areas therefore seemed to involve macroautophagy. PMID:23823702

  19. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Wählby; Joakim Lindblad; Mikael Vondrus; Ewert Bengtsson; Lennart Björkesten

    2002-01-01

    Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre?processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical ana...

  20. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  1. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Sinturel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3′-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3′-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3′-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3′-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5′-3′ cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression.

  2. Cytoplasmic Control of Sense-Antisense mRNA Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinturel, Flore; Navickas, Albertas; Wery, Maxime; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; Torchet, Claire; Benard, Lionel

    2015-09-22

    Transcriptome analyses have revealed that convergent gene transcription can produce many 3'-overlapping mRNAs in diverse organisms. Few studies have examined the fate of 3'-complementary mRNAs in double-stranded RNA-dependent nuclear phenomena, and nothing is known about the cytoplasmic destiny of 3'-overlapping messengers or their impact on gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that the complementary tails of 3'-overlapping mRNAs can interact in the cytoplasm and promote post-transcriptional regulatory events including no-go decay (NGD) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide experiments confirm that these messenger-interacting mRNAs (mimRNAs) form RNA duplexes in wild-type cells and thus have potential roles in modulating the mRNA levels of their convergent gene pattern under different growth conditions. We show that the post-transcriptional fate of hundreds of mimRNAs is controlled by Xrn1, revealing the extent to which this conserved 5'-3' cytoplasmic exoribonuclease plays an unexpected but key role in the post-transcriptional control of convergent gene expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  4. Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method based on the optimal test space norm for one-dimensional transport problems

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2011-05-14

    We revisit the finite element analysis of convection dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the so called optimal test space norm by using an element subgrid discretization. This should make the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Ṕeclet number in the current application. The e_ectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-di_usion equation.

  5. Optimizing Biomass Feedstock Logistics for Forest Residue Processing and Transportation on a Tree-Shaped Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An important task in forest residue recovery operations is to select the most cost-efficient feedstock logistics system for a given distribution of residue piles, road access, and available machinery. Notable considerations include inaccessibility of treatment units to large chip vans and frequent, long-distance mobilization of forestry equipment required to process dispersed residues. In this study, we present optimized biomass feedstock logistics on a tree-shaped road network that take into account the following options: (1 grinding residues at the site of treatment and forwarding ground residues either directly to bioenergy facility or to a concentration yard where they are transshipped to large chip vans, (2 forwarding residues to a concentration yard where they are stored and ground directly into chip vans, and (3 forwarding residues to a nearby grinder location and forwarding the ground materials. A mixed-integer programming model coupled with a network algorithm was developed to solve the problem. The model was applied to recovery operations on a study site in Colorado, USA, and the optimal solution reduced the cost of logistics up to 11% compared to the conventional system. This is an important result because this cost reduction propagates downstream through the biomass supply chain, reducing production costs for bioenergy and bioproducts.

  6. The effect of ionizing irradiation on motion of cytoplasm in cells of Elodea canadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordyiya, N.V.; Grodzyins'kij, D.M.; Danil'chenko, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the velocity of cytoplasm is investigated. It is shown that, for small doses, there is a strong nonlinearity between the velocity of cytoplasm and dose. The nonlinear behavior disappears with increasing a dose

  7. Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of Protein Aggregates in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Egan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes have evolved multiple strategies for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. One such mechanism involves neutralization of deleterious protein aggregates via their defined spatial segregation. Here, using the molecular disaggregase Hsp104 as a marker for protein aggregation, we describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of protein aggregates in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Filamentous fungi, such as A. nidulans, are a diverse group of species of major health and economic importance and also serve as model systems for studying highly polarized eukaryotic cells. We find that microtubules promote the formation of Hsp104-positive aggregates, which coalesce into discrete subcellular structures in a process dependent on the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Finally, we find that impaired clearance of these inclusions negatively impacts retrograde trafficking of endosomes, a conventional dynein cargo, indicating that microtubule-based transport can be overwhelmed by chronic cellular stress.

  8. An Approach to the Optimization of Mobile Payments for the Transport System using (NFC through Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevan Gómez Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile devices has gradually increased. Every day, the number of organizations adopting systems which include some type of mobile payments is becoming bigger. Because of this reason, it is mandatory to have agile and quick systems to guarantee security and reliability, not only for the user but also for the operator. In that way, users will get a high-quality service based on mobile technologies. An analysis of NFC Technology has been made in this paper taking into consideration a proposal of a system development including mobile payments, which could be used in the transportation system of Metro of Quito. To assure the response time and transactional security, the use of cloud computing is recommended.

  9. A chromate-contaminated site in southern Switzerland – Part 2: Reactive transport modeling to optimize remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Christoph; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs

    2012-01-01

    A 2D horizontal reactive transport model of a chromate-contaminated site near Rivera, Switzerland, was developed using the computer code CrunchFlow to evaluate site remediation strategies. Transport processes were defined according to the results of an existing hydrological model, and the definition of geochemical (reactive) processes is based on the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical site characterization leading to a comprehensive conceptual site model. Kinetics of naturally occurring Cr(VI) reduction by Fe(II) and natural solid organic matter is quantified by fitting measured Cr isotope ratios to a modeled 1D section along the best constrained flow line. The simulation of Cr isotope fractionation was also incorporated into the 2D model. Simulation of the measured present day Cr(VI) plume and δ 53 Cr value distribution was used for the 2D model calibration and corresponds to a situation where only monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is occurring. Other 2D model runs simulate alternate excavation scenarios. The simulations show that with an excavation of the top 2–4 m the groundwater Cr(VI) plume can be minimized, and that a deeper excavation depth only diminishes the plume if all the contaminants can be removed. A combination of an excavation of the top 2–4 m and monitoring of the ongoing natural Cr(VI) reduction is suggested as the most ecological and economical remediation strategy, even though a remaining time period with ongoing subsoil Cr(VI) contamination in the order of 1 ka is predicted.

  10. Actin and myosin regulate cytoplasm stiffness in plant cells: a study using optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, T.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we produced cytoplasmic protrusions with optical tweezers in mature BY-2 suspension cultured cells to study the parameters involved in the movement of actin filaments during changes in cytoplasmic organization and to determine whether stiffness is an actin-related property of plant cytoplasm.

  11. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  12. Cytoplasmic Hu-Antigen R (HuR) Expression is Associated with Poor Survival in Patients with Surgically Resected Cholangiocarcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Naru; Uemura, Kenichiro; Nakagawa, Naoya; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2018-05-01

    Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability, translation, and nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of HuR in cholangiocarcinoma patients who received adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (AGC) after surgical resection. Nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was investigated immunohistochemically in 131 patients with resected cholangiocarcinoma, including 91 patients administered AGC and 40 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The correlation between HuR expression and survival was evaluated by statistical analysis. High nuclear and cytoplasmic HuR expression was observed in 67 (51%) and 45 (34%) patients, respectively. Cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01), while high cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival [DFS] (p = 0.03) and overall survival [OS] (p = 0.001) in the 91 patients who received AGC, but not in the 40 patients who did not receive AGC (DFS p = 0.17; OS p = 0.07). In the multivariate analysis of patients who received AGC, high cytoplasmic HuR expression was an independent predictor of poor DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.77; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 2.09; p = 0.02). Nuclear HuR expression did not affect the survival of enrolled patients. High cytoplasmic HuR expression was closely associated with the efficacy of AGC in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. The current findings warrant further investigations to optimize adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for resectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  13. Secretion of bacterial lipoproteins: through the cytoplasmic membrane, the periplasm and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zückert, Wolfram R

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are peripherally anchored membrane proteins that play a variety of roles in bacterial physiology and virulence in monoderm (single membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-positive) and diderm (double membrane-enveloped, e.g., gram-negative) bacteria. After export of prolipoproteins through the cytoplasmic membrane, which occurs predominantly but not exclusively via the general secretory or Sec pathway, the proteins are lipid-modified at the cytoplasmic membrane in a multistep process that involves sequential modification of a cysteine residue and cleavage of the signal peptide by the signal II peptidase Lsp. In both monoderms and diderms, signal peptide processing is preceded by acylation with a diacylglycerol through preprolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (Lgt). In diderms but also some monoderms, lipoproteins are further modified with a third acyl chain through lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). Fully modified lipoproteins that are destined to be anchored in the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) are selected, transported and inserted by the Lol (lipoprotein outer membrane localization) pathway machinery, which consists of the inner-membrane (IM) ABC transporter-like LolCDE complex, the periplasmic LolA chaperone and the OM LolB lipoprotein receptor. Retention of lipoproteins in the cytoplasmic membrane results from Lol avoidance signals that were originally described as the "+2 rule". Surface localization of lipoproteins in diderms is rare in most bacteria, with the exception of several spirochetal species. Type 2 (T2SS) and type 5 (T5SS) secretion systems are involved in secretion of specific surface lipoproteins of γ-proteobacteria. In the model spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, surface lipoprotein secretion does not follow established sorting rules, but remains dependent on N-terminal peptide sequences. Secretion through the outer membrane requires maintenance of lipoproteins in a translocation-competent unfolded conformation

  14. Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, L; Shelmerdine, H; Hughes, M P; Coley, H M; Huebner, Y; Labeed, F H

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)-the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields-has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K + and Ca 2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl - were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function. (note)

  15. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Prediction of Effective Transport Properties and Optimization of Redox Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, Omar M.; Stenzel, Ole; Iwanschitz, Boris; Gasser, Philippe; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Volker; Prestat, Michel; Hocker, Thomas; Flatt, Robert J.; Holzer, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of microstructure on the effective ionic and electrical conductivities of Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) anodes. Fine, medium, and coarse microstructures are exposed to redox cycling at 950 °C. FIB (focused ion beam)-tomography and image analysis are used to quantify the effective (connected) volume fraction (Φeff), constriction factor (β), and tortuosity (τ). The effective conductivity (σeff) is described as the product of intrinsic conductivity (σ0) and the so-called microstructure-factor (M): σeff = σ0 × M. Two different methods are used to evaluate the M-factor: (1) by prediction using a recently established relationship, Mpred = εβ0.36/τ5.17, and (2) by numerical simulation that provides conductivity, from which the simulated M-factor can be deduced (Msim). Both methods give complementary and consistent information about the effective transport properties and the redox degradation mechanism. The initial microstructure has a strong influence on effective conductivities and their degradation. Finer anodes have higher initial conductivities but undergo more intensive Ni coarsening. Coarser anodes have a more stable Ni phase but exhibit lower YSZ stability due to lower sintering activity. Consequently, in order to improve redox stability, it is proposed to use mixtures of fine and coarse powders in different proportions for functional anode and current collector layers. PMID:28793523

  16. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Prediction of Effective Transport Properties and Optimization of Redox Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Pecho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of microstructure on the effective ionic and electrical conductivities of Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes. Fine, medium, and coarse microstructures are exposed to redox cycling at 950 °C. FIB (focused ion beam-tomography and image analysis are used to quantify the effective (connected volume fraction (Φeff, constriction factor (β, and tortuosity (τ. The effective conductivity (σeff is described as the product of intrinsic conductivity (σ0 and the so-called microstructure-factor (M: σeff = σ0*M. Two different methods are used to evaluate the M-factor: (1 by prediction using a recently established relationship, Mpred = εβ0.36/τ5.17, and (2 by numerical simulation that provides conductivity, from which the simulated M-factor can be deduced (Msim. Both methods give complementary and consistent information about the effective transport properties and the redox degradation mechanism. The initial microstructure has a strong influence on effective conductivities and their degradation. Finer anodes have higher initial conductivities but undergo more intensive Ni coarsening. Coarser anodes have a more stable Ni phase but exhibit lower YSZ stability due to lower sintering activity. Consequently, in order to improve redox stability, it is proposed to use mixtures of fine and coarse powders in different proportions for functional anode and current collector layers.

  17. Final Report for the project titled "Enabling Supernova Computations by Integrated Transport and Provisioning Methods Optimized for Dedicated Channels"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathi Veeraraghavan

    2007-10-31

    A high-speed optical circuit network is one that offers users rate-guaranteed connectivity between two endpoints, unlike today’s IP-routed Internet in which the rate available to a pair of users fluctuates based on the volume of competing traffic. This particular research project advanced our understanding of circuit networks in two ways. First, transport protocols were developed for circuit networks. In a circuit network, since bandwidth resources are reserved for each circuit on an end-to-end basis (much like how a person reserves a seat on every leg of a multi-segment flight), and the sender is limited to send at the rate of the circuit, there is no possibility of congestion during data transfer. Therefore, no congestion control functions are necessary in a transport protocol designed for circuits. However, error control and flow control are still required because bits can become errored due to noise and interference even on highly reliable optical links, and receivers can, due to multitasking or other reasons, not deplete the receive buffer fast enough to keep up with the sending rate (e.g., if the receiving host is multitasking between receiving a file transfer and some other computation). In this work, we developed two transport protocols for circuits, both of which are described below. Second, this project developed techniques for internetworking different types of connection-oriented networks, which are of two types: circuit-switched or packet-switched. In circuit-switched networks, multiplexing on links is “position based,” where “position” refers to the frequency, time slot, and port (fiber), while connection-oriented packet-switched networks use packet header information to demultiplex packets and switch them from node to node. The latter are commonly referred to as virtual circuit networks. Examples of circuit networks are time-division multiplexed Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH) and Wavelength Division

  18. Optimal Capacity Estimation Method of the Energy Storage Mounted on a Wireless Railway Train for Energy-Sustainable Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although electric railway systems have gone through many technological innovations in their electrical, mechanical and structural engineering since the energy paradigm conversion to electrical energy, the conventional feeding system based on the catenary contact is still being applied. In order to solve the problems of the contact-based feeding system that arise and to build up the energy-sustainable electric railway system simultaneously, this paper considers the wireless railway train (WRT, which is fed by storages mounted on the board without catenary contact during driving and charged at a platform during a stop. In order to maximize the energy improvement of WRTs’ operation, the optimal power and storage capacity estimation method considering the increased weight of the additional storage devices is proposed. Through case studies of the electrical and topographical conditions of the actual operating railway route, compared with the electrical performance of the existing railway trains, it is verified that the application of WRTs leads to facility capacity margin enlargement through the peak power reduction, and cost-effectiveness improvement through the reduction of catenary loss and driving energy.

  19. Cytoplasmic TRADD Confers a Worse Prognosis in Glioblastoma

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    Sharmistha Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs. PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.

  20. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  1. AtTZF gene family localizes to cytoplasmic foci

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeranz, Marcelo; Lin, Pei-Chi; Finer, John; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNA turnover and translational repression represent important regulatory steps in gene expression. Curiously, when under cellular stresses, factors involved in these processes aggregate into cytoplasmic foci known as Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress Granules (SGs). In animals, CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger (TZF) proteins play important roles in mRNA decay within P-bodies. TTP, a P-body localized mammalian TZF, can bind to the 3'UTRs of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs)...

  2. The SPF27 homologue Num1 connects splicing and kinesin 1-dependent cytoplasmic trafficking in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kellner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conserved NineTeen protein complex (NTC is an integral subunit of the spliceosome and required for intron removal during pre-mRNA splicing. The complex associates with the spliceosome and participates in the regulation of conformational changes of core spliceosomal components, stabilizing RNA-RNA- as well as RNA-protein interactions. In addition, the NTC is involved in cell cycle checkpoint control, response to DNA damage, as well as formation and export of mRNP-particles. We have identified the Num1 protein as the homologue of SPF27, one of NTC core components, in the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis. Num1 is required for polarized growth of the fungal hyphae, and, in line with the described NTC functions, the num1 mutation affects the cell cycle and cell division. The num1 deletion influences splicing in U. maydis on a global scale, as RNA-Seq analysis revealed increased intron retention rates. Surprisingly, we identified in a screen for Num1 interacting proteins not only NTC core components as Prp19 and Cef1, but several proteins with putative functions during vesicle-mediated transport processes. Among others, Num1 interacts with the motor protein Kin1 in the cytoplasm. Similar phenotypes with respect to filamentous and polar growth, vacuolar morphology, as well as the motility of early endosomes corroborate the genetic interaction between Num1 and Kin1. Our data implicate a previously unidentified connection between a component of the splicing machinery and cytoplasmic transport processes. As the num1 deletion also affects cytoplasmic mRNA transport, the protein may constitute a novel functional interconnection between the two disparate processes of splicing and trafficking.

  3. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1-2h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model

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    X. Xiao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methyl chloride (CH3Cl is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes and temporal and spatial variations currently exist. GEIA inventories and other bottom-up emission estimates are used to construct a priori maps of the surface fluxes of CH3Cl. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by NCEP interannually varying meteorological data, is then used to simulate CH3Cl mole fractions and quantify the time series of sensitivities of the mole fractions at each measurement site to the surface fluxes of various regional and global sources and sinks. We then implement the Kalman filter (with the unit pulse response method to estimate the surface fluxes on regional/global scales with monthly resolution from January 2000 to December 2004. High frequency observations from the AGAGE, SOGE, NIES, and NOAA/ESRL HATS in situ networks and low frequency observations from the NOAA/ESRL HATS flask network are used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes. The inversion results indicate global total emissions around 4100 ± 470 Gg yr−1 with very large emissions of 2200 ± 390 Gg yr−1 from tropical plants, which turn out to be the largest single source in the CH3Cl budget. Relative to their a priori annual estimates, the inversion increases global annual fungal and tropical emissions, and reduces the global oceanic source. The inversion implies greater seasonal and interannual oscillations of the natural sources and sink of CH3Cl compared to the a priori. The inversion also reflects the strong effects of the 2002/2003 globally widespread heat waves and droughts on global emissions from tropical plants, biomass burning and salt marshes, and on the soil sink.

  5. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  6. Entry into the nuclear pore complex is controlled by a cytoplasmic exclusion zone containing dynamic GLFG-repeat nucleoporin domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiserova, Jindriska; Spink, Matthew; Richards, Shane A; Saunter, Christopher; Goldberg, Martin W

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic movement. The central channel contains proteins with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats, or variations (GLFG, glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine). These are 'intrinsically disordered' and often represent weak interaction sites that become ordered upon interaction. We investigated this possibility during nuclear transport. Using electron microscopy of S. cerevisiae, we show that NPC cytoplasmic filaments form a dome-shaped structure enclosing GLFG domains. GLFG domains extend out of this structure and are part of an 'exclusion zone' that might act as a partial barrier to entry of transport-inert proteins. The anchor domain of a GLFG nucleoporin locates exclusively to the central channel. By contrast, the localisation of the GLFG domains varied between NPCs and could be cytoplasmic, central or nucleoplasmic and could stretch up to 80 nm. These results suggest a dynamic exchange between ordered and disordered states. In contrast to diffusion through the NPC, transport cargoes passed through the exclusion zone and accumulated near the central plane. We also show that movement of cargo through the NPC is accompanied by relocation of GLFG domains, suggesting that binding, restructuring and movement of these domains could be part of the translocation mechanism.

  7. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

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    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  8. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Christian; Auchynnikava, Tania; Pavlinic, Dinko; Buness, Andreas; Rappsilber, Juri; Benes, Vladimir; Allshire, Robin; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2016-06-01

    Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  9. Algorithms for Cytoplasm Segmentation of Fluorescence Labelled Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Wählby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre‐processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical analysis of a number of shape descriptive features. Objects that have features that differ to that of correctly segmented single cells can be further processed by a splitting step. By statistical analysis we therefore get a feedback system for separation of clustered cells. After the segmentation is completed, the quality of the final segmentation is evaluated. By training the algorithm on a representative set of training images, the algorithm is made fully automatic for subsequent images created under similar conditions. Automatic cytoplasm segmentation was tested on CHO‐cells stained with calcein. The fully automatic method showed between 89% and 97% correct segmentation as compared to manual segmentation.

  10. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

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    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  11. Charge transport in polycrystalline alumina materials: application to the optimization of dielectric breakdown strength; Transport de charges dans les alumines polycristallines: application a l'optimisation de la rigidite dielectrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzin, M.

    2005-12-15

    Dielectric breakdown constitutes an important limitation in the use of insulating materials under high-tension since it leads to the local fusion and the sublimation of material. The microstructure (average grain size, intergranular phase) has a great influence on the ability of material to resist this catastrophic phenomenon. Indeed, the interfaces between the various phases constitute potential sites of trapping for the charges. The optimization of the dielectric breakdown strength of a polycrystalline alumina sintered with a liquid phase passes necessarily through the control of the microstructural parameters. Thus, it is shown that by controlling the conditions of the process (rate of sintering aids, powder grain size and thermal cycle), it is possible to control the density (by the average grain size) but also the nature (by the crystallization or not of anorthite) of the grain boundaries. The study of the influence of these two parameters as well temperature on the properties of charge transport and storage was carried out by methods ICM and SEMME. The results, interpreted in light of the numerical simulation of the charge transport in bulk alumina sample during electron beam irradiation, allowed to highlight behaviors, and the corresponding microstructures, favourable to the dielectric breakdown resistance according to the considered temperature. Thus, at room temperature a high density of interfaces (low grain size and crystallized intergranular phase) makes it possible material to durably trap a great amount of charges, which leads to a high dielectric strength. On the other hand, at higher temperature, the presence of shallow traps (vitreous intergranular phase) supports the charge diffusion and makes it possible to delay breakdown. (author)

  12. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  13. Aspartate tightens the anchoring of staphylococcal lipoproteins to the cytoplasmic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimerta; Götz, Friedrich; Nguyen, Minh-Thu

    2017-12-01

    In gram-negative bacteria, the ABC transporter LolCDE complex translocates outer membrane-specific lipoproteins (Lpp) from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. Lpp possessing aspartate (Asp) at position +2 are not translocated because it functions as a LolCDE avoidance signal. In gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and the Lol system, Lpp are only anchored at the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. However, the release of Lpp particularly in pathogenic or commensal species is crucial for immune modulation. Here, we provide evidence that in Staphylococcus aureus Asp at position +2 plays a role in withholding Lpp to the cytoplasmic membrane. Screening of published exoproteomic data of S. aureus revealed that Lpp mainly with Gly or Ser at position +2 were found in exoproteome, but there was no Lpp with Asp+2. The occurrence of Lpp with Asp+2 is infrequent in gram-positive bacteria. In S. aureus USA300 only seven of the 67 Lpp possess Asp+2; among them five Lpp represented Lpl lipoproteins involved in host cell invasion. Our study demonstrated that replacing the Asp+2 present in Lpl8 with a Ser enhances its release into the supernatant. However, there is no different release of Asp+2 and Ser+2 in mprF mutant that lacks the positive charge of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG). Moreover, substitution of Ser+2 by Asp in SitC (MntC) did not lead to a decreased release indicating that in staphylococci positions +3 and +4 might also be important for a tighter anchoring of Lpp. Here, we show that Asp in position +2 and adjacent amino acids contribute in tightening the anchoring of Lpp by interaction of the negative charged Asp with the positive charged Lys-PG. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1982-03-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M/sub 4/ generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets.

  15. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M 4 generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. Propylthiouracil-Induced Vasculitis With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Grizzo Peres Martins, Ana Claudia; Gaviolli, Camila Fatima; Alavi, Afsaneh

    2015-06-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU)-associated vasculitis is a potentially life-threatening disease with a recent increase in the reported cases in the medical literature. This increase may suggest that some earlier cases have been unrecognized or assigned to an alternative nosology category. Although the skin can be the only organ affected by PTU-associated vasculitis, there are many reports with multiple-system involvement. Classically, the symptoms appear under a tetrad of fever, sore throat, arthralgia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous lesions in reported cases of PTU vasculitis have most commonly consisted of retiform acral, purpuric plaques, or nodules. We report a case of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis developed during treatment with PTU for Grave's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Investigation of radiation enhanced reactivation of cytoplasmic replicating human virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstahler, L.E.; Haynes, K.F.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    When monolayers of CV-1 monkey kidney cells were exposed to ultraviolet (uv) radiation (0 to 200 erg/nm 2 ) or x rays (0 to 10 krads) before infection with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus, an increase in the infectivity of this nuclear replicating virus occurred as measured by plaque formation. These phenomena are known as uv (Weigle) reactivation (WR) and x-ray reactivation (x-ray R). In this study the presence of WR and x-ray R was examined in CV-1 cells infected with uv-irradiated vaccinia virus or poliovirus, both cytoplasmic replicating viruses. Little or no WR or x-ray R was observed for either of these viruses. These results suggest that WR and x-ray R in mammalian cells may be restricted to viruses which are synthesized in the cell nucleus

  18. [Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with infective endocarditis: Literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, V; Marie, I

    2017-07-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated with infective endocarditis are a rare disorder. The condition can mimic primary systemic vasculitis (i.e. granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Thus, a wrong diagnosis of valvular involvement related to primary systemic vasculitis can be made in patients exhibiting ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Because treatment of both conditions is different, this wrong diagnosis will lead to dramatic consequences in these latter patients. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of ANCA associated with infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct Cytoplasmic Delivery and Nuclear Targeting Delivery of HPMA-MT Conjugates in a Microtubules Dependent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiaju; Zhu, Xi; Luo, Kui; Li, Lian; Tang, Manlin; Liu, Yanxi; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yuan

    2016-09-06

    As the hearts of tumor cells, the nucleus is the ultimate target of many chemotherapeutic agents and genes. However, nuclear drug delivery is always hampered by multiple intracellular obstacles, such as low efficiency of lysosome escape and insufficient nuclear trafficking. Herein, an N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-based drug delivery system was designed, which could achieve direct cytoplasmic delivery by a nonendocytic pathway and transport into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent fashion. A special targeting peptide (MT), derived from an endogenic parathyroid hormone-related protein, was conjugated to the polymer backbone, which could accumulate into the nucleus a by microtubule-mediated pathway. The in vitro studies found that low temperature and NaN3 could not influence the cell internalization of the conjugates. Besides, no obvious overlay of the conjugates with lysosome demonstrated that the polymer conjugates could enter the tumor cell cytoplasm by a nonendocytic pathway, thus avoiding the drug degradation in the lysosome. Furthermore, after suppression of the microtubule dynamics with microtubule stabilizing docetaxel (DTX) and destabilizing nocodazole (Noc), the nuclear accumulation of polymeric conjugates was significantly inhibited. Living cells fluorescence recovery after photobleaching study found that the nuclear import rate of conjugates was 2-fold faster compared with the DTX and Noc treated groups. These results demonstrated that the conjugates transported into the nucleus in a microtubules dependent way. Therefore, in addition to direct cytoplasmic delivery, our peptide conjugated polymeric platform could simultaneously mediate nuclear drug accumulation, which may open a new path for further intracellular genes/peptides delivery.

  20. Application of integer programming on logistics solution for load transportation: the solver tool and its limitations in the search for the optimal solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo França Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to solve a typical logistics problem of Navy of Brazil regards the allocation, transportation and distribution of genera refrigerated for Military Organizations within Grande Rio (RJ. After a brief review of literature on Linear/Integer Programming and some of their applications, we proposed the use of Integer Programming, using the Excel’s Solver as a tool for obtaining the optimal load configuration for the fleet, obtaining the lower distribution costs in order to meet the demand schedule. The assumptions were met in a first attempt with a single spreadsheet, but it could not find a convergent solution, without degeneration problems and with a reasonable solution time. A second solution was proposed separating the problem into three phases, which allowed us to highlight the potential and limitations of the Solver tool. This study showed the importance of formulating a realistic model and of a detailed critical analysis, which could be seen through the lack of convergence of the first solution and the success achieved by the second one.

  1. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Alexander V; Dautova, Nailya R

    2008-07-01

    The translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water in Elodea stem cells resulting from protein motor activity was measured using the NMR method. A 24-h treatment with vincristine results in a reduction of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water. With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of taxol are characterized by a continuous increase at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reaching a plateau at a concentration of 0.5 mM.

  2. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symillides, Y.

    1985-09-01

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14 C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  3. Genetic variation among the male sterile cytoplasms induced by gamma irradiation in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Toshiro; Takahashi, Man-emon

    1976-01-01

    In sugar beets, cytoplasmic male sterility was induced artificially by radiation treatment. In the present study, four kinds of male sterile strain made from the strain H-2002 with normal cytoplasms were used, and the mode of inheritance of the sterility maintained by these strains was confirmed. Also the hereditary mechanism of pollen fructification recovery was studied, and the newly induced heterotypic property of sterile cytoplasms was examined in comparison with naturally found sterile strains. In each of four produced strains, the male sterility was inherited down to M 4 lines stably through mother plants, and it was presumed that the sterility was caused by highly stable cytoplasmic mutation. In each strain, two pairs of nuclear genes took part in the recovery of pollen fructification, but the mode of action of two genes was different. As the result of mating for verification with O type strain to S cytoplasm strain, it seemed that at least the function as O type was not shown to three strains of γ-60, γ-114 and γ-165, and in the sterile cytoplasms of these three strains, the action of fructification recovery genes different from X and Z arose. It was presumed that the genes of X locus did not take effect in these induced cytoplasms. The possibility that at least four kinds of male sterile cytoplasms different from S were induced from normal cytoplasms by artificial mutation was proved indirectly. (Kako, I.)

  4. Geometrical optics and optimal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2017-10-01

    The Fermat principle is generalized to a system of rays. It is shown that all the ray mappings that are compatible with two given intensities of a monochromatic wave, measured at two planes, are stationary points of a canonical functional, which is the weighted average of the actions of all the rays. It is further shown that there exist at least two stationary points for this functional, implying that in the geometrical optics regime the phase from intensity problem has inherently more than one solution. The caustic structures of all the possible ray mappings are analyzed. A number of simulations illustrate the theoretical considerations.

  5. Mathematical model of optimizing the arrival of fire units with the use of information systems for monitoring transport logistics of Voronezh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kochegarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the strong pace of construction is increasing in big cities. With their growth becomes a question of the deployment of firefighters and the number of fire stations. The most effective solution is the problem of finding the optimum route of fire departments, taking into account the information transport logistics systems within the city that will allow us to arrive at the scene at any time, regardless of the degree of congestion of city roads. Prompt arrival of fire units provides the most successful fire fighting. The main objective of the study is to develop a preliminary route and the route in case of unforeseen factors affecting the time fire engine arrived. To construct the routes used to develop actively in the current methods of machine learning artificial neural networks. To construct the optimal route requires a correct prediction of the future behavior of a complex system of urban traffic based on its past behavior. Within the framework of statistical machine learning theory considered the problem of classification and regression. The learning process is to select a classification or a regression function of a predetermined broad class of such functions. After determining the prediction scheme, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of its forecasts, which are measured not on the basis of observations, and on the basis of an improved stochastic process, the result of the construction of the prediction rules. The model is verified on the basis of data collected in real departures real fire brigades, which made it possible to obtain a minimum time of arrival of fire units.

  6. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke [Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akitsugu [Department of Animal Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga, 526‐0829 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhiro, E-mail: osaru3@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  7. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  8. Sexy sons: a dead end for cytoplasmic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Jeanne A

    2004-08-07

    Critics of sexual conflict theory argue that females may gain a net reproductive benefit from mating with manipulative males because the direct costs that they suffer may be offset by the production of sexy, i.e. manipulative, sons. However, this exclusive focus on nuclear gene effects represents an incomplete view of female fitness. Females differ fundamentally from males in transmitting not only nuclear genes but also a wide range of cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs) that can have profound effects, from male killing to influencing development of the nervous system and cognitive ability. Maternal transmission of CGEs has two major implications for sexual selection. First, the evolution of male fitness traits, such as sperm competitive ability, may be constrained because response to selection on mitochondrial genomes can occur only through the female line. Second, CGEs bear the direct costs of male manipulation but gain no indirect benefits when females produce sexy sons. This should result in perpetual antagonistic coevolution between nuclear genes involved in male manipulation and CGEs that promote female resistance to male sexually selected traits. Explicit consideration of the consequences of selection acting on CGEs is therefore necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

  9. TRIM5α association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5α proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5α from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5α proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5α-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5α fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5α domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α

  10. High viscosity and anisotropy characterize the cytoplasm of fungal dormant stress resistant spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ascospores of the fungus Talaromyces macrosporus are dormant and extremely stress resistant, whereas fungal conidia¿the main airborne vehicles of distribution¿are not. Here, physical parameters of the cytoplasm of these types of spores were compared. Cytoplasmic viscosity and level of anisotropy as

  11. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  12. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  13. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  14. Cytoplasmic Nucleation and Atypical Branching Nucleation Generate Endoplasmic Microtubules in Physcomitrella patens[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Yuki; Kimura, Akatsuki; Tani, Tomomi; Goshima, Gohta

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying microtubule (MT) generation in plants has been primarily studied using the cortical MT array, in which fixed-angled branching nucleation and katanin-dependent MT severing predominate. However, little is known about MT generation in the endoplasm. Here, we explored the mechanism of endoplasmic MT generation in protonemal cells of Physcomitrella patens. We developed an assay that utilizes flow cell and oblique illumination fluorescence microscopy, which allowed visualization and quantification of individual MT dynamics. MT severing was infrequently observed, and disruption of katanin did not severely affect MT generation. Branching nucleation was observed, but it showed markedly variable branch angles and was occasionally accompanied by the transport of nucleated MTs. Cytoplasmic nucleation at seemingly random locations was most frequently observed and predominated when depolymerized MTs were regrown. The MT nucleator γ-tubulin was detected at the majority of the nucleation sites, at which a single MT was generated in random directions. When γ-tubulin was knocked down, MT generation was significantly delayed in the regrowth assay. However, nucleation occurred at a normal frequency in steady state, suggesting the presence of a γ-tubulin-independent backup mechanism. Thus, endoplasmic MTs in this cell type are generated in a less ordered manner, showing a broader spectrum of nucleation mechanisms in plants. PMID:25616870

  15. Misfolded Gβ is recruited to cytoplasmic dynein by Nudel for efficient clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yihan Wan; Zhenye Yang; Jing Guo; Qiangge Zhang; Liyong Zeng; Wei Song; Yue Xiao; Xueliang Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The Gβγ heterodimer is an important signal transducer.Gβ,however,is prone to misfolding due to its requirement for Gγ and chaperones for proper folding.How cells dispose of misfolded Gβ (mfGβ) is not clear.Here,we showed that mfGβ was able to be polyubiquitinated and subsequently degraded by the proteasome.It was sequestered in aggresomes after the inhibition of the proteasome activity with MG132.Sustained activation of Gβγ signaling further elevated cellular levels of the ubiquitinated Gβ.Moreover,Nudel,a regulator of cytoplasmic dynein,the microtubule minus end-directed motor,directly interacted with both the unubiquitinated and ubiquitinated mfGβ.Increasing the levels of both mfGβ and Nudel promoted the association of Gβ with both Nudel and dynein,resulting in robust aggresome formation in a dynein-dependent manner.Depletion of Nudel by RNAi reduced the dynein-associated mfGβ,impaired the MG132-induced aggresome formation,and markedly prolonged the half-life of nascent Gβ.Therefore,cytosolic mfGβ is recruited to dynein by Nudel and transported to the centrosome for rapid sequestration and degradation.Such a process not only eliminates mfGβ efficiently for the control of protein quality,but may also help to terminate the Gβγ signaling.

  16. Retromer associates with the cytoplasmic amino-terminus of polycystin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Frances C; Gallon, Matthew; Luo, Chong; Danson, Chris M; Zhou, Jing; Cullen, Peter J

    2018-05-03

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic human disease, with around 12.5 million people affected worldwide. ADPKD results from mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 , which encode the atypical G-protein coupled receptor polycystin-1 (PC1) and the transient receptor potential channel polycystin-2 (PC2) respectively. Although altered intracellular trafficking of PC1 and PC2 appear as an underlying feature of ADPKD, the mechanisms which govern vesicular transport of the polycystins through the biosynthetic and endosomal membrane networks remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we describe an interaction between PC2 and retromer, a master controller for the sorting of integral membrane proteins through the endo-lysosomal network. We show that association of PC2 with retromer occurs via a region in the PC2 cytoplasmic amino-terminal domain, independently of the retromer-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and scar homologue (WASH) complex. Based on observations that retromer preferentially interacts with a trafficking population of PC2, and that ciliary levels of PC1 are reduced upon mutation of key residues required for retromer-association in PC2, our data is consistent with the identification of PC2 as a retromer cargo protein. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Cytoplasmic p21 is a potential predictor for cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xi; Weng, Yanjie; Liao, Shujie; Han, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Shixuan; Xu, Gang; Meng, Li; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Ma, Quanfu; Li, Xiao; Ji, Teng; Chen, Pingbo; Xu, Hongbin; Li, Kezhen; Fang, Yong; Weng, Danhui

    2011-01-01

    P21 (WAF1/Cip1) binds to cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and inhibits their activities. It was originally described as an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation. However, many recent studies have shown that p21 promotes tumor progression when accumulated in the cell cytoplasm. So far, little is known about the correlation between cytoplasmic p21 and drug resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the role of p21 in the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer. RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect p21 expression and location in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell line C13* and its parental line OV2008. Regulation of cytoplasmic p21 was performed through transfection of p21 siRNA, Akt2 shRNA and Akt2 constitutively active vector in the two cell lines; their effects on cisplatin-induced apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Tumor tissue sections of clinical samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. p21 predominantly localizes to the cytoplasm in C13* compared to OV2008. Persistent exposure to low dose cisplatin in OV2008 leads to p21 translocation from nuclear to cytoplasm, while it had not impact on p21 localization in C13*. Knockdown of cytoplasmic p21 by p21 siRNA transfection in C13* notably increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis through activation of caspase 3. Inhibition of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of Akt2 shRNA into C13* cells significantly increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, while induction of p21 translocation into the cytoplasm by transfection of constitutively active Akt2 in OV2008 enhanced the resistance to cisplatin. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical ovarian tumor tissues demonstrated that cytoplasmic p21 was negatively correlated with the response to cisplatin based treatment. Cytoplasmic p21 is a novel biomarker of cisplatin resistance and it may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian tumors that are refractory to conventional treatment

  18. Efficient soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentations on chemically defined minimal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąciarz, Anna; Khatri, Narendar Kumar; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Saaranen, Mirva J; Uchida, Yuko; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2017-06-15

    The production of recombinant proteins containing disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli is challenging. In most cases the protein of interest needs to be either targeted to the oxidizing periplasm or expressed in the cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies, then solubilized and re-folded in vitro. Both of these approaches have limitations. Previously we showed that soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible at shake flask scale with a system, known as CyDisCo, which is based on co-expression of a protein of interest along with a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide bond isomerase. With CyDisCo it is possible to produce disulfide bonded proteins in the presence of intact reducing pathways in the cytoplasm. Here we scaled up production of four disulfide bonded proteins to stirred tank bioreactors and achieved high cell densities and protein yields in glucose fed-batch fermentations, using an E. coli strain (BW25113) with the cytoplasmic reducing pathways intact. Even without process optimization production of purified human single chain IgA 1 antibody fragment reached 139 mg/L and hen avidin 71 mg/L, while purified yields of human growth hormone 1 and interleukin 6 were around 1 g/L. Preliminary results show that human growth hormone 1 was also efficiently produced in fermentations of W3110 strain and when glucose was replaced with glycerol as the carbon source. Our results show for the first time that efficient production of high yields of soluble disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli with the reducing pathways intact is feasible to scale-up to bioreactor cultivations on chemically defined minimal media.

  19. Urinary Biomarkers in Relapsing Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberthal, Jason G.; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Merkel, Peter A.; Monach, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glomerulonephritis (GN) is common in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but tools for early detection of renal involvement are imperfect. We investigated 4 urinary proteins as markers of active renal AAV: alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Methods Patients with active renal AAV (n = 20), active nonrenal AAV (n = 16), and AAV in longterm remission (n = 14) were identified within a longitudinal cohort. Urinary biomarker concentrations (by ELISA) were normalized for urine creatinine. Marker levels during active AAV were compared to baseline remission levels (from 1–4 visits) for each patient. Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivities, specificities, and likelihood ratios (LR) comparing disease states were calculated. Results Baseline biomarker levels varied among patients. All 4 markers increased during renal flares (p < 0.05). MCP-1 discriminated best between active renal disease and remission: a 1.3-fold increase in MCP-1 had 94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for active renal disease (AUC = 0.93, positive LR 8.5, negative LR 0.07). Increased MCP-1 also characterized 50% of apparently nonrenal flares. Change in AGP, KIM-1, or NGAL showed more modest ability to distinguish active renal disease from remission (AUC 0.71–0.75). Hematuria was noted in 83% of active renal episodes, but also 43% of nonrenal flares and 25% of remission samples. Conclusion Either urinary MCP-1 is not specific for GN in AAV, or it identifies early GN not detected by standard assessment and thus has potential to improve care. A followup study with kidney biopsy as the gold standard is needed. PMID:23547217

  20. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family. It is important to understand, therefore, how this zinc-resistant bacterium copes when it is exposed to low zinc concentrations. Members of the Zur regulon in C. metallidurans were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of a Δ zur mutant and its parent strain. The consensus sequence of the Zur-binding box was derived for the zupTp promoter-regulatory region using a truncation assay. The motif was used to predict possible Zur-boxes upstream of Zur regulon members. Binding of Zur to these boxes was confirmed. Two Zur-boxes upstream of the cobW 1 gene, encoding a putative zinc chaperone, proved to be required for complete repression of cobW 1 and its downstream genes in cells cultivated in mineral salts medium. A Zur box upstream of each of zur-cobW 2 , cobW 3 and zupT permitted low-expression level of these genes plus their up-regulation under zinc starvation conditions. This demonstrates a compartmentalization of zinc homeostasis in C. metallidurans with the periplasm being responsible for removal of surplus zinc and cytoplasmic components for management of zinc as an essential co-factor, with both compartments connected by ZupT. Importance Elucidating zinc homeostasis is necessary to understand both host-pathogen interactions and performance of free-living bacteria in their natural environment. Escherichia coli acquires zinc under low zinc concentrations by the Zur-controlled ZnuABC importer of the ABC superfamily, and this was also the paradigm for other

  1. Limits of transforming competence of SV40 nuclear and cytoplasmic large T mutants with altered Rb binding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1993-03-01

    Multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced into the SV40 large T region that harbors the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding site and the nuclear transport signal, changing either one or both of these determinants. Mutant activities were examined in a set of assays allowing different levels of transforming potential to be distinguished; phenotypic changes in established and pre-crisis rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) were detected under isogenic cell conditions, and comparisons made with other established rodent cells. The limit of the transforming ability of mutants with important substitutions in the Rb binding site fell between two transformation levels of the same established rat cells. Such cells could be induced to form dense foci but not agar colonies (their parental pre-crises REFs, as expected, were untransformed either way). Nonetheless, agar colony induction was possible in other cell lines, such as mouse NIH3T3 and (for one of the mutants) rat F2408. All these mutants efficiently immortalized pre-crisis REFs. The transforming ability of cytoplasmic mutants appeared to depend on the integrity of the Rb-binding sequence to approximately the same extent as that of the wild-type large T, although evidence of in vivo Rb-cytoplasmic large T complexes was not found. The presence or absence of small t was critical when the transforming task of mutants was near the limit of their abilities.

  2. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  3. Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Bindu; Corwin, Jason A.; Li, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding genome to phenotype linkages has been greatly enabled by genomic sequencing. However, most genome analysis is typically confined to the nuclear genome. We conducted a metabolomic QTL analysis on a reciprocal RIL population structured to examine how variation in the organelle genomes...... was a central hub in the epistatic network controlling the plant metabolome. This epistatic influence manifested such that the cytoplasmic background could alter or hide pairwise epistasis between nuclear loci. Thus, cytoplasmic genetic variation plays a central role in controlling natural variation...... in metabolomic networks. This suggests that cytoplasmic genomes must be included in any future analysis of natural variation....

  4. Hydroxychloroquine binding to cytoplasmic domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes: Novel mechanistic insights into drug structure, efficacy and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mizuki; Sugawara, Kotomi; Goto, Tatsufumi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-05-13

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a widely used drug in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It has also been prescribed for the treatment of malaria owing to its lower toxicity compared to its closely related compound chloroquine (CQ). However, the mechanisms of action of HCQ in erythrocytes (which bind preferentially this drug) have not been documented and the reasons underlying the lower side effects of HCQ compared to CQ remain unclear. Here we show that, although the activity of erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not GAPDH, was inhibited by both HCQ and CQ in vitro, LDH activity in erythrocytes incubated with 20 mM HCQ was not significantly reduced within 5 h in contrast to CQ did. Using HCQ coupled Sepharose chromatography (HCQ-Sepharose), we identified Band 3, spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1R and protein 4.2 as HCQ binding proteins in human erythrocyte plasma membrane. Recombinant cytoplasmic N-terminal 43 kDa domain of Band 3 bound to HCQ-Sepharose and was eluted with 40 mM (but not 20 mM) HCQ. Band 3 transport activity was reduced by only 23% in the presence of 20 mM HCQ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HCQ binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes but does not inhibit dramatically its transport activity. We hypothesize that the trapping of HCQ on Band 3 contributes to the lower side effects of the drug on energy production in erythrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Conformational alterations resulting from mutations in cytoplasmic domains of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blostein, R; Daly, S E; MacAulay, Nanna

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes experiments concerned with the functional consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic regions of the alpha 1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, in particular the amino terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M2 and M3, and the major cytoplasmic loop between...

  6. Proteomic response of Bacillus subtilis to lantibiotics reflects differences in interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzel, M.; Kohl, B.; Münch, D.; Raatschen, N.; Albada, H.B.; Hamoen, L.; Metzler-Nolte, N.; Sahl, H.G.; Bandow, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Mersacidin, gallidermin, and nisin are lantibiotics, antimicrobial peptides containing lanthionine. They show potent antibacterial activity. All three interfere with cell wall biosynthesis by binding lipid II, but they display different levels of interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane. On one end

  7. Organization of the cytoplasmic reticulum in the central vacuole of parenchyma cells in Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An elaborate and complex cytoplasmic reticulum composed of fine filaments and lamellae ranging from 0.1 to 4 microns in size is revealed by viewing the central vacuole of onion bulb parenchyma cells with the scanning election microscope. The larger cytoplasmic strands, visible with the light microscope, are composed of numerous smaller filaments (some tubular which might explain the observed bidirectional movement of particles in these larger strands. The finely divided cytoplasmic network of filaments is continuous with the parietal cytoplasm inclosing the vacuolar sap. In these highly vacuolated cells the mass of the protoplast is in the form of an intravacuolar reticulum immersed in the cell sap. The probable significance of the vacuolar sap in relation to physiological processes of the cell is discussed.

  8. Characterization of Novel Cytoplasmic PARP in the Brain of Octopus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LISA, EMILIA; DE MAIO, ANNA; MOROZ, LEONID L.; MOCCIA, FRANCESCO; MENNELLA, MARIA ROSARIA FARAONE; DI COSMO, ANNA

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigation has focused on the participation of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) reaction in the invertebrate central nervous system (CNS) during the process of long-term memory (LTM). In this paper, we characterize, localize, and assign a possible role to a cytoplasmic PARP in the brain of Octopus vulgaris. PARP activity was assayed in optic lobes, supraesophageal mass, and optic nerves. The highest levels of enzyme were found in the cytoplasmic fraction. Hyper-activation of the enzyme was detected in Octopus brain after visual discrimination training. Finally, cytoplasmic PARP was found to inhibit Octopus vulgaris actin polymerization. We propose that the cytoplasmic PARP plays a role in vivo to induce the cytoskeletonal reorganization that occurs during learning-induced neuronal plasticity. PMID:22815366

  9. Evaluation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody seroconversion induced by minocycline, sulfasalazine, or penicillamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, HK; Slot, MC; Pan, GL; Weissbach, CA; Niles, JL; Merkel, PA

    Objective, Case reports have suggested that minocycline, sulfasalazine, and penicillamine are associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis, This study evaluated ANCA seroconversion due to these agents in serum samples prospectively collected in randomized,

  10. Activation of chromatin degradation by a protein factor of thymocyte cytoplasm of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    A cytoplasmic thymocyte fraction isolated 1 h after irradiation of mice accelerates chromatin degradation in isolated nuclei. Treatment of the cytoplasmic fraction by heat and injection of cycloheximide to mice prevent the acceleration of DNA degradation. The analysis of the chromatin degradation products and the kinetics of this process at acid and alkaline pH shows that activation of DNA degradation in thymocytes by a factor obtained from the irradiated cell cytoplasm is specific for a Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ -dependent enzyme. The time- and dose-dependent parameters of the appearance in the thymocyte cytoplasm of the factor influencing degradation of chromatin are in a good agreement with both the time of the onset of its postirradiation degradation and the dose dependence of this process

  11. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversi...

  12. Anticorpos contra o citoplasma de neutrófilos Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Stiel Radu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do marcador sorológico denominado anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos revolucionou o diagnóstico e o seguimento das vasculites pulmonares, especialmente da granulomatose de Wegener. Seu padrão pode ser citoplasmático e perinuclear. Sua titulação auxilia no diagnóstico e no seguimento das vasculites pulmonares.The discovery of the serological markers known as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies revolutionized the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of the various forms of pulmonary vasculitis, especially that of Wegener's granulomatosis. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies pattern can be cytoplasmic or perinuclear. Determination of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies titers aids the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of pulmonary vasculitis.

  13. Nuclear transport in Entamoeba histolytica: knowledge gap and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwairgi, Marina A; Ghildyal, Reena

    2018-03-22

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes human amoebiasis. It is one of the leading parasitic disease burdens in tropical regions and developing countries, with spread to developed countries through migrants from and travellers to endemic regions. Understanding E. histolytica's invasion mechanisms requires an understanding of how it interacts with external cell components and how it engulfs and kills cells (phagocytosis). Recent research suggests that optimal phagocytosis requires signalling events from the cell surface to the nucleus via the cytoplasm, and the induction of several factors that are transported to the plasma membrane. Current research in other protozoans suggests the presence of proteins with nuclear localization signals, nuclear export signals and Ran proteins; however, there is limited literature on their functionality and their functional similarity to higher eukaryotes. Based on learnings from the development of antivirals, nuclear transport elements in E. histolytica may present viable, specific, therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to summarize our limited knowledge of the eukaryotic nuclear transport mechanisms that are conserved and may function in E. histolytica.

  14. The membrane-cytoplasm interface of integrin alpha subunits is critical for receptor latency.

    OpenAIRE

    Briesewitz, R; Kern, A; Smilenov, L B; David, F S; Marcantonio, E E

    1996-01-01

    Localization of integrin receptors to focal contact sites occurs upon ligand binding. This activity is latent, since unoccupied integrin receptors do not localize to focal contacts. Deletion analysis has revealed that the alpha cytoplasmic domains is required for the maintenance of integrin receptor latency. Our current hypothesis for the mechanism of integrin post-ligand binding events is that there is a change in relationship of alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, which overcomes receptor l...

  15. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Slimane, Zeineb; Bedioune, Ibrahim; Lechêne, Patrick; Varin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Florence; Mateo, Philippe; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Dewenter, Matthias; Richter, Wito; Conti, Marco; El-Armouche, Ali; Zhang, Jin; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Aims The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. Conclusion Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation. PMID:24550350

  16. The Composition and Organization of Cytoplasm in Prebiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T. Trevors

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth. It is hypothesized that the organization and composition of cytoplasm progressed initially from an unstructured, microscopic hydrogel to a more complex cytoplasm, that may have been in the volume magnitude of about 0.1–0.2 µm3 (possibly less if a nanocell prior to the first cell division.

  17. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: two case reports and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoerl David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are typically detected in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis, but are also present in a number of chronic inflammatory non-vasculitic conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Rare cases of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, a vasculitic disorder frequently associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis have been described in literature. Case presentation We report two middle-aged female patients with rheumatoid arthritis who developed anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and symptoms reminiscent of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Despite the lack of antibodies specific for proteinase 3 and the absence of a classical histology, we report a probable case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the first patient, and consider rheumatoid vasculitis in the second patient. Conclusion Taken together with previous reports, these cases highlight that anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies have to be evaluated very carefully in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence appear to have a low diagnostic value for granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Instead they may have prognostic value for assessing the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Production of ABA responses requires both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functional involvement of PYR1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, EunJoo; Kim, Tae-Houn

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) enhances stress tolerant responses in plants against unfavorable environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis, ABA promotes interactions between PYR/PYL/RCARs and PP2C, thereby allowing SnRK2s to phosphorylate downstream components required for the regulation of gene expression or for gating ion channels. Because PYR1 is known to localize to nucleus and cytoplasm it is a question whether nuclear or cytoplasmic PYR1 confer different functions to the ABA signaling pathway, as has been previously shown for regulatory proteins. In order to answer this question, transgenic lines expressing nuclear PYR1 were generated in an ABA insensitive mutant background. Enforced nuclear expression of PYR1 was examined by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. Physiological analyses of the transgenic lines demonstrated that nuclear PYR1 is sufficient to generate ABA responses, such as, the inhibition of seed germination, root growth inhibition, the induction of gene expression, and stomatal closing movement. However, for the full recovery of ABA responses in the mutant background cytoplasmic PYR1 was required. The study suggests both nuclear and cytoplasmic PYR1 participate in the control of ABA signal transduction. - Highlights: • Nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were studied in the mutant which lacked majority of ABA responses. • Nuclear PYR1 reconstituted partially the ABA responses during seed germination, root growth, and guard cell movement. • Both the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of PYR1 were required for the full generation of ABA responses.

  19. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs

  20. Raman microspectroscopy of nucleus and cytoplasm for human colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongbo; Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2017-11-15

    Subcellular Raman analysis is a promising clinic tool for cancer diagnosis, but constrained by the difficulty of deciphering subcellular spectra in actual human tissues. We report a label-free subcellular Raman analysis for use in cancer diagnosis that integrates subcellular signature spectra by subtracting cytoplasm from nucleus spectra (Nuc.-Cyt.) with a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. Raman mapping with the classical least-squares (CLS) model allowed direct visualization of the distribution of the cytoplasm and nucleus. The PLS-DA model was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five types of spectral datasets, including non-selective, nucleus, cytoplasm, ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (Nuc./Cyt.), and nucleus minus cytoplasm (Nuc.-Cyt.), resulting in diagnostic sensitivity of 88.3%, 84.0%, 98.4%, 84.5%, and 98.9%, respectively. Discriminating between normal and cancerous cells of actual human tissues through subcellular Raman markers is feasible, especially when using the nucleus-cytoplasm difference spectra. The subcellular Raman approach had good stability, and had excellent diagnostic performance for rectal as well as colon tissues. The insights gained from this study shed new light on the general applicability of subcellular Raman analysis in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  2. Ubiquitination of MBNL1 Is Required for Its Cytoplasmic Localization and Function in Promoting Neurite Outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ying Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Muscleblind-like protein family (MBNL plays an important role in regulating the transition between differentiation and pluripotency and in the pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, a CTG expansion disorder. How different MBNL isoforms contribute to the differentiation and are affected in DM1 has not been investigated. Here, we show that the MBNL1 cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, isoform promotes neurite morphogenesis and reverses the morphological defects caused by expanded CUG RNA. Cytoplasmic MBNL1 is polyubiquitinated by lysine 63 (K63. Reduced cytoplasmic MBNL1 in the DM1 mouse brain is consistent with the reduced extent of K63 ubiquitination. Expanded CUG RNA induced the deubiqutination of cytoplasmic MBNL1, which resulted in nuclear translocation and morphological impairment that could be ameliorated by inhibiting K63-linked polyubiquitin chain degradation. Our results suggest that K63-linked ubiquitination of MBNL1 is required for its cytoplasmic localization and that deubiquitination of cytoplasmic MBNL1 is pathogenic in the DM1 brain.

  3. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2017-07-03

    Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization. Na channel currents are nearly unchanged by pump activity in these conditions, and conversely, continuous Na currents up to 0.5 nA in magnitude have negligible effects on pump currents. These outcomes are even more pronounced using 50 mM Li as a cytoplasmic Na congener. Thus, the Na/K pump current decay reflects mostly an inactivation mechanism that immobilizes Na/K pump charge movements, not cytoplasmic Na depletion. When channel currents are increased beyond 1 nA, models with unrestricted subsarcolemmal diffusion accurately predict current decay (τ ∼15 s) and reversal potential shifts observed for Na, Li, and K currents through Na channels opened by veratridine, as well as for Na, K, Cs, Li, and Cl currents recorded in nystatin-permeabilized myocytes. Ion concentrations in the pipette tip (i.e., access conductance) track without appreciable delay the current changes caused by sarcolemmal ion flux. Importantly, cytoplasmic mixing volumes, calculated from current decay kinetics, increase and decrease as expected with osmolarity changes (τ >30 s). Na/K pump current run-down over 20 min reflects a failure of pumps to recover from inactivation. Simulations reveal that pump inactivation coupled with Na-activated recovery enhances the rapidity and effectivity of Na homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, an autoregulatory mechanism enhances cardiac Na/K pump activity when

  4. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  5. Monitoring Interactions Inside Cells by Advanced Spectroscopies: Overview of Copper Transporters and Cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorsa, Alessia; Natile, Giovanni; Rosato, Antonio; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Arnesano, Fabio

    2018-02-12

    Resistance, either at the onset of the treatment or developed after an initial positive response, is a major limitation of antitumor therapy. In the case of platinum- based drugs, copper transporters have been found to interfere with drug trafficking by facilitating the import or favoring the platinum export and inactivation. The use of powerful spectroscopic, spectrometric and computational methods has allowed a deep structural insight into the mode of interaction of platinum drugs with the metal-binding domains of the transporter proteins. This review article focuses on the mode in which platinum drugs can compete with copper ion for binding to transport proteins and consequent structural and biological effects. Three types of transporters are discussed in detail: copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the major responsible for Cu+ uptake; antioxidant-1 copper chaperone (Atox1), responsible for copper transfer within the cytoplasm; and copper ATPases (ATP7A/B), responsible for copper export into specific subcellular compartments and outside the cell. The body of knowledge summarized in this review can help in shaping current chemotherapy to optimize the efficacy of platinum drugs (particularly in relation to resistance) and to mitigate adverse effects on copper metabolism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Autophagy-Related Direct Membrane Import from ER/Cytoplasm into the Vacuole or Apoplast: A Hidden Gateway also for Secondary Metabolites and Phytohormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kulich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of low molecular weight cargoes into the plant vacuole represents an essential plant cell function. Several lines of evidence indicate that autophagy-related direct endoplasmic reticulum (ER to vacuole (and also, apoplast transport plays here a more general role than expected. This route is regulated by autophagy proteins, including recently discovered involvement of the exocyst subcomplex. Traffic from ER into the vacuole bypassing Golgi apparatus (GA acts not only in stress-related cytoplasm recycling or detoxification, but also in developmentally-regulated biopolymer and secondary metabolite import into the vacuole (or apoplast, exemplified by storage proteins and anthocyanins. We propose that this pathway is relevant also for some phytohormones’ (e.g., auxin, abscisic acid (ABA and salicylic acid (SA degradation. We hypothesize that SA is not only an autophagy inducer, but also a cargo for autophagy-related ER to vacuole membrane container delivery and catabolism. ER membrane localized enzymes will potentially enhance the area of biosynthetic reactive surfaces, and also, abundant ER localized membrane importers (e.g., ABC transporters will internalize specific molecular species into the autophagosome biogenesis domain of ER. Such active ER domains may create tubular invaginations of tonoplast into the vacuoles as import intermediates. Packaging of cargos into the ER-derived autophagosome-like containers might be an important mechanism of vacuole and exosome biogenesis and cytoplasm protection against toxic metabolites. A new perspective on metabolic transformations intimately linked to membrane trafficking in plants is emerging.

  7. Cytoplasmic Kaiso is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shun-Dong; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Peng-Xin; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, En-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Kaiso has been identified as a new member of the POZ-zinc finger family of transcription factors that are implicated in development and cancer. Although controversy still exists, Kaiso is supposed to be involved in human cancer. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical significance of cytoplasmic/nuclear Kaiso in human lung cancer. In this study, immunohistochemical studies were performed on 20 cases of normal lung tissues and 294 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 50 cases of paired lymph node metastases and 88 cases with complete follow-up records. Three lung cancer cell lines showing primarily nuclear localization of Kaiso were selected to examine whether roles of Kaiso in cytoplasm and in nucleus are identical. Nuclear Kaiso was down-regulated by shRNA technology or addition a specific Kaiso antibody in these cell lines. The proliferative and invasive abilities were evaluated by MTT and Matrigel invasive assay, transcription of Kaiso's target gene matrilysin was detected by RT-PCR. Kaiso was primarily expressed in the cytoplasm of lung cancer tissues. Overall positive cytoplasmic expression rate was 63.61% (187/294). The positive cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was higher in advanced TNM stages (III+IV) of NSCLC, compared to lower stages (I+II) (p = 0.019). A correlation between cytoplasmic Kaiso expression and lymph node metastasis was found (p = 0.003). In 50 paired cases, cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was 78.0% (41/50) in primary sites and 90.0% (45/50) in lymph node metastases (p = 0.001). The lung cancer-related 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients who were cytoplasmic Kaiso-positive (22.22%), compared to those with cytoplasmic Kaiso-negative tumors (64.00%) (p = 0.005). Nuclear Kaiso staining was seen in occasional cases with only a 5.10% (15/294) positive rate and was not associated with any clinicopathological features of NSCLC. Furthermore, after the down-regulation of the nuclear

  8. Upon Infection the Cellular WD Repeat-containing Protein 5 (WDR5) Localizes to Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies and Enhances Measles Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dzwokai; George, Cyril X; Nomburg, Jason; Pfaller, Christian K; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E

    2017-12-13

    Replication of negative-strand RNA viruses occurs in association with discrete cytoplasmic foci called inclusion bodies. Whereas inclusion bodies represent a prominent subcellular structure induced by viral infection, our knowledge of the cellular protein components involved in inclusion body formation and function is limited. Using measles virus-infected HeLa cells, we found that the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a subunit of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases, was selectively recruited to virus-induced inclusion bodies. Furthermore, WDR5 was found in complexes containing viral proteins associated with RNA replication. WDR5 was not detected with mitochondria, stress granules, or other known secretory or endocytic compartments of infected cells. WDR5 deficiency decreased both viral protein production and infectious virus yields. Interferon production was modestly increased in WDR5 deficient cells. Thus, our study identifies WDR5 as a novel viral inclusion body-associated cellular protein and suggests a role for WDR5 in promoting viral replication. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is a human pathogen that remains a global concern with more than 100,000 measles-related deaths annually despite the availability of an effective vaccine. As measles continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality, understanding the virus-host interactions at the molecular level that affect virus replication efficiency is important for development and optimization of treatment procedures. Measles virus is an RNA virus that encodes six genes and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells in discrete cytoplasmic replication bodies, though little is known of the biochemical nature of these structures. Here we show that the cellular protein WDR5 is enriched in the cytoplasmic viral replication factories and enhances virus growth. WDR5-containing protein complex includes viral proteins responsible for viral RNA replication. Thus, we have identified WDR5 as a host factor that

  9. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  10. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  11. Functional Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Entrance to the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2015-06-19

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator must form a continuous pathway for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions between the cytoplasm and the extracellular solution. Both the structure and the function of the membrane-spanning part of this pathway are well defined. In contrast, the structure of the pathway that connects the cytoplasm to the membrane-spanning regions is unknown, and functional roles for different parts of the protein forming this pathway have not been described. We used patch clamp recording and substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to identify positively charged amino acid side chains that attract cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions to the inner mouth of the pore. Our results indicate that the side chains of Lys-190, Arg-248, Arg-303, Lys-370, Lys-1041, and Arg-1048, located in different intracellular loops of the protein, play important roles in the electrostatic attraction of Cl(-) ions. Mutation and covalent modification of these residues have charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation, demonstrating their functional role in maximization of Cl(-) flux. Other nearby positively charged side chains were not involved in electrostatic interactions with Cl(-). The location of these Cl(-)-attractive residues suggests that cytoplasmic Cl(-) ions enter the pore via a lateral portal located between the cytoplasmic extensions to the fourth and sixth transmembrane helices; a secondary, functionally less relevant portal might exist between the extensions to the 10th and 12th transmembrane helices. These results define the cytoplasmic mouth of the pore and show how it attracts Cl(-) ions from the cytoplasm. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-10-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  13. Induction of cytoplasmic petite in yeast by guanidine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, L.L.; Juliani, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the induction of p - mutants by guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCL) in combination with other known inducers; ethidium bromide (EB), berenil and ultraviolet light. Competition was observed when cells were simultaneously treated with optimal concentrations of EB and GuHCL; on the other hand, treatment of cells with EB in the presence of non-inducing concentrations of GuHCL resulted in the stimulation of p - induction by EB. Furthermore, using a strain which upon treatment with high EB concentrations shows recovery of respiratory competence, the presence of GuHCL did not interfere either with the early phase of induction or with the recovery phase, but it did interfere in a competitive fashion with the final irreversible phase of EB induction. In the case of berenil, a synergistic effect was seen when cells were pretreated with GuHCL. A synergistic induction was also observed when cells were submitted to UV prior to GuHCL treatment. These results suggest that GuHCL, EB and berenil act via some common step in their p - induction pathways. Moreover, GuHCL may somehow be decreasing the efficiency of dark repair of ultraviolet lesions on mitochondrial DNA. (orig.)

  14. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects in vivo by the cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Gul; Kim, Eun Hee; Kang, Hae Eun; Yim, In Been; Kim, Ji Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu; Woo, Hee Jong

    2004-03-01

    The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.

  15. Phase separation between nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli as defined by immersive refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, J A; Woldringh, C L

    1984-01-01

    The refractive indices of nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli were derived theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical estimates, we made use of the known macromolecular composition of E. coli B/r (G. Churchward and H. Bremer, J. Theor. Biol. 94:651-670, 1982) and of estimates of cell and nucleoid volumes. These were obtained from micrographs of living bacteria made with a confocal scanning light microscope. The theoretical values were calculated, assuming that all DNA occurred in the nucleoid and that all protein and RNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Comparison with experimental refractive index values directly obtained by immersive refractometry showed that, besides its DNA, the nucleoid must contain an additional amount of solids equivalent to 8.6% (wt/vol) protein. With the nucleoid containing 6.8% (wt/vol) DNA and 8.6% (wt/vol) protein and the cytoplasm containing 21% (wt/vol) protein and 4% (wt/vol) RNA, a mass difference is obtained, which accounts for the phase separation observed between the nucleoid and cytoplasm in living cells by phase-contrast microscopy. The decrease in the refractive index of the nucleoid relative to that of the cytoplasm observed upon, for instance, OsO4 fixation was interpreted as being indicative of the loss of protein content in the nucleoid. Images PMID:6389508

  16. Bayesian Inference of Forces Causing Cytoplasmic Streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos and Mouse Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Nagao, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Tomoya S; Hufnagel, Lars; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2016-01-01

    Cellular structures are hydrodynamically interconnected, such that force generation in one location can move distal structures. One example of this phenomenon is cytoplasmic streaming, whereby active forces at the cell cortex induce streaming of the entire cytoplasm. However, it is not known how the spatial distribution and magnitude of these forces move distant objects within the cell. To address this issue, we developed a computational method that used cytoplasm hydrodynamics to infer the spatial distribution of shear stress at the cell cortex induced by active force generators from experimentally obtained flow field of cytoplasmic streaming. By applying this method, we determined the shear-stress distribution that quantitatively reproduces in vivo flow fields in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and mouse oocytes during meiosis II. Shear stress in mouse oocytes were predicted to localize to a narrower cortical region than that with a high cortical flow velocity and corresponded with the localization of the cortical actin cap. The predicted patterns of pressure gradient in both species were consistent with species-specific cytoplasmic streaming functions. The shear-stress distribution inferred by our method can contribute to the characterization of active force generation driving biological streaming.

  17. α6-Integrin alternative splicing: distinct cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate specification and niche interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijing; Qu, Jing; He, Li; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Yong

    2018-05-02

    α6-Integrin subunit (also known as CD49f) is a stemness signature that has been found on the plasma membrane of more than 30 stem cell populations. A growing body of studies have focused on the critical role of α6-containing integrins (α6β1 and α6β4) in the regulation of stem cell properties, lineage-specific differentiation, and niche interaction. α6-Integrin subunit can be alternatively spliced at the post-transcriptional level, giving rise to divergent isoforms which differ in the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain of integrins is an important functional part of integrin-mediated signals. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of α6 provide an efficient means for the regulation of stem cell responses to biochemical stimuli and/or biophysical cues in the stem cell niche, thus impacting stem cell fate determination. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural variants of the α6-integrin subunit and spatiotemporal expression of α6 cytoplasmic variants in embryonic and adult stem/progenitor cells. We highlight the roles of α6 cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate decision and niche interaction, and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Understanding of the distinct functions of α6 splicing variants in stem cell biology may inform the rational design of novel stem cell-based therapies for a range of human diseases.

  18. Detection of beta-tubulin in the cytoplasm of the interphasic Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Vargas-Mejía, Miguel Ángel; Díaz-Orea, María Alicia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Cárdenas-Perea, María Elena; Guerrero-González, Tayde; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the microtubules (MT) of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites form an intranuclear mitotic spindle. However, electron microscopy studies and the employment of anti-beta-tubulin (β-tubulin) antibodies have not exhibited these cytoskeletal structures in the cytoplasm of these parasites. The purpose of this work was to detect β-tubulin in the cytoplasm of interphasic E. histolytica trophozoites. Activated or non-activated HMI-IMSS-strain E. histolytica trophozoites were used and cultured for 72 h at 37 °C in TYI-S-33 medium, and then these were incubated with the anti-β-tubulin antibody of E. histolytica. The anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with the intranuclear mitotic spindle of E. histolytica-activated trophozoites as control. In contrast, in non-activated interphasic parasites, anti-β-tubulin antibody reacted with diverse puntiform structures in the cytoplasm and with ring-shaped structures localized in the cytoplasm, cellular membrane and endocytic stomas. In this work, for the first time, the presence of β-tubulin is shown in the cytoplasm of E. histolytica trophozoites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of Anion Exchanger 1 Sequestrates p16 in the Cytoplasm in Gastric, Colonic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Shen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available p16INK4A (p16 binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, negatively regulates cell growth. Recent studies have led to an understanding of additional biologic functions for p16; however, the detailed mechanisms involved are still elusive. In this article, we show an unexpected expression of anion exchanger 1 (AEi in the cytoplasm in poorly, moderately differentiated gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma cells, in its interaction with p16, thereby sequestrating the protein in the cytoplasm. Genetic alterations of p16, AEi were not detectable. Forced expression of AEi in these cells sequestrated more p16 in the cytoplasm, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of AEi in the cells induced the release of p16 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, leading to cell death, growth inhibition of tumor cells. By analyzing tissue samples obtained from patients with gastric, colonic cancers, we found that 83.33% of gastric cancers, 56.52% of colonic cancers coexpressed AEi, p16 in the cytoplasm. We conclude that AEi plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gastric, colonic adenocarcinoma, that p16 dysfunction is a novel pathway of carcinogenesis.

  20. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.